35 Burst results for "Braille"
"braille" Discussed on Double Tap Canada
"That's what we're going to call this show from that one. This is Google law. Okay, I'll follow. That's how do you wait for it? What is this? You thought the other one was expensive? Oh jeez. How much is this? Retail. Actual retail price $2185 and 95 cents. Perkins smart brailler with video screen raspberry version allows blind and sighted people to communicate video screen displays sim Braille. What is this? So I think the idea here is there's a kid in the feedback beast letters and words as they're typed. As a kid's learning Braille at school, for example, you would then be able to the teacher who can then see what that pupil is typing. I think that's the idea of the screen on it. So it's more from education. It is for education. That's why they price it so high. That's right, yeah. Because of education. But I think most of us who are using Braille on our own would not need that. I don't think there's any value for us in it. But yeah, the reason I say that is because I did see something for the smart. Perkins, which allowed you to feed that dim tape through a Perkins. Now, if there's something like that that exists for existing Perkins braillers, please let me know because I'd love to know because you're essentially talking about piece of cardboard that's going to cost 20 quid, right, rather than spending the best part of $700. But I do like this. I do like I've never heard of it before. I just find it by accident, and I thought for the money it's a lot of money it is, but at the same token like Marseilles, if this is going to meet the difference, because look, I've got this essential tremor thing going on in my left hand. I am left handed, and even though it's an essential tremor, it's not limit essential to me, but it seems to think it's essential. And it makes using that dime almost impossible. So as much as I love it, I just don't have, I don't have the power in my hands to be able to use it. So for that reason, I think this might be the one. So I'm convincing myself but I think it's a good buy. Do you agree please? No, I do. The priest, well, I don't know. Yeah, so I totally agree Stephen. But I think look, Braille labels, Braille labels are fantastic. And I find seeing AI on some products, especially when you're pulling psych out the freezer. You know, it's not great and Braille would be so much better. But I think for something like this, you're going to need to be wanting to Braille and label a lot of things. I mean, that is a lot of money. For most people, the dynamo labeler is enough because you tend to go through just a complete blitz of labeling absolutely everything. And they're not touching it again for another 6 months. So yeah, again, it's always the price that I come back to. Yes, I'm cheap, but it just seems like a lot of money to me. Well, I'm thinking I'll get one. I think this is gonna be my early new year's present to myself. This is my first purchase of 2022 guys. Well done you. It's exciting. I'm starting a new real course next week, so that's why I'm getting into this issue because I want to be learning Braille. So that's it. You're going to be heating me talking about a lot. You're like one of those people that takes up a new hobby and goes out and buys the top end equipment and then just does it once and then never looks at it again. Next Christmas, when we talk about this again that we're talking about the stuff he's taking down. It's good, we're going to play a new game of Watson Stevens loft. By the end of the year, everything I talked about in January is in the loft in the summer. We did this. We hope not. We did this once with my wife and I decided we were going on a walking trip in England and in the north of England a beautiful part and it was hills and godness water attempt to get fit. And we thought well, let's do this. And because we're doing it, we'll get the gear. So we went out to one of those town and country type stores, and we bought all this gear and we bought backpacks. It was kind with bladders in them that you can put funnel a straw through and therefore you can have water on the move without taking the backpack off and oh, spent absolutely fortunate. I thought that was too, you know. No, no, no. No, that's a different part. Don't use it for that. That's frowned upon and walking community. The week, the whole week of walking and we did the whole thing, and it became home and I found those backpacks in the loft the other day. And I thought, we haven't touched us in about 15 years. It is ridiculous. It's 15 years since you took a walk. Stick around lots more to come here at double tap Canada. It's nice to be back for 2022. It's nice to have something to do other than watch.
Manaea Fans 9, A’s Beat White Sox 3-1
"The athletics earned a three one win over the white Sox behind Chaman Nayar who struck out nine while allowing one run and five hits over seven innings when I was one three with an eight point oh ERA in his previous six starts since a victory on July twenty eighth just another and you know get he Thomas ought to be aggressive wish with all my pages so you know weather gets it or not is now it's up to me so you know to be aggressive with everything and and you know I think the results up Tony Kappa Matt Chapman each drove in a run for Oakland which took two of three in the series to pull within two and a half games of an AL wild card slot Jose Abreu had two hits and drove in a run for the AL central leading white sacks a braille has one hundred four RBIs this season I'm Dave Ferrie
ChiSox Rally for 6-4 Win Over Indians After Getting Kimbrel
"Your one Moncada homered among his three hits the white Sox beat the Indians six four to take a nine game lead in the AL central Chicago scratched out two runs in the eighth is Tim Anderson delivered a tiebreaking single and Jose a braille was hit in the head by a pitch with the bases loaded both benches and bullpens emptied briefly but no punches were thrown in the reigning AL MVP stayed in the game prime male ray has had three RBIs on three hits for the Indians including a solo Homer Jose Ruiz worked out of an eighth inning jam to get the win James karenge EC was a loser I'm Dave Ferrie
Caller Thinks We Have an Idiot Problem, Courtesy of the Marxist Education System
"You just said that you despised Democrats. You know, we have a voting problem. No, we have an idiot problems, just like Shelby Steele set on your show. Talking about racism, he said. There's going to be racist. There's always gonna be idiots in our country. Unfortunately, this public school system run by the progressives have mass produced a full market generation of idiots. I've just got engaged in a conversation with my daughter. She's a rising sophomore in college, and she she decided she is in the vegetarian. I asked her why, and she started down the thing the environment corporations coach, so I kept going and going and going. I said Thanks, she goes. No, I don't really think that's true. I was like, no, it is true and I have the facts. I can show you. I've got the receipt of them, Bongino says. That's like I'll show you the receipt and I'll prove it to you. And basically what? It boiled down to acid. So you're you're in favor of Marxism said. Basically, the things you don't like cattle shed what corporations are bad. I said, Well, corporations are the poster child of capitalism with that, well, they can do better. They can They make lots of money. They can do this. So what They have all that money and they got to put it out there not going to be able to continue to thrive. So, basically, nobody is going to have anything if you do that, and well, I don't think that's true. Well, I do. So you don't know anything about economics, Correct? No, Not really. All right. I'm in the book story right now looking for I've lost my copy of Thomas Souls Basic economics in a basement club. Find a new copy of that, and because of their just complete ignorance of everything and not learning anything. I'm buy three copies of American Marxism tonight because my kids despite everything I've said, think I'm the dumbest guy in the world. Yet I'm the one who's out there hitting the streets busting my tail, making a paycheck, making away keeping a roof over the head clothes on their back and a Braille against everything that my country and I stand for. Absolutely brilliant statement
Arizona Audit of 2020 Election Hits Hand-Count Milestone
"The audit of last year's presidential vote in Arizona's most populous county is nearly complete it was supposed to take two weeks but wound up taking nearly two months to recount two point one million presidential and Senate ballots cast in Maricopa county Arizona the liaison for the recount says all that's left are a small number of boxes filled with braille large type military and duplicated ballots every ballot now will be photographed to check for anything amiss Arizona's Republican led state Senate ordered the audit after former president trump supporters claimed without evidence fraud led to his twenty twenty defeat the Maricopa County Board of supervisors led by Republicans is insisting the election was fair and free of any problems hi Jackie Quinn
Mercedes Carries White Sox Over Royals 9-3 to Complete Sweep
"Give me Mercedes in Jose a braille each had three RBIs to help the white Sox thrash the Royals nine to three and finish off a three game sweep Mercedes eleven RBI triple in a two run double a brave collected history R. B. eyes with a pair of singles Lucas G. lido gave up one run and four hits over five innings is Chicago to Kansas city its eighth straight loss it was a first run allowed by Chicago starter in five games as a guard twenty nine and a third innings and have a zero point three one ERA in that stretch I'm Dave very
Is 'Cancelling' Dr. Seuss One Step Too Far?
"Author, So creative As a kid. He was my favorite. As an adult. He's still one of my favorites. Six of these books. Well stop being published. And I thought Oh, my gosh, you please don't tell me this is like cat in the hat. You know, green eggs and ham. Hop on pop One fish, two fish. Any of these. The grants whatever. Um, into think I saw it on Mulberry Street. And if I ran the zoo or two of the books So we start, they'll stop publishing them because of quote. Racist and insensitive imagery. The business of preserves protects the author's legacy. Says these books portrayed people in ways Um Mm hmm. These books portrayed people in ways that are hurtful and wrong, Dr Seuss Enterprises told The Associated Press in a statement. The coincided with the late author and illustrators birthday Um is the only part of the of is only part of our commitment and our broader plan to ensure Dr Seuss Enterprises catalog represents and supports all communities and families. Such a Innocents thing, Dr Seuss. So innocent Could barely think of anything that's more innocents and enjoyable. As a kid is a youth. Go to the library, man. I get these books. Now I'll be I'll tell you this. The books that are on this particular list. I have never read. I didn't read. It was a kid. I haven't read him ever. Ah! Mick Elegance pool. On beyond zebra. Scrambled eggs, super and the cats quiz er, now You know, I am aware of Dr Seuss's classic books. I'm really not to where to these of these, I should say. So this decision to cease publication sales of the book was made last year after months of discussion. Dr. Seuss Enterprises is where they won't listen and took feedback from our audiences, including teachers. Academic specialist in the field is part of our review process within worked with a panel of experts, including educators to review our catalog of titles. On books by Dr Seuss. Happy birthday, Dr Seuss. It's his birthday today, March 2nd is born this day in 1904. And his. His books have been translated into dozens of languages as well as in Braille, the sold in more than 100 countries. He passed away in 1991. But boy does he remain popular, earns an estimated $33 million before taxes in 2020. That's up from 9.5 million five years ago. Forbes, listing him is number two on its highest paid dead celebrities of 2020 behind only Michael Jackson. And of course, he is adored Dr Seuss by millions of people around the world. Um For the positive values and his and his in his books. Including environmentalism. Including tolerance. But there's been increasing criticism in recent years. Over the way Some of the people have been portrayed in his books. I mean, I look at the books. I never saw anything that seem defensive. School districts across the country have also moved away from Dr Seuss. Um Hmm. They say they're not have banned the books entirely. Well. That would be read utterly ridiculous. Recent shows Me research in recent years is revealed strong racial undertones of many books written by an illustrated by Dr Seuss hogwash, but that's what the school district said in a statement. I didn't know the good doctor. I don't believe there was a racist bone in his body or a sexist bone in his body. Everything he wrote seem very innocents. And we have to remember this was in different time. A different era. 2017, a school librarian, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, criticized the gift of 10 Dr Seuss books. Why? Well, I'll tell you why? Because they came from the first lady Melania Trump. Saying many of his works were steeped and racist propaganda characters and harmful stereotypes. O Lord.
Freezer Aisle Finds for Baby-Led Weaning
"Let's look at the frozen foods that do work for baby led weaning all right so let's get right down to it. I don't need to tell you about all the foods that don't work in the frozen food aisle. Let's focus on all the foods that babies can eat right of course frozen dinners and frozen pizzas and food with lots of salt and sugar. Babies should not have a lotta those foods in the frozen food aisle. I'm gonna go through five of my favorite foods for baby led weaning. This is not an exhaustive list. Every time i do. I start with a list of like thirty things and then i'm like that will be too long narrow down to five. Here's five of my favorite foods. I love cauliflower rice. I love regular call from. There's a million different as you may call safe for babies to eat. I don't offer call prices like a lower calorie low carb option like the reason. Why a lot of adults he cauliflower rice. I think it's a really cool way to impart a different flavor in different foods and it's a convenience food normally would not. I'm pretty frugal. I would not spend money on many produce convenience foods. Like no thank you. I can cut up watermelon by myself. I don't need you to quintupled the price and do it for me. But coffers rice is one that is a pain in the neck to make and you can find it in the frozen food aisle. How do you use it for baby led weaning. I like to call for race when i make fritters. It's already all chopped up. Its rice like a very very fine dice consistency or size. I guess more so than consistency. So you can use it in if you're baking like zucchini muffins. I'll sometimes add. Call rice in there. I'll add it to fritters or patties as a vegetable. If i'm five just like some leftover grains like oh shoot. I don't wanna just make grains and eggs in my put the cauliflower rice in it. I'm you can use it as pizza crust. I'd also like regular pizza crust especially for babies but sometimes the commercials pizza crusts. Do you have a lot of sodium in them. So there's really cool recipes using call race for that also use it and mash it up of. I'm doing like baked potatoes. Just add different flavor so again if you're cruising through you have cauliflower rice any recipe you would make adult with cauliflower rice. You can just adopt that for babies. Just making sure doesn't have added sodium or any sugar. Second up. I remember being super surprised when i found out that there are some brands of hash brown potatoes that are in the freezer aisle. That don't have sodium now. Careful 'cause like there's just as many that have tons of sodium. So my general rule of thumb as i mentioned is less than one hundred milligrams of sodium per serving of food that i'm going to serve my baby. Now you feed your baby. Don't come out of the package so it was kind of a moot point but if you're choosing packaged food look for less than one hundred milligrams and also babies don't eat the same portion size that adults do so they're going to be eating significantly in many cases less than that but back to the hash brown potatoes peeling and shredding potatoes and then like pushing all the water out of them. It's takes so much time to me. It's like never work that. I do not like hash browns enough to do all that however i do like that. There are some brands of already shredded. Hash brown potatoes. That don't have salt in them. And the thing that. I use these primarily to make like a crust to line either quiche. Or if you do like muffin. Tins i'll make like the hash brown potatoes mixed with egg and push it down as the crust for making like zucchini. Ed cups for use it for a lot of breakfast foods. There's a million other ways to use hash brown potatoes. Not personally a huge fan of them. But i love that as a convenience food there an option for you if as a safer way to feed babies now you can of course feature babies regular potatoes if you want to. I do just point out that a lotta times especially if you're doing baked potato bake russet potato. It can be very mealy very dry and any dry bread product. Any dry food for that matter can potentially choking hazard so you want to add a lot of butter or a lot of fat lot of liquid a sauces to make any potentially dry potato product. A little bit more moist for your baby to eat so number one. Call our rights number two hash brown potatoes number three. It's kind of a weird. One ezekiel bread. Now i mentioned the brand usually try not to mention branded foods because of course everyone's grocery store looks different. But ezekiel is one of the few national brands in the us. That has a low sodium option now. Sodium breads are hard to come by breads by themselves. Don't love because they tend to be more on the dry side and dry bread products like albro products as just mentioned. Can you token hazar. But if you're gonna be doing better when you're ready to read you might be looking for a low sodium option. First of all you might have never looked at the sodium in the bread aisle. And you're like oh my gosh. Why does every single piece of bread need of two hundred fifty or three hundred milligrams of sodium will is obviously is a preservative. So that's why you're breads can stay on the shelf If you've ever traveled other parts of the world. Do not use as many of or the same preservatives as the united states and your bread will go moldy in a day or two whereas here. It can stay a lot longer. Some of that has to do with higher levels of sodium but sodium is also a leavening agent meaning that it makes bread rise and it also provides moisture so all those things are important for. Bread ezekiel brand. Is one of the national brands. That has a low sodium option. You don't always find the bread in the braille though so for example like if you go to a smaller grocery store they probably have ezekiel bread. But if it's not fresh in the bakery section you can actually find it in the freezer aisle so again check out. That brand ezekiel bread for lower sodium. Bread options you'll taste it and be like this is gross because it's low sodium bread. Do keep in mind. it gets pretty dry. Though because it's not retaining that moisture with assault so astra butter again. Add extra sauce. Do what you need to do. But the low sodium. Bread ezekiel bread. You can find it in your freezer
The Boy Who Inspired Baltimore
"With twenty twenty now officially in the books we're taking one last look back at the year in sports and replaying our very favorite episode of twenty twenty. It's about baltimore's most unforgettable young sports fan mugabe who passed away from cancer. The athletics brit girly spoke with us about mos- brief incredible life and a moment after his death that she'll never forget from wondering on the athletic. I'm kavita davidson. And i'm under scotto. This is the lead so britt tell us about the earliest days of mugabe's life mokaba first few months of his life which state regular newborn infant and around about nine months. His mother sasi saw photo of him. In which is is just white she went and got him checked out and it turned out that he had cancer anywhere so he had it in the back he was a kid who spent seventy five percent of his young life in the hospital constantly getting aggressive chemotherapy or a life of sickness and never got better. How did mow become such a big sports fan. It came from his mother sans e who made no bones about it. I'll be back forth lethem level. When did move. I come onto the radar of baltimore. Sports fans around the age of nine mo- decided that he was going to call in to this afternoon. Show five seven. Jeremy khan and scott carr so or the two anchors and they get a call from a nine year old kid and jeremy's berry aware that sometimes kids are shy or they don't know what to say i mean he had his confidence his swagger about that i thought was so cool when he would call in and then it just months and loved the ravens at orioles so much it just really really shown through. Thank you walk. Can we get picking booking shot. Pick right there. What's funny is santi was working during the day. She had no idea for months. That son was becoming this fixture on this afternoon drive show in baltimore working with the school that work now. She had no idea how famous her son was getting a good no say that again do that again. Cool man and it was all of the jones different things you started getting his own theme music. really funny and engaging kid once you get a chance even the most hardin cremona callers were like. Yeah i love bow and no one knew. He was sick for a very long time and it wasn't until the promotions director was like mugabe. I've seen that kid a cancer events for their sister station. Jeremy wasn't even sure they were talking about the same kid. He saw video of mo and he realized that voice. That voice was coming out of this little boy in a wheelchair who conveyed nothing of the pain and thorough medical procedures that he had already been through never had anything negative to say about anyone. He never talked about any issue with body nation. Change us old. You're already in trouble. Nationwide think so. I'm not the. I'm not kidding. And his legend grew within the community. The ravens heard about him only say mo on free. What do i pitch for the orioles in two thousand seventeen. We have very special kid with us. Mo- gabby he is a baltimore. Sports celebrity of source smo- and he was under the impression he was throwing the first pitch of the game out. he thought he was throwing jacoby. Ellsbury kind of ex cotton unbelievable. I'd never turn out a first pitch for a game. I'll try out. I'll i'll i'll tell you that. Try not to get the yankee players. They hit the ball. I liked them to do is get a strike that start off. They're just literally f- no stopping mo- have a great time. I hope you have a wonderful kids. Opening day. camden yard. Thank you for having me. And then he also became the first person in history to announce a draft pick for the ravens on a braille card. Oh take it away wet. Oh sorry he was becoming a worldwide sensation. His braille teacher visual assistant at school. Leach said that she was opening cards from kenya. And blow would be like. Wow that's on the other side of the world. He was just sort of starting to grasp. How big of a deal
Building an Email Newsletter Directly from Instagram with Steph Compton
"Welcome to episode number eighty one of the grab blogger podcast the song for helping academics change the world through online business helping you by give me the tools and tips to strategies. You need to build online business write a research experience around your background and your expertise and around change you want to make in the world owes. Dr. Chris cloning and Days episode were talking about building an email newsletter directly from Instagram and we're doing that with Steph Compton from Steph access on Instagram & Stef's, I access them on Twitter and we don't have a website to give at the moment which will actually be talked about in this podcast episode. So Steph, I want to say thank you for coming on the ground blogger podcast and sharing your your experience today. Yeah. I'm heading me. I'm excited to be here. I'm really excited to have you on niba from notes by niba who we had on episode 69 and 70 of the podcast recommended. I reach out to you just gave me your Instagram wage. So I went there got a link Tree on your profile I clicked on it first link is bold letters new and improved get my Weekly Newsletter plus Q&A. It's like well, okay that's forward and off. I love it. But then try clicking through the other links and there was no website cuz I want to learn more about you and what you do and then I was so intrigued that you had the newsletter and this Instagram following but website that I I had to sign up for your newsletter that point I got to figure out what's going on here and I was pretty pleasantly surprised me on the news later. It's a really well-written. You're very open with what you're dead. You're very helpful. You take Q&A in the newsletter, which is well let you describe the newsletter more detail, but there's a lot of cool things in there that I just was impressed about and thought that others could Implement a in their newsletter strategies, but may be I need to get you on to figure out what's going on with this no website and how do you start building newsletter without a website because we work with people all the time that you know have a website but aren't willing to start birth. Their newsletter it was I just intrigued by this whole setup. So I said I got to get stuff on the podcast. I appreciate you coming on. Yeah. Yeah, so in this episode and this is actually a two-part episode. If you're in Chicago and how to use Instagram the next episode next week's will have tips and strategies on how step uses Instagram to build a following there in this episode over and talk more about steps of background how she took Instagram a server newsletter has she monetized reference online and we'll follow up on what's the deal with this this website and can we see one coming in the future? So as always you can download tracks this episode at gravatar.com / 81 and just when you download that you can control that you can find what we're talking about here and then use that to implement your own business as well. So stuff just jump in I guess. Can you share some of your academic background to some of your your story how you got online? Yeah. Sure. So hello everyone. I am Steph so I'm actually a third-year PhD student wage. Virginia Tech currently I am in the department of human nutrition foods and exercise and I study a varying cancer metabolism so very much a basic background, but I got my start at a very small arts college called Emory and Henry College. That's where I did my bachelor's degree and got that in biology and then it came to Virginia Tech actually for my Master's and kind of switch lanes. So I actually did my Master's in community nutrition and dietetics. So I did a lot of like all across the research spectrum of doing like this basic plant genetic science and my undergrad moved into my Master's Degree, which was very much community-based and learning like dietetics and applications and and standards of care within Healthcare and then I kind of combined my two loves of both nutrition with Biology to pursue my PhD at Virginia Tech as well in the same department, but I switched gears to go more like cellular molecular track. So right now like I said, I'm a third-year PhD student. Hopefully we'll be doing my my name. Asian proposal pretty soon. So I'll actually be a PhD candidate hopefully within the next few months, but I'm also got an Instagram about almost two years ago. It'll be two years in December, I believe so I actually got on Instagram at the at the suggestion of science Sam which I'm sure some listeners may be familiar with science Sam is an amazing science communicator and Neuroscience. She's been doing a lot of information about covid-19 Ali and she's been a really great support system in a really great person to follow and kind of look up to and then the science communication community. So I had actually been talking to her for my personal account that I have and talking about like science communication and accessibility as well. So we're accessibility ties into my story is when I came to Virginia Tech. I actually I worked as a braille transcriber and a tactile Graphics designer and the accessible Technologies office at Virginia Tech. So what when I originally started my account, it was a combination of doing science computer. Station but also teaching people how to make their information more accessible. So I kind of started in that area and eventually kind of brought in more of my nutrition background as well. So actually educating people about nutrition in the science of nutrition because that's really where my expertise lies and then also at the same time talking to people like Health Care Providers and other science communicators and other people who use Instagram to Market and like get themselves out there and educate on how they can make their communication more accessible So within that as well, I also teach a class called Health counseling is currently averaging a text. So I kind of bring all of my different experiences and I have the nutrition that I'm actually doing I had the science and I'm doing every day in the lab. I have the accessibility that I've worked in before as well as my life experience being an educator in the classroom and online and my my account has really expanded throughout all of those different things. I always joke on my account that I'm super multi passionate and it's because I had These different areas. I really want to come together in my account. And so that's that's really how I started and where I've gone from there in the two years. I've had my account
"braille" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Just the numbers zero through nine. But I never taught myself all of the letters and there's a couple of other ones as well. Actually I did teach myself one of those. Okay. So I will describe this to you. There are six DOTS A. In three rows of two dot. So there's two in the top row two in the middle row below, and then at the very bottom, there's two more they all have those six. DOTS. It's which dots are actually raised. You know it's the sixth outs that they use as a base. So the way I'm going to describe this. I mean, you can go look this up whatever. But I'm just doing this for my own fund the way I'm going to describe this as I'm gonNA number those six dots one two in the first row three or four in the second row and five six and I'm going to say the number of which dot is actually raised or you know actually being used. To create that letter or number. So for instance. The letter A. is just dot one. That's the only dot that is being shown. This is also number one. So a through J are actually one through nine and zero is Jay. So they're the same and there's A. There's another character called the numeral sign, which is actually shown before the numbers to say, Hey, these next things that you see these are numbers because if the numerals sign wasn't there, they would just be the letters a through J but. Yeah. All right. So a one is number one. be or two is dots one and three. So it's the two on the left. in the first two rows, I should also point out that these first ten characters only use the top four dots. They completely ignored dots five and six. All right. So that makes things a little bit easier. Okay. So be or two is the left to dots one and three C. Or three. USES DOTS one and two. So it's just the top two. D or four is dots one to four. So it creates this sort of. A corner, it's the top right. Three DOTS. E or five is dots one and four. So they create kind of like a date diagonal. F or six is dot one, two, three. So they create the top left corner. there. Is a pattern to this by the way. G or seven is all four dots one, two, three, four. So it's a square. H Eight is dots one, three and four. So this creates the bottom left corner. I or nine is dots two and three. So it creates the opposite diagonal that E or five does. Jay or zero is dots two, three four. So this creates the bottom right Corner so The. Way that I sort of trained myself to learn these ten is the first one's pretty easy. It's just the first dot it's it's one or A. then they have. Let's see now they don't have that one in there which I think is kind of interesting but anyway be or two is a vertical line on the left see or three is a horizontal line on the top and then four, six, eight and zero are corners. It's the top right corner and then the top left corner and then the bottom left corner and then the bottom right corner. So it's the even numbers four, six, eight, zero. Then five and nine or the two different diagonals, and then seven is all for. All right so You train yourself to learn those. But now we got the rest of the letters. These ones us all six dots. By the way the numeral sign to say that those numbers are numbers and not letters. USES DOTS to four five and six. So it looks like an l capital l. but backwards. So here we go. We're going to do now k through Z. K is one and five I'm going to do this kind of quickly one and five L. is one, three, five M is one to five N is one to four five. Oh is one, four five. P. Is one, two, three, five Q is one, two, three, four, five. Are is one three, four, five s is two, three, five t is two, three, four, five. You is one five, six V is one, three, five, six i. hope you got a piece of paper and a pen or pencil or something, and you're writing this all down. because. You know you'll learn it better that way. I think I said V.. So we are now on W. Two. Three, four, six. and. I. Don't know yet. I have to figure out what the pattern is but I think there is. A flow pattern of how these are being used sort of I. Don't know exactly. But Yeah I WANNA I WANNA learn this all right x one, two, five, six, why one to four, five, six Z or said one, four, five, six, and then there's one more character which is a capital sign. Do Denote probably the beginning of a sentence or or the of somebody's name there's a capital. and. That just uses dot six all by itself. So what I noticed was that they don't have one that is dots. That'd be two and four so it would be the horizontal. I bet. I know why? Because it's the same as be to, but you don't necessar- it's such a tiny difference between the left side and the right side that you wouldn't necessarily know if it's be or two or something else I just answered my own question. So these have to be incredibly unique. All right well, that was fun. Now I have to go and memorize this all, and then I have to actually put my fingers on. Braille. So let's see if I can do it if I can read it. So we had braid braided Berating Braille Braille spelled differently and Braille writer. Well. I am going to pick Why did well, I'll just pick Braille as the word of the episode, the one with the the letters for the blind because Thankfully, somebody created way that blind people could read otherwise, it would have to have somebody read to them So that was a very good invention and I'm glad that it is here and. Yeah I think that's good. All right. I will talk to you. Later this has been spencer dispensing information go by..
"braille" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Hello Word Nerd. Welcome to this episode of the podcast called the dictionary. All right. Let's see you. We got some fun stuff at the end of this episode. So just you wait I word is braid B., R. A. I. D. I form verb from before the twelfth century. We are starting with transitive and I. Think it's only transitive. Or. This is getting a little ridiculous all this yawning Bologna. One eight to make from braids as in braid a rug, one B to form three or more strands into a braid. I know how to do three but I think anything more than that. It gets super complicated rate. But Very difficult. But also very cool I've seen bred birds. which is cool. Hala Bread Halla. Bread. Five. Though that seems it's like juggling three is hard anything more than that is just ridiculous. Okay. Number two to do up the hair by interweaving three or more strands. Three synonyms are mix and intermingle as in braid fact with fiction four to ornament especially with ribbon or Braid Braider is a noun. This is from middle English Brady Den B. R. E. Y. D. E. N. wins to move suddenly snatch plate. From old English breakdown akin to the old high German Bretagne, which means to draw and then in parentheses sword, not to draw a picture its to draw a sword. That was that for that one. Now we have the second form of Barade-. It is a noun from fifteen, thirty, one, eight, a length of braided hair. My sister had very long hair when she was younger and she finally cut it when she was probably a teenager but she left one little part of the really really long hair and I, think it went down to her knees. It was very long. So she always had this very skinny braid for a long long time. Okay one, be a cord or ribbon having usually three or more components strands forming a regular diagonal pattern down its length. Especially, a narrow fabric of intertwined threads used especially for trimming. Number to. Number two. Yeah. Number two, I A. High. Ranking naval officers. All right. Now we have. We are at the top of the second column of page one, forty, nine for those who care. Now we have braided adjective from the Fifteenth Century One, a made by intertwining three or more strands. One be ornamented with braid to formed forming an interlacing network of channels as in a braided river. Now. We have braiding it is a noun from the fifteenth century. Something made a braided material. Next is Braille, B. R. A. L.. It is the I form Noun from the Fifteenth Century One, a rope fastened to the Leech of a sale and used for hauling the sail up or in Leach is l.. E. E. C.. H. Sale. It's like the sale of a boat as L.. Number two a drip net with which fish are hauled aboard a boat from a purse seen or trap. Why was that so hard I said, it comes slowly. So I got it out, but it was kind of hard to say a dip. It's just it's words that I don't usually read together a dip net with which fish are hauled aboard a boat from a per scene or trap saying s e. E R. Eight. People who fishing sale know all about those things. So this is from an anglo-french Braille B. R.. E. L. which means belt strap. Braille alternative of the old French brow will be be are. You E. L., which means belt probably ultimately from the Latin BRACA which beats pits. Die sneezed good dimes. Baraka in Latin means pants and there's more at the word breach B. R.. E. E. C. H.. Right next is the second form of Braille. It is a transitive verb from sixteen twenty five one to take in a sale by the Brill's to to hoist fish. That's an example. By means of a Braille. Next is the fun one I. Think it's fun at least it is Braille but it is spelled B. R. A. L. L. E. Noun from eighteen, fifty three, and this is a system of writing for the blind. That uses characters made up of raised dots. I'm sure most or all of you have heard of this you've probably seen it. You probably were like, Whoa I don't know how to do that but you know I think we should all learn it actually because you never know when you're going to go blind Braille is also a transitive verb Braille list is a noun that's probably the one who may be writes the Braille or reads the Braille. This is from Louis Braille or Louis. Braille. That was his last name he invented it. So now I am going to will actually I'll just do this at the end we've got one more. It is Braille writer. So it's the word Braille writer writing on a piece of paper. It's all one word. This is the last one of the episode Noun from Nineteen Forty to a machine for writing Braille. So it's like a typewriter but of letters. It types of the the Braille Letters. So I am going to now describe to you this Braille Alphabet. Which I started to teach myself. Just the numbers when I would take the train into the city when I was going to college. They. The train numbers are each train car had a number and there a little plaque that would say the number by the doors but then it also said it and Braille, and so.
How Do I Do the Baby Steps on Disability?
"Eddie's weathers in Salt Lake City Hi Eddie how can we help? Rachel. Talked to you today you to what's up. Well I I'm wondering how my baby step journey actually is going to look I. most of my. Is actually from disability income. and I've somehow managed to make myself to pass baby sent three gut and. Now, I'm looking at. Trying to save for. The future and possibly by home Do you make a smaller earned income so I'm able to contribute to A. Roth IRA. But. I'm just Kinda wondering that doesn't quite get me to the fifteen percents. And I'm wondering how to do that and balance three be at the same time. On this kind of income. So what is your income? Make about. Forty eight, thousand from disability. What is the nature of your disability? blind blind. Okay. All. Right and who pays. Its from a workplace insurance policy thought I was actually injured on the job my goodness I'm sorry. Are you have you lost one hundred percent of your side or just most of it? Good Chunk of it. I still have. Some people would call functional being able to see. Some objects just no find detail at all just generally you can walk around the room but but but the idea of opening up a website and looking at it's off the off the off the out of the options. What are you doing for your extra earn money? I'm actually still teaching. On teaching. The subject that was trained in. So I was teaching chemistry. Able to do that still how That's so cool. How do you have been doing it for thirty? Years doing it all from memory. YEA, pretty? Much. Okay. All right and you got the lesson plans in Braille or whatever have you learned Braille I have some adaptable software Screen thing okay. Well, good and then after thirty five years off thing or two about it. Yeah. Yeah. That's promising. That's promising. Okay. Cool. Well, the reason I ask all these questions is on your right you can you you know you're doing good and how long ago was the accident? Seven years ago. Okay. How old are you? forty, seven you're over your and overcoming man you've been getting it I'm proud of you and your your impression. Thank you. So I, mean because that's a life altering to say the least and some people just get paralyzed and you just kept rolling man good for you. All right. So how much do you make teaching Eddie? Kind of. It's been as little as about. Nine thousand. And it's been as much as about thirteen. It's all depend on. You know how much I get person master? Okay. Yeah while say because between that and your disabilities or are you are you married kids family situation? Not just me. Okay. Well, I was GONNA say that's a relatively. Average income. That's the positive part is how to do the steps in disability is that people are doing it with this amount of income they're just working their way through it. So if you wanted to pause baby step forward to do baby step three B and go ahead and save up that down payment, you could for a short period of time just kind of accelerate that and actually get that quick win faster than if you were putting your money into that Roth Ira so you could do that as an option. Yeah. I agree I think you're getting there. Let me tell you what I'm hearing I'm hearing you got. Big Future ahead of you. And you've been through hell and so it might be harder for you to grasp that future but. I think I think you could do it I think you could I think you could do tutoring. Thank you. Could you might double your income If you push around and think about this a little bit you don't have to but you're just a survivor man I mean you've gotten after it. I'm so proud of you. So I would be continuing to think about ways you could do the teaching because you know your stuff like you said and anything you can do to get your income up, of course, accelerates all of these issues.
4. Believe and hope - burst 01
"Helen Keller was born in eighteen eighty as a typical healthy baby girl. However before she even turned two years, old Helen became severely ill with a fever. In fact, she was not even expected to limb however, Helen made it through. But when the fever laughter it took her hearing and sight along with it. Helen became deaf and blind before she could even speak. Without, the sense of hearing and without the sense of sight Helen grew up isolated in her own world and she acted primarily based on instinct. She was known to have violent tantrums when she wanted something that she couldn't have or to laugh hysterically and uncontrollably when she was happy. But Helen took the world by storm as she learned to thrive despite her disabilities. Some of Helen Keller's accomplishments include her writing twelve books during her lifetime. Becoming. The first blind and deaf person to graduate from a university. She learned to read Braille of course, but also French German Latin and Greek. The scope and the reach of Helen Keller's influence cannot be measured because her life and writings continued to impact generation after generation after generation even to this day. And all it took. Was for someone to believe in her.
Innovating for Disability, Because You Have To
"Spoke with disability rights, advocate hub, and Girma, she's the author of Hobben the deaf. Blind woman who conquered Harvard law we relied on some of her personal tech to conduct our interview. So I'm blind access information best through Braille through my fingers. So I'm always looking for tech solutions that are touch based, and the specific advice I'm using is called a brown note made by a company called wear. It's a computer where instead of a visual display, their tactical display. There is a field where pins can pop up to form different ladders, different patterns of the pins, meeks, different Braille letters, and I read my fingers over the pins. The letter is quickly. And then I know what? Sad. So Gordon is here listening into the call and typing whatever he hears. That's connected to my Braille computer. So as you speak, he's typing I'm reading the words in Braille and then responding back with my own voice. Thank you. That's an amazing system and I understand you had a role in creating it. Can you tell me that story in twenty ten? The Braille note the Braille computer that I'm using right now came out and it was the first one with Bluetooth. Support. That sparked the idea of connecting the Braille Computer with an External Bluetooth Keyboard and that way when I meet somewhat hand them the keyboard and tell them just take therm words. Then I'm going to read in Braille and respond by boys. I started using this at Harvard law school. And in my book, I talk about the experience of using it for the first time with classmates with potential employers. Some people acting like it was really weird. But then others immediately understood because most people these days type emails texting. So especially millennials really understood and and we're able to connect with me. How often do you or others who are disabled have to come up with technology solutions on your own just simply because they don't exist yet. Disabled people constantly have to come up with our own solutions. Most things in this world are designed for non disabled white men who are right handed. The most designs is for a very limited segment of our population at everyone outside of that has to be creative and thoughtful and come up with solutions. Especially disabled people how has the technology evolved since you were in law school. You know why frail technology's not evolving very much in. It's extremely frustrating. I'm using ten year old technology. In some ways it's thirty years old technology. And I wish more companies would stop into this space and develop more brio technology tap into Hamernicks. There's an incredible market of blind disabled people who want to be able to access information through touch. And some men stream companies are taking the south. We you're getting more cell phones with haptic capabilities or smart watches with haptic capabilities, and we want to see more of this. And Digital. Braille is really expensive right now, we WANNA reduce that cost so that blind people all over the world especially developing countries can get access to frail computers, and if we can make Braille affordable, that would be the Holy Braille that's pretty wild. When you said that the technology is is ten or thirty years old you barely have a phone that lasts three to five years at this point is that Still, the technology is very sturdy. I appreciate that it's it's lasted quite a few drops. Your legal and your advocacy work has focused a lot on technology what other products are being developed now that you think are the most exciting or promising for deaf blind people or for other members of the disabled. Community. I'm really excited about self driving cars imagine the freedom, the independence I was talking to someone who works at one of these companies and he said Oh, you know a few years from releasing the cars. So maybe ten years from now will think about disability access. That's not how it works. You need to design disability access. Now not leader it's harder and more expensive to try to design disability access later. Using the example of self driving cars, what sorts of things that maybe aren't in that technology now, do you think should be included to make them that technology more accessible? For Self driving cars, WE WANNA make sure wheelchair users can easily get in and out of the cars independently. So the design of the doors, the does dine of the seats, the flexibility to move seats in and out the option to control the car with your hands through assistive devices like switch control, Braille computers there should be multiple options to access the information. We're in the midst of this deadly pandemic and lots of different groups that already were facing disadvantages in the workforce are feeling even more keenly. Now, how can technology help people with disabilities stay in the workforce during the pandemic? Technology is a collection of the biases of the developers. So it's really about the developers taking the time to imagine people different from themselves using their technology. The pandemic has increased pre existing barriers before the pandemic there were lots of videos online with no captioning. After the pandemic, there's still lots of videos online with no captioning lack of transcribes, image descriptions. All of these things were problem before the pandemic, and now that we're relying on the Internet more than before. Experiencing those barriers at a greater level. If the people listening to this could after hearing your voice, do one thing differently in their day-to-day. To create a more accessible world. What would that thing be? Encourage your organizations to increase hiring of disabled people if our workplaces were diverse. Specially tech companies if trump companies were more diverse and had disabled engineers and designers working there are products would be so much better.
"braille" Discussed on Kingdom Radio
"Have that for my own little collection. Is very good. Yes absolutely so all right? We're GONNA. Move onto our last topic here this evening Chris. and. This is the big one you know. This is the million dollar question here and there's a lot of skeptics out there about. Will the chiefs go back to back. We'll the chiefs go go back to back and hit the super bowl again. And to start this off. Chris I WANNA to say that in two thousand nineteen, the chiefs. Were faced with forty to one odds of winning super bowl at the at the start of the season, and as it stands right now. The chiefs have seven to one odds and are obviously the favorites. To repeat and go back to the Super Bowl and those odds stepped up. You know from the moment that Chris Jones was signed so that is you know even Vegas Even Vegas. They realize how much value Chris. Jones holds to the Kansas City chiefs and our odds dramatically stepped up, so Chris will start with you. Do. We have what it takes to repeat and if you know a secondary question. There are some weaknesses and the defensive secondary, will the chiefs. Do what it takes to fill. Those needs or the chiefs go on with. Various Ward Shop Braille and given the circumstances with the legal issues with Braille and So, to begin with I saw absolutely..
Physical distancing 'impossible' for the deafblind amid COVID
"Imagine being unable to see or hear throughout all of this the one sense you truly rely on that sense of touch it's also been taken away from you a lot of ways there are thousands of Americans brought home the last month and a half has seriously challenged their ability to thrive A. B. C.'s Devin Dwyer reports on deaf blind Americans grappling with isolation and social distancing during the pandemic most of the sights and sounds of the inescapable the number of cases of coronavirus spiking here in the U. S. this is a terrible experience but for some Americans the scope of this outbreak has been uniquely difficult to face my name is Philip was murder I am deaf blind Philip Wismer student a gala that university Washington DC is one of an estimated forty thousand Americans facing cope with nineteen while unable to clearly see or hear I have not gone off campus since March eighteenth I only come out of my dorm to get food get the mail and that's about it it sounds lonely yeah it is sometimes I I do feel wrongly my other friends that are completely blind feeling very very isolated deaf blind Americans survive by touch hand over hand to communicate fingers on braille signs for mobility hugs and handshakes to feel connected experts say deaf blindness is a spectrum not everyone experiences complete darkness and total silence but touch is critical now comes with significant health risks in many guides are fearful of being touched and touching back twenty eight year old Tyler Samuel of Nashville Tennessee says she's fighting that loneliness relying on our partner for help with daily tasks the genetic condition since birth is degraded her hearing and sight line you're just really worried that I wouldn't wouldn't find an independent and when you do find it you don't want to lose it and so for it to be kind of chipped away is it kind of lowers your self esteem Samuel still walks to work every day by herself this is mine now can empty walk home pediatric surgery coordinator at Vanderbilt University hospital she's a freelance opera singer with dreams of going big the pandemic has prompted some soul searching I lost a friend I go to pick her up and she was very young and thirty early thirties and it prompted me to go head to get my mastectomy will together that's something that I want it like my wishes to me now a trip to the hospital is what many deaf blind Americans told ABC news they fear most there's an assumption in a lot of medical community is that it's better to speak Jack then disable Hoppin girl is a leading advocate for the community I would be terrified I would not get communication a sense that I would not get the care I need to get the virus and go to the hospital she says it's a fight for equality the daughter of an Eritrean refugee Irma is the first deaf blind woman to graduate from Harvard law school in twenty fifteen president Obama recognized her as a champion of change when I'm asking questions today hop and you're actually feeling my questions with your fingers please ask me questions I with her special braille keyboard guide dog Milo by your side Girma an informal network of deaf blind advocates are determined not to be forgotten it's certainly not and Saxena hobby disability and should deal with death Linus I think makes people very you know uncomfortable generally Rebecca Alexander of New York City wants the world to know that deaf blind professionals can pitch in to she's volunteering her services as a counselor to hospital workers on the front lines just knowing that even someone like me who the community I think at large if they knew how limited my vision and my hearing was they might not consider via someone they would reach out to for help and it does feel good to be able to provide that Ashley Benton who coordinates services for the deaf blind in North Carolina says police in rural areas are checking on residents who don't have technology to communicate they contacted us which was beautiful so we were able to work with the officers who have the appropriate PP to go in and check on the step one consumer to make sure they were safe it's so important because we're always together near Seattle deaf blind sisters Nancy and Debbie summer sticking together through it all but we can't all thank goodness we have computers we can talk with each other yeah I think the persistence to stay connected and to contribute to the recovery the deaf blind community raising its voice in its own way what do you like a missing these days I love queen I like the end all of what you mean rap city and like so many dreaming of that big escape after cove it what I would like to do after this is all over with it's taking
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"It suggests that there's something deeper about reading that is more fundamental than visual processing. Reading isn't just about seeing. There's something in the brain that is the reading function. That's deeper than seeing and that's really when you get down to like. That's what Braille does it like it. It gets straight to that process and cuts out the complexities of just trying to take existing visual system and make it a readable by the blind. You know another way that I think. Braille is really interesting in in technology history. It is absolutely not a case. Where the the the delay in the invention of Braille was caused by some lack of technology right? It wasn't that we didn't have electricity or didn't have XYZ that allowed us to produce this technology it was really just a lack of people turning their attention toward this task and putting resources into it right. There is a certain level of cultural advancement. The needed to be in place. Yeah cultural values the needed to be in place. I think there's a case to be made for just sort of the shrinking of the world. You know The growing populations and then also The way that Communities of the blind could be brought together To in cases like this begin to solve problems that they faced individually that they faced a group. You know right because there's a school for the blind. There's a place for Charles Barbier to go with his night riding invention say. I think this might be useful. Exactly and then a place for an individual like Braille to rise to prominence. Yes now I didn't even. I didn't even go down the sort of sci-fi track Here on this but it does make me wonder if there are any science fiction treatments that explore the possibility of of what a written communication system in an inherently blind civilization might consist off. You know because we focused on some of the the interesting aspects of Braille in which it is a system by the blind for the blind but of course it is based stems from a- system and a culture of the cited one wonders like what a purely purely Tactile writing system might have consisted of. Maybe it would be very much like Braille. Well there you have to wonder again either way. Language begins as a spoken heard the oral And so the it gets translated into symbolic coding like alphabets and then later like Braille. You didn't have to have the alphabet in between you could have gone straight from spoken language to Braille right but it had to start with spoken language there. I wonder are you asking? Maybe like If you could have gone straight from an auditory in spoken language to Braille or a language that is tactile from the beginning. Yeah like what would like we would. It would be necessary to like. We have the alphabet standing between spoken word and Braille The yeah what would it? Would it be like if there was more direct line between these two systems or would it just be necessary to invent something like the alphabet some other version of the alphabet to To serve as these were the translation of these two sensory experiences. I don't see any inherent reason that would have to be anyway. I find language technology generally fascinating and I want to continue to return to the idea of language technologies as we go on this show because I I wanNA for example explored the idea of invented languages. People try to invent languages. Why do these not catch on? How come it's so hard? Nigh impossible to really do it. Oh yes I definitely want to come back to this because you have you have in invented languages that sort of have a a higher more noble purpose and then you you have a fictional languages of the the likes of Klingon which is which is still a linguistic system created with all the hallmarks of of an actual language can be learned. It can be spoken so yeah. We'd love to come back discussed that. So much of the of that is not being a linguist myself. It you know it. The concept is kind of foreign to me like for instance when I think of JR token no. It's easy to think. Oh I'm totally behind the idea of setting down in creating an entire world of monsters and magic but then the idea of setting down and also creating entire language for one of the People's or numerous species in the world that just sounds like way too much work for me but then again I'm not a linguist maybe creating languages. It's one of those things kind of like playing a musical instrument like is not really fun until you're good enough to do it you know. Yeah like it seems not fun to you because you wouldn't know where to start but if you were a linguist and you had all kinds ideas about the roots of language and how words are formed and all that maybe then. It's just a blast. One thing I would love to explore in this hypothetical episode on fictional languages is one had to choose so I get an alien species comes down dominates the earth and says all right all your all these existing languages that you're using. They're all garbage. We're getting rid of all of them. You guys get to vote on on which language you're all gonna use but it can only be a language that was developed exclusively for a film or TV which one is better than Klingon is Clinton's Rocky. He's doth rat like what is the most robust and useful fictional language system that oath. Iraqi have no word. The thought experiment. Yeah that's the. That's the problem that I feel like we rented it. It's probably Klingon. That's my guess. Based on some very preliminary research the Klingon seems to maybe have received the most work but could be very wrong in that. You Know Robert. Judging on our history with listener mail. I bet a couple listeners are gonNA write in with thoughts about this. We're going to receive some opinions. I hope so and likewise I do hope we hear from from any listeners out there who who reads Braille or anybody who is blind or vision impaired that has some additional insight that they would like to share on this topic. Yeah and also if you've I mean if you've had the experience of both reading printed text and Reading Braille. Do you think that there is a major difference in the experience of reading the two and if so what is that difference like all right? So we're going to close it off there but if you WANNA check out all the episodes of invention there several different ways to do it you can check out our home page. That's invention pod dot com where you'll find all the episodes link out to some social media accounts as well and of course you can find this podcast anywhere you get your pod guests and if you want to help us out a great thing to do is to first of all. Subscribe to invention at any of these These sources and then rate in review if you have the power to do so that helps us out mentally thanks to Scott Benjamin for research assistance with this episode and thanks to our awesome audio producer. Tari Harrison if you would like to get in touch with us directly with feedback about this episode or any other suggested topic for the future or just to say. Hello. Let us know how found out about the show where he listened from and all that stuff you can email us at contact at invention pod dot com..
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Civilization might consist off you know. because. We focused on some of the the interesting aspects of Braille in which it is a system. By the blind for the blind. But of course, it is based. Stems from a system and a culture of the cited. One wonders like what a purely. Purely? tactile writing system might have consisted of. Maybe it would be very much like Braille well there. You have to wonder again either way language begins as a spoken heard the. Oral and so the IT gets translated into symbolic coding like Alphabets, and then later like Braille, you didn't have to have the alphabet in between. You could have gone straight from spoken language to Braille Right, but it had to start with spoken language. There I wonder. Are you asking maybe like If you could have gone straight from an auditory in spoken language to Braille or a language that is tactile from the beginning. Yeah, like what would like we would, it would be necessary. To like we have the alphabet standing between spoken word and Braille the yeah, what would it would it be like? If there was a more direct line between these two systems, or would it just be necessary to invent something like the alphabet? Some other version of the alphabet to to serve as these were the translation of these two sensory experiences I? Don't see any inherent reason that would have to be. Anyway I find language technology, generally fascinating and I want to continue to return to the idea of language technologies. As we go on this show because I I, WanNa for example explored the idea of invented languages. People try to event languages. Why do these not catch on? How come? It's so hard nigh impossible to really do it oh. Yes I definitely want to come back to this because you have you have in invented languages that sort of have a a higher, more noble purpose, and then you, you have a fictional languages of the the likes of Klingon, which is which is still a linguistic system created. With all the hallmarks of of an actual language can be learned, it can be spoken. So. Yeah! We'd love to come back discussed that so much of the of that is. Not being a linguist myself it. You know it's the concept is kind of foreign to me like for instance when I think of Jr token. No, it's easy to think Oh. I'm totally behind the idea of setting down and creating an entire world. Of Monsters and magic, but then the idea of setting down and also creating entire language for one of the People's or numerous. Species in the world that just sounds like way too much work for me, but then again I'm not a linguist. Maybe creating languages, it's one of those things kind of like playing a musical instrument. Like is not really fun until you're good enough to do it. You know. Like it seems not fun to you because you wouldn't know where to start, but if you were a linguist and you had all kinds ideas about the roots of language, and how words are formed and all that. Maybe then it's just a blast. One thing I would love to explore in this hypothetical episode on fictional languages is one had to choose so. I get an alien species comes down, dominates the earth, and says all right all your all these existing languages that you're using. They're all garbage. We're getting rid of all of them. You guys get to vote on on which language you're all gonna use, but it can only be a language that was developed exclusively for a film or TV. Which one is is Nabi better than Klingon is Clinton's rocky? He's doth rat, like what is the most robust and useful fictional language system that oath, Iraqi? Have No word, the thought experiment yeah. That's the that's the problem that I feel like we rented it. It's probably, Klingon that's my my guess. Based on some very preliminary research, the Klingon seems to maybe have received the most work, but could be very wrong in that. You Know Robert Judging on our history with listener mail, I bet a couple. Listeners are GonNa right in with thoughts about this. We're GONNA receive some opinions I hope so and likewise I do hope we hear from from any listeners out there who who reads Braille? Or anybody who is blind or vision impaired. That has some additional insight that they would like to share on this topic. Yeah, and also if you've I mean if you've had the experience of both reading printed text and Reading Braille. Do you think that there is a major difference in the experience of reading the Two? And if so, what is that difference like all right, so we're going to close it off there, but if you WANNA check out all the episodes of invention, there several different ways to do it, you can check out our home page that's. Invention pod Dot com where you'll find all the episodes link out to some social media accounts as well, and of course you can find this podcast anywhere. You get your pod guests, and if you want to help us out, a great thing to do is to first of all subscribe to invention at any of these these sources and then rate in review. If you have the power to do, so, that helps us out. Out Mentally thanks to Scott Benjamin for research assistance with this episode and thanks to our awesome audio producer Tari Harrison if you would like to get in touch with us directly with feedback about this episode, or any other suggested topic for the future or just to say, hello, let us know how found out about the show. Where he listened from and.
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Fifteen thousand dollars, depending on the number of characters displayed. And then there's the whole history of Braille writer machines, Braille printers. Frank Haven, hall presented the First Braille Writer machine in eighteen, ninety, two in various improvements came with time today. We even have you know Braille Computer Printers Portable Braille, taking devices in the Braille, displays to. We've already mentioned but Braille printers. Range from say, small-scale Braille printers, the cost between eighteen hundred and five thousand dollars to large volumes that can cost between ten thousand and eighty thousand dollars but but the technology exists. You can hook the printer up to a machine and print in Braille. If you have the right technology, another bit of technology worth noting the Braille wristwatch where you lift the lid of the time piece to quote unquote touch the time. This makes me wonder about a question that I I don't know if we can really fully answer the, we might be able to say a little bit about it. Is the question of how the experience of reading is different, or is it different when you're reading with is versus reading with your fingers. I was wondering about this as well because. It's you know guess. My experience is limited I bet just thinking about the differences between reading of written taxed and say listening to an audio book. Yeah, it's a very different experience. Yeah, you can still. I mean ultimately I guess the. You, if you have to drive, go, what are the differences between reading? The Lion, the witch and the wardrobe versus. The listening to it in the car. I mean it's still the same story so as the same characters, but there, but there is something different about the experience. It's a different way of absorbing the content. Yeah, wonder what those differences are like. with with Braille versus these other means. Yeah I don't want to necessarily go like full Marshall. McLuhan, but I do believe that like the physical substrates are media do play a role in shaping thought in culture and the nature of the experience of the information that gets shared on that media, so if printed text is one medium. Braille is another. Is that experience of reading one versus the other substantially different, and in in terms of the internal sensation of reading one versus the other I. Don't know what the answer is I was trying to look for return to read around on this and. And? They couldn't find much on the subject. Though maybe there's good stuff out there. I. I did come across a study in current biology from the year two thousand eleven by Rices Ed Cohen and a Medi- called a ventral visual stream, reading center independent of visual experience, and so, what the authors of the study it was a neuroscience study where they did an FM. Alright experiment on you know measuring brain function while people were reading across different media, and the author said that there's this pathway in the brain that is thought to be important for reading visual text, and it's called the visual word form area or the VW FA. And the authors write quote. This study investigated which area plays the role of the VW FA in the blind one would expect this to be at either parietal or bilateral Occidental cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the. And Cross Modal plasticity respectively, so they're thinking that okay. If somebody's reading with their fingers, they would expect the parts of the brain involved to be like S- parts of the brain that are normally associated with touch sensation. But the authors used FM are I. See what brain activity looks like win. Blind readers read Braille and what they found was quote striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted readers, and so the author is this led them to propose that the visual word form area is not necessarily about visual words. Instead it's quote, a Meta model reading area. The develops specialization for reading regardless of. Of Visual experience, so that's fascinating. If they're correct about this, it means that they're sort of a suite of brain functions that are used specifically for consuming symbolic representations of language whether that symbolic representation is visual, seeing of letters or tactile feeling of dot cells, and the authors say that this this they believe supports the model that brain areas are quote task machines, not sensory machines. But that's really interesting again. If they're correct, it suggests that there's something deeper about reading. That is more fundamental than visual processing. Reading isn't just about seeing. There's something in the brain. That is the reading function that's deeper than seeing. and. That's really when you get down to like. That's what Braille does it like it? It gets straight to that process and cuts out the complexities of just trying to take existing visual system and make it a readable by the blind. You know another way that I think Braille is really interesting in technology history. It is absolutely not a case where the the the delay in the invention. Invention of Braille was caused by some lack of technology, right? It wasn't that we didn't have electricity or didn't have X. Y. or Z.. That allowed us to produce this technology. It was really just a lack of people turning their attention toward this task and putting resources into it right there a certain level of cultural advancement, the needed to be in place. Yeah, cultural values the needed to. To be in place I also think there's a case to be made for just sort of the shrinking of the world you know, the growing populations, and then also the way that communities of the blind could be brought together. to in cases like this begin to solve problems that they faced individually that they faced a group. You know right because there's a school for. For the blind, there's a place for Charles A to go with his night riding invention, say I think this might be useful exactly and then a place for an individual like Braille to rise to prominence. Yes, now I didn't even I didn't even go down the sort of sci-fi track here on this, but it does make me wonder if there are any science fiction treatments that. Explore the possibility of of what? A written communication system in an inherently blind.
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"We're back so we've alluded to this already. But but let's take a minute to discuss. What Braille exactly is is a tactile system of written language. It's a way to read the written word via raised odds and a surface With your fingers and this is of course ideal for individuals who are blind or vision impaired. Braille however is not a language. Yes and that's important. It's much the same way that the alphabet is not a language. Alphabets are ways of in coding existing languages and so is Braille. Yeah it's a code that's been adapted to many existing languages since the original French for instance. There's English Braille or grade. Two Braille and this consists of two hundred and fifty different marks representing letters numbers punctuation marks formatting marks contractions and abbreviations each. Braille symbol is formed via Braille cells. Each show with spaces for six raised dots so a full. Braille cell contains six raise dots in two parallel rows of three dots. Each you've probably seen them before but they kind of like you know the consort of resembling domino the sides of a di- yeah imagine domino with space for only six dots again in two vertical rows of three and of course as you mentioned there are different forms of Braille right so first. Let's consider the most basic form What's generally referred to as uncontracted Braille? This is for beginners. Learning Braille. For instance so you in this system. If you have a phrase and you want to spell it out you spell it out letter by letter so you would you know if you're writing and then it came to pass? You wouldn't do a than you would do in the new Ado d and You would just spell out every word in this sentence but there are of course many words in the English language. They're usually just read as units. You don't have to go one letter at a time right. Yeah you think of Sight words for instance. You know words where you just look at it and you know it. And so this is where we get into contracted Braille in which some one hundred eighty different letter. Contractions come into play to shorten and simplify everything making it again. Faster to read easier to write by the way. I know some of you who have listened to past episodes of stuff to blow your mind to deal with with the Mandarin language particularly the Chinese typewriter. You might be asking yourself I wonder how Mandarin is translated into Braille. Because that's not a phonetic written language. Yeah well it. It looked this up and the way it works is that The Chinese Braille represents the sounds of language rather than the many Chinese characters that would be involved in in traditional written Chinese language. It's a it's a little bit different. Each symbol contains three Braille letters initial final and then rep something representing the tone so away. It's kind of like Pinon Braille you know in which Mandarin Chinese is rendered in you know and In in in Western characters transliterated script xactly. Now I mentioned the slate in the stylus earlier and that's an important tool for writing in Braille because it helps guide the the writer in order to punch out the letters to form the code. They're creating and and helps keep the letters evenly spaced and along the same line and against so much easier than trying to then create embossed letters on paper. Yeah exactly and so as for this invention I I was just thinking about how we sort of alluded to this earlier. But I think it's important to think about how Braille was not the first attempt to create a reading and writing system for the blind and visually impaired before this. You had things like the embossed alphabetic letters of Valentine who we you had the night writing of Barbie and these inventions were not worthless. But despite the efforts of these inventors they weren't nearly as useful or efficient as they could have been and it took the insights of Louis Braille himself to streamline the code system to its optimal form and. I can't help but think that this must have something to do with the fact that Braille himself was blind reader with direct personal experience of the day to day issues faced by blind readers understanding sort of the texture of the experience. What it's like to read with one's fingers and having no other choice but to read with his fingers and so he was able to imagine improvements in the system that others didn't and the sort of reminds me of something that often seems true about invention that the insights that often lead to the inventions are not always just rooted in things like engineering genius and creativity. They also are rooted in habitual familiarity with the kinds of problems that the invention is needed to solve like hands on experience. Yeah and really the Braille. Even if we go back to the roots tonight writing like that was that was rooted in an attempt to solve a problem that the the innovator had a real world experience with and and granted it was military situation but then and then this technology is passed on to Braille who has a direct experience of the sightless world and uses his familiarity with this altered Sensory experience to create Braille. And and this is the the system we have today like. This is still the standard for for for written language for the blind. Yes we should mention that since then there have been other types of Of encoding written language for the blind like there are other one thing I've been reading about. Is that for example? There are other systems for people who became blind later in life and were more used to the alphabetic language That something a little bit more like the old system right right like embossed letters. They're also versions that attempt to sort of like mingle the to where you sort of like make letters out of raised dots and that's designed to be useful so that like if you are a blind writer you can use that to. It might be slower going but can produce a script. That's also readable to people who only know like the cited alphabet right and then a Braille has continued to evolve over time first of all to meet new language demand so we mentioned the android an example but another great example is the Nemeth Braille a form of Braille developed in nineteen fifty two by American mathematician and adventure Abraham Nemeth who was by the way born blind and it was officially integrated into you needed. United ENGLISH BRAILLE IN NINETEEN. Ninety two and it is used to write mathematics in Braille There's also the Gardner Salinas Spray Oh codes created could've math in scientific notation and there's also the Braille Code of chemical notation from one thousand nine hundred seven. So we've seen this sort of continual broadening of the system as the system has needed to to explain express to different systems. Different written systems In addition to just sort of core Grin language needs now. Of course there are continuing challenges in adapting Braille Technology. I mean one thing that might be rather obvious. Is the idea that a lot of the text we encounter today happens not on imprinted text but on screens. That's right. Yeah so we've seen. We have seen some amazing breakthroughs though with a refresh cycle braille desperate displays. Now these provide access to information on a computer screen by electrically raising and lowering different combinations of pins in Braille cells and this is the kind of pricey technology the price of Braille displays range from thirty five hundred fifteen thousand dollars depending on the number of characters displayed and then there's the whole history of Braille Writing Machines Braille printers frank haven hall presented. The first Braille writer machine in eighteen. Ninety two in various improvements Came with time today. We even have you know Braille Computer Printers Portable Braille not taking devices in the Braille displays. That we've already mentioned Yeah but Braille printers range from say small-scale Braille printers the cost between eighteen hundred and five thousand dollars to large volumes that can cost between ten thousand and eighty thousand dollars But but the technology exists. You can hook the printer up to a machine and print in Braille. If you have the right technology another bit of technology worth noting the Braille wristwatch where you lift the lid of the time piece to quote unquote touch the time. This makes me wonder about a question that I I don't know if we can really fully answer the we might be able to say a little bit about it is The question of how the experience of reading is different. Or is it different When you're reading with is versus reading with your fingers I was wondering about this as well. Because it's you know I guess my experience is limited. I bet but just thinking about the differences between reading of written taxed and say listening to an audio book. Yeah it's a very different experience. Yeah you can still I mean ultimately I guess the if you have to drive. What are the differences between reading the lion the witch and the wardrobe versus the listening to it in the car? I mean it's still the same story so as the same characters but there but there is something different about the experience. It's a different way of absorbing the content. Yeah wonder what those differences are like With with Braille versus. These other means yeah. I don't want to necessarily go like full Marshall McLuhan but I do believe that like the physical substrates are media. Do play a role in shaping thought in culture and the nature of the experience of the information that gets shared on that media so if printed text is one medium. Braille is another. Is that experience of reading one versus the other substantially different and in in terms of the internal sensation of reading one versus the other. I don't know what the answer is. I was trying to look for return to read around on this and I couldn't find much on the subject though. Maybe there's good stuff out there i. I did come across a study in current biology from the year. Two thousand eleven. By rices Ed Cohen and a Medi- Called a ventral visual stream reading center independent of visual experience and so what the authors of the study it was a neuroscience study where they did an experiment on you know measuring brain function while people were reading across different media and the author said that there's this pathway in the brain that is thought to be important for reading visual text and it's called the visual word form area or the VW FA and the authors write quote. This study investigated which area plays the role of the VW? Fa in the blind one would expect this area to be at either parietal or bilateral Occidental cortex reflecting the tactile nature of the and Cross Modal plasticity respectively. So they're thinking that okay if somebody's reading with their fingers the they would expect the parts of the brain involved to be like S- parts of the brain that are normally associated with touch sensation but the authors used FM. Are I see what brain activity looks like win? Blind readers read Braille and what they found was quote striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted readers and so the author is this led them to propose that the visual word form area is not necessarily about visual words. Instead it's quote a Meta model reading area. The develops specialization for reading regardless of visual experience. So that's fascinating if they're correct about this. It means that they're sort of a suite of brain functions that are used specifically for consuming symbolic representations of language whether that symbolic representation is visual seeing of letters or tactile feeling of dot cells and the authors. Say that this This they believe supports the model. That brain areas are quote task machines not sensory machines. But that's really interesting again if they're correct..
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"We're back. So. We've alluded to this already, but but let's take a minute to discuss what Braille. Exactly is is a tactile system of written language. It's a way. To read. The written word via raised odds and a surface with your fingers, and this is of course ideal for individuals who are blind or vision impaired. Braille however is not a language. Yes, and that's important. It's much the same way that the alphabet is not a language. Alphabets are ways of in coding existing languages and so is Braille Yeah. It's a code that's been adapted to many existing languages since the original French. For instance, there's English, Braille or grade two Braille, and this consists of two hundred and fifty different marks, representing letters, numbers, punctuation, marks, formatting marks, contractions and abbreviations. Each Braille symbol is formed via Braille cells. Each show with spaces for six raised dots so a full Braille. Cell contains six raise dots in two parallel rows of three DOTS each. You've probably seen them before, but they kind of like you know the consort of Resembling Domino, the sides of a di- yeah, imagine domino with space for only a six dots again in to vertical rows of. Of Three, and of course as you mentioned, there are different forms of Braille right so first. Let's consider the most basic form what's generally referred to as uncontracted Braille. This is for beginners learning Braille for instance so you in this system. If you have a phrase and you want to spell it out, you spell it out letter by letter so you? Would you know if you're writing? And then it came to pass. You wouldn't do a thing you would do in the new Ado d and You would just spell out every word in this sentence, but there are of course many words in the English language. They're usually just read as units. You don't have to go one letter at a time right? Yeah, you think of sight words for instance you know words where you just look at it, and you know it, and so this is where we get into contracted Braille in which some one hundred eighty different letter contractions come into play to shorten and simplify everything making it again faster to read easier to write. By the way I know some of you who have listened to past episodes of stuff to blow your mind to deal with. With the Mandarin language, particularly the Chinese typewriter. You might be asking yourself. I wonder how Mandarin is translated into Braille. Because that's not a phonetic written language, yeah! Well it. It looked this up and the way it works. Is that the Chinese? Braille represents the sounds of language rather than the many Chinese characters that would be involved in in traditional written Chinese language. It's a it's a little bit different. Each symbol contains three Braille letters initial, final, and then rep something representing the tone. So away. It's kind of like Pinon Braille. You know in which Mandarin Chinese is rendered in. You know and in in in Western characters transliterated script xactly now I mentioned the slate in the stylus earlier, and that's an important tool for writing in Braille. Because it helps guide the the writer in order to punch out the letters to form the code they're creating and and helps keep the letters evenly spaced and along the same line, and against so much easier than trying to then create embossed letters on paper. Yeah, exactly and so as for this invention I. I was just thinking about how we sort of alluded. Alluded to this earlier, but I think it's important to think about how Braille was not the first attempt to create a reading and writing system for the blind and visually impaired. Before this, you had things like the embossed alphabetic letters of Valentine, who we you had the night writing of a and these inventions were not worthless, but despite the efforts of these inventors they weren't nearly as useful or efficient as they could have been, and it took the insights of Louis, Braille himself to streamline the code system to its optimal form. And I can't help but think that this must have something to do. With the fact that Braille himself was blind reader with direct personal experience of the day to day issues faced by blind readers, understanding sort of the texture of the experience, what it's like to read with one's fingers, and having no other choice, but to read with his fingers, and so he was able to imagine improvements in the system that others didn't. Didn't and the sort of reminds me of something that often seems true about invention that the insights that often lead to the inventions are not always just rooted and things like engineering, genius and creativity they also are rooted in habitual familiarity with the kinds of problems that the invention is needed to solve like hands on experience. Yeah, and really the Braille, even if we go back to the roots tonight, writing like that was. That was rooted in an attempt to solve a problem. that the the innovator had a real world experience with and granted it was military situation, but then and then this technology is passed on to Braille who has a direct experience of the sightless world and uses his familiarity with this. Altered sensory experience to create Braille, and in this is the system we have today like this is still the standard for for for written language for the blind. Yes, we should mention that. Since then there have been other types of of encoding written language for the blind like there are other one thing I've been reading about is that for example there are other systems for people who became blind later in life, and were more used to the alphabetic language that something. More like the old system right right like embossed letters. They're also versions that attempt to sort of like. The to where you sort of like make letters out of raised dots, and that's designed to be useful, so that like. If you are a blind writer, you can use that to. It might be slower going, but can produce a script that's also readable to people who only know like the cited alphabet right, and then a Braille has continued to evolve over time first of all to meet new language demand, so we mentioned the android an example, but another great example is the Nemeth Braille a form of Braille developed in nineteen, fifty, two by American, mathematician and adventure, Abraham Nemeth who was by the way born blind. And it was officially integrated into you it united. English Braille in Nineteen Ninety two, and it is used to write mathematics in Braille. there's also the Gardner Salinas Spray. Oh codes created if I math in scientific notation, and there's also the Braille Code of chemical notation from one, thousand, nine, hundred seven, so we've seen this sort of continual broadening of the system as the system has needed to. To explain express to different systems different written systems in addition to just sort of core grin. Language needs now. Of course there are continuing challenges in adapting Braille. Technology I mean one thing that might be rather obvious is the idea that a lot of the text we encounter today happens not on imprinted text on screens. That's right. Yeah, so we've seen. We have seen some amazing breakthroughs though with. A refresh -able Braille desperate displays now these provide access to information on a computer screen by electrically raising and lowering different combinations of pins in Braille cells and. This is the kind of pricey technology. The price of Braille displays range from thirty five hundred.
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"We're back so let's talk about Louis. Braille lived eighteen o nine through eighteen fifty two so he was he was a Frenchman. would later groped French educator but As as a child at the age of three He was he was blinded. So what happened is his father was a harness maker and he'd been playing with tools in his father's shop and the tool slipped in his hand and injured his right. I yeah so. This was in the The commune of Cobra and his father like you said is like I think he made a saddles and stuff and harnesses. And so if you're a harness maker SADDLE MAKER. You have to use a sharp tool called an all to punch holes and tough leather and apparently young. Louis was trying to punch a hole in leather with the all when he accidentally slipped and he stabbed himself in the right eye. And I've read that. The remedy prescribed by a local healer was an infusion of something called Lily Water. I was looking to try to figure out what this is. Couldn't find a lot of other stuff about it But I assume that might be. I don't know water that has been soaked with lilies or something but anyway it's possible this. May of made the risk of infection even worse The stab die of course became infected and then it got worse. Yeah well resulted something known as symphony sympathetic thal MEA which is an infection of both is following trauma to a single guy and This ultimately resulted in total blindness. His eyes deteriorated over time and he was totally blind by five. And this is particularly devastating when you think about the the age at which most of us begin to acquire language written language you know to to be robbed of your your your visual faculties at age in between the ages of three and five yeah. That's that's devastating. Yeah and of course this. This led to browse parents. Trying to get him enrolled in a in an institute or a school for blind children and he eventually was as we mentioned early You know he was. He was lucky enough to have been born in the right time in the right place to have access to one of these one of the earliest school for the blind and it was at this institute. The the National Institute or the Royal Institute for Blind Children in Paris they were. I think it went through some some different leadership. he He first encountered the night writing. System of Charles Bobby though this This wouldn't happen until later. Barbie actually approached the Institute Multiple Times with his invention and the first time was in eighteen. Twenty and so I guess we should back up for a second. I don't know how much you came across this bit in a lot of the biographical writing about Louis Braille. There tends to be kind of villain of the story by the name of Sebastian. Golly what's great villains name? I guess so again. That's one I'm not sure I'm saying right as G. U. I L. L I e Geli think and Galil was head of the institute when Braille was first enrolled there as a child and at that time conditions at the institute were in many ways. Just PRETTY AWFUL. Like the building was described as damp and poorly ventilated. The dirty drinking water with few amenities In galena apparently had a very prejudiced and condescending view toward the blind children that he was supposed to educate As quoted in the Lord's Book Gilly wrote in eighteen eighteen that he believed quote. It has been clearly shown that the blind are not like other people susceptible to being restrained by external demonstrations. The blind appreciate things only by extremes and can understand justice only by its effects paternal and just management has thus replaced the flexible and weak regime. That has for so long prevented good from being done all right. So that sounds that sounds horrible. And and it and it continues you know a pre existing trend of treating the disabled as as something less than Than human in some cases. Or at least a you know as a secondary class yes absolutely and in this did appear to be gillies view so he enacted harsh punishments on the children including putting them on a diet of dry bread and water with physical. Beatings or whippings confinement. In in some extreme cases even chaining children to post And many of the children in the school when when new leadership came to power they were later found to be malnourished and in poor health. There's an an extremely hard arena. Grievous case we're actually performed medical experiments on his blind students So there was one case where he took fluid from the eyes of children suffering from a form of The Farro area which has an eye infection resulting in discharge from the eyes and he put it into the eyes of four blind children under his care at the school in order to test how it was transmitted in his reasoning was that because they were already blind there would not be risk of them losing their from the infection Though the records of the experiment indicate that the infection was extremely painful to the children's horrible story but day to day at the school students were taught to do things like Like weaving tactical manual tasks Weaving Straw and rush mats and doing other kinds of jobs like that But they also had opportunities to learn and perform music which Braille actually excelled that. He was said to be extremely talented musician. So this is the guy who's in charge win. Barbie I brought his night writing to the school. Yes Oh Barbie first shows up at the school in eighteen twenty and he tries to demonstrate to Gilley how a variation on the night writing system could be a useful alternative to the limbaugh print system that the students were using and he showed off a writing device that he created that consisted of type of slate and a stylus and Gilead allowed the students to experiment with this briefly but personally he did not seem to see much use in the system and he passed on it but soon after that. Gilly was dismissed from his position at the head of the institute after it was exposed that he had an affair with a much younger instructor at the school and Gillies replacement. A man named Andrei or Alexandra. Pa Who is generally regarded as having been a kinder director With a more genuine concern for the wellbeing of the students he was put in place and Barbie a return to make his case again. Unfortunately I think painting a recognized that the best judge of what kind of writing system would be useful to the blind students would be the students themselves so he sponsored a period in which the students could experiment with Barbie as dot based system of night writing in students almost immediately recognized the superiority of the dot based system over the system of the the embossed print letters. The DOTS were simply much easier to read and to reproduce given the help of a slate and stylus than the shapes of the print letters and of course one of the students who participated in this experiment was the young. Louis Braille still a teenager at the time. Actually I think at the beginning B. wasn't even a teenager yet and so- Braille had excelled as a student at the institute he was said to be Like very clever an avid learner. And he he had mastered the The old system of Of You know the the embossed letters and had read all the books and he eventually moved onto teaching other students there in so Braille saw the potential for a system like night writing or something You know related to it. So what he did is he? Baras night writing system to make it faster to read and write yes creating the Braille system in he revealed the system in eighteen twenty four and also later adapted it to musical notation exactly and so though the idea of the raise dots to represent sounds or letters came from Barbie. A Braille completely reorganized the code system to make it much more practical. Original barbier system had been these cells composed of twelve possible dots. That could be arranged to show the different letters and while the cell was easier to read than an embossed alphabetic letter like Anhui System. It was still too large to read very quickly. And so what Braille does. He simplified the letter system. The the cell to just six DOTS which could fit under a single fingertip and allow much faster reading and you one crazy thing to think about as Braille only fifteen or sixteen when he finished creating this code. How well? Let's take another break when we come back. We're.
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Mobile artillery were important to the success of Napoleon's military campaigns in the early nineteenth century in Napoleon himself had been an artillery officer when he was coming up through the ranks and another artillery officer. In Napoleon's army would end up playing an important role in the creation of the modern Braille writing system and this man was Nicolas Marie Charles Barbier de la Salle often shortened to just Charles Charles or Charles Barbier and one good source. I found that included Stuff about the life of Charles. Bobby A was a book called Louis. Braille a touch of genius by see Michael Moore from National Braille. Press in two thousand six Barbie. A was born on made in seventeen sixty seven. He was born into an aristocratic family. Not like Galactic scale bigwigs but like minor bigwigs medium wigs and he went to a military school to become an army officer but then the French Revolution broke out and he being a son of a miner aristocratic family. He fled to America and worked there for several years. As a surveyor and while in the United States supposedly barbier became very interested in the writing systems that were being used by native American tribes to create codes for their languages and Barbie. A one point wrote quote of all the inventions honoring the human spirit. Writing has contributed most to its development and progress. So this guy is a fan of the printed word but Barbie later returned to France and served in the army in from his interest in the creation of writing systems which you cheat sorta gained while he was in the United States. Barbie developed an idea for a code that could be useful in wartime in. This code was called night writing now. Imagine you're out doing maneuvers under the cover of darkness. Maybe you want to put some mobile artillery in place without the enemy noticing. What you're doing in the middle of the night and now you want to be able to send a written message from one group or station to the to another and normally if you send a written message during night maneuvers. The person receiving the message would have to light a torch or lantern in order to read it. But that might give away your position to the enemy if you suddenly light a fire in the middle of dark battlefield and then maybe some shells come raining down on you. So Barbara's idea was to use a system of holes punched into a piece of cardboard Which could be read in total darkness? Because you could feel the symbols of the message with your fingers allowing you to read it without a light without giving away your position to the enemy so Barbie has got this great idea. He's like I'm going to change how how nice moves are done He's working on his night moves and he presents these this idea of night writing to the military leadership but apparently they're just not impressed and I don't honestly know the reason why they rejected his idea. But if I had to guess I would think one obstacle would be the this code would take time and effort for people to learn and wouldn't necessarily be worth trying to make everybody learn when you also had the option of just transmitting messages by whisper. In the dark you could send Human Messenger to tell somebody something and they could whisper it in their ear. That probably wouldn't give much away right. And then it also stands to reason that in some cases you would be able to deploy some sort of light and do so in a way that would not necessarily give away your physician and we wouldn't require you to learn to call a code and utilize some sort of a punch language. You know maybe under a blanket or something. Yeah like it's it's an. It's an elegant solution for a problem that maybe did not call for so eloquent a solution that's possible but even though he got rejected owned by the way Robert I've included a picture of Barbie here. Who for some reason just really kind of reminds me of the ways? Zander. Berkeley looks in Terminator. Two Way. Remind me which characters. Andrew Berkley He's John Connors Foster Dad. You remember him. He's drinking the milk carton. Oh yes vaguely. Yes the t. One thousand gets him. Yeah T. One thousand gets most people in that movie maybe spurious I see it. But Anyway Barbie was not finished with the idea of night writing even though it got rejected by the military While I would say there are some pretty obvious alternatives tonight writing when it comes to Transmitting short messages. On dark and battlefield it becomes a lot harder to come up with ways of like reading longer messages like say entire books in the dark and so by Eighteen Fifteen Barbie had developed another idea. His idea was that the night writing system would be useful to the blind especially As written by Bobby and quoted in Moore's book quote to those born blind who are deprived of the means of ever being able to read our books or our writing and besides this meeting with the greatest difficulties incorrectly tracing the outlines of letters so he he knew something about this problem like the idea that Blind people trying to read with with embossed letters of a normal alphabetic script faced problems like just wasn't as easy as sighted. People thought it should be to feel a letter with your fingers and instantly know what it is certainly any of your doubtful of this the next time you go to a cemetery or your around some sort of a statue that you are permitted to touch and pie. Try it out. See how fast you can see. You can read. And it turns out. Barbie was really onto something here. Well He created what turned out to be a very important precursor to the later system of Braille though he is known as its inventor that title of course goes to its namesake The namesake of the writing system.
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Existing funds like as bs cs ds that you can, you can trace with your fingers. You can touch and identify Oh. That's an a this is a B C Cetera. Yeah, who we system consisted of these embossed letters, and it was in fact, somewhat useful for blind students like Louis Braille. Who We will talk about in this episode as the inventor of Braille. Braille learn to read with Hawaii system before he invented Braille based on another system. We'll talk about in a bit, but it was the system of embossed letters were like normal letter as you're. Saying would be pressed through on a damp piece of paper, and it would leave a print. You could feel with your hand, but it had these real limitations like. To to hold this size of type, the books of print had to be huge and monstrously heavy like I've seen estimates of an average of four point, five kilograms, or about ten pounds per book, which is too heavy to hold and carry around in a practical way, especially for a child who's learning to read, but beyond that there's just a reality that embossed alphabetic letters are hard to read by touch, and this is something that might not be obvious to cited readers you just like look at them and say well. They look different to me. I can tell the difference, but reading with your fingers, a different type of of sensation activity than reading with. With your eyes is, and it just turned out that for many blind students. There is a lot of ambiguity in the shapes of letters. You could be trying to read across a line the number one. It wasn't very fast because the letters were big, and you had to feel around on each one. You couldn't just run your finger across the line, but then beyond that there's ambiguity between letters like a C- might feel a lot like a g, and all that and it would take a minute to figure out the difference in this made reading slow and laborious. I feel like there's something probably revealing in this journey this far you know we've talked about. The roles! Or the interpretations of of of Blind and vision impaired individuals at history, and in here with the these systems they do seem like a sighted world. I technology absolutely yeah, it's blind or vision, impaired individuals who will make some of the the key breakthroughs here. That's absolutely right and at the same time. I don't WanNa down play. like whose contribution the this was a real invention, this idea of the embossed letters. It was better than nothing and I think it's clear that who he was well-meaning. Oh, yeah, because it. It is easy to take for granted and speaking here as a as a cited individual can take for granted the degree to which we rely on site, and and and use that as our our key means of interpreting the world, but also not to realize how much you're not getting about other people's experience like if you haven't experienced it yourself, yeah, this this is certainly an area as continue on in the episode, I imagine we have some listeners out there who were blind or vision impaired in in one way shape or another? We would love to hear your feedback on on Braille. On. The experiences were discussing in this episode. Totally one more thing. I just realized about we should mention about. The system is I. Hope I'm saying his name, right? It's I was trying to look up how to pronounce this one is H.. A. U.. Y. And I could not find. I think it's who you, but that's my best guess, so if you're a French, speaker out there and you're grimacing every time we do this. This won't be the last time in the episode counter difficult French names so all apologies, but yeah, so another thing about his system is that it's probably also easier to use this system if he were. Were, an adult who is used to reading printed letters, and then lost their site later on in life, and you can feel around on those letters than if you're a child who has who has never learned to read printed letters, and you could perhaps be learning a tactical system. That's much easier to pick up from the beginning, but we'll come back to this as I. Think we should. We should move now to talk about something called night writing. Are you ready for night writing? Yeah, it sounds great. It sounds like a like a nineteen eighties horror film that I could really get into night gallery night gallery with a little night. Gallery meets automatic. Writing meets a little night cheese in there. Well. I guess it also yeah, working on my night cheese I just know someday. We're going to get sued because we do a version of working on my night moves, and we're not gonNA going to remember that edited out better. This is night writing, so you might have heard or remember from history classes that the design tactics of mobile artillery were important to the success of Napoleon's military campaigns in the early nineteenth century in Napoleon himself had been an artillery officer when he was coming up through the ranks, and another artillery officer in Napoleon's army would end up playing an important role in the. The creation of the modern Braille writing system and this man was Nicolas Marie. Charles Barbier de la Serra often shortened to just Charles, Charles or Charles Barbier and one good source. I found that included stuff about the life of Charles. Bobby A was a book called Louis Braille a touch of genius by see Michael Moore from National Braille press in two thousand six. Six Barbie a was born on May eighteenth, seventeen, sixty seven, he was born into an aristocratic family, not like Galactic scale bigwigs, but like minor bigwigs medium wigs, and he went to a military school to become an army officer, but then the French Revolution broke out, and he being a son of a miner aristocratic family, he fled to America and worked there for several. Several years as a surveyor, and while in the United States, supposedly barbier became very interested in the writing systems that were being used by native American tribes to create codes for their languages and Barbie a one point wrote quote of all the inventions honoring the human spirit writing has contributed most to its development and progress so this guy is a fan of printed word. But Barbie later returned to France and served in the army in from his interest in the creation of writing systems, which he cheat sorta gained while he was in the united. States Barbie, developed an idea for a code that could be useful in wartime in this code was called night writing. Now imagine you're out doing maneuvers under the cover of darkness. Maybe you want to put some mobile artillery in place without the enemy noticing what you're doing in the middle of the night a now you want to be able to send a written message from one group or station to the to another, and normally if you send a written message during night, maneuvers. Maneuvers, the person receiving the message would have to light a torch or lantern in order to read it, but that might give away your position to the enemy if you suddenly light a fire in the middle of dark battlefield, and then maybe some shells come raining down on you so as idea was to use a system of holes, punched into a piece of cardboard which could be read in total darkness, because you could feel the symbols of the message with your fingers, allowing you to read it without a light without giving away your position to the enemy, so Barbie got this great idea he's like. I'm going to change how how night moves. Moves are done He's working on his night moves, and he presents the this idea of night writing to the military leadership, but apparently they're just not impressed and I. Don't honestly know the reason why they rejected his idea, but if I had to guess I would think one obstacle would be the this code would take time and effort for people to learn, and wouldn't necessarily be worth trying to make everybody learn when you also had the option of just transmitting messages by whisper in the dark, you could send Human Messenger to tell somebody something, and they could whisper it in their ear. That probably wouldn't give much away right, and then it also. Also stands to reason that. In some cases you would be able to deploy some sort of light and do so in a way that would not necessarily give away your physician, and we wouldn't require you to learn to call a code and utilize some sort of a punch language. Know maybe under a blanket or something. Yeah, like it's, it's an. It's an elegant solution for a problem that maybe did not call for so eloquent a solution that's possible, but even though he got rejected owned by the way Robert. I've included a picture of Barbie here..
"braille" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Invention. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick and Robert. You know what I am excited today because I feel like this episode of invention is going to be something that I haven't had I haven't fully dealt with yet which is an invention that I can't really find a bad angle on. Yeah but I feel like today. We're GONNA be talking about an invention that I think is just pretty great. Yeah we're talking about Braille Braille the writing system based on tactile sensations for people who are blind or otherwise visually impaired. So it's a writing system. Yeah it's it is hard to imagine Braille being used for evil except in the sense that all writing systems could be used for evil so somebody could write something mean or you know outright dangerous in Braille and the same with a one could do that in any form of written communication. Yes but I would say as a modification and expansion of an existing writing system and of course riding comes with all that writing can do. I'd say it's just a good thing to have. Yeah and they didn't start the fire right. It's a continuation of existing written language technology. So whatever was already a bad or dangerous in the written word Was already there right. And this is not necessarily adding anything new to it. In that regard so written language is something that we might not often think about as an invention. But I think it's actually one of the most important inventions to consider. Oh Yeah we've talked about this a good bit on stuff to blow your mind in the past. But but what he's language but the power to take words and thoughts in fix them in place to record them and create complex forms out of their structure and in one can simply come along. Read the words and hear those words in your mind. Think those thoughts for yourself. So when when it's crazy to think about this this sort of deconstructed and realize that when we read the words of a long dead thinker we are read. We are loading their thoughts into our mind and thinking with their thoughts. You're going into the Matrix. Uploading their thoughts. I mean maybe not exactly because you probably reading across the translation gap in there. Something like that but I mean reading the words written by another person I feel like his is about as close as you can get to just mind. You know mind reading. Yeah I was thinking about this translation the other day like you know what I wonder what? What are the oldest words that I've read that I can? Actually you know. Get the gist out to archaic. And it's formation and Certainly probably something old English passages in Bay all you can kind of get the sense of. Yeah but those are cases where even though there's a distortion a little static from all those centuries of Linguistic shift. But you're still feeling those thoughts you still thinking those thoughts from another time writings a time machine. Exactly now well-spoken languages auditory. Obviously written language is a visual system and for the blind or visually impaired. A written language is going to be rather lacking obviously. Yeah Yeah just strokes on a page Who are going to be a difficult if not impossible to read and I would say because Education is so often tied up in literacy throughout much of human history in lots of cultures. I think this has led to kind of unfair and dismissive under consideration of the role of the education of the blind. Because it's like well. They can't read the written texts. We have so what you know. What can we really teach them? Yeah it wasn't till seventeen. Eighty four that school for the blind was established in France and the concept spread throughout Europe. But prior to that. I mean certainly. If you go back to the ancient world in prehistoric times you had is varying levels of Of importance or at attention paid to The blind or visually impaired individuals especially individuals who Who were born Visually impaired or without the ability. To see you go back to prehistoric Civil civilizations and they they might have had a practice of disposing of such individuals Likewise throughout the ancient world you see sort of varying treatment right. There are times where a blind individual is elevated that is celebrated plenty of other Blind or visually impaired individuals who are just simply lost history. But you think about say a homer the you know the famous Greek Storyteller Whether or not this was an actual historic individual many of the The accounts say that That he was blind and so on one hand if this was an actual blind storyteller. There's you know there's there's a lot to be inferred from that but but then at the same time there is this tendency in human history to take individuals that That are notable in some sort of disfigurement word difference in ability or even something like twins and what the end up being is not Not really a treatment of individuals with those conditions but symbols for other people to interpret right. It's like when you look at movies about twins or stories about twins. It's very often something created by a singleton's by individuals who do not have a twin who were finding something in it in this situation to speak to their own identity to be a metaphor. Yeah and I think that's exactly correct. I mean you see characters in You brought up homer but I think about like the legendary character of tiresias. The Blind Prophet which I think is very often deployed by cited people as sort of like a metaphor or symbol. Or something like that right so you see this trend without going just really deep into sort of the history of blindness in human societies but but very often the blind retreated as metaphors as and and and they certainly lacked any kind of like large scale. you know communal experience like the blind were not able to come together across cultures and do things like develop their own system of written language. And certainly you didn't have any real efforts to make the cited world more accessible to site was individuals. You know an individual might well be able to depend on a family or a subordinate for eight in reading and his early. As Greek and Roman Times some individuals had access to lenses to aid them in reading and of course to come back and do a future episode of invention on that but while the written word might be tactile in some cases due to the way that it's carved in stone or the way that it's created using a stylus and wax this was not the primary desired effect of those systems. Yeah and now I mean now that we live in a modern world where we are aware of the concept of Braille. You might not understand its history or exactly how it was invented or how it works. Hopefully you'll know something about that at the end of this episode. But you're aware of the fact that it exists before that it's it's hard to imagine that there would be some kind of widespread reading system within languages for people who are blind or visually impaired but throughout history that just generally was the case but we should also say that Braille. As it's known today was not the first system of tactically encoding written language for the blind. That's right for instance. There was an English system. Created by Dr William Moon invented in eighteen forty five moon type which sounds wonderfully elven like some sort of elven script that comes to to life in the moonlight or something but no it was just named because it was his last name. But it was basically a font type that is embossed and can be felt and this wasn't even the first such type There was a Valentine. We presented a version of this in the seventeen eighty s again. The simple concept here is existing funds like as BS CS. Ds that you can. You can trace with your fingers you can touch and identify. Oh that's an a this is a B C Cetera. Yeah we system consisted of these embossed letters and it was in fact somewhat useful for blind students. Like Louis Braille who we will talk about in this episode as the inventor of Braille. Learn to read with Hawaii system before he invented Braille based on another system. We'll talk about in a bit but it was the system of embossed letters. Where like normal letter as you're saying would be pressed through on a damp piece of paper and it would leave a print there you could feel with your hand but it had these real limitations like to to hold this size of type. The books of print had to be huge and monstrously heavy. Like I've seen estimates of an average of four point five kilograms or about ten pounds per book which is too heavy to hold and carry around in a practical way especially for a child who's learning to read but beyond that there's just a reality that embossed alphabetic letters are hard to read by touch and this is something that might not be obvious to cited readers. You just like look at them and say well they look different to me. I can tell the difference but reading with your fingers different type of of sensation activity than reading with your eyes is and it just turned out that for many blind students. There is a lot of ambiguity in the shapes of letters. You could be trying to read across a line. The number one. It wasn't very fast because the letters were big. And you had to feel around on each one. You couldn't just run your finger across the line but then beyond that there's ambiguity between letters like a C- might feel a lot like a g and all that and it would take a minute to figure out the difference in this made reading slow and laborious. I feel like there's something probably revealing in this journey this far you know. We've we've talked about the roles or the interpretations of of of Blind and vision impaired individuals history and in here with the these these systems. They do seem like a sighted world. I technology absolutely. Yeah it's blind or vision impaired individuals who will make some of the the key Breakthroughs here that's absolutely right and at the same time I don't WanNa down play Like whose contribution the this was a real invention this idea of the embossed letters. It was better than nothing. And I think it's clear that who he was. Well-meaning oh yeah because it is easy to take for granted and speaking here as a as a cited individual can take for granted the degree to which we rely on site and and and use that as our our key means of interpreting the world but also also not to realize how much you're not getting about other people's experience like if you haven't experienced it yourself yeah this this is certainly an area as continue on in the episode. I imagine we have some listeners out there who were blind or vision impaired in in one way shape or another we would love to hear your feedback on on Braille on the experiences. Were discussing in this episode. Totally one more thing. I just realized about We should mention about the system is I hope I'm saying his name right. It's I was trying to look up how to pronounce this. One is H. A. U. Y. And I could not find. I think it's who you but that's my best. Guess so if you're a French speaker out there and you're grimacing. Every time we do this this won't be the last time in the episode counter difficult. French name so all apologies but Yeah so another thing about his system is that it's probably also easier to use this system if he wore an adult who is used to reading printed letters and then lost their site later on in life. And you can feel around on those letters than if you're a child who has who has never learned to read printed letters and you could perhaps be learning a tactical system. That's much easier to pick up from the beginning. But we'll come back to this as I think we should. We should move now to talk about something called night writing. Are you ready for night writing? Yeah it sounds great. It sounds like a like a nineteen eighties horror film that I could really get into night gallery night gallery with a little night. Gallery Meets Automatic. Writing meets a little night cheese in there. Well I guess it also. Oh yeah working on my night cheese. I just know someday. We're going to get sued because we do a version of working on my night moves. And we're not GONNA remember that edited out better. This is night writing. So you might have heard or remember from history. Classes that The design tactics of.
"Dissolve one packet of Lemon Jello in one can or one cubes worth of Beef Bouillon. Add lemon juice and allowed to cool. Add three hard boiled eggs diced. One Cup diced celery. Half an onion grated one cup miracle whip and one can of corn beef chopped chill until set slice and serve congratulations. You've just made corned beef luncheon salad. My Name's Moxy and this is your brain on facts. Use It up where it out make it do were do without my grandmother would say. I thought that was clever saying from her side of the family but it was actually a slogan from World War Two encouraging the public to use fewer resources so more could be diverted to the war effort. We're all getting a taste of that as we're hunker down unable to shop at the spur of the moment and much more limited in our choices when we do thankfully we do have precedent to fall back on after all people are still alive today it through the Great Depression children. The roaring twenties came to an abrupt stop with the Stock Market Crash of Nineteen Twenty nine which saw billions of dollars evaporated into thin air. The crash wasn't the sole cause of the Great Depression. There were things like the dust bowl wherein incorrect farming methods turned the fertile American planes into a desert but the crash did act to accelerate the global economic collapse by nineteen thirty three. Nearly half of America's banks failed and thirty percent of the workforce was unemployed. You had to make the most of what you had and you had to get good at that fast to women. Help struggling homemakers to be able to feed their families. Eleanor Roosevelt an aunt. Sammy beginning in nineteen twenty. Six and Sammy had a popular weekday. Radio show called housekeepers chat about cooking and other domestic concerns as well as chitchatting about whatever else was going on at the time and Sammy was very popular especially in rural areas. Thousands of people wrote into her for recipes by nineteen thirty to one hundred and ninety four stations broadcast aunt. Sammy show and she published aunt. Sammy's radio recipes. Parenthetically the Great Depression Cookbook. It would be the first cookbook published in Braille. Interestingly enough though I struggle to think of how difficult it would be to cook on wood or old timey gas stove without good eyesight on Sammy's recipes. Were meant to be simple healthy and easy to cook. She's even credited with helping Broccoli. Find widespread acceptance prior to which it was only found in insular Italian neighborhoods and Sammie helped many wives and mothers through the Great Depression but once that was over then country was back on its feet. People lost interest. The show was cancelled sometime in the nineteen forties. Though sources don't agree when exactly. There's one other fact about aunt Sammy. That's worth mentioning. She didn't exist in the latter half of the twentieth. The Department of Agriculture Bureau of Home Economics created a wife for uncle. Sam The on creatively named Aunt Sammy. The character was voiced by different women at each individual radio station that way the listener would hear an accent similar to their own and feel more connected to aunt Sammy. Three women worked behind the scenes at the USDA to prepare the script each week that all the regional aunt. Sammy's would use fanny Walker. Contested Recipes Josephine. Harmful wrote the chatty portions of the show and Ruth Fan demine coordinated all of the Menus and recipes. The other woman who guided homemakers through was the very real first lady. Eleanor Roosevelt. When Franklin Roosevelt entered the White House in Nineteen thirty three? A record number of people were hungry but being president is not without its perks and the first family eight well even extravagantly while people stood inbred lines. Eleanor Roosevelt. Who didn't know how to cook realized that the way she and the president ate in the White House had the potential to influence and even help the nation through the depression. She hired an acquaintance. Henrietta Nesbitt whose husband was out of work to be the new White House housekeeper housekeeper at that time more like how we use the term homemaker today and not as we use a euphemism for cleaning lady. Nesbitt and Roosevelt retooled the entire kitchen installing modern appliances and coaxing the skeptical White House staff to use them. This was the first kitchen in America and it wasn't even sanitary recalled. Nesbitt in her memoir. Meanwhile Eleanor turn to home economists for menus that would balance nutrition and economy the healthiest recipes in the world wouldn't help people if they couldn't afford the ingredients what's more she resolved to serve these humble dishes in the White House. Her efforts were covered by national newspapers and followed closely by housewives. There was a catch. These nutritious economic meals were awful. The first kitchen was turning out some of the most unpalatable meals in modern memory. The president himself was usually the test subject for these new dishes and he obligingly choked them down. Things like deviled eggs with tomato sauce and prune pudding in place of lavish dishes. The White House table was the stage for things like Spaghetti with boiled carrots. Cold jellied billion and bread and butter sandwiches served so much mutton that being grown sheep which is cheaper than lamb. Because it's much tougher that it became a joke throughout Washington. The first lady experimented with foods like milk corno a mix of dried milk powder and cornmeal developed by Cornell University milk. Porno could be eaten as a gruel like dish or worked into recipes. I was not brave enough to research. What those recipes might be. The bland meals became so notorious that visitors to the White House would eat before they went nutrition. Not Taste was paramount in the time of soup. Kitchens and bread lines and eleanor. Roosevelt was trying to use her table as a way of encouraging and inspiring other Americans to get through this uniquely challenging historical moment. It was just as well they got used to eating a limited range of food because FDR's presidency also included World War Two and the Roosevelt's eight rationed food just like everyone else Roosevelt's White House eight modestly in an act of culinary solidarity with the people who were suffering. Jane's Eagle men. The CO author of a square meal told The New York Times. Here's a sampling of menu items. The first family and the public general might have enjoyed in massive bunny ears spaghetti with carrots and white sauce. The sauce was basically just milk. Meatless loaf made with peace oatmeal peanuts. Rice and or cottage cheese. Whatever you could get your hands on Mulligan's stew any animal. You could kill or find dead with whatever veggies you could manage or anything. That would keep hungry. They for a few hours without killing you like sawdust. It was reportedly created by the massive homeless population during the depression. Where people in homeless or migrant worker camps would pool their resources so that everyone could eat none of my sources mentioned where the name Mulligan might have come from. We do know the name origin of another STU. Hoover Stu Herbert Hoover had been elected just in time for the crash. But Unlike the Roosevelt's he continued to live the good life in the White House. Shantytowns BECAME HOOVER. Villes and the soup from soup. Kitchens became hoover stu the weirdest one of all and this report is opinion was peanut butter in baked. Onions was a whole onion hollowed out stuffed with peanut butter and baked. Just because we have two things on hand doesn't mean we should eat them at the same time as Eagle men succinctly put it. Peanut butter has nothing to say to a baked onion. Some recipes sound like they shouldn't work but surprisingly do like mock Apple Pie. Apples weren't readily available. But Americans weren't willing to give up their conic Apple Pie. The apples in mock apple pie were actually Ritz crackers and it worked. If you're not already familiar with Youtuber Emmy made in Japan. I'll link her hard time series in the show notes and on the website. She all kinds of dishes from times of deprivation including hot water pie grapefruit. Peel steak toast soup. And even the Haitian dirt cookies which you can hear more about in episode number ninety four. My name is mud while we can be grateful that recipes like ketchup soup and peanut butter and mayonnaise. Sandwiches are behind us. Some food created during the depression is still with us. Meatloaf is a comfort food classic and shaping food into loaves go to during the Great Depression. The same goes for casseroles which were a good way to use up odds and ends or to mask less palatable ingredients the depression also gave us the mother of all comfort. Food Kraft Macaroni and cheese or kraft dinner for my friends up. North in Nineteen thirty seven craft heard about a salesman from the tender Roni. Macaroni Company of Saint Louis. A Scottish emigrant aimed grant Leslie going rogue and selling his noodles with packets of greeted kraft cheese attached. They hired him to promote the concept and started selling it for nineteen cents for four servings.
Tennis insider Sally Bradfield on her new book 'Not Quite 30-love'
"To no challenges raining. I am Ben. Rothenberg joined by my dear friend. Courtney I courtney and we are also joined by Sally Brad Field a longtime tennis communications official and the author of a New Book. Not Quite thirty love. Sally. Thank you for being ought. Thanks for having me. I'm thrilled. So your book. Let me just read the blurb. I think it's a good blurb novel Euro semi-autobiographical say something we'd like to believe that some days more than others semi can be covers a wide range graphical synopsis of the book the Blurb twenty-eight-year-old Katie. Cook Lancer Dream job. In the world professional tennis it was like being invited to the Academy Awards except they were all wearing brand attracts his Katie and Sydney to be not quite measuring up and make the move to follow her child obsession with professional tennis running away to join the circus of a world and finding work as a publicist racing around the globe. Faster than it can tiki tour creating Internet scandals wherever she goes. Katie is seduced by the appearance of Glamour and our weakness for bad boys. She falls one of trouble. Champions and starts trending relationship with an arch-enemy placing social media bombs in her way and hashtags. Haunting Katie. And her sleep. She navigates her way through a series of social media and love crises. Katie has some decisions to make. Does she want a hero or a career? Well she ended up happily ever after. What does that even mean? One thing is for sure. She'll never schedule an instagram post again. Hashtag girls can be heroes to stories written by insider and has been described as the devil wears product meets the exciting world professional tennis. Thank you for funding these things together. I'm excited I'm curious if you just give us a bio on yourself yet your tennis how you got into the sport before being in a professional and then once you've made it your your job. Yeah I was always obsessed with Tennessee's young girl. I had a very large crush on John. Mcenroe's I exactly the first drops of the book which were much more autobiographical had humanist But he got ripped out for the. Don't sue aspect of the game. They still have that first draft and I do. I do the right amount of money. Probably the Louis exactly exactly exactly at one point. We will do actual autobiography rather than thinly. Valves Dennis yes so sort of my my career of set a ninety six billion tennis but before eleven love with John McEnroe. Tennis was wonderful so I was doing real world jobs. I had a degree in marketing. Doing some marketing jobs Unfulfilled obvious is really boring. Fifty doing this crap and then was up one night watching Wimbledon with the Australian Times on the middle of the night watching watching love. And I'm interested in anything actually interested in these these copy of real job. He can't really working tennis for job. Scholley and show you guys have had signed that real job. And then that's how I started talking to people and following Lukine tross a who was a WHO and who and what contacted staff go to a job as an assistant the Sydney tournament it was the Pacers international which was really just about eating ice cream. Pink cream you started working on the tour then as a as a communications that was just looking for a tournament and a little bit of that and then eventually got my wife and got off at a job. Wti side out of that at the beginning of this century thousand new millennium new New Korean. Your life all that stuff sound starring. I our member saying to a bunch of people who've been working on the two of ages Michael Michael five-star hotels and you're GonNa have locker room service. And why? How could anyone ever big this? And they were like just white you ways we could you get sick of this and then I found out a nonstop sort of hamster wheel type situation very off day. Traveling Circus Right. You go and you sit you go to. It's such a weird rhythm rate because I traveled with the tour and pretty much tour of a fairly full schedule and yeah I like from the outside in every. How could you not love this when you get to watch tennis all day? You get to say at the Hilton here. The Mary out there the intercontinental here. The four seasons in Saint Petersburg get private cars get fed. All Braille true. Isn't it all true that that's not? That's not true but I'm curious to save you. When did it start to turn to be like? I mean. This is still a job though? I remember sitting in an airport on a wider Dubai. And that was it was well cost ten years into my time traveling fulltime with WTI and being straight in a lot. More since. I had to give living in Australia. Who Five you'd have two weeks off my take on like kill me. Now look on high intake dies of trying to get the lay off to come back. I remember seeing in an airport and wanting to cry because I was like I didn't WanNa be online new and then strangely enough coverage. I had the brand manager job for the promised me I will do. Minimal travel what ally that will come
Heroines Week Helen Keller and Annie Sullivan
"And Annie Sullivan lived a little more than one hundred years ago. Helen was blind and deaf which means she couldn't see or hear. Her world was dark and quiet. Helen's parents wanted to communicate with her but they couldn't figure out how she couldn't learn to speak because she couldn't hear people talk. She had a hard time expressing what she needed and she'd have temper tantrums out of frustration. That's where any Sullivan comes in. Switzer rushing to the other side of the top of your mouth and brush all the way to the molars in the back. Helen's parents knew she needed help. So they hired Anne Sullivan to be her teacher. Anne did her best to teach Helen some words by spelling them. Into the palm of Helen's hand she gave Helen a doll and traced the letters D. O. L. l. The WORD DOLL INTO. Helen's Paul but Helen didn't quite seem to understand Switzer rushing to the bottom of your mouth pressure front teeth. One day and he got an idea using a water pump. She held Helen's hand under the water and spelled W. a. t. e. r. the word water over and over and over again. Finally Helen got it. Everything had a name. Helen became obsessed with learning and worked. Hard to learn a ton of words. Ellen learned to read using special language called Braille. She learned to write and to learn to speak switcher rushing to the other side of the bottom of your mouth and get your tongue brush to how to college. She published books and she started her own foundation to help other people with disabilities. Helen traveled to thirty. Nine countries met with world leaders and in nineteen sixty four was given a special award the Presidential Medal of freedom and Anne well. Helen and Anne remained lifelong friends and movie was made about. Annie's work called the miracle worker because their determination and bravery Helen Keller and Annie Sullivan are. Today's chompers heroin.
Witlingo - Creating Toolsets for Voice Creators of any Skill Level
"All right so we're joined here today by Brielle Nikolov Brielle tell us a little bit about who you are and what you do. Hey Dave thanks for having me on So aw I am. Elite of product marketing at wit lingo. We are a Washington DC based startup and our goal is to make it possible for anybody organizations companies or individuals to super easily build out of presence on the voice web so whether that is managing community ethnic communities events or You know if you have a brand that you would like anybody to be not able to access through the voice channel in addition to all the other digital channels like YouTube twitter We our goal is to make it so anyone who's technical earth anyone who's nontechnical can launch it and manage it really easily. Yeah that's awesome awesome so You know for those of you that are have listened to my flash briefing before Future ear radio. I use lingo. So I use their tools walls To create my flash briefing basically take the MP three file drop it into their platform. And then they'll disseminate it for you Onto two Google assistant onto access. So it's a really awesome tool and that's largely why I brought Brio today is I've been Tuned into whittling going. What they're doing and I think that you know with any new technology paradigm You know whether it be mobile really emerged and then now with With voice computing. One of the big things. Initially that is so necessary in order to really jump start the whole ecosystem and and get things going are the tool sets in the platforms for the publishers. You know making it super easy to create All the different experiences and so with lingo is Really the pity of of one of these different tool sets in platforms arms that help publishers to create these things and just like she mentioned. You know for me. I don't have any experience coding. So I don't have a background in that but even still You know a nontechnical person like myself is able to use these tools in a very very straightforward so so Braille wanted to start there. You know 'cause I saw you speak at the voice summit in July. You gave an awesome talk about this whole concept but why don't we talk a little bit about At talk in the gist of it. which was sort of like this idea of democratising the production side of voice experiences? Sure so when you think about how we've all been consuming content through the Internet and the connected did web you have this interface right that anybody can read content honor now look at pictures or her videos when it became possible for anybody to start contributing to the web super easily. That's sort of win. Its its power was fully unlocked so if you think about these different platforms now that were accessing voice. I content went on the true power of the voice web believable be unlocked once anybody but he can you know super easily contribute that native voice content to it so and that is it's different than native web content right because when you're consuming something visually it's it's not automatically eh easily consumable through audio content. So they're they're of of course are going to be ways that we can take content from the the digital web and make it make it consumable through the voice channel but but the way that we're sort of approaching it at with Lingo is such that we want content that was originally created and originally fit for that voice frames and and make it so anybody can a created and then be manage it and then their end users their audience will be easily able to conversationally surf through it and consuming.
"braille" Discussed on REAL 92.3
"Got a frog know braille bro no right who's going to ruin the holiday and also if you want to call us up as well we let it go live on bass eight six six two four six eight nine two three eight six six two four six eight two three ninety two choose world young boy dole yes what is I had to go for the big we on the definition of a like these days the damage.
Venice flooded from rising tides and rain
"Daily downpours have been hitting much of Italy including Venice where people have been waiting through floodwaters in Saint mark's square people had to walk single file on braille as in hand along ray's walkways since floodings hit much of the lagoon city the high water seeped into cafes and stores and workers have been seen pushing their carts full of produce and other items through the fame square many hotels keep disposable knee high plastic boots handy for tourists nursery schools in Venice have been closed as a precaution more bad weather could be on
"braille" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030
"Six in mill braille passed to ninety in Auburn which has two ninety west backed up over a mile getting to the turnpike my king WBZ's traffic on the three and checking the weekend forecast not bad partly cloudy tonight a little bit more humid low seventies downtown sixty five in some of the suburbs partly sunny hot humid an afternoon or evening thunderstorm tomorrow mid eighties with real feel temperatures reaching the low to mid nineties tomorrow tomorrow night look for clear skies are low seventies cooler less humid Sunday clouds on temperatures low eighties upper seventies after the beaches and Monday mostly sunny pleasant high right around eighty currently in Boston partly cloudy and seventy seven degrees seven thirty five sixty one year old Kim Garbarino a probation officer who lives in Winthrop describes how he and world class swimmer lane Holly did something that no one has ever done before WBZ's Carl Stevens spoke with Garbarino about his feet well in July nineteen me and world class from unnamed dealing Holly he died at four AM EST yeah am street in South Boston Hey we swim we got the water and we swim to the Boston White House which is eight miles away and then we turned around and we swim back to M. street in South Boston and then we turned around and we swim back to Boston lados total of our twenty four miles and it took us on fourteen hours twenty two minutes and it was official we had official observer on board to record everything including to abide by all the but the company called the English Channel rules you can't touch the ball we can't get any assistance you can't wear a wet suit and all that stuff make anybody ever done that no we haven't done that in I was very surprised when I got into this woman two thousand nine my first swim I did I just barely just deal with just barely finished with my purse marathons form and thanks to get into the history of the Boston lady goes back to nineteen oh seven did a guy named Bob McCormick wrote a couple of books on the Boston like the history of it and all the beautiful pictures of these people the and woman man and woman who did marathons rooms in participate in.
"braille" Discussed on V103
"So much for hanging out with me on this early Sunday, her and Bryson tiller next with could have been. Here's case in foxy, Brown touch me tease me. Of. The weather shake up on the computer. Enjoy your holiday. So. The braille McKay. Now. Jamaica print. Own wall. Hello. Fall. Stalls up. What in the portfolio lasted? Mickey fatted noth- amid live set that keeps my one. You noted that the king thirty g. No, you're not the mid than they create the damn before. Oh. Buddy. Somebody tell me. Wasn't his? Real turning up chase..
"braille" Discussed on Newsradio 1200 WOAI
"But best remembered as Jefferson Davis, boss Hogg from the dukes of hazzard today. World braille day created to commemorate Louis braille born in France in eighteen o nine the creator. Of braille as a means of communication for people who are blind and contrary to what you might think braille is not actually. Its own language. It's a code that can be translated into many languages. As for how it came to. Be braille blinded in both eyes in an accident as a child inspired by military cryptography of Charles Bobby of the French army, and as a teenager relevant his own system of tactile code that would allow the blind to read and write first time in eighteen twenty four is when he presented the results of his work. And he was fifteen and thanks to Louis. Braille blind students have the opportunity to be educated alongside their peers as well as read for pleasure. Just as easily as any seeing person can Spurs. Flashback this morning. We're going back seven years two thousand twelve big night for Tony Parker against the Golden State Warriors. That's coming up before six thirty. Now a year in rock spotlight. Nineteen sixty eight. In January of nineteen sixty eight Steppenwolf released their debut album, including the single born to be wild which charts at number two in the US. Johnny cash records to live shows at California's Folsom prison along the June Carter in Carl Perkins. Also in January, the Beatles are number one with Hello goodbye. In london. They launched their own company. Apple corps with a store or recording studio and record label. February of sixty eight Pink Floyd lead singer Syd. Barrett has checked into a psychiatric hospital in the band replaces him with David Gilmour, the Beatles Donovan, Mia Farrow, and others traveled to India study transcendental meditation with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Bill Graham opens the Fillmore east concert venue in an abandoned New York City theater. April of nineteen sixty eight the musical hair opens on Broadway to the first of seventeen hundred and fifty performances would spawn several top forty hits including Aquarius, good morning, Starshine and hair Simon and Garfunkel released their.