4 Burst results for "Brad Herrick"
"brad herrick" Discussed on A Way to Garden with Margaret Roach
"And you know in your quote cutting garden twenty five acres of it. You've got to have stuff a succession of things. So I'm assuming that if just because you're starting some of these things now are soon ish to plant out in May in our zone five B. He doesn't mean you expect those same seedlings to be perfect and still producing flowers in August and September. Are you like doing St- succession plantings of these things. Or what. Yeah reject successions of well. Yeah it depends pens on the plant right so so we do for successions a year of Zinnias. Wow Yeah Cilicia I think Cosmos gets five. Flou- yeah you know just 'cause 'cause when it's a cutting garden you want it you want top quality flowers every time you cut right. So we'll just ditch an old planting just because it's not so good anymore And move on to the fresh planting like even no it might still be producing flowers. They're not that great anymore So so keeping keep having fresh plantings and you keep getting really really nice flowers all season as long. And then there's other things like sunflowers we plant every two weeks And then there's a few things that we only have to do twice a year so I do an early spring spring planting of gun-free INA and then we'll plant out more in July and that gets us through the fall with like a nice fresh crop of that straw flower the Road Becky as we do twice a year Gabby owes Yeah a lot of things and then there's some things right that you could succession plant all year long and But I kind of get bored of that or or things. I don't WanNa see you again until the fall. Right right right I mean Colangelo is one that like yeah we could grow all year. But it's you know the oranges and yellows I kind of want to see that yellow in the spring and then they'll orange and yellow again in the fall. I have enough other orange and yellow in the summer that I don't want it listening to Jenny. I finally got it. That sewing annual flowers once for spring planting isn't going to get you through the entire possible astles season of maximum blooms bouquets spring to fall any more than sewing lettuce once does and I got another big tip from her about the steps. Yep We all too often skip when growing from seed pinching. Here's what we discussed with some of the ones that we've talked about do. Do they require any other treatment. Like pinching or anything or are these all things that just sort of got you. Let go to their natural inclination Oh Gosh I'm I'm trying to think of anything I don't pinch. Oh good okay so explain that to us because of course a lot of us mere gardeners over here back to that we set them out and we know what I mean so tell us I mean. Don't get me wrong. I I start every year with the intention to pinch everything thing and of course I don't get to everything and they do fine right but But Yeah we pinched everything. When it's I mean general rule I would I'd say when it's about four inches high? We pinch it down to about three sets of leaves so all those India's I guess I don't certain Celo he says I don't pinch like the brain celosias. They won't form that big center flower. You Pinch them right 'cause most as much better pinched Gosh just about everything. Yeah so you pinch it down and it seems really harsh and scary and like you're killing your plants and in all that it does is less you get more taller flowers. How you're really doing a good thing? So got that everybody successions. Lots of them and Pinch Pinch Pinch. Now let's move on to a less appealing topic so called crazy Z.. Worms or Asian jumping worms several invasive earthworm species that are spreading alarmingly and degrading soil and natural habitats. Many of you have asked specifically how can I stop them and unfortunately researchers do not yet have an answer for an update on directions in research. I called Brad Herrick. Eric University of Wisconsin Madison with the staff. I noticed the destructive effects of Asian jumping worms in two thousand thirteen and has been studying them since I asked Brad how to tell if you have the worms which are increasingly widening their territory in the eastern. US The midwest and have even been identified lied in Oregon. What are the telltale signs of these worms versus familiar earthworms who do not degrade the sausage so dangerously? Listen into our July conversation. Asian around the time these invasive species reach maturity now that you've been setting them since two thousand thirteen if people ask you you know other than doing DNA analysis or whatever what do you say the telltale signs of of these worms versus the other earthworms that we talked about so a couple of things And it somewhat depends on what time of year you're you're looking for them but The first thing that you can see any time of year is is this Specific soil signature And that is these Asian or produce a very coffee like a coffee ground like ensuring during the soil loose granular soil That's actually made A. They're they're casting their their excrement And so they've do they create this layer of really loose soil really granular soil which you know all earthworms produce cast but most earthworms produce little kind of Little Casting Hills little Kind of sporadic landscape where dumping worms is kind of homogenized uniform. Look look to it. That's one thing that you can see in the winter. If you're GonNa Snow Melt you can that that are far if you know that the permanent change to the soil so that's one thing and then As they mature so in in Wisconsin they're almost be mature adults though MEMPHIS or jumping worms. Generally if you look if you if you if you have one and you look towards the head even if you can't figure out what end is is up. There's a white ring around one of the end. It goes all the way around the body and that's called the talent and that's where they produce cocoons. That are the new offspring kind outta the reproductive center of the earthworm and have one but most earthworms There is kind of the same color as the rest of the body and it's it's raised And it doesn't go all the way around if you turn it over. It's kind of like a saddle where it doesn't not a ban right right right. Jumping worms have a ban and have a milky white and when they're when they're fully Mature adults that's a telltale signs And there's no other earthworm. That isn't a jumping worm that has has kind of structure And lastly just their behavior They're called called snake. Were jumping where they can be very erratic very they're aggressive. They just don't like being handled and they will flop around and no L. Wiggle away. They'll even try and drop part of their tail The last several segments to escape Being handled roughly or other earthworms. Are you know kind of Wigley. But they're not they're not actively flopping around trying to get away from you so And I guess maybe one more thing to mention is that Early in the spring April a if you're seeing fully formed earthworms log earthworms those those won't be likely won't be jumping worms. Because wormed our annual species and so under normal chronic conditions. They're going to be hatching from cocoons. It'd be really tiny in the in the spring won't be full-sized until the middle of the summer right end of the summer even so any larger swimmer. Seeing in April may in some other species that is not a dumping were with the transcript of today's program. You can listen into the rest of my talk with Brad who also gives a recipe for what's called a mustard poor. They used as a test on a small area soil during the worms. Active season. Confirm their presence along with lots of links for more information from unwanted worms to unwanted weeds and specifically non on toxic tactics for their control. I called Dr Sonia Birth Acelle who completed her PhD at the University of Maine in late two thousand eighteen and focused her research there on helping farmers by studying practical solutions for issues posed by climate change weed management and more then included the subject of soil soil solarization- that many of gardeners use to in the name of weed suppression. She shared insights from research. That we can all benefit from including the subject of the effects of clear versus black plastic in how using black material isn't really sola rising but something slightly different so soil solar ization as the practice of covering moisten soil with clear plastic for a period of weeks And this creates a local greenhouse effect so solar energy heats up the water molecules in the soil. That heat stays trapped under the plastic and If conditions are suitable you get temperatures pitcher hot enough to kill pests including plant pathogens and weeds. And so this has been used most extensively in parts of the world that.
"brad herrick" Discussed on A Way to Garden with Margaret Roach
"April may if you're seeing fully formed earthworms log earthworms those won't be likely won't be jumping worms because our annual species and so under normal camel <hes> chronic conditions. They're going to be hatching from cocoons. That'd be really tiny in the in the spring. It won't be full-sized until the middle title of the summer right into the summer. Even any larger swimmer seeing in april may <hes> in some other species that is not at dumping where the on in this training this i map invasive training <hes> webinar one of the things that they showed was the movement that you were just talking about come and they had <hes> <hes> i don't know whether it was a night crawler or some other kind of earthworm and these an asian were they compared and it's as if the older earthworms they kind of move forward like an inchworm and not exactly they don't you know curl up their backs but they move forward in a forward movement direction as opposed to sort of this side windings windings snake like wriggling thing this. Do you know what i mean. I mean that was that was very dramatic. <hes> yeah as you were saying so so so here we are a lot of us have them <hes> more and more counties. You know each year as i read about them. I've been reading out over a number of years and you know again. I'm seeing more places on on these maps and more reports from different <hes> cooperative extensions and university researchers and so forth in more places so you're exploring being with your colleagues there wisconsin-madison. You're exploring some directions. Of what do we do not expecting an instant answer but and i saw so you recently published a paper about the heat tolerance to the cocoons the sort of reproductive little egg sacchi kind of thing isn't wanted <hes> of of of these worms and you're exploring that. I wonder if you could tell us a little bit about what you've been doing. And what have you you learn so far sure so <hes> we've been working closely with our department of natural resources and they're obviously very interested in state wide spread and if there are ways of controlling the spread and so we've gotten some funding from the last few years to florida question of <hes>. Is there a way to control. Call them what <hes> and if so you know how what's the most effective way of of approaching that question and so we think that giving giving these are annual speech he's like i mentioned and they over winter as cocoons which are little two millimeter size brown like you said kind of sacks ax <hes> that hold the embryo <hes> we think that they're being spread primarily through people moving cocoons inadvertently <hes> you can confirms and you can avoid spreading them. The earthworms themselves won't stickier shoe or the the <hes> shovel that you were working in but it's gonna be the coon they get stuck easily in soil and then can be easily moved or even during rain events they can move overland can just come with the soil if you've ever rozier so <hes> there's so hard. You can't see them in the soil. They're so hard to find so we thought is there a way that we can sort of throw a wrench into that part of their life cycle on focus on cocoon than and <hes> what we look at what's this most recent paper as many states including wisconsin have <hes> regulate compost so large commercial composters <hes> have to follow statewide standards that are pretty standard across the u._s. In terms of state policy but that is that depending on the type of compost pile have the pilot has to be heated up to one hundred and thirty one degrees fahrenheit yeah <hes> what's the fifty five degrees celsius <hes> for a period of three or ten days depending on the type of pile and that includes mixing it <hes> <hes> periodically and they do that that standard is there to <hes> minimize the potential of having <hes> harmful bacteria arterial or fungi or disease in the compost that may hurt your soil and so i thought was well that temperature kennedy's cocoon still remain viable <hes> we know from previous research that earthworms themselves cannot withstand that kind of temperature <hes> and so we we basically in in the lab but did <hes> hundred of kuhn's and subjected them to different temperature regimes from twenty degrees celsius celsius celsius for three or ten days iran that <hes> for several months and then we did each cocooned see if there was <hes> an an embryo or an actual worm or what was happening within the embryonic tissue <hes> what we found was that at forty degrees he's <hes> celsius which one hundred four degrees fahrenheit anything at that temperature above <hes> contained no viable coons there was not one cocoon that had a viable from what we could see a viable embryo or an or an earthworm <hes> and so you know that's obviously a hundred in forty fahrenheit as much less than a hundred and thirty one degrees fahrenheit so the temperature that that's being reached in these large compost phillies <hes> would kill cocoons <hes> now. There's always with researchers always the caveat that <hes> you know that's that's the temperature it was a lab experiment <hes> but you know hundred thirty one degrees is one hundred thirty one degrees and so if if three that much in in the composts then we we're pretty sure that if it's being mixed <hes> correctly and all the composts getting that temperature at least three days then that should be free ah cocoons now what happened after that. That's where we could get another. You know sort of <hes> an avenue for new invasion if if if the equipment that they're using to move the compost to the packaging facility is not cleaned that could be a source of contamination or you know what i mean other. There are places along that line of <hes> producing the compos that you could always a an accidental introduction but the temperature itself well we like that and <hes> at least from our study we found that the hundred and four degrees fahrenheit is enough to kill cocoons so do you feel or hope nope. Well hope we all hope but but do you feel that dot dot dot down the road this exploration of heat tolerance of cocoons there may also be some way to apply this to other than compost setting or what roy. What are you thinking about that. Yeah i mean you have these worms right so right and that's the question that i've been getting a lot too. Is you know how as as a homeowner in gardner how. How can i apply this to my to my yard and that's that's part of the next step. <hes> you know what is how do we apply this this research now to on the ground management <hes> and you know some of it may not be applicable at all. It's very i think case specific so one of the things that we've talked about is is <hes> the idea of solar radiation of soil. Yes so right yeah so if you have a yard or garden that has the right aspect <hes> it's not shaded and you've area that you can put down on a clear plastic over an infested area of soil <hes> it's possible that that could heat up to a high enough enough temperature where <hes> in we think the cocoons are going to be right at the surface of the soil or just below the surface so they should be. You should be able to reach one hundred turned four degrees. <hes> you know at that at that level yeah that's definitely one way to do it and actually independent research looking at <hes> prairie systems and using prescribed fire and and what they found was that <hes> when they put a fire through an area that hacker coons that the fire didn't actually impact earthworms earthworm could actually move below surface foreign they are buffered but the cocoons wins were significantly impacted <hes> and so we know that he can work cocoon then obviously if you do that enough times they're gonna deplete that cocoon bank and sorta like a seed bank right yeah if you deplete the cocoon bang. You're going to reduce the population over time so we have maybe three minutes. It's an i know what what do you think about. I mean so here those of us who have them we might consider sola rising probably can't hurt some cooperative of extension websites. I see they say well. When you identify the adult worms you know at this time of year or a little later put them in a plastic bag and speaking of watch cook them to death so to speak put them in the sun you know but i don't know i mean how many are there. They must be eight billion own <hes> but but are there any other tactics <hes> that that you think that in this couple of minutes that you think that we should be under doing at this point yeah so again like like this is a case where the information is outpacing the research knowledge yeah right so <hes> a lot of it depends on on your scale of infestation if it's a really small scale this is the thing about education is knowing what to look for and identifying areas that looked like it might have earth where have the warm arms <hes>. If it's a really small area you can use simple mustard poorer <hes> third cup <hes> sort of a cup of dried muster power powder with a gallon of water and pour that over an area that you think might be infected and just and just literally poke then the adults it irritates the adults skin and they will come their responses to go vertically up the soil out and you can pick them up and you can put them in a plastic bag or whatever over time you'll deplete the their ability to produce cocoon <hes> again. It's not a one shot deal but the mall scale remedy <hes> yeah and then and and then again. I think it's <hes> they're working on. There's an a fertilizer called early bird fertilizers at wor yeah from teflon on to see what the <hes> dosage should be <hes> and getting it out in the literature that does work and see if it works on cocoons well so people are already going ahead and trying it and i think are seeing some good results but <hes> it can be kind of a messy process because the the worms come to the surface and die <hes>. Let's have worm got laying around which you know they don't. The worm body doesn't last forever so it's kind of if you can tolerate that <hes> <hes> so there is some kind of chemical applications <hes> you know at a large-scale frankly etta largely station. We don't have that's where are kind right or gap is in the natural habitats yeah habitat right well bad haircut. I'm gonna keep checking in with you because your four four one one yeah thank you so much and keep up the good work because i think this is one of the really really important problems to solve and what you're doing shedding light on some of the possibility so thank you i'll talk okay underwriting support from timber press here go to resource for books and gardening and nature whether you're new gardner uh-huh professional at the top of your field or reader interested in the wonders of the natural world. Their books are there to help you grow.
"brad herrick" Discussed on A Way to Garden with Margaret Roach
"Dig in and grow so called crazy worms or asian jumping worms several invasive earthworm species. He sees that are spreading. Alarmingly in many areas and degrading soil and natural habitats are probably the most common pest question. I get from readers and listeners in recent years. There's many of you have asked specifically. How can i stop them so to find out what scientists know so far i called researcher brad herrick of university of wisconsin johnson madison who gave us a one last year on these destructive worms and has since published some new insights that may in time help to lead to answers but i this this message underwriting support from timber press your go to resource for books and gardening and nature whether you're a new gardener a professional at the top of your field or a reader interested in the wonders of the natural world their books are there to help you grow timber press dot com brad herrick arboretum ecologist and research program manager at the university of wisconsin madison arboretum where the staff. I noticed the destructive effects of asian jumping worms in two thousand thirteen. He's been studying them ever since welcome back to the show show brad. I wish we had a more optimistic topic to discuss for having me anyway. We can talk about plants someday right. 'cause i know i like plants and you like plants. I don't like asian jumping worms brad. I know one of those things that it's <hes> another invasive species but fund the research end of it. Actually it's very interesting. Yeah just studying trying get some information out so in case people don't know the basic issue with these worms because you know a lot of gardner says we talked about last time. We spoke works. Worms are good. Can you explain why these species are so worrisome and they're not something that's new. It's just something that's reached sort of a tipping point. I guess where we know more yeah exactly yeah yeah <hes> so definitely in terms of of the garden community. We've been told hold for a long time that earthworms are actually really beneficial component of the soil environment. Try it they they create through their burrowing <hes> they're feeding behavior. They're creating casting they produce nutrients and they weren't those nutrients throughout the soil column mix soil <hes> and that's you know that they provide their burrow provide areas for <hes> air to reach the roots and water to read through the plant so generally they they have been thought of doing kind of beneficial ecosystem services if you will for our vegetables and our and our garden plant <hes> and and that's still the case now we have kind of a new <hes> new twist on it where we have these these newer <hes> invasive earthworms from parts of asia <hes> that don't behave quite the same way as <hes> the though earth warns that were used to and <hes> what i like to tell folks that <hes> even winter storm that are in your garden if you live in glaciated areas of <hes> like new england area upper midwest where i'm from <hes> there are really a if none <hes> watch i should say no no native earthworms there are very few <hes> <hes> it's thought that the kind of extirpated them <hes> and so our systems aren't really familiar with earthworms and don't especially our high quality or don't need earthworms arms to have to function healthy so anyway so these <hes> even they were from the gardens are all native but they do perform a benefit these new earthworms earthworms. They don't do the same kind of burrowing. They don't burrow <hes> vertically in the soil. They're not really good at mixing nutri intermixing soil <hes> they do all their at work in the upper few meters of soil or even above the soil within whatever organic layer you might have in your garden <hes> and so and they and they turn over they eat the they're gonna clear whether it's leaves or malls composing would they eat it really quickly especially when they get to high numbers <hes> later here this summer and turned over so fast that they release all those nutrients really quickly like a quick release fertilizer and it's often two things happened. I've been one is they release it so fast and they're not making that nutrients back into the soil and so it's often lost <hes> through heavier rain events or just are just not available to the roots which are lower in the soil <hes> and they're often doing their work later in the summer when really plant growth isn't the main <hes> kind of the patrick doing they're thinking more of storing nutrients for the winter if they're pretty all's and so it's sort of the bit of a mismatch of well really out of sync and reduce the soil to almost like i don't know it's like a as as you say take out all the organic matter so i've read these reports in great lake forest and in smoky mountains and places naturally where what they talk about tree root ginger vitus swear you know where the roots of the trees can't even get a hold and stay in the soil is being so degraded yep so yeah do they. In in in highly degraded areas you'll see tree roots that are above the soil routes. They're not actually there 'cause all the organic layer has been removed your dogma mineral soil so link with the transcript of this conversation that we're having today to our previous one that has more in depth sort of the biology she and so forth of these worms but i saw a map on. I think it was like maybe oregon state university's website. I'm not sure <hes> that showed what states are affected did and i was curious. I didn't say what data was or whatever. I wondered how wide ranging is the impact of these worms now these two genera they are they are they from two different genus of of worms is that there's i think we have confirmed around <hes> seventeen species of what are called fair fair to moyed earthworm which are these asian earthworms and there's many different genre <hes> we have <hes> primarily to ooh. I believe so memphis is kind of the largest on around with many species that we have in in in the u._s. Are actually north america and then there's one called meta fire <hes> which if i know we only have one species of meta fire here <hes> in north america <hes> and there's kind of this this invasion invasion happening at the co invasion with three main species and <hes> the three species are memphis aggressiveness a memphis tokyo emphasis and meta the fire. He'll go dora fi and can't nicola but <hes> they all live in the same area soil. They're all functionally kind of the same <hes> they they do the same kind of things the soil they're just different sizes and <hes> they can often exist in different abundances but <hes> we're learning. We're trying to learn more about if there are differences in in terms of how they affect the environment based on their size or feeding behavior yeah so in this map that i saw had the states you know colored in particular color color where they are president again. I don't know that didn't have a date. I just couldn't trace the origin of it and it seemed like there was a eastern part of the united states a lot. The midwest concentration in certain nebraska guy read about nebraska. I it seemed like it was a live different places so i don't know how widespread we think this point go yeah. That's what i what you described there. I think is what we know. I mean definitely the southeast up the eastern seaboard of states and now throughout the midwest <hes> into the central part of the country. I know oregon has them. I saw it. I saw organised outpost on this again dated map app. You know i saw oregon was and that's why we're gonna. University had this document so run so it's not just localized to where you are where i am or whatever and and more and more people are i think reporting it so probably will find out even more than we know so yeah so i <hes> i watched watched training webinar the other day with the organization called map invasive student yeah and i'm happy they said we have a new york mark where i am we have a particular <hes> group related to that and you know it's like a training online about certain invasive species in one of the ones they were covering these worms so i i watched and they gave some sort of lay person tips for iding them for sort of. What do you want to look for. What now that you've been setting them since two thousand thirteen. If people ask you other than doing dna analysis or whatever what do you say the telltale signs of these worms versus the birth worms that we talked about yeah so a couple of things <hes> and it somewhat depends on what time of year you're looking for them but <hes> the first thing that you can see any time of year. Is this <hes> specific soil fifth signature that is they these asian or produce a very the coffee like a coffee ground like insure in the royal really loose granular soil <hes>. That's actually made up a they're. They're casting their their excrement <hes> and so they've they create this layer of really loose soil really granular soil <hes> which you know all earthworms produce cast ask but most earthworms produce little kind of <hes> little casting hills little <hes> kind of sporadic landscape where dumping worms his career kind have a homogenized uniform look too. That's that's one thing that you can see in the winter. If you get a snow melt you can stay if our if our if you know that the permanent change changed to the foil <hes> that's what's one thing and then <hes> as they mature so in in wisconsin they're almost the mature adults though <hes> memphis or jumping worms generally if you look if you if you have one and you look towards the head even if you can't configure out which end is is up. There's a white ring around one of the end right. It goes all the way around the body and that's called the column and that's where they produce cocoons soon that are the new offspring kind of the reproductive center of the earthworm and all the rooms have one but most earthworms <hes> there could tell them is kind of the same color as the rest of the body and it's raised <hes> and it doesn't go all the way around if you turn them over it sounded like a saddle where it doesn't right right not a ban right jumping worms all have a ban and it's kind of a milky white and when they're when they're fully <hes> mature chur adults <hes>. That's a telltale sign. There's no other earthworm that isn't a jumping worm that has has that kind of structure <hes> and then lastly fleet just their behavior <hes> they're called snake learn jumping where it can be very erratic very they're not aggressive. They just don't don't like being handled and they will flap around and they'll wiggle away. They'll even try and drop part of their tail. <hes> the last several segments to escape gape <hes> being handled roughly or other earthworms or you know kinda wigley but they're not they're not actively flopping around <hes> trying to get away from you so <hes> i guess maybe one more thing to mention that <hes> early in the spring.
"brad herrick" Discussed on Last Podcast on the Left
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