23 Burst results for "Binary Systems"
Astronomers Discover White Dwarf So Massive It Might Collapse
"Have discovered the most massive white dwarf ever seen the smoldering cinder which form into smaller wide to merge together is now packing a mass greater than that of our sun squeezed into an object no larger than the moon what dwarves are the collapsed cores of sunlight stars stars shine by fusing hydrogen into helium in they. 'cause when they run out of core hydrogen they can contract eventually increasing core temperature and pressure to the point where they begin fusing core helium intikhab and oxygen at the same time a shell of hydrogen begins burning outside the core and this causes the stars out of gaseous envelope to expand. And as it's now further away from the contracted core this atta envelope. Also down tending the star into a red giant. Now eventually the style will run out of co helium diffuse and as it's not massive enough diffuse carbon and oxygen heavier elements the star dies. It's blurted out. an envelope. floats away as a spectacular cloud of gas indust. What a planetary nebula while it's white-hot still a corliss exposed as a white dwarf a super dense object usually about the size of the earth which will slowly cool over the aons astronomers think about ninety seven percent of all stars in the universe will eventually end their lives as why towards this unusual new discovery can log z t.f. J nineteen o one plus four hundred fifty eight was made by the vicki transient facility. Caltex palomar observatory. So how did this. What gets a massive well. Unlike our sun most is existing marvel star systems and this new discovery provides an example of what could happen in a multiple star system after the formation of a white dwarf. A pair what tools were in a binary system spiraling around each other and eventually lose the energy in the form of gravitation waves which ultimately led to them getting closer and closer together until they eventually merged
"binary systems" Discussed on The Exsellence Mindset Podcast
"Within the United States, we live in a binary system. You have one of two choices people argue there are more but to be honest having work deeply within a third party. There are there are systems preventing other voices that fall differently on the Paradigm. So for me, if I were describing somebody who is liberal. This is often construed as being somebody who is a little more fiscally there. They are more concerned about the general good than the dollar thumb and they they place value on the good not necessarily the money spent and when.
"Hip. How you doing? I'm doing well. It is finally spring as in. I can go play in the garden up there in Vancouver Island think Ryland. Yeah things are great. The weather is absolutely gorgeous and same thing. I have been out in the garden. The the only downside the robins get up at like four in the morning and they're you know they're breeding at this point to the Chirp Chirp Chirp and so I have one that found the the the really likes the acoustics right outside my room and so I've been getting up at four in the morning and then I have to go and get up and I have to call the window and then I try to get back to sleep and then I can't get back to sleep until you. Ivan haven't been getting a lot of sleep because robin has been singing his little heart out every morning really loud right outside my window. So hopefully he'll find a girlfriend and get lost until then yeah. It's pretty funny but spring. I mean you can't you can't go wrong. That is awesome so we're familiar with regular binary stars two stars orbiting each other simple. Of course the universe has come up with every combination of things orbiting other things and this week we look at some extreme examples are Pamela solicitous. Figure this out. What is a binary star so a binary star is a announced that that needs plural because a binary system is to? Who'S SEPARATE STARS? So a binary star is a system that exists in two stars and they can come in just about any kind of combination of regular star. Compact object Advanced Star Baby Star and they form a whole myriad of different ways. They can either a rise out of a single collapsing molecular cloud where they clapsed into their individual solar system by side-by-side or they can gravitationally get caught up together through some activity in their advanced lives. So when you're looking at a system statistically it's most common that it formed like that but they didn't have to right right and we can talk about that later on but I'm sort of imagining. That's her standard formation gigantic cloud of gas and dust that swirling around and you get like instead of all polling into the middle it pulls into two separate like what are the dynamics. Why doesn't it all just turn into one big star in the middle? Why how can you get multiple stars orbiting around each other so you actually have to fragments in the same molecular cloud? Okay gravitate pulling together and it happens to be that these fragments are close enough that the orbit one another different facts can bring them closer and closer over the years but they formed from two distinct fragments in the same like cloud and the fact that molecular clouds is fragmenting is how we end up with separate stars so the fragmentation is an unusual. These two are close enough that they got caught up in each other's gravity. And so then the vast majority of these situations you end up with some amount of stuff like a stars worth amount or mostly a red dwarfs amount of stuff but every now and then you end up with an extreme amount of stuff. These are very large blobs of gas and dust. And sometimes you just end up with two regular blobs that interact in ways. That are extreme. So we talk about extreme binary stay. We're GONNA talk about a whole lot of different combinations. So it's not just necessarily the amount of material that went into the star and the rain that it took but in fact these stars can interact with each other in really weird ways and 'cause really bizarre effects that we can see okay so so let's sort of break this down. Then when as you define extreme then we've defined binary to stars orbiting each other and start can be all kinds of things so let's define extreme. Give me sort of Sirte classifying. The kinds of extreme things that can happen so so when I'm talking extreme events I I am talking about things that radically 'cause upheaval. In the life of a star that could only happen because this is a binary system that any singular star with not undergo these kinds of well really bad millennia
"binary systems" Discussed on Space Nuts
"The fifteen seconds guidance journal Chan nine technician sequence spence nets three to one space bill. Good hello once again. Thank you for joining us on the Space Nets podcast episode two hundred one and thank you to all those people who sent his good wishes about achieving two hundred episodes. The three of you must've listened intently to know that it was as two hundred decide. We we do appreciate the feedback. A few people on various platforms. Santa's some NAS notes joining me as always is professor Fred Watson Astronomer Lodge. Hello Fred I under how you going good to your strident voice again. Thank you sir. Yes good to hear yours too and I hope you will still still in Oscillation assume. Yeah that's right but going well just working from home Carrying on carrying on as you do yes absolutely true and I went. We're starting to say the the rules being relaxed in New South Wales so people are starting to venture out. I think most people being very cautious but a lot of people taking advantage of the opportunity to visit family and friends on a very very limited basis and maintain social distancing et CETERA. But it looks like Whatever we've done to curtail spread of this disease has worked very well in Australia. Which is You know you got to tip you to the authorities. I now. It was a hard sale but most people have taken notice and we've with good selves down to less than a thousand active cases in the country. Now which is just fantastic. Indeed and fingers crossed. That will keep going in that direction. You know thoughts are always with people in other parts of the world where things aren't going anywhere near as well yeah. I was looking at the statistics in the United States. Today and Yeah I'm gobsmacked to be honest I don't WanNa dwell on that but G Some of those States in America really in a bad way at the moment But it's different for every country different rules. Different systems different capabilities seem to really be a factor as well but Here we are doing what we can to try and stem the todd. Now Fred we're going to talk about a quite a few exciting Situations that have arisen One of which We've only been able to talk about now. Because it's been the subject of an embargo and that's the European Southern Observatory's major announcement about blackhall. Now you and I can talk about this Because it's post embargo but this this has been sort of kept top secret wrought up to Wednesday. Not which is been Rather extraordinary and Other Fascinating Yan has to do with the ice moon of Europa which orbits Jupiter and we had a per about they twenty years ago taking Self fees of of your riper in Jupiter and everything else that sort of flights around at the twenty year old data. But now we've been able to use up-to-date technology to take another look at it and I'm guessing they've found some interesting things speaking of Europa. We've had a question from Adrian Crawford has asked a specific question about Europa. So that'll dove tile will and. Monique wants to talk about mining on the moon. The moon spending the news this week. seventy different countries. Certainly want to go back there Trouble with the Moon is nobody owns it and so this is going to turn into a scrum. Reckon so I will allow. We'll look at all those issues today on the spice knots podcast but I this very exciting announcement by the Euro European Southern Observatory about a blackhall. Which as I understand it turns out to be the nearest one to earth and it's not cemeteries I exactly. That's right so I'll say the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. That's twenty five ish thousand light years away. I you know. We sit in the direction of the Constellation Secretaries But it's behind all the Dustin Merck out there but can be detected by radio ways which is why called Sagittarius Star. That's the name of the radio source so this is a different story altogether and it kind of has echoes Andrew. If something we were talking about probably about three or four weeks ago the idea that there might be many black holes out there which don't reveal themselves by anything other than the way they disturb the orbit of Sta's nearby they don't even Chretien disc of swelling materialists plumbing plummeting into them and causing rays and radio waves to miss it. Just quiet Perhaps the technical word black hole sitting there doing nothing but minding their own business but actually having gravitationally effect nearby stars and that is exactly. Excuse me that's exactly what this story is about. It comes from the European Southern Observatory and actually this discovery was not made with one of the John. Eight point two meter telescopes of the the elti. The very large telescope. It's actually one of the smaller ones. A two point to me to tell the scope Lucia which is one of the two main observatory sites at the European Southern Observatory runs in Chile. So strongly was using that telescope. Have been analyzing the motions of a star system which is only a thousand light years away. It's basically a galactic would And you know easy easy to see in fact. This style system can be seen with the naked eye. It's in the Southern Hemisphere Constellation of Telescope. Him The telescope. Which is so. I think it's Scientists in the Czech Republic and the Observatory. Self who've done this this work and the really nice part of the story is the came as a surprise to to the to the investigators. One of the scientists says we were totally surprised when we realized that this is the first Stella System with a black hole that can be seen with the unaided eye on nuts. Yeah that's big news. So what we go he. We've got the STA Whose NAME IS HR. Six eight one nine very elegant name really for it but It's a double style. Okay so that means do a binary system once overseeing another and this program that they scientists working on was a study of double star systems but what they were amazed to find was that the observations demonstrated that this was not just a double style. Not just a binary pag going around their common center of gravity that that is something else in the system and basically one of the two visible styles will be an object that he's not saying every forty days Naturally the second stop at a much greater distance from from this in a pair. So what you? What you've got is a year. We've got this two stars. One of which is orbiting the but the one of them is actually orbiting. Something else as well. That's the invisible so a Another of the CO authors Dietrich Mada who's at So he says the observations needed to determine the period of forty days had to be spread over several months. This was only possible. Thanks TO EASE. Those pioneering service observe escape do which absorb observations in my south on behalf of the scientists meeting. That's a mode of operation that actually many a straw is how country and Australia have used since Three years ago A strategic partner of the European Southern Observatory so not a service mode observing that if you need observations over a long period of time you go and spend two sitting in Zia in northern Chile so yet the local stuff that to do the observations for you. And that's how they said seventy brought that out so the the the the bottom line Andrew is once again. Here's a quote from one of the co-authors invisible object with a massive at least four times that of the sun which is what this had to be It can only be a black hole become anything else and so that is the smoking gun. They always this The new era the style to the black hole of this spinning around once every forty days around something four times as massive as the south has to be a black hole is the nearest and the conclusion is a really interesting one because Let me read the from the ace of a press release if Andrew Strong Have spotted only a couple of dozen black holes in our galaxy today nearly all of which strongly interact with their environment make their presence known by releasing powerful X rays but scientists estimate the over the Milky Wise lifetime many more stars collapsed into black holes as they ended their lives the discovery of a silent invisible black hole in. Hr six eight one nine provides clues about where the many hidden black holes in the Milky Way might be the must be hundreds of millions of black holes out there but we know about the only very few knowing what to look for should put in a better position to find them this. This isn't sorry. Go just to say might be the tip of a very exciting iceberg. This could be the first of many that found by this technique so this is not only the discovery of the nearest black hole to earth. It's also the discovery of a way of finding them. Because of the way we found this one is that what the side. That's exactly right. That's the facts are gone. That's a giant leap. Forward really is a giant leap forward. I mean we actually talks about something similar to this probably four or five months ago. A another similar discovery. But I think this one is the one that really clinches it that we've got this way of discovering black holes by looking closely at the way stars excuse me stars in Binary Systems actually orbit. It's a very powerful technique and I think. Unlv told me about two more over the years. Yes I surprised. They've only found a dozen or so in our immediate vicinity over the years but as we have discussed these things are very elusive but it Naseem sit. They've revealed to us away of of now. Finding them in we we may be finding them in their hundreds of thousands in into the future We also talked in the past about The size of Blackhall's I think you did allude to the size of this one but just Give us a reminder. How how big is this? Did you say Yeah full-time Semester? Of the Sung Sung and that sort of sit in the black hole sizing chart it is Andrew under member. Where you have this I. It is a standard black hole that we haven't really had a definition for them. We know the trade in the world of astronomy. We referred to the Stella mass black holes because his the same as a style. And you know you again if talked about this before we find black holes in basically two different categories stellar mass black holes. The kind of like this may be up to ten or twenty times the most of the sun a the supermassive black holes it up to ten or twenty billion times the mass of the sun so a very little in between and finding new objects in between these another of the challenges what you might call intermediate mass black holes because they must be out there and we we think that they look principally in the sentence of globular clusters those things that it probably the remnants of galaxies that have been gobbled up by bigger galaxies like the Milky Way so there is a picture building up about giving astronomers method of finding stellar mass black holes. The not active that. They're not emitting xrays because of the accretion disks that's a really powerful step forward and it comes about once again because of the scientists of spectroscopy you're looking for that Dukla. Wobble they the thing that reveals planets around stars the idea that a planet pulls star slightly backwards and forwards and reveals the presence of the planet. The diplo level technique may new since nineteen ninety five but the This is an extension of that in a way kind of doppler technique but for things much bigger than planets for black holes so it's a very powerful finding them yet we we oughta one submit a paper or a An application or whatever it is we do to whoever is in charge of naming objects and suggests that these be called standard mass black holes. We ought to do. What do we know astronomer? Who's got context might to do that? Fred yes I was. It's going to suggest that this would be the International Astronomical Union wouldn't we'd have to. Ya and they would say well very nice but we've already got the name for them. We Call Them. Stella's black holes and tell you much I think as far as spice Nazis come that standard black holes Andrew. We'll call them a standard blackhall from here on if we were to do so. That varies from country to country. This is fabulous new. So it'd be a heck of a lot more to learn and this is probably some chains dragging for a little while Finding a A standard blackhall so close to Earth. And did you say it was Observable with the naked I was that what I heard. Yeah that's right. It's a visible to the naked. I am I don't have a note to the Magnitude which is a technical term used for the brightness of Stars Eight You know probably about fifth or sixth magnitude which is roundabout the You know the limits of visibility with the naked eye maybe fifth magnitude So would be a good candidate for a fighter. Graph are yeah. They'll be many of them. But of course all it shows up in a photograph is a single point of lies Because e you don't see any of this structure the binary star trove it because that's only revealed by the fact that you can watch the way the styles move around with a spectograph Checking registered losses as we call it so you know the this stop it will be any image taken of that part of the sky with with modern digital cameras It'll be it'll be quite bright because he's a naked eye star but he won't show anything different about it To to to the casual Luca. It's only when he saw analyzing the motion of the component styles that you realize that there is something very very special jump in this. Yeah we're Eighties Josse Excite. When non remember that Raw Dan? It's a wonderful discovery show. We'll get to talk about it again real soon. You're listening to space nuts with your.
"binary systems" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM
"In a binary system now the original binary system was the yin and Yang yet in Yang it was really the binary system which is the the masculine and the feminine energy the world and the universe duality is as well I mean you express that way so so anyway so well this is the processing and your brain is doing this product as when you wake up you're coming through the line and state again upon waking half and that way and we teach people they mustn't open there are eight there's a three to four minutes as you're transitioning from state to waking state and that the Lyman state you want to stay and it only lasts for three to four minutes so if you keep your eyes closed you will be able to capture your dreams I say keep a pad by the bad or recording device and yes record somehow with your eyes closed the images you can remember right then because that's taking you open your eyes if it disappears so maybe the first at first people say oh I only remembered one image lot of people say they don't cream and all but anyway they might escape there was a cat right the word cat that might be or say the word cat that might be your first date but then later down the road when you get adapted care you can I have told the Nerio yeah I can see though yeah I've I've heard those stories of people try to do that they write something down they wake up in the morning what the heck was this Superman Bing cherries and penny loafers now we need the air right symbol down a record that we know it and they start to make sense once I interact with someone and ask them what various symbols mean to them as well there are certain archetypal symbol that are cross cultural and it and but then certain things means something to somebody in particular for instance the age and the an old car they used to have when they were young and it was a particular car so that the that the individual and I ate have an interaction with people and ask them what that meant to them right so you can just kind of zero in on it that way I I want to get into the meaning of a lucid dreaming and prophetic dreams but I think our audience probably wants to hear about how you break down into categories and try to get meaning out of a truly strange and indecipherable dream so we're gonna take a break and we're gonna get into some of the methods and the criteria you use we're talking with Patricia Eldridge about her book the dream class will be right back shining you knight raises seem to whisper I love you saying and then the sycamore tree dream.
"binary systems" Discussed on Astronomy Cast
"Because in some cases they just they just turned into a black hole and wink out of existence so in in other cases they do get a nice bounce and all this comes flying out in other cases the thing just tears itself apart completely there is no black hole so these are the nuances that astronomers are still trying to figure out and have amazing simulations where they will use up years worth of computing power on one. An death of one star to figure out what's going on inside them at those in those blast moments of their lives and what's really cool is just looking at how different models are trying to figure out as as the star undergoes the SUPERNOVA. You see this increasing in brightness over a fairly significant period of time that isn't measured in minutes and this longer period of time that gets you over days to the peak brightness that then recedes over weeks that is attributed to the energy transport mechanisms the ongoing reactions reactions that ended up taking place with the shockwaves. This is an evolving process. It's it's not a instantaneous. Thing as we liked to imagine in our head or when watching star Trek right yeah captain's log were the stars about to go Supernova and we're going to watch right exactly. Yeah sure but you're going to be there for a little while right now. You talked about this other way. Where one star can feed off another star and this is the type one a Supernova one? Different mechanisms are what different mechanisms are forming elements in star like that as opposed to the core collapse. So what's cool. Is You actually get two different kinds of nuclear synthesis associated with with White Dwarf Stars And one of these actually exists also in neutron binary systems so when you have an accretion disk around a star and when you have a white dwarf star you can have the material that's getting cannibalized off of nearby neighbor build up and build up and build up up until it undergoes its own nuclear reactions when we look at quasars the accretion disks are giving off as much light as an entire galaxy that's driven by nuclear processes so we can have accretion disk nuclear synthesis. Going on. This is a completely different place we usually shortly ignore because it's not a dominant player but it's a source of light. It's a source of Nova. It's the source of what makes active Galactic Nuclei Weekly. I active Galactic Nuclei and this is and so if you were to look at one of those accretion disks and actually peek inside ride and see the the the fusion. That's going on in there. What would it be analogous to? Would it. Be like a main sequence star would it be like I'm supermassive star. Dr Would it be like colliding here. Neutron Stars here were probably looking at Proton Proton chain events where we have these bursts that are the Nova that we see so often you can also end up with white dwarf with in falling material building up on the surface of the star until ignites and and so so these different mechanisms where you have recurring Nova cataclysmic variables. There's a myriad of different names. For these violent violent binary systems were material pulled off of a neighbor onto or into the vicinity of a compact star. That pulled off off material gets gravitationally crushed builds up to such a high pressure and temperature. That ignites in the case. The cataclysmic variables recurring novais. These are temporary events in the case of accretion discs these are prolonged reactions which as long as that system is a Quasar an active galaxy. You have nuclear actions going on in that Chretien desk so in twenty seventeen. Nineteen astronomers saw evidence both from gravitational waves and from the visible explosion of two neutron stars colliding with each other and this had been thought to be one of the ways that the heavier elements come into the universe but it was still only only fear is but in the wreckage of that collision astronomers did see the Heavier Owens. They saw gold forming. They saw heavier elements that that we I had thought might only have been able to come from Supernova. So how did that sort of change our understanding. And where does that fall in the in in this classification of different kinds of nuclear synthesis. This this is one of those things. That is such a new result that I have to admit I haven't even been able to find updated a periodic table that shows the origin of elements that includes which elements are all derived saved from White Dwarf Combination origins. Yeah Yeah Sorry Neutron Star Collisions with Neutron Neutron Star Collisions. What you're dealing with? Is You have two different systems. That have each undergone. The we're going to release all of our energy but neutron stars are thought to have normal matter on their surface right. They're not hundred percent neutron stars there. They've got a sort of a crusty exterior of other stuff and so it's not like they're solid marbles of of neutron star that you can can just sort of touch to each other and they're happy they also have magnificent magnetic fields that when these field lines recombine give off gamma-ray bursts of energy capable of destroying satellites from across the galaxy. These are powerful systems. That have a a lot of different things holding energy inside now when you take two of these systems that have massive magnetic fields that have regular non on degenerate matter on the surface. and You bring them together. You have the rearranging in the magnetic fields. You have the ignition of the Andrzej generate matter that heats everything up removing the degeneracy of some of the matter but then oh expletive. The total amount of matter is incapable incapable of having sustained nuclear reactions. And it's forming a new bigger object and depending on what's left behind signed it could be a black hole. It could be a another neutron star depending on where you are on the size of the neutron stars and all of this is going and to release new energy in new ways and produce gold. This giggled one of the things that I find really fascinating another if he followed. This story was based on what happened with the killer. Nova astronomers then went back and did some calculations about about wear. You're a lot of the heavier elements from here on. Earth came from and predicted about where and win a neutron star neutron collision in our environment must have happened to help seed the solar system with the heavier elements. And this all comes down to looking at what are the ratios elements that come out of these different processes so if we know that aluminum comes from exploiting massive stars. That tells us that we have a lot of aluminum. Therefore there had to be a nearby exploding massive star now gold comes from a variety of different places but each of these different places aces produces it in different ratios with other atoms. So if you know this thing over here produces a bunch of these things if you know this thing over here produces a bunch of these things and you know the resulting set of ratios. You need to get because you can go grab rocks our solar system and sample. You can actually start to say okay. Solar system like ours needed three of this two of that and that gets us to the ratios of what we see. We're not a first generation. We're not a second generation. Multiple generations of multiple kinds of dying stars in different configurations had to go into what we see not in our particular solar system and so it's kind of amazing. Was We bring it all home and we think about about where my chair and my house and the air that I breathe and the water that I drink and the the golden my electronics where it all came from it is it is all of the above. It is from the the atoms that were that were formed in the first moments of the universe. It's from the the the heavier elements that were produced in the core that were generated in the atmospheres of other stars in the deaths of the of the biggest stars in the collisions of the dead stars. And and all of that like a soup like a Gumbo came together to make all all these elements that we depend on for. You're making it sound so prosaic and of course we've all heard the phrase role may have startups starts. Yeah but we need to recognize nice. We're not just made of star stuff we are made of the shredded regurgitated exploded out remains of stars that ought to be traded up and gathered to all directions that mature was eaten by other stars and then vomited out blown blowed off into space. Yeah no it's not a not a beautiful majestic process. It's just death over and over and over again in many different ways and here we are Dr and here we are and it's kind of awesome and it's kind of awesome that it hasn't been a straight line to figure it out. There's been a lot of times that we I thought we had it. Figured out even until recently and we weren't entirely there and I'm sure they're still stuff were missing but to to just realize that when we look out across space and we see things lit up in the night we know that that is either an ongoing nuclear reaction or the residual heat of a nuclear reaction and that means stuff is getting mate eight Supernova remnants are are the remains of of exploded star that are shining in in the night. Quasars are ongoing reactions were there's no star it's a disc of material getting torn apart apart by a black hole that is lighting up brighter than all those stars. And I don't know why we don't point that out Yeah ways czars brighter than the stars because of nuclear reactions not taking place in stars and yeah. Yeah well I think on that note then you you know I tried to make it more poetic. You made it just. A horrible nightmare is trying to kill it. I know it's really is and and It's amazing that we're here at all so Pamela. Thank you so much. We'll see you next week but before we do have some more names for us I do. And it's a long list because apparently at some point this month I didn't read enough name so Four November our final round of patrons our Dean Ryan James. Kristen Brooks can slough pen. flamenco Darcy Daniels.
This star moving at hyperdrive-speeds was spat out from our black hole
"Of the ticket a style that's being flung out of the Milky Way Galaxy Alexey at a record breaking speed of six million kilometers per hour by the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre a report in the monthly notices the Roll Economical Society claims. The unfortunate star was sent on its course through gravitational dads with secretaries ace tax more than five million years ago the style which is now some twenty nine thousand light years from Earth is traveling some ten times faster the most stars in the Milky Way including the son in fact. It's moving so fast. I believe the Milky Way in about one hundred million years never to return one of the study's authors emeritus professor Gary that cost us from the Australian National University. Says is the stars encounter with a black hole occurred at a time when humans were first learning to Walk Upright. He says in astronomical terms star will be leaving galaxy fairly sued and will likely travel through the emptiness of intergalactic space for eternity the Milky Way central supermassive black hole secretaries a star has some four four point three million times the mass of our Sun. It's located some twenty six thousand light years away in the direction of the Constellation secretaries authors discovered discovered this hapless style while using the three point nine meter anglo-australian telescope at the siding Spring Observatory to search for the shorted remains of small galaxies orbiting. The Milky Way is part of the southern Stella Stream Spectroscopy survey follow up observations within made with the A and US two point three minute telescope confirming the stars. Extreme speed did the customer and colleagues then trace the Star's journey back to its point of origin in the Galactic Center. It's this must have originally been in a binary system with a companion star and this system ventured too close to the black hole secretaries ace ta which then captured one of the Stars Too Close Orbit or sling shutting the other one out of the system custom and very high speed. DACOSTA says it's great to be able to confirm thirty or prediction. That stars really can be flying out of a galaxy by the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. I'm part of it. The national team that is using the anglo-australian telescope to get philosophies and abundances for stars in stellar streams the stuff streams Remnants of small galaxies have been ripped apart as they fall into is advertised on potential and by studying them we can learn about the distribution of doc mattering our galaxy for example but for every field. We don't necessarily have a complete set of targets for the thought so we used the other spare fathers to look at potentially other stars of interest and we found this stuff. That's has a velocity moving away from us as over a thousand cuomo specific and that was very unexpected and exciting discovery. Picked your interest in other words very much so Particularly the stars brought enough that the European Guy Satellite Commissioner a very accurate promotion. The motion in the plight of the sky is distinct from emotional life on us when we combine that with the observed. A lot of thoughts. Lusty you can trace Ashley Orbit back in time. And the orbit. Effect Exactly intersects with the center of the Galaxy. So we're very sure that this does being flung long out of the standard of the galaxy matches a prediction for a long time. Now that's been massive. Black Holes will blackouts. Generally I guess under the right circumstances weren't gobble Lapa Adventures too close but will in fact fling it out. That's right. There was a piper written first by Jack Hills in not an idea actually before four the Central Collin Galaxy was really well established in which he predicted it. If a binary star got too close to the central by call one of the stars would be absorbed in towards the blackhall. The other one would get a lot of energy be flung out of the center of the Galaxy and bicycling escape from galaxy completely. And that's what we're saying here. This really is the the first time that we've been definitively established that this high-velocity star doesn't affect have its origin at the center of the Galaxy. What do you know about this star? Well we know that it's Relatively young it's about two and a half times the mess of some. It's likely to be quite rich in chemical elements because the Santa Pod Aug- Aleksey is where the overall about this is about effective two times higher than it is in the local neighborhood so it's caught rich but With a massive about two and a half times orange the lofty that is traveling at its guide to escape from the Galaxy and hit off into it elected spice which is a very empty place. What does one cool is star in integrated space? I know if we have a planet outside our solar system. It's a rogue planet but what what is it aerobic style. I guess you'd call. It is a collective star. The the volume of spice outside of galaxies is very very empty. So you know you have a very small population of stars walk. These escaped from galaxies and and They'd be very hard to find. It's not the first high-speed contended that has been detected that appears to be living galaxy. Isn't no that's right nine for some Almost addicted I guess that there are these high-velocity stars that appear to be skyping galaxy in fraction of which appear to be coming from the center of the Galaxy. But this is the very first one where we've got precise enough to seminar of the top of the star to absolutely verify that it's coming from the center of the Galaxy hasn't been given head log number yet or a name. It has the rather prosaic name S. five because as five is the Stream survey project we're involved with And then it's it should be s one high-velocity star number one. I guess with the expectation that we might find more to me about the survey that you guys have been doing. This is really exciting. Isn't it looking at. The shredded remains a small galaxies opening the Milky Way. That's right It's actually a very good example of international collaboration. There's a team in the US that uses what's called the doc energy like camera on the former telescope in Chile. But let's you image lodge areas in the sky and they've infect done quite deep suv. I of the Southern Hemisphere Scott and in that imaging serve I I discovered of order a dozen of these streams where we believe these a AH small galaxies. That have been disrupted but you need to take spectroscopy of the stock is to get the philosophies in the abundances and the anglo-australian telescope with its two degree field spectograph spectograph lets you observe up to four hundred dollars at a time and that is a unique facility in terms of its field of view. A numbers fathers in the astronomical world so the US imaging imaging people have collaborated with star stone of his experts in fava spectroscopy to measure that. He's sort of these streams and You know serendipity can sometimes what can you fight or wait. Found this This particular stop by studying these still streams. This must be telling you a lot about the origins of the Milky Way Galaxy itself and how it's grown over Giga Giga us. Yes you're exactly right The the standard Theory of how the Milky Way is come into existence as had lots of galaxies Small galaxies full in get disrupted and then contribute. This does to the highlands of the disk of the galaxy in that process. We can try and map out. What the distribution of mass in our galaxy is by understanding the orbits of these streams in the galaxy get disrupted some of the stars get energy energy and move ahead than some of the stars lose energy in full behind? That's probably the other way around And so you. The whole thing gets strung out as a string of beat effectively and by studying the motions of streams we can actually see things like the influence of the lodge measuring like cloud as it comes by our galaxy. It's extra gravity. It disturbs the orbits of streams. and Are we seeing a lot of stuff from secretaries to office will run the other side that well it's been gobbled up. Now's well isn't it. That's that's right. I mean. The Sagittarius Stream was the first example of this Process with off. Galaxies falling in and being disrupted I guess it's Probably twenty. He's ago I guess it was in twenty five years since it was discovered and that is the archetypal example. The core of the galaxy is near the center of a Galaxy Galaxy. There's a stream of stars advice that goes across the hall. Scott now Sagittarius is was originally much more massive system than the small systems. That are just being disrupted the streams of West studying but it does just show that this process goes on Sagittarius. What in fact its own set of costs that guide to be added to the Hanover? The galaxy wants to sides of terrorists. System is completely disrupted with globular clusters. Can you tell the difference between a glove class. Sta and the center of a shredded galaxy. See that's very good question There are a few Gobert. COST IS GONNA cost is have constant abundance of elements it's like on and calcium Others but there are a few classes like a Centauri which is readily visible in the summer sky where there was a big range inch in the chemical elements like Nelson on from star to star. And it's certainly been suggested that Those cover costs as well. You see a heavy element abundance range by well obtained the former nucleus off galaxies. Pain disrupted our listeners are way normally globular cluster. oster is a tight ball of thousands if not millions of stars which originally formed together at the same time in the same molecular gas and dust cloud but when you see globular clusters crossed with stars of very different MILICIA's very different compositions. That's the telltale sign you're talking about. Exactly yes yes. In fact we have an example inside serious various the The there's a classical m fifty four which is a very luminous go cost which is right at the center secretaries and in fact does have a Ryan the elephants. So that's almost smoking guns or the Saudi.
What Does it Mean for a Machine to "Understand"? with Thomas Dietterich
"We're really digging into this topic. what it means for machine to understand A recent blog post postive yours and I thought to get things kicked off. I read your couple of the opening sentences you wrote critics. A recent advances in artificial intelligence complained that although these advances have produced remarkable improvements in AI system these systems still do not exhibit real true or genuine understanding the use of words like real true and genuine imply that understanding is binary system either exhibits genuine understanding or. It does not the difficulty with this way of thinking. Is that human understanding. We're standing is never complete and perfect as so certainly the way you've laid that Opening argument out it resonates with me. I recently Had Gary Marcus on the show. This was back in September and we spoke about the book that he recently launched rebooting. Hey I And he's pretty. He's very outspoken. As a critic of deep learning. And maybe that's not the way he would put it maybe he'd say a critic of deep learning kind of as a standalone path to Artificial General Intelligence but union reading the blog post I couldn't help but think of Gary. Marcus says being although you didn't name him kind of You know person in absentia that you're writing adding this to maybe talk a little bit about the you know the broader context for This post and maybe how you know what prompted you derided right. If you know Gary was part of you know what you're thinking about Or not I'd love to kind of get a sense for where you're coming from here. Well certainly you know Gary and I have had Opportunity even to engage in formal debates and Gary As I was saying I think Gary's main points I generally agree with which is that there are lots of obvious. Shortcomings are existing systems and in particular These systems based on deep learning But but Gary He and other people can't seem to stop saying things like well when we look at the behavior say of Google translate It's clear that it doesn't. It's not exhibiting real understanding of the of the languages translating or or When we talk about Siri that series and doesn't really really understand What we're talking about And I've been making the counter argument. Yes these systems are understanding. And it's it's real understanding but it is narrow understanding and So I am criticizing the use of the word real to mean deep and complete understanding because that denies that these systems are doing anything that is intelligent or that is exhibiting real understanding and I think that puts puts you in the position that you will never be happy with any system because no matter how good gets it will make mistakes and exhibit failures and it's understanding and are you going to say well when understands ninety five percent of what people say that it's still not real understanding. I mean what you're pushing yourself into a a a belief that there's some magic threshold that if you could somehow cross it you would have a system that had real understanding and I don't think that's the way it works. I think that the way it works works is that we make Incremental progress sometimes. Bigger leap sometimes no progress for periods of time As we were doing in speech recognition for for a while in the nineties but our systems get better they are able to understand something so as I say when I tell Siri please call Dan and he calls the right person. It has understood me for the purposes of that utterance for that task. Now if I said you know Siri tell me what Dan means means to me And it doesn't really know anything about what it means say for To be a best friend and you know but let's many people of course have remarked that it's Impossible for two human beings to fully understand each other so That brings me back again. To what is is it. We're really trying to achieve when we build. Ai Systems and as an engineer. I would say I want systems that can make the appropriate response when I asked them to do something. Or if they're warning me if some situation in the world that I should be paying attention to and so on and to the extent that they do that correctly directly I would say they understand What what what I want them to do when we have these kinds of conversations? I think it's you know there's a slippery slope it kind of devolving to defining every term in the arguments But In this case I I wonder the extent to which we're talking talking about different types of understanding Do Do you think that that is The case at all here. I don't know that there are different types but certainly different definitions. Aw I mean obviously we are arguing about definitions and In My blog post I. I was supporting the view that instead dead of argument about our definitions we should be trying to be should be asking ourselves. Well what tests would you give to a system in order to evaluate whether it's understanding in a doing a particular type of task well right if you say well this is is not a narrow Show me all the the Things that you would like to do that. It is failing to do now And I drove through the analogy to test driven development and software engineering Right at the test. First and then use those to decide how to engineer the system to try to meet those tests And then keep writing more tests. I and I think Gary has actually jumped on that and on twitter. He's been Asking people you know what's wrong with our current natural language wjr understanding tasks and because it seems that we can often get an assist him to do well on the on a particular benchmark task. Ask and yet again. It turns out that it's very narrow and it's not doing well on any like immediately adjacent tasks that we would like it's a new And and so some people have been. There's been a bit of a discussion now about that. And and I think that's really where the discussion needs to go is You know and and Gary himself himself in in our twitter conversations I thought articulated beautifully said. Okay I want the computer to be able to say Rita Story and tell me The answers answers to the journalist questions who what when where why how So why did this person do this. What did they do? When did they do it? You know Ordered these events for me correctly clean time and those are way beyond what we can the state of the art in a and natural language understanding some of the people in the natural language community said just stop using the word understanding at all. We've just caught language processing because we know that That this word understanding Sets expectations for something. Something that is very broad and deep you know duck. Hoffstetter had a very interesting piece that came out last year where he analyzed Google translate and showed how many many cases where Google translates understandings clearly extremely surface oriented and often? It can't understand anything about did. Did John Do something to marry was married doing something. John knows that John Maher need to both be translated In into the different language language. And it certainly doesn't have any of the You know connotations and Depth say that would be required to to translate more poetic language would your metaphorical language It really has no understanding of Human Social Relationships What that might make Mary angry? What might Make John Happy. you know just it's completely clueless about that because all it has been taught to do is is to translate from Chinese into English English into Chinese for fairly straightforward every day sentences and certainly not trying into translate Shakespeare at all and one can imagine that it could make very serious mistakes result in say highly highly emotional and complex Social situations it's fine for. Where's the nearest bus stop? But not so good for you know so why. Why aren't you talking to me anymore or something? I do want to encourage us to move beyond saying well either understands it doesn't and this understanding is true true or it isn't to say well. This understanding is incomplete in these important ways and and what we would need these to do and so for example when we think about reading a story or just engaging in a dialogue we need a systems that can be building and maintaining an interpretation of the dialogue and this is well known in the natural language community. We just don't know really how to do it at scale. We can build applications in a narrow domain Say Purchasing airline tickets or something where air we can cover a lot of different linguistic phenomena and An have Quite good performance but as soon as you step out of that narrow domain that breaks down.
"binary systems" Discussed on KGO 810
"John Bob the website behind the black we're going to explore to a solar system that doesn't exist yet in fact probably binaries solar system Bob as a photograph it behind the black I recommend to everyone because it's a nursery it's a nursery very far away where not one but two satellite two sons are forming Bob what am I witnessing in these two swirls go to buying the black I should mention this is already moved on to the second page so if you scroll down and don't see it click on the two when you can see at the top of the second page I just keep posting this so things move away but this is an image produced by V. at add a comma a large millimeters submillimeter array in Chile alma and so it's not visual light but it's it's it's real and what we're looking at is something significant for the V. Saddam is trying to address that stellar evolution almost all stars in the cells in the universe in the galaxy a binary star these are not places where you gonna find habitable planets generally internally gonna find soul systems necessarily but binary stars are fundamental fact of life in the Sicel stellar evolution how and why binaries form in stellar systems is something they do not yet really understand and what this image is so spectacularly shows us is the beginnings of a baby stellar binary system and it's true the fastening because this too bright red specks those actually accretion disk of the two stalls warming and then around it is a swirl of gas that is being like in a blender mixed by the rotation of these two accretion disks and what we're looking at is the beginning formation of crystals this is something that I had before this will allow a strong image to begin to understand that process and since it's the majority of all stars it's essentially understand this process even better understand house that single stalls with his soul systems and an exoplanets for their their planets in there right by the dancers gonna I wouldn't say that John no because the two stars did by their systems a lot expected that many planets and we don't have much evidence they do at this point may they might this is an all time certain on but the two stars will act to you once again like a blender they got a mixed up the overall accretion disk and make it very difficult for planets to form instead what will likely will happen is most of the stuff will fall into the to the heart now I'm speculating we don't have a lot of data it's very possible you might find but right now that's the ticket we're going looking for water Bob has water water everywhere on his postings in these last days first we're going to look on the move why because Bob is taught me that the beach front property our our moon is where you might be able to five ice or ice in craters that is never touched by the sun Bob you have a story that the ice could be in both old and young lunar craters is that in advance and what we understand about the South Pole according to the scientists to publish this paper yet but I'm not so sure either way there's a lot of uncertainty here but what's interesting about this is that the probably settle crate is near the polls on the moon awful to have maybe ice because we have detections of hydrogen is that that's made the only thing you think it produce that and keep it there would be if the hygienist locked in I soul the scientists did create accounts to try to figure out which craters up permission under water they like to try to get a census of those craters what they found is that defined the missiles permanently shallow craters that might have ice some of them all old craters so they could have the I see a very very long time but some of them are much younger and yet they still have evidence of possibly having ice yes that whatever she could to putting it put the ice there is not something that happened a long long time ago and they just sat there it's an ongoing process that is now able to the policy at the ice in the crate is even late times when a crazy gets formed in a probably shattered environment that's significant as opposed to something about the evolution of our solar system and what's going on here it could be that comments a depositing the ice there it could be Michael media eyes is any number of possibilities they just don't have an answer for that but if he is a long term effect that's significant discovery we're looking for water because that's a good place to put a colony we go for the same search on Mars once about H. I. Mars had abundant water you can see the residue of billions of years ago the water and it's not there on the surface anymore where did it go Bob U. S..
"binary systems" Discussed on KGO 810
"Radioactive dust now I understand and look at some of the scientific reports they're saying this is Matt radioactive dust is under the ice in Antarctica as a whole layer of it they're trying to pinpoint the time line on it anywhere from three thousand years ago two three million years ago so there's a lot of debate going on the scientific community but this red does does side with ancient writings by the Miami and the Peruvian but there was a red dust that fell upon the land and many people got sick and died during the same time as the plagues of Egypt just remember us thirty six years ago when we believe that this binary system last with half so I think the the discovery of the red dust in Antarctica is again another confirmation that we are United to encounter and this time even a whole lot more shaky whole lot more done a lot more straight line winds because as the death dust particles are coming down the radio active well I'm looking radio active the fourth we have eighteen percent higher radio activity on the planet right now that we did three years ago that's from the dust sadly already on as as this thing is approaching but when when this is as is bringing down is charged particles it's also pushing the jet streams closer to the surface of the earth which is creating straight line winds and tornadoes all kinds of things at a lot more intense pace than what we've been used to seeing them volcanism if creating the courtyard is heating up and the volcanism.
"binary systems" Discussed on KTOK
"That sell radioactive dust now I understand I've looked at some of the scientific report they're saying that this red radioactive dust is under the ice in Antarctica as a whole layer of it they're trying to pinpoint the time line on it anywhere from three thousand years ago two three million years ago so there's a lot of debate going on the scientific community but this red does does coincide with ancient writings by the Mayans and improve the end that there was a red dust that fell upon the land and many people got sick and died during the same time of the plagues of Egypt just what about around thirty six years ago when we believe that this binary system last with half so I think that the discovery of the red dust in Antarctica is again another confirmation that we are United to encounter and this time even though I'm a whole lot more shaky whole lot more done a lot more straight line winds because as the deduct articles are coming down the radio active well I'm looking a radioactive deport we have eighteen percent higher radio activity on the planet right now than we did three years ago that's from the dust sadly already on it as this thing is approaching but would win this is as is bringing down is charged particles it's also pushing the jet streams closer to the surface of the earth which is creating a straight line winds and tornadoes all kinds of things at a lot more intense pace than what we've been used to seeing M. volcanism it's creating the core of the earth is heating up and the volcanism read.
"binary systems" Discussed on The Andrew Klavan Show
"He's a terrific writer. He writes, very intensely, but he has only one side is completely on the Trump train all the way and hates the never Trumpers, almost as much, if not more than he hits the Democrats, and he writes his column attacking the never they always end up with David French poor David. I mean it's wonderful Burson I disagree with him. I disagree with him about Donald Trump. And he's a great guy. I don't know why he is become like the poster boy for never Trumpism as opposed to other never-trumpers. But anyway, Kurt says the Kurtz begins this column saying there's a debate going on inside conservatism between. I love the here's a debate going on inside conservatism, between the insufferable sissies, who insist that we normals are morally obligated to submit to being crushed by the leftist, who hate us, and want us, enslaved or dead and actual conservatives. Maybe I'm simplifying this intellectual dispute a bit wait. No not. You either want to defeat the liberal elite that despises us, or you don't it's those of us who seek to win versus the never Trump losers. And there's no middle ground win or lose pick one now I have attacked or at least argued with the never-trumpers who say it's not a binary system. Of course, it's a binary system. There are two parties if one, you know, and the people who sit around say, yes. Well, if Hillary Clinton had won, then four years later, we'd have done this for us. I mean the scene people didn't even know Trump was going to win that night. How hell do they know what's going to happen over four years? There is a binary system if you don't vote for one person, you're voting for the other person, but it's not a binary system win or lose. It's not a binary system win or lose because Trump in his with his lack of dignity with his insult borsch nece his insulting loses votes. He's losing votes. He loses women, he loses people who don't want to see the president behave that way, he doesn't have to behave that way to fight with everything he's got. I don't think Trump can stop himself. I think that's Trump is character in this sense is fate. I mean, that's not what it means. But in this sense, I think it does look, again, the idea that Obama was an scandal-free dignified. President is crap. He was oppressive. He was offensive to the constitution. He was much worse. In terms of violating, our constitutional rights than Donald Trump has been ever. That's the those are the facts, but Trump, please into the image of himself that the empire of lies was created by behaving that way. And I know that, you know. It Jin's up his base. And I know they love it, but it is a problem. There's no question about that. It's a problem in terms of winning and losing. And it's also a problem of what it is the price we are paying to fight back this tide of socialism, incompetence..
NASA and SpaceX partner for Asteroid Deflection Mission
"And SpaceX are going to be working together to deflect an asteroid. It's. Called dart the double asteroid redirection test, and it will take flight place on top of Felker nine rocket in June of twenty twenty one from the Vandenberg Air Force base in California. And now the mission of dart is to smash set late into an asteroid's tiny moon in order to it off of its orbit in. It sounds exciting. But if the mission fails it would result in derailment of Nasr's, Connecticut impact technique. However, if it successful it'll provide very crucial data that will inform its deployment against an actual asteroid that's approaching our planet. So they're going to send a probe up the gonna hit one of these asteroids moons, deflect it out of the orbit. And this is the first test case, you know, this is the first time that they're going to try this out. So if it's successful, this is going to be great is gonna send us data that will tell us that. Hey, this is possible. We can do it on a bigger scale. We can do it for something else. Not just a tiny moon, and they're going to smash into this moon going at around thirteen thousand five hundred miles per hour in it's going to reach the target in twenty twenty two and it'll be eleven million kilometers away from earth. And this is really cool because this is a different kind of mission for SpaceX. It's not just transporting humans and cargo to and from the international space station. This is a scientific mission. And this could open up doors to NASA in space x working together in different forms in the future. And this mission is going to be a relatively cheap in the grand scheme of things. It's going to be about sixteen nine million dollars, including the SpaceX launch and the full mission. So sixty nine million dollars compared to you know, billions of dollars for Mars rocket. It's relatively cheap in that sense. So a lot of. Any but for space. It's not bad in the asteroid. They're gonna go after his daddy mass. It's provisional destination. Nineteen Ninety-six GT sub Columbus asteroid in has a binary system classified as potentially hazardous asteroid and near earth object of both the Apollo and armor group in this is really cool. So there's a hero spacecraft, which is an Isa's spacecraft. It's destination is the same asteroid as NASA and SpaceX mission. So they're working together. Nasa in ISA on this mission in it's really cool because Isa's spacecraft is gonna try to fly itself there. So it's gonna be a Thomas it'll be flying to the asteroid by itself in with new techniques that ISA has developed not only does this space craft have autopilot. It can dodge space debris for something coming at this thing. It'll move out of the way. So it will take flight alongside Nasr's asteroid impact in deflection assessment mission spacecraft, the eight emission would focus on Nasr's double asteroid redirection tests, the dart test as I spoke about before it's basically a defense system for and it'll redirect asteroids. So if ISA NASA can work together, we could send out autonomous said lights to these asteroids, destroyed them move them out of the way, whatever we need to do to them. And you know, we're going to protect the earth with these kind of technologies it's kind of incredible. And this is where it gets really really cool. So the hero space craft each e spacecraft. It's going to detach from its launch vehicle in orbit around the asteroid. Right. So it's going to be orbiting around the and then the NASA probe is going to do its thing. It's going to deflect the moon of the asteroid and Isa's here. Space craft is going to watch everything autonomously, and then it will swoop in into leagues Zaman the crater after the collision. So it's gonna give us data about the initial collision from NASA spacecraft and also after the space craft does its thing and the aftermath of the collision in the self-driving like tesla while not driving. I guess flying would be the best word for it. But it's has similar systems to Atanas vehicles on earth.
How Old is the Universe?
"Learned how to figure out the ages of objects in the solar system. Now, we push out into the deeper universe. What about stars galaxies? And even the universe itself. How old is it? All all, right. So we kind of have taught people how to figure out how old stars are. But we have not taught people how to figure out how old stars that aren't the sun are very well that is fair. So let's say so let's start there with with. How do we figure out how old stars are in the wider universe? Well, there are a bunch of different ways. And the newest way that scientists have come up with is to actually look at how fast stars are rotating. And this was something that I never knew would be a thing and one of the factors. I loved most was the press release actually said how to pronounce this technique, which is. Guy row chronology low term it just like a gyroscope. Oh, the the idea is that stars changed their speed over time as they undergo mass loss, and as that mass is carried away so two is the angular momentum of the system, and so it's super difficult to measure the rotational velocities of stars. But if you can do it, this is the cool new way that the cool kids with the best instruments are measuring the velocities of stars and their ages. So I'm trying to think about how you would measure that. Right. How do you measure the rotation of a star? And then how do you know what the rotation tells you about the age of the star? So how do you measure the rotation of a star? I the the most accurate way to do. It is to look. It stars that have sunspots and measure how long it takes for that sunspot to go across the face of the star. So just like we measured the rotation rate of our son to first order by watching this little sunspots March across the front. We can look at changes in brightness. If distant stars that are tied to changes in whether or not we're seeing sunspots on that distant star. That's amazing. Yes. Right. That you can see sunspots moving across the face of a star. But by guess by like how much light they're putting out, and then you can use that as a way to say, okay? That's probably a sunspot an imminent returns to that same level of brightness. Just a couple of say weeks later, then then that's probably that same group of sunspots is moving across the surface, again mind-bending now, I would also assume that there's some way sort of with the Doppler effect. You can measure the like, the the sides of stars to sort of get a sense of how quickly they're turning one partisan are moving away from one part of stars moving towards you. If only you could separately measure the light coming from either side of the star. But we don't quite have the capacity to do that. So we do. Instead is we look at the line broadening, but there's a complexity to this that can add a lot of error to the measurements. And that complexity is gravity. So the surface gravity of star also affects the thickness of the spectral lines of star. So if you can accurately figure out what kind of a star, it is what kind of mass it likely has you can make assumptions about what it surface, gravity will be and make sumptious about how that gravity will affect the width of the lines. And then you can assume that whatever's left behind is lined thickening due to rotation, but it's a much less precise. Method although to be fair. We're looking at sunspots on distant stars were we're going a ha it's Brighton. His dipped this many percentages, and then came back up in a non periodic way. Therefore, this is a sunspot. So this is one of the techniques that is sort of like, well, there's a lot of error. But this is cool. That's amazing. Okay. So so that's your your method for for star. So now, we we are measuring the speed that a star is turning. How do we then use that to figure out how old the stars? Well, this is where you have to couple different methods. And just like we have a distance ladder for measuring. The distances of stars. We kind of have an age ladder for measuring. The ages of stars in this age ladder is based on our understandings of stellar of Lucien that is then grounded in radio isotopes. And then we extended out now. With the rotations of stars. So the science teams that did this a they were looking primarily at main sequence stars. These are stars like our sun that are burning primarily hydrogen helium in their core. And they were looking at late f g k and m stars. These are the smaller kinds of stars and insistence where you have a main sequence where you have stars that are still in the process of evolving. This means that you may have your biggest stars have already Welt stopped being main sequence stars they've already evolved away and because stars predictably from largest to smallest evolve off the main sequence finish burning that hydrogen helium in their core. Other processes for bigger stars as they evolve off that point says, okay, everything more massive than this is done burning everything below this is still. Burning and from radio isotopes, which we talked about before we can get precise ages for that point for stars. That are close enough to get high enough resolution spectroscopy, and we use stellar evolution models for systems that are further away that we can't accurately measure so through a combination of stellar evolution models and actually getting measure things from radio-isotopes. We can say, okay when we see this turnoff. It means this age when we see this turnoff. It means this age. Now, they'll know that technique of measuring the spins of things Ken tell you like how some degenerate objects are how old they are. I think the best example of this, right? Is is pulsars all neutron stars that whole process, right? By measuring. The spin rate you can tell Kyle. How old the object is and this is also reliant on them being in isolated systems. If you have a massive star that goes supernova collapses down to something tiny. It's initially going to have a much larger rotation rate over time, it's rotations going to slow for a whole variety of different reasons. But this starts to give you relative ages of different systems. Now, there isn't I say that this only works with isolated stars is it's possible to transfer angular momentum between stars in a binary system. So anytime you're looking at the rotation rate of something it needs to be the non influenced rotation rate. We can see this in our own earth where we're to some estimate of binary planet with our own moon. And our rotation rate is slowing as the moon moves further away. And it's this tidal locking our two systems that is in the process of heading. Towards being completely titled locked that. We're changing the rotation rates of both worlds as we evolved their separation. Right. I mean, like we win star goes supernova it. If it's more massive than much whatever five times more massive than the sun. Then you get a neutron star as the outcome. And they start out having a ton of that would that that angular momentum. They're spinning very quickly. This is a pulsar and the fastest millisecond pulsars are the ones that are the freshest, right? And then as over time they are losing their energy.
"binary systems" Discussed on Kinda Funny Games Daily
"Anything less would just go to a binary system at that point is not granular enough, and I totally agree with that. I like five five. You're gonna have a scoring system. I like five star system, but to deal right as point there, what's his name? Jay black, j. j. blacks point. I agree. I used to have this again. This argument used to team a lot. I guess. Now I think about it used to have this as well. I would say use the whole scale. If we're gonna have percentages us the whole scale. I would have someone happened in GNC of explore the scale out of someone. Give me a give me, they bring a review and I'd read it this terrible, complete waste of time fifty, eight percent so well, what's the fifty? Eight four like I didn't see nothing here with fifty like the most where the redeeming quality, what's good about it that the fifty eight. How do you even arrive at fifty? Eight? That number out of the don't get me started. That was my problem. There's no scientific method there isn't. So why? Why. Tritter points your Jay black. And if so, when does a seven become a six and a nine become eight that all happens when you're talking about the writers perspective and what they think and what they're taking and what they value in devalue in a video game. That's that's the problem. Starting a new review outlet and and you were gonna let's let's say three years ago. Kind of funny started reviewing games that you don't currently do? We don't review. Okay. So you're saying you want like written reviews? Yeah. Conversation would you have about whether or not you wanna scoring system? And if so, what scoring system would you have here? Let's bring in another person from the chat here right over on kinda funny dot com. Slash k. f. GD Laura j wrote in and said, good afternoon, Greg, and Gary..
"binary systems" Discussed on TechStuff
"On a high level, what is natural language processing will simply put its programming machine to interpret language the way we use it. We human beings. So in an ideal implementation which would also require advanced artificial intelligence, you could speak to a machine or type, whatever you like into a terminal, and it would be able to understand what you meant, what your commands were, no matter how you worded the phrase in turn the machine would be able to generate responses that made. Linguist since to us and we could in effect hold entire conversations with those machines. This, as it turns out is a very difficult challenge. Even creating a machine that can respond to basic commands delivered in a natural language is really, really hard to do, and we haven't yet cracked the the nut on making a machine that can actually hold a real conversation with us yet. We sometimes forget the machines, do not natively, understand human language machines, process information in machine code, which is difficult for humans to understand. I almost said impossible for humans to understand, but really it's just impractical. It's incredibly difficult. So for example, computers that run on binary systems process all information in zeros and ones ultimately when you get down to it. So if you were to look at a sheet of zeros and ones, it would probably seem completely incomprehensible. To you, although to a computer, it could seem perfectly logical. Our language is equally incomprehensible to machines programming languages, make it easier for humans to make machines, do what we want them to do. Programming languages create a level of abstraction between human language and machine language. It's kind of a may meeting ground in the middle programming. Languages tend to be highly structured with specific strict sets of rules programming within those rules will get you the results you want, assuming your code is good, but if you stray outside those rules, you start to get errors. Human language is much more variable and complicated and ambiguous, and that's something that machines are not very good at handling. Now, if you've ever played a text based adventure from way back in the day legs Zork you know that those adventure games have a very limited vocabulary. The game can accept certain commands, but only because the programmer built in. In the option in the game, they incorporated that in the game's design. So you might be able to type something like go north or just north, and the game understands. You want your character to move to a new location that's to the north of your current location, but maybe you type something else. Maybe you type jog north or saunter north, and the programmer didn't think of that. They didn't come up with all the different ways. You could describe the way you want to move north. So you might get a result that says something like, I didn't understand that or you can't do that here. Computers only have the illusion of understanding. They don't actually know what we mean when we say something at least not natively. Now, that meant that for most of our history with computers, humans have had to learn how to work with machines, not the other way around. We have had to learn commands and syntax that machines accept. And if we try to word those commands in a different way, we tend to get an error. Natural language processing attempts to flip the tables on this relationship and teach machines how to work with humans so that we don't have to go through any sort of learning curve. We don't need to formulate our commands in a specific way to be understood the technology works on our terms or as close to those as we can manage. That means that program is half to build systems that can parse language for meaning. And it also means having to build tools in Sheen's that can handle stuff that you typically encounter in higher level language courses. So here's a quick rundown on some of the stuff. A natural language processing approach has to take into account. I, you have grammar. No grammar can refer to the study of language, but generally speaking, when we say grammar or at least when I'm using the term in the context of natural language processing. I mean, a set of rules for the organization of components of. Language into meaningful statements or sentences. This is a broad concept it it is a big big idea..
"binary systems" Discussed on Science Solved It
"Actually do understand it thanks guys but i'm going to go ahead and put it in my own terms as if you were actually five years old hi everybody so imagine two big stars like the sun these two stars are best friends so they spent all their time together they're called binary stars sometimes though one of the friends starts to be a bit of a bully he steals his friends toys this bully fred keeps stealing and stealing taking all of his little friends favorite toys but he gets too greedy and after a very long time he can't carry all his little star friends toys anymore so he throws all the toys as hard as he can away from him into space i know what happens when a white dwarf star in a binary system sucks up so much gaff when its companion star that it explodes and cass off all of that matter into surrounding space here's costas with some more details once that happens for a while it can take probably a hundred thousand years once that happens it will have stripped the red giant of its atmosphere that atmospheres primate of hydrogen once enough hydrogen builds up and piles up on the surface of the white dwarf the hydrogen atoms will be so close together that they'll actually fuse together and that is the same reaction that we use unfortunately to make hydrogen bombs all it takes to atoms get a little too close to each other they'll hit each other they'll release energy and that radiation that they release will either go out to space on we'll see it as the nova or it will hit neighboring atoms caused them to fuse and the process will happen over and over again all over the surface of the star eventually it'll spread out over the surface of the white dwarf and that chain reaction causes the white dwarf to burn almost a hundred times brighter than it was originally and that is the novo e c the nova seen in ancient korea is the earliest known record of novak's pollution and our understanding of it is helping us learn more about these massive explosions how they form and what happens after the fact see the difference between nova and a supernova is that in a supernova explosion destroys the start self and one question we still don't know the answer to is whether no vi eventually go on to become supernovae here's steve again we still don't but the these very longtime up survey shins are essential for understanding that being able to see one of these systems a couple hundred or even four or five hundred years later when you know that all of the intermediate instabilities have settled down when the explosion is so long ago that we theoretically expect that we're seeing the system as it will will be up until the next explosion this is critical took six hundred years but we finally answered the questions that those korean astrologists asked when they stared up at the sky that night and wondered what the heck is that an unraveling this mystery is helping scientists to continue learning more about the cosmic happenings of our universe it's given us more pieces to the puzzle and it made me realize that at the end of the day the work of ancient astrologers and the work of modern day astronomers isn't actually so different it's all part of this long history of humans staring up at the stars and trying to make sense of it is something michael steve and costas are all still doing we still kind of the same job we just have more accurate toys i guess we have telescopes all my god that changed everything i mean we have telescopes now that can look to the university horizon in perfect focus and they do it from outer space i mean you know that's that probably would have been considered magic hardcore magic <music> it's all hardcore magic to me science salted is a production of vice media and motherboard if you enjoy the show please subscribe you can find us on apple podcasts or anywhere else where you get podcasts you can find us on twitter at science old it this episode was produced an edited by sophie cases with production assistance by carola hopes are theme music is by reference that's all for this week thanks for listen next time on signed selbe i was lucky enough to be there at the time of year where they're very active and saw them crawl under the the water and i thought it was just the craziest most interesting thing i'd ever seen
"binary systems" Discussed on Science for the People
"Shift in blue shift which is like the most subtle detail and easter egg but it does come out every now and then where you can actually looking carefully the background you can see that it's been excluded or does not exist in this entire framework of a universe so that's this one of my favorite little mini things but i try and keep things plausible the story will always come first this is not a science lesson it is not an educational setting it isn't it entertainment settings the science will always have to be in the service of the story but that doesn't mean you can't do things that are plausible so example of this is once in a stargate universe we had an episode where the writers wanted to have humans versus the universe and they wanted to have something astrophysical that would kill everybody every twenty two minutes so they decided that they'd have a pulsar that would come through it has big radioactive beams sweep through the ship and pound them with high energy particles and kill them too late except for a pulsars rotate on like nanosecond levels not twenty minute intervals so have a pulse are moving that slowly would generate on electro magnetic field about his deadliest holding fridge magnets doing cartwheels yes it's plausible but you're not gonna kill anybody at that way so we modified it by having a pulsar in a binary system starving pulsar in a binary system with a feeder star and that eater starwood come around that cash rent when come around every twenty minutes in knock that pulsar over the edge of mass owed activate and go postponed pulsing kill everybody and then the gas would keep sweeping away out of orbit and the pulsar would use that extra mass and starve a little bit and go que again go quiet again until the next twenty minute pass when we came up with this idea we'd never seen anything like that in the entire real life universe astronomy had never found a system like this but i want you know what there's no reason why not this is a physically plausible thing that could happen so we put it together we did the app.
"binary systems" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"Today it's actually a quite difficult to do these huge numbers of black holes are all crammed in to the galactic center in a region about six light years across and there's an enormous number of not just black holes in this region but many other types of cosmic sources that amid rays in addition there's a huge amount of gas and dust in the glac center that gas and dust is very hot and when things get that hot more than ten million degrees they tend to emit x rays so these black hole binary systems as we call them which is just a black hole orbiting normal star are basically hiding in plain sight they blended in with the crowd which is a middling these xrays and we have to kind of tease them out from all these other sources which can emit x rays as well gosh that how exactly can you pinpoint the ones that you will hyping to find it it turns out that black holes with a companion star emit x rays that on average are not as energetic as the x rays that are omitted from most of the other objects that we would confuse with black hole systems and an analogy like to use visible light we all know that blue light generally means something is hotter and red light means that something is colder and in fact the analogy is pretty exact when we look at these x ray emitting sources we were looking for the reddish looking objects which would be the black hole systems and trying to winnow out the bluish looking objects or the hotter objects which are the uninteresting x ray emitting sources fascinating week that was cut haley from columbia university now recently the headlines have been a wash with stories about how data being used or abused by companies facebook is currently under fifa allegedly.
"binary systems" Discussed on Hanselminutes
"In a two levels system a binary system so when we say cubit we mean it's a it's a a two level system the cubit has two possible states zeroual's though a bit yes zero or one but again those states can be in position so it's actually in the state of zero and one might it can take any combination any linear combination of zero and one so what this means visually is think about a sphere right like a ball and imagine you know the service of this ball when it means is if i take this ball at say at the north pole is the state zero that the south polls the state one now my cue it can take any point on the surface of the sphere any point on the surface of the ball that cubits state so it could be just in this eurostate it could be just in the one st or can be any combination of zero and one meaning it could take any point on this sphere as its state um so it's still a to level system um um if you want you know higher levels systems than you could go to a you know we talk about turn airy um tournaire he would be a three system so acute tripped m a d level system our d is arbitrary is acute debt um but you know most of the time we think about just cubits and mapping everything to binary so simplistically if i looked at his sphere my intuition might indicate that there would be more decrees of freedom than just those that between zero in one i might think about you know ex ynz but yes that's not the sir the case as it well no indeed am you can think about it in more degrees of freedom in fact what is that a cubit it's it's it's a combo it's hard to describe some of these mathematical principles on the on the podcast but the idea being that let's take some value alpha and some value beta mike cubit can take the state alpha times the state zero plus beta times the state one.
"binary systems" Discussed on BBC Radio 4
"The course of today go to arbiters items from wickford recovery trafalgar khorram restore going on so i'm editor said whatever happens you've got the storm to come over the next few days and then what you've got the what you know will be a massive clearup job trump from from from ruppert kirkland camp career for renault worth direct shortly after go into our our frogs your coverage gruber and how you feeling at the moment report slowly i fear puerto of courtroom four choose not to remain indiana among all truth not to backward from euratom brick brick have made a very strong appeal to them under from two separate struggling i'm very little we can do to assist comportment totally monday or trooper got us the fear gordon little girl stricken far important from fear mr enjoy even patellar which i hope i'm going to crop captain stephen russel thank you very much john 12 minutes to nine one of the fastest growing feels of astronomy is the search for exsoap planets planets that exist outside our solar system the first discoveries were made were pretty recently really by nearly ninety since then three and a half hours and planets have been identified elizabeth tasker has written a book called the planet factory xo planets and the search for a second earth she's associate professor the japan an aerospace expiration agency entries she's hey good morning to you and we are the three thousand is is a fair number isn't it but we are expecting to have an awful lot more quincy yes absolutely i think one of the things we've learned since since the early 1990s is that really most stars have the ability to form planets even stars be wouldn't initiate expected said as sonlike stars but has also say stars in binary systems that contract images of star wars is tattooing planet has with the jews sons in the sky and there's even planet sweden they son a tool where they've been ejected from their solar system and then this planet's own very strong elliptical orbit s with incredibly extreme seasons because of the the bench shape that takes place the style put those to one side and the ones with no stars well there are the ones were really interest the ones whether it's a star and it looks roughly like us at and there are a fair few.
"binary systems" Discussed on TechStuff
"Now the any act team invited another person john von noyon over to take a look at it nigh above annoy men in the weather models episode as well and together the any act team in von norman were able to kind of come up with the the premise for the successor to any ac this would become the ed vac which was the first stored program computer ed beck stands for electron discreet variable automatic computer and the stored program aspect meant you didn't have to change the physical wiring of the device it self the program would be stored inside the computer not in the arrangement of all its components and unlike any ac advequately based on the binary system instead of the decimal system the binary system simplified things because you only needed to a switch with two positions and again the decimal base machine meant that you needed switches with ten positions since you can represent numbers using binary then then all live nitz showed us that centuries earlier it made sense to go with that system now one person who realize this and who really nailed it was claude shannon another mathematician and someone that i will probably do a full episode on again in the future i actually do have a claude shannon episode in the archives as well shannon wrote the mathematical theory of communication and nineteen 48 to set the foundation for the theoretical limits of communication between humans and machines the identified the bit as the fundamental unit of information and thus the basic unit of computation for this shannon is often cited as one of the fathers of computer science since the computers could be reprogrammed without making physical changes to the machine emand that you had to do that reprogramming through code and so we finally get into some of the programming languages.
"binary systems" Discussed on TechStuff
"To me it's fascinating that they were able to do all of this using tones whether it was to just create that binary system or the analogue system where you had the variable voltage that could create different types of movement and i'm also fascinated by all the different people who worked on these systems there were a ton of them who all contributed and without them these just wouldn't even be a reality today they were able to make such a huge impact and the new york world's fair in this really did cement disney as being an innovative company not just in movies and animation but also in theme parks and experiences of it set them apart from their competitors and it wasn't just the theme ing which has always been one of disney's strong suits but the technology itself the fact that the company was willing to be a pioneer in those spaces so i find it one of the most interesting stories and i love the fact that it also gives me the opportunity to touch on other elements of the mechanical and technological worlds stuff like pneumatic systems hydraulic systems the concept of cams the concept of sullen whites all of these elements are obviously components of the audio animatronic systems but also its fund have that opportunity to just touch on those in this episode and to tell you guys in a what those were and how they were incorporated into this audio animatronic system.