35 Burst results for "Billion Years"
Charlie Asks Eric Metaxas Why He Wrote His Latest Book 'Is Atheism Dead?'
"Road. Eric, why'd you write this book? Why? I at the beginning of COVID, I just got the idea for this book. And it really breaks down this way. I want to say I'm a spirit filled believer. I believe the Holy Spirit is alive today. And I believe in Bigfoot. And I believe he's going to come to faith before the week is at no. But I'm a spiritual believer, and sometimes I don't blow smoke. I don't say that the lord said this alerts at that. But there have been times that the lord has guided me clearly and directed me. And with this book, it wasn't anything like an audible voice, or wasn't anything mystical, but it seemed really clear to me, right at the beginning of COVID, that the idea for the book came to me. And it was framed around this. I met two people and it was because I had met these people that I thought I've got to write this book. The two people I'm talking about, I met a guy a scientist named James tour. He's probably the top nanoscientist on Planet Earth, literally, right? He's such a super genius. And I met him through some friends at a church in Houston. And he starts talking to me about the concept of a biogenesis. And has anybody here know what that means? If you know what that means get out, because I don't want to talk to people that know about this stuff. Because then you may catch me in an error. But what he talked about, this is kind of fascinating, right? We all argue about evolution. And we have these big conversations about that. But you know what no one ever talks about ever is like, okay, if you say to a scientist, where did life come from? They say well, life appeared on Planet Earth 4 billion years ago. The simplest life is a single cell, and it appeared, you know, in the prebiotic soup, it appeared 4 billion years ago. And then from that, it evolved into whatever. He said, well, forget about the evolution and stuff. Let's forget about that. You're telling me life appeared on Planet Earth 4 billion years ago. All scientists know this. But if you ask them, how did that happen crickets?
Reasons to Believe Founder Hugh Ross On How the Sun Affects Life on Earth
"Hey there folks, I'm talking to Hugh Ross. He is the founder and president of reasons to believe an extraordinary ministry and organization that has helped me a lot in making sense of how science accords with the God of the scripture, it's just wonderful to have you as my guest who we were just talking about something I don't think that I've heard before. You said that the earth in recent years very recently happens to be coinciding at a time when the sun is optimal for a planet like ours for life thriving on a planet like ours. And you said that window that perfect window is about a hundred thousand years where roughly halfway through that, what happened? What was the sun doing in the day of the dinosaurs or during the Cambrian era? How did that affect life on earth? Well, the windows fairly broad per bacterial life, about 4 billion years wide. For advanced global human civilization, that's where it's extremely narrow. And the time of the dinosaurs, the sun's fluttering activity was considerably greater than it is now. But they did not to worry about power grids being knocked out or the food supply being wiped out. So they did find what the sun having greater flaring activity. They did okay without having more x-ray and a gamma ray activity than it does right now. It's we humans that are most sensitive to that, and I got a new book come on and fine tuning, designed to the core, or I make the point that right now, the sun's luminosity stability is 5 times more stable than the next most stable star we can see anywhere in our entire
Eric Challenges Everything We Thought We Knew About Evolution
"You said, how did life evolve from non life, right? Okay. Now, whether you believe in evolution or don't believe in evolution or don't care whatever it doesn't matter, because I don't write about evolution in this book at all. But you have to define what is evolution. Evolution, according to those people who believe in evolution, typically, is using the process of natural selection, you see change over time. What does that mean? We hear the standard story, right? If there's a bunch of giraffes and the ones with the longest necks can get the most leaves and they tend to survive, the drax giraffes with shorter necks, we call them oxen. They don't survive. I shouldn't joke. But the point is that that's the concept of evolution is that over generations. Species change, and then some people say, oh, species don't just change within species, but they actually can become other species. So a frog can become an oak tree, although it takes a huge effort on the frog's part, he's got to want to be an oak tree. But the point is, in all seriousness, evolution can only happen if it does happen with life. Yes. But we never ask the question, and this is what you were getting at. What about before there was life? Scientists say, on the planet, earth, 4 billion years ago, there was no life, and then suddenly life. Boom. There was single celled life. The simplest life imaginable is one cell. That's all you need, and it's life, and we've seen it. We know what it is. And science tells us without any blinking. They just go, there's no doubt life came into existence 4 billion years ago on the early earth. Okay, so here's the question. How did that happen? And what's funny is people will say kind of like you did in misspeaking the way I put evolve in quote. Thank you. My notes. So people say, well, it's the process of evolution from non life. And you say, there's no such thing as evolution from non life. If you want to have any kind of evolution, it has to begin with life, because life reproduces and in every generation, there's potential for change. And so there can be change over time. But we're not talking about that. We're talking about there is no life and then there is life. There is no way you can describe that as
NASA Confirms Mars Region Had Thousands of Ancient Volcanic Eruptions
"New evidence shows massive ancient volcanoes erupted on Mars The so called super eruptions occurred in a region of northern Mars called Arabia Terra over a period of 500 million years dating back approximately four billion years. The news was published in a paper in the journal Geophysical Research Letters this summer and said researchers who studied the topography of mineral composition of the region made the discovery. The research said each one of these eruptions would have had a significant climate impact. Patrick Wheelie, a geologist at Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center, led the Arabia Terra Analysis said to release that it's possible release gas made the atmosphere thicker or block the sun and made the atmospheric holder modelers of bars say they still have work to do to try to fully understand the impact of the volcanoes. Ted Lindner
"billion years" Discussed on Nature Podcast
"I heart disease cancers and homs cognitive development in children so as you said high income countries started phase it out around the end of the century but most low middle income nations Wasn't able to just sort of switch the switch and garett of leaded petrol if you think about this sort of process involved in getting everyone in a country to stop using older engines. You can see why that might be difficult. So in two thousand to the un stop a campaign to end the sale of leaded petrol worldwide and. We've algeria's banned coming into effect. They've succeeded okay. So is this the end of lead pollution. He said those obviously a host of health effects. And are we going to start to see a healthier happier world. Wow well unfortunately not immediately is not going to just be an off switch so a study in london where we haven't had let it patrolling cause for over twenty years showed the half the lead in the ass still came from leaded petrol though was being used twenty years ago because lead sort of sticks around in the environment in dust. I we still have fifty times more lead in the air than you'd expect naturally but overall getting rid of it must be a good thing that you must be pretty happy about their campaign having been successful yet completely. They estimate that they'll be more than one point. Two million premature deaths a year avoided increase in. Iq's for children. And i think we'll save two point four five trillion dollars for the global economy because of these These benefits and that could even lead to decreasing crime rates and they will say successful campaign something that could inspire new efforts to reduce vehicles environmental impact in the future. Definitely something. but it's still of wet. I'm sure we can do in terms of pollution burning fossil fuels that yeah it seems like a lot of stories that we have on the briefing and with that sort of notes but there is more work to be done on the briefing as well so show me. I'm intrigued by your story. Alluded to earlier. So can you tell us a little bit about yes. It's it's it's not really geology. It's archaeology but their friends. The archeologists geologists they love digging in the ground and looking at layers and this particular story is based on the next paper and there was a news and views article in nature the that was linked to from the briefing. And it's all about archaeological work in the arabian peninsula and the reason that this is sort of particularly interesting. Is that if we were doing this. Podcast ten years ago. Pretty much all of the sort of archaeological studies relating to humans came from the very recent past so ten thousand years ago after the last ice age after sword neanderthals were extinct but in the last ten years. They've been working hard and have really expanded what we know about humans in arabia over the last several hundred thousand years. Well intrigued them. What do we know about humans in the past hundred thousand years. Well the sort of key findings is that. Arabia wasn't always so dry and arid. This particular paper was looking studies. From ancient lake bed's actually sort of multiple lakes that had ended up stacked on top of each other several again hundreds of thousands of years apart and they found things like evidence of a hippopotamuses and freshwater mollusks and they believe that there were periods of time between when it went back to sort of deputy in arid where arabia was probably green and lush may be more like the sort of current african savannah and would have been a really nice place for ancient humans to live so an interesting thing. I guess geographically about arabia's day connects to africa and connects africa asia and historically australia so during these periods is that when perhaps people coming out of africa and spreading out into asia through the arabian peninsula. Yeah absolutely and i think that that's why this is so key because we know obviously that different human species including homo sapiens did come out of africa and spread across the world and they must have come through the arabian peninsula to do it. At some point we think but it wasn't quite known when and how did they sort of hug the coastline so that they would have access to water and food but what this paper has found is five distinct periods going back. Four hundred thousand years in which in each of these periods not only was it dampen green and lovely bought. There is evidence of human some kinds of humans in each of these five periods. So we know now that humans were coming out of africa and you know potentially back in again during these wom- wet periods. What we don't know yet what the research is don't know is whether the expansions from arabia into the rest of the world. You know you mentioned human spreading across asia spreading all the way to australia. We don't know if that was happening from arabia during those periods as well which would be really key to understanding the still quite sort of confusing pattern of humans spreading across the world. So you mentioned as well over human species spreading out of africa. Do we know much about them. Spreading through the arabian peninsula. Yet will the sort of oldest lake from fonder thousand years ago that was before modern. Humans evolved in africa later on in more recent layers. There is evidence of homo sapiens. And this and bits in the middleweight. Not really sure what what kind of species it was but there are for example flakes tools that are associated with modern humans but also interestingly in the peninsula at the same time were kind of tools the were associated with neanderthals and one of the reasons that. That's kind of intriguing. Is that at. Will you have natural. Dna new and so two why because when homo sapiens left africa scientists think they mixed with mantha lls and now neanderthal. Dna is all over the world so it could be that. Arabia is one of the places where that sort of mixing happened so given. That arabia was a little bit of a bottle that the rest of the world economic sense that maybe that's the police that modern humans and neanderthals were sort of meeting up and mixing and there's obviously as always lots more work to be done to figure out exactly what was going on. I look forward to hearing more about this in the future. But i think this is all. We've got time for on this week. Show dan and shamny thank you so much for joining me and listeners. If you're interested in more stories like these why don't you try out. The nature briefing will put link of where you can sign up along with the stories that we discussed in the show notes. We'll be back again next week with a regular show. Thanks for listening. I've been nick. Patrick how. I'm shamny bundle london fox..
"billion years" Discussed on Nature Podcast
"Of science that been featured in the nature briefing joining me for chart this week. Our shami bundle and done fox. How are you both doing. Hey good thank you. Yeah great thanks leads me making my nature briefing debut this double excitement. We have three hosts and we have a damn fox as major podcast host. A mumber exciting for this. Well it's good to have you both here and out go first this week and i've been looking into a geological mystery about a missing billion years of time. That seems very careless. The geologists mislaid and i. It's it's decreasing my faith in geology. A little bit just noticed that well. They actually noticed that around one hundred fifty or so years ago. So it's something that been working on for quite a while but it's been really hard to work out why this period of time is missing. Well i should clarify that. There's not actual time missing. It's more archaeological record all that so. This was an article. I was reading in bbc future and you might already know the when we look back in the past using geology. You look at different layers of rock and by going down as you can see from forever back in time and while around one hundred and fifty years ago it was noticed in the grand canyon. The as you went down the layers. Something we it happened. And there were lots and lots of horizontal and then suddenly there was a shift and they were vertical layers and one of the geologists who observed this also observe that there should be more of these days than actually were and so there was a missing chunk of geological time so was the bit where the layers went vertical associated with the bit where some layers were missing. Yes so the best would alleged went vertical hard type of rock that is older and these rocks around one point. Seven billion years old was a horizontal line. The oldest one we had there was around five hundred or so million years. So there's something happened between those two which is meant that that rock is no longer present in those places and i should say as well. This varies in different regions. So within the grand canyon more or less of this or missing time and across the world so varies as well but regardless there was always a bit of time that is missing so what are the fairies for where these rocks the represent a billion years have gone to well theories is the right word for it because no one is really sure an reason. We're talking about this now is recently. There's been a new fairy but before we get onto that. I'll take you through the two existing theories one is that these rocks were simply eroded away by fast moving glaciers during a time when the earth was frozen snowball. Earth as it's known and this is the reason for the missing time another theory. Is that heat. From the center of the earth caused an ancient supercontinent codeword guinnea to expand on rise up into the air and the top layer again. Eroded away sir. What's the newest fear. What the newest theory is that. Actually this gap wasn't a huge gap at all. What we're seeing a lots of little gaps that we've so confused together and think he's one big gap in the geological record so this was a recent analysis that was done and i talked a little bit about the grand canyon where you can see this but over places as well and in this study they compared the grand canyon to this place called the canadian. What is another one of these gaps and according to their analysis. It looks like the gap in the grand canyon. Happened before the one in this canadian. Shield probably before the snowball glaciation and so actually it could be several different events of come together and is actually several smaller gaps. That happened in a similar sort of few hundred million years of time and have ended up being confused together cause a further back in time you go. The harder is to sort of place these events that are greater sort of degrees of uncertainty to work out. Actually when things happened and so. That's the latest theory. So if it's not all one big huge mobile missing billions of geologic less than i. I suppose that means. You don't need one unifying theory to explain all the gaps. It could be both of the ones you mentioned. It could be lots of different things. Yeah exactly. I'm what's happening now. Is that something code thermo chronology which is a new so of technique that is allowing geologists to look into the thermal history of rocks. So typically when you talk about dating of rocks you look at radiometric dating. And it's a similar sort of idea looking at the decay of various elements. But with this you are actually able to see the sort of history of the rock over time and the thermal history. You can see like how it came from the earth not just looking at the rock when it was fully formed in solid and this new technique could help answer some of these questions and may be finally getting to this one hundred fifty hold mystery of what happened with this great big gap and geological time. Well i think actually. I think it's going to be quite a geology. Heavy weekend wakes. I've got some exciting rocks and last to talk about later and damn your story. Vaguely geology related. Maybe i mean. I guess in the sense that petro comes out the ground. Then yes show special there. We go so yeah. This is story was originally published in chemistry weld and a u. n. environment program has declared the era of leaded petrol over. That's because in july. Algeria became the last country in the world to stop selling leaded petrol so petrol station. They used to be leaded unleaded and yet make sure you went to the right pump and get the right one but basically now if i were to petrol station anywhere in the world would i basically not be able to get leaded petrol evil. You shouldn't be able to get leaded petrol. Any will so i think. Most high income countries smelted to ban the sales of leaded petrol around the end of the twentieth century because despite adding a little traffic led to petrol improving engine performance. It does cause a host of health problems..
"billion years" Discussed on Kottke Ride Home
"And less <SpeakerChange> as the years. <Music> Go on <Music> <Music> <Music> <Music> <Advertisement> <Music> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> millions of <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> fun. Feel-good <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> story to end off <Speech_Music_Female> the week cape <Speech_Music_Female> verde paralympic <Speech_Female> sprinter cullinan <Speech_Female> andrea pereira. <Speech_Female> Semedo finished <Speech_Female> fourth in the women's <Speech_Female> two hundred meter <Speech_Female> t eleven qualifying <Speech_Female> heat earlier this <Speech_Female> week. Which means <Speech_Female> she just missed <Speech_Music_Female> out on advancing to <Speech_Music_Female> the semifinals but <Speech_Female> at the <Speech_Female> end of the race <Speech_Music_Female> her guide manual <Speech_Female> antonio <Speech_Female> vega got down <Speech_Female> on one knee <Speech_Female> right there <Speech_Female> on the track and <Speech_Music_Female> proposed to <Speech_Female> her. I'm <Speech_Female> going to assume based <Speech_Female> on her enthusiastic. <Speech_Female> Yes that they <Speech_Music_Female> were actually together <Speech_Female> before this race <Speech_Female> and it wasn't <SpeakerChange> totally <Speech_Female> random <Speech_Female> and apparently this wasn't <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> even the first <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> proposal of the <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> tokyo games. <Speech_Female> Npr points <Speech_Female> out that during the olympics. <Speech_Music_Female> Argentine <Speech_Music_Female> fencer maria belan <Speech_Female> peres maurice's <Speech_Female> partner and coach <Speech_Female> proposed <Speech_Female> to her by holding <Speech_Female> up a sign in <Speech_Female> the background of an <Speech_Music_Female> interview while <Speech_Music_Female> she was on air. <Speech_Music_Female> Well <Speech_Female> i guess that's one way <Speech_Female> to make sure. The proposal <Speech_Female> was recorded <Speech_Female> then. Considering <Speech_Female> both of these pairs <Speech_Female> trained together <Speech_Female> just imagine <Speech_Female> how many more <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> proposals might <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> have happened if athletes <Speech_Female> were able to <Speech_Female> actually be accompanied <Speech_Music_Female> by their non <Speech_Music_Female> coach or guide <Speech_Female> partners this year. <Speech_Music_Female> Brace <Speech_Female> yourself for proposal <Speech_Female> central <Speech_Music_Female> at the winter games <Speech_Music_Female> <Speech_Female> money ways. Just one <Speech_Female> quick. Note before i <Speech_Female> go this. Monday <Speech_Female> is labor day <Speech_Female> here in the us. <Speech_Music_Female> so ride home <Speech_Female> will be observing <Speech_Female> that by taking the day <Speech_Female> off. I hope <Speech_Female> you are able to relax <Speech_Female> a little this weekend <Speech_Female> as well whether you get <Speech_Music_Female> that extra day <Speech_Music_Female> off or not <Speech_Music_Female> either way.
"billion years" Discussed on Kottke Ride Home
"Living in new york city. I spend a lot of time walking and riding the subway which means a lot of time listening to music. Podcasts and audiobooks as the world finds a new normal. i've found that listening to things. While i commute for an errand or social event is even more important a weird history podcast distracts me or some old rog from growing up grounds me before i head into yet another experience. That's familiar yet. Different and with. Rake on wireless ear buds. I never have to worry about running out of battery while. I make my way around town because they come with eight thirty two hour battery life. They also come with a whole selection of gel tubes. Which was a godsend for my tiny ears. That tend to reject most ear buds. Not recons though they fit comfortably and sound great. So i can keep listening as i navigate our changing world rake on start at half the price of other premium audio brands. But they sound just as good plus they come with a forty five day happiness guarantee. So you can't lose. Give them a try. You'll see what i mean. Create your own soundtrack. With ray khan right now khadki ride home. Listeners can get fifteen percent off their rake on order at by con dot com slash khadki. That's by ray. Con dot com slash khadki fifteen percent on ray cons by recon dot com slash cot key. Football's right around the corner. Get in on the action with draft king sportsbook and officials sports betting partner of the nfl and with the nfl returning draft kings is giving new customers. Two hundred dollars in free bets instantly when you bet one dollar or more on any football game. Listen up because you don't want to miss this. Download the draftking sportsbook app now and use promo code. Art nineteen to receive two hundred dollars in bets. When you place a one dollar bet on any football game and get a free shot at a million top prize with your first deposit. That's promo code art. Nineteen for a limited time. Only at draft king sportsbook and officials sports betting partner of the. Nfl must be twenty one or older new jersey. Indiana or pennsylvania only new customers only minimum five dollar deposit and one dollar wager required one per customer restrictions. Apply see draft kings dot com size sportsbook for details gambling problem. Call one eight hundred gambler or an indiana one eight hundred nine with it if you're going to call a food delicious you'd better be pretty certain that it actually is. I mean that's a high bar to live up to. Its usually an epithet. That food earns in fact if you have to say it. Maybe that means it really isn't true to begin with that. Seems to be the case with red delicious apples depending on who you ask but it seems like the majority of people. These days would agree that yeah red delicious. Apples aren't really all. They're cracked up to be. They might look tasty from the outside. But the grainy inside rarely delivers or as av club describes them quote the ren delicious. Varietal aren't so much america's shittiest fruit subgroup as they are pasty course. Semi sweet hunks of plywood carved by agricultural goblins as part of some sick cruel joke thrust upon elementary school students hotel guests and already suffering hospital patients and quote despite that red delicious apples were the top selling apples in the united states for over fifty years only losing their crown in two thousand eighteen to the humble gala. See there's an apple that knows how to name itself. It's got a subtle hints of a fun party but it's not being overt about its taste. Accomplishments would anyways ren delicious apples dominated this nation for half a century with their ostentatious name. But these days no one really likes them that much. So what gives well in the beginning. They apparently really were delicious. Quoting new england today. The story begins with the ben davis apple extremely popular during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. This cultivar was known to fruit rowers as a mortgage lifter because it was so reliable. Less all of this was due to the apples. Good looks however rather than its taste. In the late eighteen eighties iowa farmer jesse hiatt stumbled across a mystery apple seedling. In his orchard despite his repeated attempts to stop the interloper from taking root it continued to spring up year after year hiatt eventually gave up and dubbed. The apple hawkeye in honor of his home states in eighteen. Ninety three hoping to find an apple with the beauty of ben davis but with superior taste missouri based stark brothers nurseries and orchards held a contest high. It submitted his hawkeye apple for consideration. After one bite of hyatt's chretien the president of stark brothers exclaimed. my this apple is delicious. He paused than declared that will be its name and quotes and yes marvel fans. The red delicious apple was originally named hawkeye and was bought by some entrepreneuring brother's named stark. Then originally it was called these stark delicious. It didn't get the red delicious name until nineteen fourteen when the brothers named another apple the golden delicious and then renamed the red one to match would apparently back then. The red delicious really was quite tasty. Despite the fact that people thought it looked kinda weird red delicious. Apples were a bit more oblong than round and had more distinct bumps on the bottom than people were used to back then the original ones from high. It's farm were also red with golden stripes not the darker solid red. That were familiar with now and remember his red delicious apples were an accident that he just let keep going but as more and more farmers grew the red delicious apples on their own trees. Some of them picked up slightly different genetic expressions which tends to happen with crops. One mutation was some of the red delicious apples. Losing the golden stripes becoming more bright red and therefore more popular with customers so farmers favored that version of the apple. But what they didn't realize it. I was that according to amy traverse author of the apple lovers cookbook quote a lot of the genes that coded for the flavor producing compounds. Were on the same chromosomes as the genes for the yellow striped skin. So as you favor the more consistently red colored apples you were essentially disfavoring the same genes that coded for great flavor and quotes. So you had better looking apples that didn't taste as good and thicker skin. That was good for transport but not for biting into and suddenly the miraculous red delicious was in the same boat as the old ben davis nice looking reliable but not at all tasty as traverse. Oh puts it quote. They literally bread the flavor out of the apple and quotes fortunately customers and farmers alike have finally come around to the idea that the red delicious just isn't so delicious anymore. Farmers of started prioritizing galas as well as fuji's honey crisps and giving up on red delicious. Poor jesse hiatt. His legacy ended with a long drawn. Ounce inbreeding whimper. I wish i could taste one of the originals. But at least they're distasteful. Progeny will be haunting our shelves less.
"billion years" Discussed on Kottke Ride Home
"This podcast is supported by. At active armor right now our lives on our phones with our phones full of livestream streamed exercise classes. Midday work calls in nightly family video calls. There's no room for fraud calls thankfully. At and t. Makes customer security a priority helping block those pesky calls. It's not complicated. At and t. Active armor twenty four seven proactive network security and fraud call blocking to help stop threats at no extra charge. Compatible device service required visit. At and t. dot com slash active armor for details. Welcome to the county ride home for friday. September third twenty twenty one. I'm jackson bird today. What if a room could charge all of your devices just by them being in there like no wires new charging pads just being in the room. Some engineers have made that a reality plus new insights into the billion years of time that are missing from the rock layers in the grand canyon. And why reg delicious apples are so common in the us. Even though they're not really that great here are some of the cool things from the news today. A room that wirelessly charges all of your devices just by them being in their amazingly convenience too good to be true pointless dangerous. The jury is still out on public reception. But engineers from the university of tokyo have built a prototype that transmits energy to electronic devices without the need for plugs or batteries. And we're not just talking about laptops and tablets but even home appliances quoting scientific american. The room relies on the same phenomenon. As short range wireless phone chargers a metal coil. Placed in a magnetic field will produce in electric current existing commercial charging ducks use electricity from a wall outlet to produce a magnetic field in a small area. Most recent smartphones are equipped with a metal coil and win. Such a model is placed on the dog. The interaction generates enough current to power. The phone's battery. But today's commercial products have a very limited range if you lift a phone off the dock or swayed in a case that is too thick the wireless power transfer ceases but if a magnetic field filled a whole room. Any phone within it would have access to wireless power and quotes. And here's how. The university of tokyo team did it quoting australia's abc news they. I built a three by three by two meter room with floor. Ceiling and walls made of aluminum sheet. Metal housing capacitors the capacitors transmitted in electric current through the floor ceiling and walls which generated a magnetic field that reverberated within the room. Devices equipped with small coil. Receivers could then tap this magnetic field for power the researchers charged a phone and ran a light and fan all at once in the room and all wirelessly. The study's lead author to Assists itani said. The team found the wireless power transfer was at least fifty percents efficient throughout most ninety eight percent of the room and they achieved this uniformity by generating a second magnetic field designed to fill the dead zones of the first the two fields generated within the volume compensate each other. He said and quote so that is pretty rad. But is it safe. Running a current through those metal walls would fill it with both electric and magnetic waves and electric fields can be dangerous to our human meat sex. The team accounted for this too though quoting again. From scientific american the team embedded capacitors devices that store electric energy in the walls it confines the safe magnetic fields within the room volume. Welcome finding hazardous parts inside all the components embedded inside. The walls says the tiny explains the researchers also tested the rooms safety by running computer simulations measuring what the human body would be exposed to in a digital model of the powered room authorities such as the federal communications commission have established standards for how much electromagnetic radiation the human body can safely be exposed to and the simulation suggested the absorption of energy in the test room would remain well below acceptable limits and quotes the team notes. That they're not saying it's one hundred percent safe right now but the tests they've done indicate that it can be well within safety regulations and still be effective at charging. Now all i hadn't heard of a whole charging room before the wireless charging sector is booming right now as tons of researchers and startups. Try to hit on the next big thing. And the idea of wireless charging goes all the way back to nikola tesla in the late eighteen. Hundreds quoting interesting engineering. The tesla coil was unique device that worked on the principle of electrical resonance and was able to transmit electricity without wires however the coil could conduct electricity wirelessly over short distances only and due to its limited potential. It didn't turn out to be a practical application for wireless electricity. Transfer tesla was still obsessed with his idea of wireless power so in the years that followed. He worked on building an energy station that could conduct. High-voltage wireless power transmission or wbz t- through this experimentation tesla aimed transmit messages wirelessly at long distances using either a series of strategically position towers or a system of suspended balloons. He conducted a wireless transmission station in long island called the tesla or warden cliff tower which he believed could demonstrate that. Long range wireless. Electricity transmission was possible. Unfortunately investor j. p. morgan refused to provide more funds for his experiments and the project was shut down in nineteen. Oh six and later. Demolished and quotes tesla would never see his dream achieved but today tons of places are innovating on his concept of using the earth. As a medium for transmitting power. As opposed to wires interesting engineering points to solar power satellites in higher orbit the microwaves from sunlight to a grid or antenna on earth and new zealand startup. Emerald rod is working on a sort of laser looking tele energy tech using antennas and retinas that could enable new zealand to go fully wireless even in rural and mountainous areas. There's also an american company working on wireless charging for electric vehicles. That could be installed under roads or parking lots. So cars can charge on the go. The indiana department of transportation's teamed up with german cement company and purdue university to work on similar technology. There is a ton happening in this realm that i am stoked to see develop over the coming years and as for the wireless charging room study co author. Alan sample reminds us that it's early days but that they're feeling optimistic quote. It's just too burdensome to put aluminum sheets all over your walls that benefit doesn't make sense yet. We've just developed a brand new technique. Now we have to figure out.
What Was Stephen Hawking's Final Project?
"Days before his death on march fourteenth two thousand eighteen famed theoretical physicists. And cosmologists stephen hawking completed what would be his final research paper it since passed peer review and was published online in the journal of high energy. Physics on april twenty-seventh written with co author. Thomas herzog a theoretical physicist at the university of louisville belgium. The paper adds another facet to our understanding of this universe that we live in and needless to say it's complicated titled a smooth exit from eternal inflation. Be publication discusses an enigmatic problem facing cosmologists but before we delve into the crux of the study. Let's go back to win. Our universe was a baby. Some thirteen point eight billion years ago. A lot of evidence suggests that our universe originated from a singularity an infinitely dense point from which all the universe as we know it was born. We call that event the big bang but how the singularity came to be and why the big bang happened isn't of concern right now. We're interested in what happened immediately. After our universe was spawned a period known as inflation cosmologists predict that inflation occurred over a vanishingly small period. Right after the big bang during our universes very first ten to thirty two seconds during inflation the universe expanded exponentially and much faster than the speed of light after only his second. The energy from this inconceivably gargantuan explosion condensed to form subatomic particles that over millions of years created the stars galaxies planets and after another few billion years life. As we know it once this inflationary period ended the universes rate of expansion slowed but it continues to expand to this day because inflation powered a faster than light speed expansion. The observable universe that we see today is not the entire universe rather we exist inside a region of the cosmos. That light has had time to reach. It's like dropping a pebble into a calm swimming pool. The first circular ripple to propagate from the splash travels a fixed speed across the surface of the pool. If we imagine that the limit of our observable universe is that ripple traveling across the pool at the speed of light it's not that nothing exists beyond that ripple there's more pool or universe beyond it. We just can't see it yet. So the consequence of inflation is that there should be a lot more universe beyond what we can see even with our most powerful
Engineering Life to Reach New Worlds
"Chris thanks for joining us. Thanks so much pleasure to be here. We're gonna talk about your book. The next five hundred years and what it'll take to engineer life to reach beyond earth and allow manta outlived the planet. There's a lot in this book that i think readers might find ethically challenging but the whole framework for the work that discusses begins with an ethical imperative. This has to do with the unavoidable fate of the earth and the responsibility that comes with the awareness of the extinction of life. Up will go with that. Can you explain happy to so yes it. Is you know it starts with a very simple premise. That has i think clear ethical need and then gets into. Well that's true. What does that lead to a lot of interesting questions are but in a nut show we are the only species with awareness of extinction as you just said and you know we are the only ones that can actually prevent extinction for other species. Obviously sometimes we have caused it which is not great perfect track record on this but with the only ones that can service is really know stewards and you know basically shepherds of life not just our own life because at some point the sun will boy the oceans and if we want to survive we'd have to go elsewhere so mars in elsewhere is not plan b. It's just plan a in the long run. All questions are very clear in the lens of a billion years at and then if it's true that means that we if we want to survive ourselves or other creatures as far as the only ones that know that so it's incumbent upon us to serve as the protectors next week protect current species or even to revive extinct species. I talked about in the book because we are the only ones who have this passage unique role universe in a unique responsibility quite literally a duty for our species to all other species.
New Type of Ancient Massive Explosion Explains Mystery Star
"A massive explosion. Ten times more powerful than a supernova being described as a magneto rotational hyper could provide the power to produce one of the most mysterious stars in the galaxy. The star is located some seven thousand. Five hundred lie is away in the halo of the milky way galaxy a supernova is the explosive death of a star a blast so powerful it can outshine in thai galaxy for weeks on end and even more powerful explosion than any supernova is a high turnover oblast generated by the merger of two neutron stars. And these have recently been confirmed as the source of the rapid neutron capture nuclear synthesis process which is thought to forge the periodic tables heaviest elements. But that still mon- enough to explain the levels or types of elements found in the specter of this mysterious star. This unusually strong start destroying blast. The magneto rotational hype over is the most likely explanation for the presence of unexpectedly high amounts of very specific signature element in this inch star. These include zinc uranium europeam and possibly gold all of which seem to have been detected in this extremely primitive star catalogued as sms. S j two double zero three double two point five four minus double one four two zero three point three. It's carrot address in the sky. The star is what's known as a population to star star produced directly out of the elements forged in the explosive core collapse supernovae marking the death of the very first stars in the universe known as population three stars population. Three stars unique. They'll produce directly out of the hydrogen and helium produced in the big bank. Thirteen point eight two billion years ago. They thought they were first. Formed somewhere around three hundred to four hundred million. After the big bang ending the cosmic dark ages and triggering. The epoch of rian is ation the process which made the universe looked away. That's
Astronomers Find 2 Black Holes Gulping City-Size Neutron Stars
"Eating another. For the first time ever. They've seen a black hole, gobbling a neutron star. NPR's Nell Greenfield Boys reports on how scientists were able to spy on this cosmic snack. Black holes are famous for their gravitational pull, which nothing not even light can escape. And then there's neutron stars. Neutron stars are very weird. Maya Fishback is an astronomer at Northwestern University. She says Neutron stars are made of protons and neutrons, the stuff you find inside atoms. But they're crushed together into a shockingly dense fear that's heavier than our sun and can comfortably fit within the city of Chicago. Now, scientists say they've caught a black hole, eating a neutron star in one giant gulp. And then 10. Days later, they saw another black hole. Do the same thing for these particular systems. The neutron star would have just plunged into the black hole without Admitting any light. If all this gnashing didn't put out detectable light, then how did researchers spotted by sensing gravitational waves? Those are the ripples in spacetime created by powerful violent events out in the universe. Gravitational waves were predicted to exist by Albert Einstein over a century ago, but not detected until 2015 Chase. Kimball is a graduate student at Northwestern, he says, the ability to register gravitational waves has been a game changer for astronomy. So it's like, you know, flipping the sound on on a silent movie or something like that. Where we previously just been watching the universe, and now we can listen to it through this gravitational waves. In this case, the black holes gobbling neutron stars generated gravitational waves that took about a billion years to reach Earth. In January of 2020. The waves triggered three giant
Life on Mars
"Mars the red planet barren and inhospitable. It shines brightly in the night sky so much so that it can be seen by the naked eye and well mars appears dead. It shares a surprising amount of similarities with earth. Some believe it may have even contained intelligent life. Mars came into existence with the rest of our solar system approximately four point five billion years ago. Scientists are still unsure exactly how it was formed but they suspect that gravitational forces. 'cause gas and dust swirl together and a process the can take tens of millions of years almost like a giant dust bunny gathering debris over time both earth and mars exist in an area of the solar system known as the habitable zone. Meaning they're neither too close nor too far away from the sun and are able to have liquid water on their surface if other conditions were right on mars like proper atmosphere. It could be more conducive to sustaining life today. While the sun doesn't overheat earth or mars. it's still bombarding them with deadly radiation. Fortunately thanks to inner cores made up of varying degrees of iron and nickel both planets developed magnetic fields that shielded them from the sun's damage ultimately this invisible cover allowed life to develop on earth and at one point might have been the case for mars as well one thing is for sure. There was definitely water on the red planet. Three point five billion years ago meaning this would have been right around the time life could have started to originate. Mars is only about half the size of earth so it has less mass densities also significantly smaller as a result. Some scientists have speculated that its core cooled off much faster causing mars to lose its magnetic field
The death of the universe -- and what it means for life | Katie Mack [TEST]
"Hi neil degrasse. Tyson here guest hosting today on ted talks daily. Here's a talk from a ted fellow and fellow. Astrophysicist katie mac. She's a thought leader. Who's trying to make sense out of the complicated and theoretical issues related to the future of the universe. Wait wait actually. Her specialty is the end of the universe. That's where she's coming from or at least that's where she's going or that's where she's going to take us. Check it out. hello then. i'm chris hansen. The guy lucky enough to run ted now host a podcast called the ted interview and this on the show. I talked to someone really special name. The woman i'm married to jacqueline nova grads. She's been thirty years. Learning how to use the tools of business to tackle global poverty. We got drawn into capitalism raised to the rank of religion. And now we have an opportunity to have a very different conversation. Find the tudent. Few wherever you listen to costs. I showed people all around dc antiquites. My guests engaged. I liked his sprinkle in a fun. Factor to next off dupont circle. Also here's a lifestyle tip for you. Try apple pay. You can now just tap with your phone or watch to get on the bus or train all over the dc area at your smart trip to the apple wallet than just tap to ride apple. Pay on iphone now. Arriving on metro. Support for ted talks. Daily comes from odu dues suite of business. Apps has everything you need to run a company. Think of your smartphone with all your apps right at your fingertips odu is just like that for business but instead of an app to order takeout or tell you the weather you have sales inventory accounting and more union the department we've got it covered and they're all connected joined the six million users who stopped wasting time and started getting stuff done go to odu dot com slash ted to start a free trial that's od show dot com slash ted. I the universe. The vastness the mystery the astonishing beauty of the stars. I love everything about it. And i devoted my life to studying it from adam's two galaxies from beginning to end but lately i've gotten stuck on that last bit the fact that the universe is dying. I know this may come as a shock. I mean it's the universe it's everything it's supposed to be eternal right but it isn't. We know the universe had a beginning and everything that begins and the start of the story is familiar one. In the beginning there was light. We know that because we can see it. Directly the cosmos today is filled with low energy background radiation leftover from a time when the whole universe was an all encompassing inferno in its first three hundred and eighty thousand years space or dark. it was thick. With a churning humming plasma it was hot and dense it was loud but it was also expanding over time the fire dissipated and space cooled clouds of gas pulled together by their own gravity form stars and galaxies and planets and us and one day astronomers using a microwave receiver detected a bit of static coming from every direction the sky the leftover radiation from that promote. He'll fire we can know map out the cosmos to the farthest reaches of the observable universe. We can see distant galaxies whose light has taken billions of years to reach us so by looking at them. We're looking deep into the past. We can watch how the expansion of the universe has slowed down since that hot early phase. Thirteen point eight billion years ago we can see collisions of entire galaxies. And watch the star formation the result from the sudden conflagration of all that cosmic hydrogen and we can see that these collisions are happening. Less and less. The expansion of the universe isn't slowing down anymore. A few billion years ago. It started speeding up. Distant galaxies are getting farther apart faster and faster star formation has slowed in fact we can calculate exactly how much and when we do we find something shocking of all the stars that have ever been born or that ever will be around ninety percent have already come into being from now until the end of time the universes were he'll just that last ten percent the end of the universe is coming. There are few ways that could happen but the most likely is called the heat death and in agonizing slow languishing of the cosmos stars. Burn out leaves smoldering ash. Galaxies become increasingly isolated in their own dimples of light particles decay even black holes evaporate into the void. Of course we still have some time. The heat is so far in the future. We hardly have words to describe it long. Past a billion years when the sun expands and boils off the oceans of the earth long past one hundred billion years we lose the ability to see distant galaxies and that faint trace of big bang light long after we are left alone in the darkness watching the milky way. Fade it's okay to be sad about it even if it is trillions of years in the future. No one wants to think about something. They love coming to an end as disconnected as it may be us here now. It is somehow more profound than personal death. We have strategies for accepting the ability of that. After all we tell ourselves something of us will live on. Maybe it will be our great works. Maybe it will be our children carrying on our genetic material or perhaps our basic outlook on life. Maybe it will be some idea worth spreading humanity might venture out into the stars and evolve and change but something of us will survive but the universe ends at some point. We have no legacy. There will come a time when in a very real sense our existence will not have mattered. The slate will be wiped clean completely. Why should we spend our lives seeking answers to the ultimate question of reality. If eventually there will be no one left to tell. Why build a sandcastle when you can see that the tide is coming in. I've asked a dozen other cosmologists. And they all had different answers to some. The death of the cosmos seems right. It's freeing to know that we are temporary. I very much like our glibness one told me to others. The question itself motivates the search for some alternative theory. There must be some way to carry on the slow fade to black. Just cannot be our story ends. One found comfort in the possibility of the multi vers. It's not all about us. He said personally. I feel lucky our cosmos existed for billions of years before us and it will carry on long after. We are gone
Determining the Age of Earths Continental Crust
"And you study claims its continental crust. First emerged some three point. Seven billion years ago. The findings presented at the european geological. Union's general assembly showed that the planet's light continental crust formed within the first nine hundred million years of the earth's existence. The continental crust is the layer of grew natick sedimentary amid them offic rocks which forms the continents in the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores is the continental shelves. It's list dance. The janik crust material and therefore floats on top of it unlike previous research which is based on strontium isotopes and marine cabinets which are usually either scarce or altered in rock more than three billion years old new study by scientists from the university of bergen looked at the mineral barrett which forms from sulfates emotion water mixing with barium from hydrothermal vents and thus holds an unchanging record aversion chemistry. Going back through time. The authors calculated the ratio of strontium isotopes in six different deposits of barrack from three different continents range in age from three pointed three point. Five billion years this allowed them to determine win with continental rock populated into the ocean and was incorporated into barrett the authors determined that the weathering started about three point seven billion years ago. That's around five hundred million years earlier than previously thought. The findings provide a new understanding of early ocean chemistry. As well as the onset of plate tectonics and even hope understanding the evolution of the biosphere because once process is like plate tectonics hope established the continents processes like erosion can begin to where the crucial minerals and nutrients into the ocean.
Algenist: Skincare that Guarantees Results in 10 Days!
"Have not tried everything in alginates line back. We used to do press events. I would come to a lot of the events that you had that are wonderfully done and so informative. But i did fall in love with the sleeping collagen. That a few girlfriends. That i've turned onto and i thought it'd be nice to talk about you. Have an entire brand. That's really built upon the benefits of algae. Can you tell us about that well. We are a brands that has been born from. Algae research and the reason is algae plant it has survived and thrived for well over one point. Five billion years there are hundreds upon hundreds of thousands of different kinds of algae. And what's great about. It is because it has been so successful in nature it has adapted to have these compounds that naturally found in nature that are really beneficial and really important and we have made it our mission to study algae and look at those exciting compounds and help bring them to skin care because they show incredible results so algae is like this perfect little system. The other incredible thing about it is that it's natural. It is a regenerative ingredient. It is a clean ingredient and what we have shown in the rigor of our science which is core and fundamental to what we do as well. Is that these compounds. Show incredible results on the skin and they happen really quickly. And we set the bar high for ourselves and aimed to deliver meaningful visible results in the skin in just ten days with with our technologies ingredients
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Come on. Space time.
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Of them. Who knows what's going on. So it's not all mine I think most gravitational wave detections of things colliding black holes colliding neutron styles. I think secure. I think that that's so well muddled. They fit the bill exactly and they fit all our understanding of what black holes might be like. What constitutes a black hole. I think generally speaking the gravitational wave astronomy is in good shape and discovering things fairly regularly. How ever one in particular has raised some questions and it's all about the mass of the objects that we think are involved so this is a gravitational wave signal occurred on the twenty first of may twenty nineteen and it comes from a distance of seven billion light years. You know this is really in the depths of the universe. That's we're looking back more than half the age of the universe when you look back. Seven billion light years and so it was a massive collision and the detectors gave a very strong signal. You'll remember that what happens when black holes colliding that they they approach each other. They're basically norway's around one another old bit spirals inwards as they eventually call and it's the spiralling inwards that gives you this characteristic shop in the in the gravitational wave signal with the. That's the way it goes way. Get to the end. That's when the two of coalesced and essentially if formed a a black hole which no longer gives a gravitational signal because it's not being accelerated. That's the whole point. So this event in twenty nineteen the calculation the analysis of that signal latvia strimmers determine what size of objects. We're talking about here. And it was two black holes one at sixty six sola masses on one eight hundred five solar masses eighty five times the mass of the sun and the reason why this is now in the in. The news is that there's been a reanalysis more of a different interpretation of what these black holes might have been an. It's an international team of very notable astrophysicists. So so the suggestion is that these were not actually black holes but theoretical objects which cold bozon styles out now. Bozon's are the sympathetic particles that carry force like the higgs boson. The thing that gives us the mass films are actually bozon's the subatomic particles transmitting. You me around the universe the moment by electromagnetism so i have not come across bozon styles before i have to say this interested me greatly because they could be a new form of matter but the astrophysicists involve believed that several of the. If you do have bozon stars well they could be made of will be something as the same stuff dot matter whatever. It is invisible in the universe this holy galaxies together. Noli galaxy club took the words right out of my mouth there. I was always going to walk that path the dogmatic question. Well i didn't somebody in the audience would have if that's the case. It could answer questions could it. Not yes if it exists. If suspect he's going to raise questions announces the but you're right so what comes out of this is a black hole with a massive one hundred and forty two times. The sun's mass. That's getting on for what we call it. Intimate mass black hole. Which is where. There's a gap is the gap in the black hole range between stellar mass williams and the supermassive ones. And there's not much in between the been a few candidates but he's not much so one hundred forty two times. The mass of the sun is getting on that way. But the reason why this will cast doubt on whether it's black holes and all is that a black hole of eighty five sola masses shouldn't exist because if you're assuming that the two candidate black holes to collided if as we believe most of these small black holes do if they come from the detonation of a single star at the end of its life a supernova explosion there is a limit on how big it's a supernova explosion. You can have that will full a black hole. And if you've got one over about sixty five solar masses a draw that much of us to start with because he's blown away a lot of his outta material but something over sixty five solar masses. He come collapsed to a black coal. and it's because i'm not a supernova expert. But i've heard of these things. They are called pair instability. Supernovae a star in that mass range over sixty five solar masses were produces a spat up a pair instability supernova and. What it does is completely obliterates center of the star the core of the style which is in a normal supernova explosion. That's what collapses to the black hole is the core of the star but apparently in appeared stability supernova. the whole thing is blasted to pieces. So you don't get anything left behind and so you shouldn't be able to find black holes more than sixty five so investors and here is one. That is being postulated as an eighty-five salem's black hole. Now it is possible that that black hole got to excise by merging with another one so it might have been to stella massive blackouts done us black holes that merged and formed one of eighty five solar masses. But the other thing is that comes from spanish. Research is actually one calderon bush. Delia books studio of the galatian institute. physics in spain. They've looked at this possibility of these bozon styles and they say that it would match the numbers on of the other. Astronomers jose font of this university of valencia valencia in spain. He says our results show that the two scenarios almost indistinguishable given the data although the exotic birds on star hypothesis is slightly preferred. What he means by. The two scenarios is the pair of black holes all the pair of bose on stars and the the theoretical. Look these bozon. Stars entrees slot preserved. He goes on to say. This is very exciting. Cintel elbows on star model is as of now very limited and subject to major improvements in other words. We don't really know what they're dealing with. A more evolved model that means with all more fancy bells and whistles on the theoretical model more revolve model may lead to even larger evidence for this scenario would also allow us to study previous gravitational wave observations under the bozon star assumption. Tonight and i come across a description of a bose on star might look like in the basically a suggesting the look a lot like blackhall except for one thing. And that is that they don't have an absorbing surface that would stop photons or an event horizon so they would actually appear totally transparent. which is mind boggling. and they go into side basically they basically compact blobs of bose einstein. Stein condensate and so. That's a which is really interesting in that kind of makes a bit more sensitive because it goes out. Installing condenser is basically matter these sort of compressed to a level where it behaves like a single quantum object and you know quantum objects are weird. And we're usually think of them as being tiny microscopic scale objects but he's a star that might be a single quantum object which raises all kinds of possibilities because quantum objects can be in two places at the same time. Maybe these einstein says could be as well is great stuff is there is no the answer to long-haul spice traveling. No tom yourself. A friendly bozon store and yourself to it and stuck the fred watson and astronomer with the department of science speaking with andrew dunkley on our sister program space nuts and this is space time still the gum. Nurses new moon rocket passes a major milestone and later in the science report why some otherwise healthy people develop life threatening covid nineteen symptoms. That are more still to.
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Okay let's take a break from show now for a word from our new sponsor north. Pass the new era in password management. So i was reading a review of password management providers on why the other day and they mentioned not past saying it's a relatively new kid on the password management block that it does come from a company with significant pedigree and of course. They're talking there about north. Vpn the well known and trusted vpn provider. And so now. Developing a password manager and as you'd expect from a company like gnawed it's password manager offers the same as of using simplicity which is made its vpn so popular and to me. It really does sum up the past quite beautifully. Now as you'd appreciate with a company like nodes pedigree they tech security seriously but without compromising as of us. Britain's you can start all your passwords in the one place organizing all your passwords and log ins along with private notes in a secure password. 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You can of course trying to pass out for free and stay with that plan for evermore but there's a special space timelessness upgrade to our premium plan. It's gives you access to all sources special benefits and it's really affordable. Something also impressed with so if you use space time you are row for a limited time. You'll get fifty percent off your first twelve months on the premium plan. So what he's got to lose sign up today. Go to north past dot com forward slash stewart or use the coupon codes stewart special offer and gain peace of mind. That's not pass dot com forward slash. Stewart or coupon code stewart. And of course the your old details are in the show notes and on our website and now it's back to space time this space time with stewart gary a team of scientists claiming that the heaviest black hole collision ever observed. Maybe something even more mysterious. The merger of two so-called blows on stars a report in the journal physical review letters claims the event which produced the gravitational wave gw ninety five twenty. One could be the first evidence for the existence of these hypothetical objects which are one of the candidates for dark matter. Mysterious invisible substance that makes up to the mess of the universe. Scientists have no idea. What dark matter is that. They know it exists because they can see its gravitational influence on galaxies since two thousand fifteen the to lago detectors in the united states in the virgo detector in italy of detected more than fifty gravitational wave signals gravitational waves or ripples in the very fabric of space time the generated by some of the most violent events in the universe such as the merging of super-dense objects like neutron stars and black holes however the promise of gravitational wave research goes much deeper than this maybe even providing evidence for previously unobserved and even unexpected objects in the press shedding new light mysteries lack dark matter the gw ninety five twenty one gravitational wave signal which was detected in september twenty twenty wants consistent with the collision of two stellar mass black holes of roughly eighty five and sixty six times the mass of our sun the merger resulted in the production of venue. Black hole of some one in forty two solar masses and that's significant because it's the first avenue previously unobserved category of intermediate sized black holes so discoveries of paramount importance because intermediate sized black holes are a missing link between the other two will known types of black families. There are still a mess. Black holes which formed from the collapse of stars and supermassive black holes which reside at the centers of most if not all galaxies challenges presented by this particular gravitational wave event was justifying. How the heaviest of the two colliding black holes. That's the one. With eighty five solar masses could have formed out of the collapse of star the end of its life. See even the biggest stars should have shifted off much of they amassed by the time they collapsed supernova and eighty five solar masses really stretches those calculations so instead the authors suggest an alternative explanation one involving the collision of two exotic hypothetical objects called bozon stars on star one of the many candidates to try and explain dark matter. I'm luck the electrons. Neutrinos quarks which make up particles of matter bozon's a paddock was force which therefore have messes billions of times list than electrons in fact some bows such as photons have no mess at all the others compared the gw ninety five twenty one signal to computer simulations of bows onstar mergers. Finding that bozon stars would explain the data slightly better than the analysis conducted by lago and virgo. If they're right and that's a big. If at this stage the findings suggest that because mergers will be much weaker the event the collision would have been much closer and it would have involved a much larger mass for the final black hole. Something around two hundred and fifty masses if they exist burst on stars will be almost as compact as black holes but unlike by a kohl's they have an event horizon point of no return. It's an intriguing idea. The find out more and your ugly speaking with astronomer professor fred watson we Going to now look at this this research this a rather strange issue surrounding lodge gravitational wave detection. Because there's a possibility. According to this lightest data that the gravitational wise wives telling us feeds they not indicating what we thought they were indicating. Not all of them or maybe none.
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
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Global Shortage in Semiconductors Increases
"Global shortage in computer chips reaches crisis point. And i really wish that they would just break more into what's actually going on behind the scenes. I get it maybe to some extent. We might not actually know what's going on. But let's hop on into the articles. He what's up. Consumers are facing price rises and shortages of products from. Tv's mobile phones to cars and game consoles as a global shortage in. Semiconductors grows shortage in chips. The brain with an electronic device in the world has been steadily worsening since last year now. Initially the problem was only temporarily in supplies. Factories shut down when the pandemic i hit however although production is back to normal a new surge in demand driven by changing habits fueled by the pandemic means that now is reaching a crisis point car manufacturers investing in tech heavy electric vehicles. Which is okay. I'm just going to make a point to some extent stupid. Gopher hybrid the boom in sales of tv's in home computers launch new game consoles five g. Mobile phones have all driven demand. So we know that demand has been going on an increase to like crazy stupid level that we haven't seen before even a mighty apple a two trillion dollar company in the world's biggest buyer of semiconductors spending fifty eight billion annually was forced to delay the launch of much hyped iphone twelve by two months last year due to the shortage in one of the reasons. Chips are everything says neal camping media in tech analyst at mehrabad. There's a perfect storm of supply and demand factors going on here but basically there is a new level of demand that can't be kept up with everyone is in crisis and it's getting worse for recently canceled shift at two car. Plants and said profits could be hit by up to two point. Five billion year due to chip shortages while nissan is idling output at plants in mexico. Us general motors said they could face a two billion dollar profit hit as well. Meanwhile sony last month along with other console makers has struggled with stock shortages over the last year that it might not hit sales targets for new playstation five this year because of the semiconductor supply issue microsoft's xbox said if forecasts supply issues continuing at least until the second half of the year and then they go on to talk about samsung itself selling fifty six billion dollars of semi conductors to other an consuming thirty. Six billion dollars of them itself finds. It may have to delay the launch of one of its own products as well. They're co chief executive. Who had its mobile business. Unit highlighted a significant issue. Saying there is a serious imbalance in the pecking order of who has Giving the limited supplies of chips so what exactly is going on. While chip shortage looks set to persist for some time yet. It up the two years to get complex semiconductor production factories up and running and manufacturers are in process of significantly raising prices for the second time in less than a year is no sign of supply catching upper demand decreasing while prices are rising across the chain so economically. What does this mean means. Less supply obviously unable to meet demand and prices. Go up because of it. Because that's kind of the only counterbalance that you have to be able to balance everything taken an economics course at the basic level. How things work. So what exactly is going on. It could be that. There aren't enough factories able to produce enough of a supply of semiconductors. One thing i'm wondering though is are there enough materials to be able to construct it. I mean semiconductors aren't really the easiest to make their actually quite complex quite exact in its production of it not to mention you also need to have trained individuals who know how to do it. Do it well Which is a limited supply of as
What Earth Looked Like 3.2 Billion Years Ago
"We get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock that makes up part of the earth's mantle these rafic plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in roger wants to know in earth's long history when those plates started moving answering that question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you. Yes so we follow the old rocks. We go to the parts of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so play tectonics life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth's surface represents the first half of our history. Oh that's really interesting in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the present day so specifically we went to an area. north australia. Called the pilbara so this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right yes. Just by the luck of the draw these rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wandered all the way from the poll to the equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated melted. What is it look like roger. Yeah it's a really beautiful place and most of the terrains. Condie's green rolling hills with these kind of spiky kind of drought resistant. Grasses is better look then. Walk through sense yeah. It's prettier than it. Feels as what you're telling me exactly the same field season. We took these samples. I I made the grave mistake. Taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find iraq they are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right. So we'd take the rocks from the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words wish science up and then we take it back to our lab and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in the so turns out all naturally form rocks contain magnetic components. So i mean i mean. I knew that i knew that. Keep going on your then. Totally knew that. Yeah yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are magnetic and they're actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing. Wow so you you can literally take rock and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically changing latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on. The earth dangled a maniac field changes. So if you can measure the angle to make field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude through the form that. Wow okay okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if i have this right then you compare them to nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the equator and comparing to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Closer to the equator so in in the tropics of the earth to position that's farther from the equator so in kind of the mid-latitudes and and we can quantify how quick this drift was how quick this motion was and from that. We know that this does and was moving at the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so into you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people Other workers that have visited rocks before us. have looked at particular parts of these particular mineral grains in these rocks. Tie actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close the rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about rogers research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience mystery. So there's this very long standing question in earth science of how the earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the earth shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the earth surface. Then you know one of the key ingredients that life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where. I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why. The earth managed to maintain equilibrium in temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate. Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within the within a certain range. So are you telling me that. The movement of the plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool it to add this piece to it to defined this out. Yeah yeah it. Felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question. If feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape boots is. What you're telling me that's right. Yeah it was worth the the pokes foot every day every. Step all right roger. Will i really appreciate you. This super fun. Yeah yeah this is really
Meteorite recovered in the UK after spectacular fireball in the sky
"On the final day of february people in some parts of the uk were treated to a celestial light show as a meteor streaked in from space hundreds of videos viable have since been posted online by amateur photographers. We'll see even more special by analyzing the footage multiple networks of cameras for the first time in three decades in the uk the coporate and as it turns out very rare space rock the caused all this was successfully tracked down and recovered from someone's driveway. Phil sansom spoke to the uk meteo observation networks. Mary mcintyre to hear how it happened. There was a really bright fireball picked up across multiple networks. A week ago on sunday and later in the week we found out the in meteorite fight being recovered and this is an incredibly thing to happen in the uk actually even in the world to recover meteorite that's been seen as a fireball quite ready then we found out that it's one of an extremely rag kind of meteorite just so many special things and we just haven't been able to sleep because we're just so excited such a huge win for citizen science. It really was. Wow and you didn't even know what was coming. Did you just sort of appeared as a flash right. Yeah these things. You can't predict them. They're entirely random pieces of space debris and this one was really unusual because it was captured by so many cameras across the because we had a clear sky across the country. What does it look like. Is it just a bright. The whole sky lynx up or is there like an angle you can see and that's how you figure out where he's going. It depends way you see it from our camera so it was heading straight for us so actually on our camera was just an enormous flash and it was really difficult. Get any data from it. Because she couldn't see a flight path but there's a guy called rigid fleet down in wiltshire. Who caught it side on is the most phenomenal bright thing. Streaking across the sky just resulted in this enormous kind of explosion and it fragmented. We could see that there were multiple fragments there and won't she kind of do the calculations behind the scenes. They can figure out the speed. It was moving the angle through the atmosphere. It's exact path before it been up and once you do all that they can also figure out the mass. And once she know the mashed you can then calculate whether something may have survived and landed the normally something like that would be kind of kept quiet for fear of contamination but because of covid and the fact that the area that they think it landed was basically lots of farmland in the cox worlds. None of us are thought for a second that this would get recovered and if it was recovered not for many days when it been rained on all that stuff so it was. It was just incredible. It could have gone in a stream. I'm guessing it could have gone a sheep's trough and cheap eight it. Many fables in the k. Are thought to survive but the end up in the sea because the small island so who actually found dead and how one of the homeowners at actually heard third on their drives the previous your house and they just didn't think anything of it but once the natural history museum per hour video to local saint. If you see anything please have a look and they went out and there was a fragment some dust and kind of black raise on driveway. And i think a fragment bounced over the the walter. Next door's garden wants. People arrived on the scene from wednesday onwards. There was like a fingertip search of the area remote fragments being found in. We've now found about hundred grams of this. Which is just extraordinary. You said that not only was it. Amazing space rock. It's also a very special kind of space rock. It is it's it's a type of meteorite called a carbonaceous conned right and they're really important because most of them originate from the asteroid belt asteroids themselves the old because that leftover material from when the solar system formed four point five billion years ago. But what's amazing about carbonaceous conroy's they have these tiny little of material that actually predates our solar system some of them have organic materials amino acids in them and to get a sample that is really pristine like this is incredibly rare and so important for scientists to kind of analyze the material and find out the origins of our solar system and before also system. It's just being one of the most amazing stories of the decade and the hasn't been a full that's been found for thirty s in the uk. So it's amazing and what's funny as well as aren't their missions. Going on right now. Sending probes up to asteroids way out in space desperate to try and get any sort of sample from them. And we've just had one line right at our doorstep. It is well. There was actually a mission to the asteroid a writer and the quality of the some police comparible without sample return mission from right and they brought by lake tiny amounts of asteroids. And we've got four hundred grams of this. I mean you can't rely on them landing as a way of analyzing them because it just doesn't happen very often. I take me found all the time. But they've been led on the ground. Who knows how long. And still quite believe israel i just honestly when i found out i just cried because such an amazing
The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen
"Astronomers of sudden you record for the most distant quasar ever found the quasar dating back some thirty point one. Three billion years is a thousand times more luminous than the milky way galaxy and is powered by the earliest known supermassive black hole a true monster more than one point six billion times. The mass of the sun the newly discovered quasar jazeera three one three minus eighteen o six and reported in the physical journal letters and on the pre press physics website archive dot. Org doesn't just provide new insights into the evolution of massive galaxies in the universe. It also raises profound questions. About how such massive black holes could have existed just six hundred thirty million years after the big bang. And that's a point underlined by the study's lead author for enjoying from the university of arizona. Who says black holes created by the very first massive stars simply could not have grown that large in only a few hundred million years the most distant quasars a crucial for understanding how the earliest black holes formed and for understanding cosmic realization the last major phase transition of the universe from the cosmic dark ages before the first stars quasars a powerful jets of mass and energy generated by black holes feeding on surrounding material as matter falls into a black hole it forms an accretion disc around the black hole event horizon a point of no return beyond which material falls forever into the singularity a place of infinite density and zero volume scientists understanding of the laws of physics breaks down material on the creation disc is ripped apart of the subatomic level by friction and gravitational forces releasing huge amounts of energy radiating out across the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of energy emitted by quasars is enormous with massive examples such as this one being visible right across the entire universe. J zero three one three minus eighteen. O six was first spotted in data from the pan stars new kurt hemisphere survey with follow up specter from the keg in north telescopes to measure the size of its central supermassive black hole measurements from spectral lines that originate from the guests around the quasars. Accretion disk allowed astronomers to determine the black mass and study its rapid growth influences. Its environment for such distant. Quasars important spiritual lines are red shifted to knee infrared wavelength by the physical expansion of the universe over the past thirteen point eight billion years. The and jim nine north observations and covered an extremely fast emitting from the quasar in the form of high-velocity winds travelling at twenty percent the speed of light the energy released by such an extreme. I city flow easily. Large enough to impact star formation in the entire quasars galaxy as for the galaxy itself. Well it's undergoing a spirit of star formation producing you stars two hundred times faster than the milky way the combination of this intense star formation a luminous quasar and the high velocity outflow makes jazeera three one three minus eighteen. O six antos galaxy a promising natural barberie for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the early universe.
Zoltan Pozsar on What Just Happened with the Treasury Market
"So joe. it's well. There's been a bit of drama in the treasury market once again. Yeah i noticed. you've got to do one of your tracy. Loa signature things. Were you talk about a move. That happened that's supposed to happen. Like once. every three billion years yes I love talking about those because it really gives everyone the opportunity to show that they've read to books by saying that the world isn't normally distributed but of course out we did see some pretty big moves in the treasury market so first of all the ten year yield jumped up to one point six percent. This was in the last week of february but the really big move came in the five year. And i think that one had something like a seven or eight standard deviation. Move one of those things. That's supposed to happen in like ten million years kind of things and really i know people make fun of standard deviations in sigma events. But really we're talking about the world's most liquid market and stuff like this keeps this. Is i think the fourth big bout of treasury market chaos that we've had in just a couple years so i'm thinking back. We had one in What was it. september twenty nineteen. We had repo madness. Then we had the march joss in twenty twentieth delivered. Us t trades boeing up and then we had a mini rates blowout in october twenty twenty. And now we just had the most recent incident so something is going on and clearly. There is a persistent issue in the us treasury market. There's a lot of things going on at once these days because there seems to be ongoing structural issues questions about liquidity which is weird in a the world's most deep and liquid market and be a market in which the fed is actively supplying a lot of liquidity or very active in the market. And then of course it's interacting with the economic situation nine policy situation because we have this fed that said we're not going to raise rates until the economy hits these benchmarks. Everyone's watching to see the fed's credibility we also have a very rapidly improving economy. We have people warning about inflation for the first time so all kinds of things happening once but yes to your point the big action we've seen we've seen rates at the long end year. Thirty year yields have been rising for awhile since the middle of last year. But it's really the action at the shorter end at striking here. Yeah and of course one of the weird things about last week as you mentioned the economy but we had this big tantrum in bond year yields without a corresponding taper. I guess so. We kind of had a temper tantrum because not that much changed last week. We didn't have fed speakers talking about rates rising or anything like that but we have this huge move in the bond market so a lot of focus on micro structure at the moment a lot of focus on liquidity ease of trading and the overall or of the treasury market. And we have a perfect person to talk about all those things. We're going to be speaking with zoltin. Pose are from credit suisse. I care wait. Let's do it yeah So zoltin i should say in addition to being a strategist over credit. Suisse has also been on the thoughts podcast multiple times. So we will be getting you that tote bag Any day now zoltin. Thank you so much for coming on. Gotten thank you very much for having. I should say one more thing. Which is that every time. There's any volatility in the rates market. Someone ibiza. it says you guys gotta get zoltan on get. It happens every time. Anything takes higher on screen of like overnight funding rates. Whatever like when you have exultant back on the episode so this is a lot of requests for this one. Sorry go on okay. Well on that. No i mean why. Don't we start out with the big question. So every time. There's some sort of chaos in the rates market. Joe gets an ib asking for you to come on the show. There have been a lot of those over the past couple of years and as we were discussing that something you wouldn't necessarily expect for the world's must liquid market so what's going on here. And why do we keep getting these sort of Mini blow ups in rates. I think people get taken out of their positions all the time I mean just to just set the set the stage for the conversation. I think there's there's a number of things that are happening That has happened last week for a number of east now and really since the The democratic when and the blue sweep the treasury curve has been steepening quite remarkable. I mean relative to The slope of curves in germany and france and japan. You know the. Us treasury kirk has gotten quiet. Steve per a number of reasons you had you had The blue sweep. You have the vaccine rollouts. Which is you know happening in the us More rapidly perhaps in other parts of the world you have The market starting to price in recovery The market trying to price in the inpatient and the market is getting Excited about the idea. That book surely comes some fed action and that that is going to try to chase down version of keep it in check and to all of these things. I think have driven the steepening of the curb. But you know the the interesting thing. Is that the steepening of the curve. Has been fairly ordered. Okay and so what happened. Last week was a little bit plumbing related but again the the underlying structural driver of rising yields has been more fundamental.
NASA Is Lending A 3.9-billion-year-old Moon Rock To The Biden White House
"The request of president. Joe biden the lunar sample laboratory facility at nasa's johnson space center some monroe to the white house. This is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shaped our future. Triangular glass display case boasts photo glass sides than aluminum top and bottom and holds three hundred thirty two gram piece of the moon. The sample was returned to earth. And nineteen seventy two by the apollo. Seventeen astronauts ronald evans and moon walkers harrison schmitt. An eugene cernan. The last humans to set foot on the moon chipped from a large boulder located almost two miles from the lunar module. The sample surfaces contain tiny craters created as micrometeorites impacts that sandblasted the rock over millions of years the flat sides were created in the jc lab when slices of the rock were cut for scientific research. Now the moon rock has a place of honor in the oval office of the white house on loan to the current administration. It represents the accomplishments of an earlier generation and is a unique symbol of support for america's plans to return to lunar orbit and beyond
"billion years" Discussed on KOMO
"Visit Optima tax relief dot com. Pride yourself a little or maybe a lot lead footed during these pandemic times months ago, and there were more shutdowns and stay at home orders. Major roadways had a lot less traffic, and some at least part of the day are still that way. State police departments across the USA Some drivers took advantage of it by pushing well past the speed limit. And that trend continues even as states try to get back to normal. Iowa and Elif Oranje reporting 100% increases in issuing tickets for speeding over 100 Miles an hour. There's been a 61% increase in Ohio, ABC. Chuck's Iverson, Hungary is about to honor the 41st, U. S president. ABC is Yoon Hee Han. With that story, A statue of former U. S. President George H. W. Bush will be unveiled in Hungary next month in honor of the first sitting president to visit the country in 1989. The inauguration will take place in Budapest Liberty Square on October 23rd, the 30th anniversary of the fall of communism in central and eastern Europe. The new statue will be near another A former president Ronald Reagan, who shared the fight against Communist dictatorship. President George H. W. Bush died in 2018 at the age of 94 You neon ABC news really weird science, astronomers detected a gravitational wave from the violent collision of two black holes that created a new 1 142 times The mass of our sun. Collision happened seven billion years ago. This is ABC News. If you're tired of paying for cable news, tune into Newsmax TV right now for free Get Riel.
"billion years" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"We developed language, which allowed us to better coordinate ourselves and hunt together and interact with one another more effectively. We learned to make clothes to keep us warm as we spread out beyond the subtropical climate. We evolved in. We learned to make boats to carry us to new places. We learned to make ceramics to store food. We learned to grow crops, which led the cities in the foundation of the modern era. There was another quirk of that chance collision between the planetoid they unearth, which produced the moon. It also produced massive deposits of minerals and metals near the surface that humans could easily get to it. Over time. We abandon those stone tools in favor of more reliable metal ones. And eventually we put all of those millions of years of accumulated intelligence and technology into ships that broke the bonds of Earth. And launch the first of our species in the space within the astronomically short period of about 100,000 years. Humans left the wild and went to space. But perhaps as unlikely as the emergence of human intelligence may seem, it may simply be the expected outcome of those organizing principles of life. There are two options before us then either we humans are unique in our universe an utterly alone. Or we're not. And if there is other life elsewhere, then that means that the great filter the hardest step Lies not in our past, but in our future. It means that the challenge that lies ahead of us is more difficult, more improbable to overcome than dead molecules organizing themselves into living cells for apes, learning to build ships to the moon. And rather than having millions of years to try and fail before succeeding, We will have one shot to get it right. If the great filter lies in our future than it appears that we are entering it right now. Now, here in the 21st century, 4.3 billion years after life emerged on Earth, we are entering the evolutionary step that no life in the universe has ever managed to survive. Carl Sagan had thiss great phrase about humanity is growing powerful before it's unwise on doubt, Power through technology has been increasing exponentially. Now. Wisdom has bean Maybe it's been increasing a little bit, but suddenly not exponentially, and it's getting these three things have got out of check with each other but couldn't unsustainable level of risk. The technology that got us to this point is taking a new shape, one that we haven't encountered before, and it is presenting new risks to the survival of our species. And, indeed, life on Earth. You. Right now. Are living in what may be the beginning of the most dangerous period in the history.
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
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Three <Speech_Male> B rocket <Speech_Male> from Chiang Satellite <Speech_Male> Launch Center in <Speech_Male> southwestern China's <Speech_Male> Sichuan Province <Speech_Male> the spacecraft <Speech_Male> will transmit <Speech_Male> radio television <Speech_Male> and data communication <Speech_Male> services as WOAH <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> testing new <Speech_Music_Male> high throughput <SpeakerChange> technology. <Music> <Music> <Music> <Music> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Male> <Advertisement> <Speech_Male> And time now to <Speech_Male> take a brief look at some or <Speech_Male> the other stories making <Speech_Male> news in science this <Speech_Male> week with science <Speech_Male> report and <Speech_Male> you study is confirmed <Speech_Male> that Australia's <Speech_Male> devastating <Speech_Male> bushfires were may <Speech_Male> drastically worse <Speech_Male> because of man-made May <Speech_Male> climate change <Speech_Male> the findings <Speech_Male> confirm that <Speech_Male> global warming promotes <Speech_Male> the sorts of conditions <Speech_Male> on which wildfires <Speech_Male> depend <Speech_Male> thereby increasing <Speech_Male> their likelihood <Speech_Male> and their level of ferociousness. 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Nine <Speech_Male> thousand nine was the country's <Speech_Male> warmest and dries <Speech_Male> to you're on record <Speech_Male> in fact <Speech_Male> the observational data <Speech_Male> shows that fire <Speech_Male> weather seasons <Speech_Male> have lengthened across approximately <Speech_Male> twenty five <Speech_Male> percent of the Earth's <Speech_Male> visited surface <Speech_Male> resulting <Speech_Male> twenty percent increase <Speech_Male> in the average <Speech_Male> global link of <Speech_Male> the five with a season <Speech_Male> so so <Speech_Male> far. The mega <Speech_Male> fires have black and more <Speech_Male> than eighteen million <Speech_Male> hectares <Speech_Male> killing more than a <Speech_Male> billion animals <Speech_Male> including major <Speech_Male> populations of <Speech_Male> rare in digit. Koalas <Speech_Male> wallabies all <Speech_Male> of these kangaroos. <Speech_Male>
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"All that and more still to come on space time. The Great Melvin telescopes gone on public display as part of celebrations marking. Its One hundred fiftieth anniversary. This icon of Australian colonial. Astronomy enemy is now being reassembled into its original form for the first time since nineteen forty five museums Victoria staff. Volunteers have been working to restore the historic instrument instrument at the pumping station at science works in Melbourne. Since two thousand eight the telescope was originally built in eighteen. Sixty nine for use at the Mobile Observatory. Next next to the Royal Botanic Gardens at the time it was the second biggest telescope in the world and the largest in the southern hemisphere and it quickly became an icon symbolizing the city's cities wealth and scientific status but after the moment observatory closed in nineteen forty four. The telescope was sold and relocated to the Mount Strong low observatory neat camera. It was modified by the Australian National University for a role in modern astronomy. In the one thousand nine hundred ninety S it was converted into Australia's first fully robotic and computerized is digital imaging telescope and was used to find the first observational evidence of dark matter. Dark matters of course one of the biggest mysteries in science today put put simply scientists have no idea what it is even though it makes up some eighty five percent of all the matter in the universe it seems to be invisible and interacts only gravitationally tation with normal matter. The stuff stars planets asteroids houses. Cows trees dogs cats and people may that of astronomers only no dark matter exists just because they can see its gravitational effect on normal matter such as preventing galaxies from flying apart as they rotate then in two thousand and three the camera. Bushfires raged through the mouths Romo Observatory destroying match the facility but leaving the original heavy cast. I'd backbone of the telescope relatively unscathed in two two thousand and eight. The remains of the telescope recovered by staff and volunteers from Museums Victoria and brought back to Melbourne for restoration. The Victorian government committed six hundred two thousand dollars towards the two point one indoor project and that allowed the team to complete the first stage the restoration which is now seeing the telescope return to what was its original physical configuration dot nic lomb consultant curator of astronomy with a Powerhouse Museum Sydney Observatory says the eventual aim of the project is to restore the telescope to fool operating condition. So that future generations can pay through its giant eye pieces and be inspired by the Magnificent Wonders of the heavens above. What it's it's one of the most important scientific facts or scientific objects in the country telescope was it was I used was too lax. His his theory pool telescope world. It had mira pointed to Mesa dime better or what caused forty inches in time to not very faint politics. This install develop an observatory which was very unusual thing to do. Most lax to list does for the province defended missile wealthy metro and abyss. Professional is trump observer. Trees did was to make very accurate measurements of positions of SAS The sky and commission eclipses of dissent thanks very accurate observations. So that's very unusual. For a major richer. Professional Observatory restored colonial dishonest Canadian sixties foresaw. Fortunately the telescope. I was a little bit too just missed the body. Many rice wonder six was it had a mirror. Thick Metal Mirror dispose divide. They launched those groups so they could be lied to list. Ability is past the metal mirrors ideas glass mirrors so the credit to the wall lights illuminating. It's just coming into fashion and the media elderly astronomy ability to actually responsible for the design. It so that's that's too new. It's too risky. So I headed to America era and all sorts of problems including me liking those great massive data. Those was wasn't quite suitable. Let's go quickly. The photography because photography was a few years later was coming into the started from sitting this because taking describe because a great improvement of serving the sky is full script. The Great Melbourne telescope was designed. Just look through at two. Drawings of Netflix is the objects in this guy. This they're all that it is staffed. Yeah to be up to take photographs this guy these. It wasn't really fully equipped to take photographs. It did what it to federal graphs to the moon. We actually ver very highly publicized and people were very in Chris despite the graphs of dmed but generally did not take photographs was designed. It just looks rebuy and tell us car was installed Louis C.. Ninety six nine observer send send task from Britain mathematician called L. deadly Sir Ti us to tell us Kirk he'd tried to set up telescopes for vs he had various populism smarter being removing the protective coating of the MIRA. Borough of two mirrors metal Marissa sent after the tone Scott if pins with that talk and setting it out problems lying that he was responsible to the three was responsible to director of Melbourne Observatory. Were delivery or wall wall. Society Beckham Hood Nicely designed to Muskoka employ team so he caught that very upset after all. He didn't feel it was being tight. Enough math had resulted months. Scopus continue to be used for furious at the observatory that have to well. It was really used and Bourbon. Observe triggers closed down forty four telescope the small to the Mountains Observatory in Canberra and the second dementia. This company and it was put into more than telescopes which curfew years ended up. Cavalli were booked into even more Mortenson Cook which is a telescope automated telescope to nachos mattress being messed with estra physical compact. Then then hope kicks. Machos were considered one of the possible candidates for that matter. That's that in the end. They got very well but didn't five five. Many metro is so it is not really Niger. Competitive Stock matter. I should say that it matters but the acronym Akron was named in contrast vamps. W I M P. They've created attractive Nestle particles and these Arrest to a major candidates for that and so the idea was that there because look for much larger of checks which could be out of Meta. Ah Unfortunately there was a fiery train. Three thousand three January two thousand and street and basically all details skirts at take months. Larry Kinda perfectly destroyed the flax including melted telescope and pats destroyed as the mets. Put Five abroad and they is eventually pulled back to Milton on. The museum's Doria had collapsed. They need they'd been times group of volunteers. Volunteers who've been working very hard in feeding domestic top to tell us kind of actually working out into the snow reaching all die kraft craft telescope or she look like they're affected grass but there's not tell drawings so they have to decide the grass and tries to Comiskey. Musk poetry look like missing there quite a few thousand missing designed built and he's got his nappy reassemble assemble for the first time. I've been criminal thoughts entertainment street and apparently looks very imprison people still booking and the plan. China has to finish the three to be automated automatic tellers correct and it will be rehoused where this has originally the grabbed Milton Observatory building the joint slot of been. I've seen it Sometimes spelled decrepit condition but originally grew was still. There was no longer slightly. So that building will have to be stored and then just play. He rebuilt filtered academies that will be has to that building and they'll be valuable for big feelings become make tourist attraction involvement. It's the plate that Stockton glum consultant curator of astronomy with the Powerhouse Museum Sydney Observatory and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary Virgin. Galactic snicks commercial spaceship has reached its weight on wheels milestone in which all the major structural elements in components of the vehicle or assembled and the space.
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Rocket rocket launches trusting out flames and US watching and you have all those emotions and the rocket goes along on this journey. Arne deploys Spitzer Spitzer. Space Telescope is a member of NASA's family of Great Observatories Spitzer is the infrared member of this family Spitzer has unveiled the infrared universe it has enabled humans to see what is could not see we see a whole new side of the universe that's hidden from US normally. You can peer inside of clouds on dust to see the baby stars called Pranav Stars being born yet it let us see into more distant galaxies and see how the patterns of dust tell us about the motions of gas and the dynamics of gravity that operate in these objects objects all of a sudden we could create these vast panoramas at incredibly sharp resolutions. That we'd never been able to do before. And as a result everything that was familiar million in the sky every Nebula we're used to seeing in visible light images from the ground. Things from Hubble did became completely different when seen through the infrared is spitzer. It was this combination of scientific insight. It self with just stunningly beautiful. At the same time the biggest surprise in terms of what was revealed with Spitzer is its ability to characterize exa planets planets around other stars most notably we identified a system called Trappist one which has seven earth sized planet sort of snuggling up to. What's a very cool star and of of those planets three of them at least in the habitable zone when Spitzer launched exo planet science was absolutely not part of the science portfolio? We were we're offering for Spitzer because it wasn't considered to be sensitive enough to do that kind of observations but while in flight astronomers became clever about how they could use it. Engineers became very clever about how we could repurpose Spitzer and ex plant. Science is actually become one of the core science projects of Spitzer since then the Google doodle that day which was whereas Trappist one is. What kind of finished me off on a Glorious Day when you're adult children point out that you know? My mom works on that telescope. You know. That's that's very rewarding spitzer. Space Telescope is technological. Marvel never had any conception that we going for sixteen years little machine that could go beyond its primary design longevity of admission as a direct result of the EH engineers and scientists and people that have supported the mission in a place that dares mighty things. You can do it together there and so when you have that kind of union. I think what happens is magic. I'm hoping Spitzer we'll be remembered as in a really amazing Scientific gift and it allowed us to kind of transform transform our understanding of some very important aspects of astronomy and I think Spitzer's been integral tall. That we we have a huge archive. That is waiting to be mined. And it's it's revelations already have been tremendous and revolutionary that only time will tell or to Spitzer's there's greatest legacy and and in that report from that city. We heard from Spitzer space telescope project managers hunt from NASA JPL Spitzer project scientists Mike Werner and Parisa Morales Spitzer Space Center visualization scientists. Robert hurt former Spitzer project manager. Lisa's story Lombardi Spitzer space telescope systems manageable car and she bits of space at a manager Sean Carey. You'll listen the space time. Still the COM- a Russian spy satellite breaks up in orbit. Has it been hit by piece of space. Ace Junk and the Great Melvin Telescope back on public display just in time facilitations mocking. It's one hundred and fiftieth anniversary. All that and more still to come I'm space time. top-secret Russian spy satellite has broken a pat and over the United States. Space Command says Moscow's Cosmos Twenty four ninety one military satellite suddenly made a one and a half made up a second orbital change the and broke apart into at least ten fragments flying out to choose between one thousand three hundred twenty nine and one thousand six hundred ninety nine kilometers above the planet surface. The speculation the satellite other exploded you to some sort of catastrophic failure on board or far more likely it collided with a piece of space junk the Cosmos It's twenty four ninety one was launched together with three military communication satellites by Russian Space Forces back in December two thousand thirteen and remained operational for about a year. It was part of an anti-satellite warfare project by Moscow. To develop space craft capable of maneuvering and secretly inspecting other satellites while in orbit..
"billion years" Discussed on KTRH
"Of which is an alien invasion others have been like Armageddon big rocks sitting is from straight yeah be like might not Mike Tyson sorry the other grass types he's not days in thousand by the end of the world when you have no grass Tyson they go on a talk show he's talking about how something can stop the planet like yours to stop its rotation reverses rotation you know the first thing I think of something hitting us right and the other thing I think of a stern and I just go down the list of all these things that could cause the of the disco stop now you know they tell us that the earth won't stop naturally for another billion years okay yeah here's the thing is most interesting here's the thing that's most interesting is the magnetic field of the planet is sounding rather weird right now it is because the the the plan is slowing down all right as I wanted to have I want to get the sounds for you of of what the magnetic field sounds like right now so first of all I want to play you this is these are the sounds of of fluctuating magnetic waves and and this is how this is the sound they make outside the planet and this is what they say are normal magnetic waves here we go sounds like an alien or something out this is how it sounds now because the waves are changing.
"billion years" Discussed on KCRW
"From NPR news. It's all things considered by Mati Cornish. And I'm Ari Shapiro. Social media giants say they will work with heads of state to regulate extremist content that spreads online. One key player has refused to endorse the plan the United States NPR's, Arthur. Shahani reports there is a growing rift between the US government and well the world that rift was on full display at the Elysee palace. In paris. Fifty one men women and children from the New Zealand Muslim community would killed and we killed online. New Zealand Prime Minister just send ardor and helped convene the summit today is the two month anniversary of the Christ Church shooting where a gunman used Facebook live to broadcast his massacre artery the social media dimension to the attack was unprecedented. Endow response today with the adoption of the church coal is equally unprecedented. It's been a long road for tech leaders who once fancied themselves protectors of speech who feared looking to chummy with governments. Now in Paris, Facebook, Google YouTube, Amazon, Twitter and Microsoft are entering a voluntary. Compact. It's called the Christ Church. Call basically, they're agree. Eating the beef up their efforts to catch terrorists content as it spreads across platforms. And they say they'll share more data with each other to make their algorithms smarter better at identifying video by ISIS or a white nationalist Neva before have countries and companies come together in the white Kevin horrific attack to commit to an action plan. The social media giant's agreed to work with governments to redirect users away from extremism and let investigators in French president Emmanuel Macron hurt here with an English. Voiceover says. He and Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg have come to a unique agreement has authorized the regulator teams the teams of French regulators. Join his machine to share confidential information to fight against terrorists it but also hatred. Harassment methods. More than a dozen countries have signed today's packed including France, Germany United Kingdom, India Australia. New Zealand the US is staying out of the deal the White House at tech policy advisor to observe in show support. But in a statement, the Trump administration said the best tool to defeat terrorists speech is productive speech. And thus we emphasize the importance of promoting credible alternative narratives this stance puts the US increasingly at odds with other countries as well as with American tech giant's artificial Honey, NPR news one of the biggest hits and TV history signs off tomorrow after a twelve season run. Density. The nearly fourteen billion years ago expansion started waiting. The big bang theory on CBS wraps up its story about a group of Caltech scientists and their friends and peers mandalit del Barco.
"billion years" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"And create the asteroid belt Neptune travelling at a different orbit is to do. Wondering about. What are you talking about? Well, those those are all interesting ideas, you seem to have a. A talent for for theorizing. And what you need to do with the various any ideas that you come up with is workout all their logical consequences, and then propose to test them, and the the the success or failure of the tests are what that plus how how well they ferret interpreting all the existing experiments and data are what determine whether we accept hypotheses other scientific table or we don't doctor. I believe looking out a way out as they're now able to do with Hubble or with the larger telescopes on earth. They they look for pulsars, for example, don't they because they are. So a very bright. And then measure the Redshift of the the pulsar's. In order to see how far back there looking is that roughly corrected. Perhaps you might be thinking of quasars quasars. I'm sorry. I always get. I always do that quasars. Yes. Yes. In the big bang theory. Quasars are the active cores of primitive galaxies. That's just a theory. But yes, you're looking at quasars, then you're looking at the most distant objects that we can see. Okay. How far back have we looked? Let's see the look back time is now back to approximately eight hundred million years after the big bang that is according to the big bang theory. Eight hundred million wait a minute eight hundred million years after the big bang. Yes. That's right. The big bang occurred fifteen billion years ago, I think right, right? So you're saying fifteen billion eight hundred million years is our present look back on how can that be? I can understand that at fifteen billion years. There would be something. Quasar maybe or something that you could you could Mark and say, okay, Redshift a half fifteen billion years. But after that. There should be. Nothing nothing that you could see how how could there be? If all matter. Yeah, I'm confused. The answer. Again, goes back to the the nature of the theory. The the the big bang. This is not my idea. Now, explain the conventional big bang theory. Is this an astronomy, I understand an explosion of matter into space. Sounds like an explosion of the big bang theory. Real sense. I I like that analogy, but they're they're talking about an explosion of space itself. And therefore, would you would you had the release of radiation into space that makes the microwave background that spreads all through space? So everybody sees that constantly in all directions, ever thereafter. And when we looking back as far as we can see the further out, we go the closer, we get to be able to see all the way back to the big bang. So when I say eight hundred billion years after the big bag I'm talking about if the big bang was fifteen billion years ago that we're we could look back fourteen billion two hundred million years. Okay. What do you think? Once you get out fifteen billion years. What do you think would be? Beyond that. Well in the big bang theory. The higher the Redshift the closer you're getting to the big bang. But in other theories, the higher the rich shift the more distant you're looking in the universe. Yes. In a possibly infinite universe. So how far away you're looking depends upon which theory, you're using we we can't tell absolute distance. We can only use a theory to infer the distance. Okay. There are those who would think there would be an INFINITI as one possibility and another would be that. If you could look back far enough you will eventually be again looking at yourself. In other words, that it's one large circle. Yes. That's right. Well, the big bang theory make certain specific predictions, and according to the big bang as we look back to these most distant objects. They should be very very primitive just newly formed galaxies with young stars in them. And so far that's not panning out with the observational evidence on my website, which can be linked to from yours. I have just a quick summary of the top ten probably. With the big bang theory. And that's one of them their their problems with the the look back that things don't look younger necessarily as we look further and further out into the universe darn. All right. So folks, you should go to my website immediately. I really mean this and scroll down to the guest names. You will see a doctor van Flanders name there. Click on that you'll go right over to his website, which is fascinating east of the Rockies. You're on the air with Dr van sovereign. Where are you please? Hello. Hello. Hello. Sharon from Madison New Hampshire. Yes, sir. Yeah. This is the professor Frederick runner. Retired research professor of physics from Xavier university in Cincinnati. Yes. Oh, yes. How are you? I just thought occurred this business about the great stone face road man of the mountain in New Hampshire. I think it's just a rock formation. But it sure does look like a human face when you look at it from just the right angle that just inside remark I make the people might be able to test various criteria. Whether it's natural not by using that as a more interesting, if you wanna get evolution going any way. You can get it going how you going. And of course, it can go ahead and do things if you have the time they're fantastic because it can develop out now professor or a Peterson and gave a talk at Xavier university to some of our graduate students. Oh, about three decades ago about cosmic engineering idea that you take the matter around a star instead of concentrating small planets spread it out. So that you use and capture and use the energy coming from that star or much larger area rather than wedding modest all of it. Go by. Missing this ball service of little groves. And he went so far as to suggest that if you had it spread out into Sears. So you catch it most of it then evidence that there's such we're going on would be you'd have a gym heat coming off from the outside of that. Because the energy of being used long way instead of allowing most of it to fly on by now if evolution works and works anywhere, then you wanted to send you wanna an operational definition of molecules and things like that. By say like magnetic radiation by say Walsh ways, which are not subject to the Doppler, shifting effects as John Hart pointed out quite some time ago. And you would then want to communicate the choice of one in four tries to one in four business that way, and so if you wanted to tell somebody at some distant place, how to make some how put together you give an operational definition of the molecules by transmitting through walls, raves which be invulnerable to the excuse me. Excuse me. Dr. Tom, can you translate that for us? Well, I frankly, I was getting lost in the in the last part of that it was a little bit too much too fast. Well, all right. The idea of cosmic engineering that those who cosmic engineer would not want to let the power the energy being released by star lose it. So you'd want to spread the matter out, which was eventually vailable. You may be in the form of planets spread it out in a very soon that wide area energy absorbers and users rather than let it go by now. The evidence that Peterson has pointed out was that such things and you'd have the glow dim glow of the. Fear of these energy using surface using. Operations the cosmic engineered ones rather than just having the matter concentrated so tiny and losing most of it. And so you might be able to see evidence it's such is going on. I say if there is such going on in evolutionist going there, and you'd want to send the specs so to speak of how to do this around. You would say that specs by giving operational definitions. How to make things through a choice of one in four one in four chess. Four trumpets say and do it that way and use Walsh ways. All right, then. Duffy's doctor excuse me. Doctor doctor dodger excuse me. You've said it again, and I still don't understand it. And and I'm sure that's my fault. Not yours. Daca. Van flanders? Are you are you getting this? Well, I would what you're talking about is seems to be what's popularly called Dyson spheres, which basically are. Ways to capture the energy emitted by a star by building a structure all around it. And getting all the energy that we might be able to detect such things if there were other civilizations by looking for infrared radiation leaking out of such things. In other words, if I've got this straight, and we'll all that down. He's saying is civilization that would have learned harness the power of a star. Is that? Yes, that's right. That is right. That then is roughly Dr Kaku a description of a civilization that would be a a type two. Civilization that would have learned to harness the power of a star a doctor have we seen any such evidence. Well, I think the short answer is no nothing that we would credit as being likely to be Dyson sphere. So these things if they exist either don't leak much, or they're they're not very abundant in the galaxy around us. So no evidence of that all of that at all yet. That's right. Okay. West of the Rockies, you're on the air with Dr van and Hello, Hello. This is Darren in Carson city this routine and your phones to kill h you bet. Thank you gentlemen, for another thought enlarging show. I have a question and an idea. I'd like the doctors idea son is your question a quick one question is quick so quick. I can throw it at the end. And and the idea. All right. We'll give us a question. I very quickly. I catching the show, but the. The parent planet. Very to Mars. Do. We know how big it would have been. All right. And on.