5 Burst results for "Australian Astronomical Observatory"
"australian astronomical observatory" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Show. This is space time with student Gerry. Astronomers have for the first time ever detected a rare. Helium Watt will binary system as we mentioned earlier this week starshine by fusing hydrogen cord helium when these stars run out of hydrogen that balancing act between the Atwood's push of nuclear energy and hate and the inwards push of gravity ceases and gravity is the winner causing the stars core to dramatically contract and compress and as the stars core contracts in Woodson. Hates up that hey pushes. It's out of guests. Is Layers further hours causing the stars are enveloped expand and with the stars visible surface now being further away from the core than what it was before it gets cooler and it turns more read. It becomes a red giant. Meanwhile that inwards compression on the core of the style increases pressure and temperature eventually getting hot enough to ignite helium in the core causing that to begin fusing carbon and oxygen ultimately the helium in the core will also run out just like the hydrogen did before it but because sun like stars don't contain enough match cost carbon and oxygen diffusing the heavier elements the star dies. The dying stars are gaseous envelope against the separate from the core and gradually flirts away as a planetary Nebula and the now exposed white-hot Stiller core called a white dwarf and about the size of the earth is therefore lift the slowly coup of the eons of time. This is the future we can expect for our own local star the Sun this binary helium white dwarf system which astronomers have observed cataloged. J. Twenty three twenty two plus zero five. Zero nine is the first system ever detected a report in the physical journal claims the two styles in the system orbiting each other every one thousand nine hundred and one seconds just over twenty minutes and that's the third shortest orbital period of any known detached binary. He's any closer and they'd be sharing their outer envelopes. The study's Lead Author Warren Brown from the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics says. This system is the very extreme of stars with short orbital periods and the orbit of the payer is to Kane the gravitational waves that are being emitted by the spare causing them to lose energy and in six or seven million years time. They'll merge into a single more massive white dwarf this binary is the first gravitational wave source of its kind ever detected. Brown says theory's pretty. There are many more double helium core. What will fire is out. There and this detection provides an anchor for those models and doing future experiments that astronomers can find out more about the stars and determine the true numbers the systems also good because it means diversification for the much anticipated Lisa Lazy into Frometa Space Antenna Gravitational Wave Observatory. Leaser IS SLATED FOR LAUNCH. In two thousand nine thirty four and verification binary such as this are important because if laces working properly placed in orbit it should be seen within a few weeks of turning on its telescopes or in this case. It's mirrors problem is there are only a handful of Lisa verification sources. Out there at the moment said this new discovery will help things along. Mogae this particular helium core White Wolf Binary is presenting a few problems mostly because it's optical light curve. Sevilla nerve results. Brown says he's team couldn't take any metric signals because there aren't any spectroscopy studies however have revealed its orbital motion to find out more call Andrew Dice. Clay is speaking with astronomer. Christopher Watson STRANA MS HAVE DETECTED FA. I double helium core. White DWARF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE source. What on Earth is that? I mean I'm very confused. Well comfy easy more because its name is j two three two two zero five zero nine. Yeah Right that tells me I thought so okay. Helium core white dwarfs are sort of spacey's have why does does what do the end product of stellar evolution for stars of around the mass of the Sun. So when the sun runs out fuel it's call will wind up as a white dwarf star and it's basically a cinder it's part then finally very hot indeed but they gradually cool down because essentially nuclear reactions of stopped ALOT SPHERES STILL. Some level have nuclear reactions. Now there is a category of these things which are at the low end if I remember rightly that kind of hassle the mass or something like that which cold. Helium cool white dwarfs and. He's not comes out because of the remaining nuclear fuel that there is left in this white dwarf still a cinder at the end of his life compared with something like the Sun. But it's got stuff happening on it. So these have been predicted. And I think there's another theoretical prediction that suggests that they occur in what we call in other words in pairs one orbiting another many many styles. Do that in fact it may even be as high. As fifty percent of all stars members binary find me systems. A lot is a high number. Nobody quite high but something like that. So this always been a prediction that you would expect to find they. Helium dwarfs batting around one another. And that's why this story has hit the headlines. Because now astronomers found one and intriguingly they found it because of the gravitational radiation so this comes about because of the detectors that we now talk about the Lego in the United States Virgo in Italy is. I'm not sure how many more come alive I think there is another one online already. I should check that out. But we now have this sort of many flotilla of gravitational wave observatories which are routinely scanning the heavens for gravitational waves. And if you've got two very massive objects something half the maciver of the sun and two of them close together orbiting around one another then they're going to emit gravitational waves. What's being found? What is intrigued scientists have done? This work is that you'd expect if he had two stars orbiting around one another that will become what's called an eclipsing binary one star pass in front of the other and so the total dens. Because you're only seeing the light of one rather than two but that doesn't happen in this case it's because the orbit is the plane of the orbit is at right angles to align site in other words. We seeing them. You know Pr- basically at projected against the sky one's orbiting around the other with no no click says that one doesn't pass into the other way not always with now always win in a line of sight. That's exactly right so there's no change in brightness however there's enough of a tilt that you can actually find a radial velocity which means a spade towards or away from using the what's called the MTA telescope used to be an anti used to stand multi mirror multiple mirror but then they replaced. I think he had six seven small mirrors a bit like the giant Magellan. Telescope will have except Mush Mall at but those were replaced by single mirror a number of years ago so I'm not quite sure what. Md stands for now but it's still called the MTA telescopes a bit like the the Iowa which is no longer anglo-australian Observatory or Australian Astronomical Observatory stranding astronaut Michael Optics initials and James that. Yeah so that's been confirmed as a binary but it's the gravitational waves that the real pops inspiring part of the story that we're actually finding things that were predicted but finding them by the fact that revealing that gravitational signature as the around one another astonishing stuff so most of the gravitational wave detection that we've talked about have been merging objects merging neutron stars or merging black holes and. That's when the two things are sort of end of this dance around each other and a coalesce become single object while this is also going to happen to the white dwarf pair as well but not next week or the week after six or seven million years. They're talking about the merger doing these objects to form a single massive white dwarf star. How difficult is it to tell the difference between various gravitational waves and they're all caused by different things yes? So how'd you know which is weight? That's the clever bit of all because this gravitational waves have gone very specific signature depending on the masses of the object that separation other physical promises it can be modeled very accurately. Be Right that there will be some uncertainty but traces of these gravitational waves and you can see the structure in say how. They've changed over time particularly ones with black holes merging the gravitational waves when you look at the the period amplitude of the waves and the structure within them. You can basically tell what it is. You're looking at which is extraordinary but It's not like looking through a telescope Star Planet there's a lot of computation involved but the astrophysicist do. This work are pretty confident. In what they're saying and it all is self consistent as well you know they seem to be telling all the same story but and I should have said that One of the causes I think are in the United States which is they habit early incentive for astrophysics and the University of Oklahoma from there. So one of the things that has been highlighted is that this is the kind of sauce that the laser orbiting gravitational wave observatory will be able to detect will actually be able to analyze more in more detail so these astrophysicist saying that the style will be used for verification on the laser interferometer space on China's that Lisa which is planned for lunch in twenty thirty four. That is forward thinking. It's a very ambitious project. You might remember there was about four years ago. There was a pilot version of launch by European Space Agency just one component of it just to demonstrate that it will work and day had results which were really stunning absolutely above expectations. So the prospects Felicia itself seem really good. That's Dr Fred. What's an astronomer with an apartment of science? Speaking with Andrew Dunkley on assist the program space knots and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Still the come come Borisov. The solar system second confirmed interstellar visitor at peace to be breaking apart or is it and final preparations under way for the launch of Masses Mars. Two Thousand Twenty Veers Rover all that and much more still to come on space time. Come.
"australian astronomical observatory" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Space nuts now I know last week. We promised you extra content for out patrons which we did not deliver. We are blaming time constraints. It's like when you get home on the days. We were actually going out for work. You get home in your wife says. Did you get the bread milk? No sorry couldn't do it time constraints so that's why we didn't do the bonus material last week for Patriots. We'll do it this week. There will be bonus material. And thank you again to allow patrons and if you'd like to become a patron of the space and that's podcast patriarch dot com slash space nuts patriots dot com slash space. Nazi can support US anyway. Like thirty dollars a month. Five dollars a month ten dollars a month million dollars a month to do that to yourself you have to use do not have to. It's just something that some people decided. I'd like to do and contacted us and said can we do this. And we set it up and there is and we do appreciate your support now. Let's move along Fred to this strange and unusual situation where astronomers have detected for the first double helium core White Dwarf gravitational wave source. What on earth is that very confused. Well I'll be more because it's nobody's J two three two two zero five zero nine right. That tells me not so. Helium core white dwarfs sort of species have white dwarf stars. What do the end product of stellar evolution? Four stars of around the mass of The Sun? So when the sun runs out of fuel it it's called we'll wind up as a white dwarf star and it's basically a Cinder. It's part then. Finally very hot indeed but they gradually cool down because essentially nuclear reactions of stopped alot. Their atmospheres still some level nuclear reactions. Now there is a category of these things which are at the low end if I remember rightly that kind of half a solar mass or something like that which are called helium core white dwarfs and that comes out because of the remaining nuclear fuel that there is a left in this white dwarf still a cinder at the end of his life compared with something like the sun but it it got stuff happening on it so these have been predicted. And I think there's another theoretical prediction. The suggests that they occur in what we call binary in other words in Pez one orbiting another many many styles do that in fact it may even be as high as fifty percent of all stars of members of binary me systems. It's a lot is is a high number. Nobody quite a high. But it's something like that. And so there's always been a prediction that you would expect to find these. Helium Co like dwarfs orbiting around one another. And that's why this story has hit the headlines. Because now astronomers found one and intriguingly they found it because of this gravitational radiation so this comes about because of the detectors that we now talk about the logo in the United States Virgo in Italy is. I'm not sure how many more have come alive. I think there is another one online already. I should check out. But we now have this sort of mini flotilla of gravitational wave observatories which are routinely scanning the heavens for gravitational waves. And if you've got to the very massive object something half the mass of the Sun and two of them close together orbiting around one another. Then they're going to emit gravitational waves found what is intrigued. The scientists who done this work is that you'd expect if you had two stars orbiting around one another that will become what's called an eclipsing binary one star passes in front of the other and so the total light dims because you're only seeing the light of one rather than two but that doesn't happen in this case and it's because the orbit is the plane of the orbit is at right angles to align of CY in other words we're seeing the you know a Basically at a projected against the sky was orbiting around the other with no not clips is the one in front of the other. One is not always with you now. Both win align aside and that's exactly right so there's no no change in brightness and there has been enough of a tilt that you can actually find a radial velocity which means a speed towards or away from using the what's called the MTA telescope. It used to be into used to stand for multi Mira Multiple Mirror but then replaced. I think he had six seven small mirrors a bit like the giant Magellan. Telescope will have except Mush Maula but those were replaced by a single mirror a number of years ago. So I'm not quite sure what Mt Stanford but it's still called the MTA telescopes a bit like the the show which is no longer anglo-australian Observatory Australian Astronomical Observatory stranding astronaut Michael Optics. Keep the initials and change the night. So that's been confirmed as a binary but it's the gravitational waves the you know the the real a tops inspiring part of the story that we're finding things that were predicted but finding them by the fact that they're revealing their gravitational signature as the around one another astonishing stuff. If you and I talked about this even four years ago people would have said if the planet you lopate but it's really happening so this is apparently the most of the gravitational wave detection that we've talked about have been merging objects merging neutron stars or merging black holes and. That's when the two things are you know at the end of this dance around each other and they coalesce a become a single object while this is also going to happen to a gravitate to the White Dwarf Perr as well But not next week or the week after six or seven million years. They're talking about the merger objects to foam single more. Massive White Dwarf Star. I guess we'll just have to white linen. Talk about it when it happens. Yeah we well we might be in another place then but yes why why not. Let's put it in our diaries. Six them thing about gravitational waves and we often after we talk about them get questions from people. But how difficult is it to tell the difference between various gravitational waves and they're all caused by different things. Yes so how'd you know which is which and that's the clever bit of all this because this gravitational waves have gone very specific signature depending on the the masses of the object separation other physical promises i. It's it's it can be modeled very accurately A. B. Right that there will be some uncertainty seventy but you you and I've seen a you know the the the the the traces of lease gravitational waves and say the structure in the meeting. See how change over time particularly the ones with black holes merging the the gravitational waves when you look at the period of the waves and the structure within them. You can basically tell what it is. You're looking at which is extraordinary but It's not like looking through a telescope. Oh yes that's the style that planet. There's a lot of computation involved but the astrophysicist who do this work a pretty confident in what they're saying and it all is self consistent as well you know. Those evaluations seem to be telling all the same story Nora Very interesting and you got to wonder what else is out. There that could cause gravitational waves that we haven't discovered yet especially as rotational web detectors. Get MORE SENSITIVE. One of the comments that have been made by should've said that One of the causes I think are in the United States. Csi which is the incentive for astrophysics and the University of Oklahoma co-authored from that. So one of the things that has been highlighted is that this is the kind of source that the leader a orbiting gravitational wave observatory will be able to detect and will actually be able to You know to analyze paps more in more detail. So that the these astrophysicist hanged the star will be used for very fixation on the laser interferometer space antenna. That's that Lisa. What which is planned for launch in twenty thirty rule that is forward thinking that it's a very ambitious project. You might remember there was. I think it's about five four years ago. There was a pilot version of LISA launch by European Space Agency just one component of it just to demonstrate that it will work and they came. They had results which were really stunning absolutely above expectation so the prospects for leisure itself seem really good. Okay let's keep an eye on this and we will certainly let you know when the next major gravitational wave is detected might be a new source to which will be even more exciting. You're listening to space knots with Andrew Dunkley and the great professor Fred Watson.
"australian astronomical observatory" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Episode and to you too it's a milestone for reasons i could not possibly glean well well it's probably the some of our ages something like that i was just going to say it's one more episode we added up last week maybe so that's the significance of it but i tell you what we have got a couple of stories today that will make eyebrows piece halons if you can reach that far aw say not withstanding my current partner in crime he we've gotta look at an asteroid that's fair that's been found inside the orbit of venus this has happened that she is in the last couple of weeks there that's been my toe it's pretty astounding you don't think about asteroids asteroids being sort of within that orbit range but there is also another thing that sort of goes a lot further than we thought and that's earth atmosphere in fact it seems the moon passes through the earth's atmosphere what we can walk the we'll investigate that and surprisingly frayed people will go questions about black holes well what a coincidence and what what surprises me so we're going to knock off a couple of those because to be honest if we stopped answering questions black about black holes as we probably wouldn't have any questions to answer but we're going to look at to completely something similar questions very different angles also i suppose you could say someone's got an interesting thought on black hole collisions and we'll we'll get to that in a little while but first of all fred let's talk about this this asteroid that spain found closer to the sun and venus which sounds i mean that sounds normal for some of the time but this is all of the time from what i'm understanding absolutely right and it's it is surprising when i when i was a lad hundred and eighty seven years ago the asteroids allstate there were terribly well behaved they'll stay between the always mars and jupiter we knew of really very few that strayed outside that that range but of course as time has gone on we've discover more and more and more asteroids and there is now a class of asteroids which had called IT ras and i think the named after the i said a prototype of the class which is probably called IT era band IT are asteroids that orbit whose orbits a wholly holy within the orbit of the earth so it's not very commonplace to be an asteroid this we know of many asteroids orbits cross the earth but attila's have orbits air entirely inside the obeserver so they always a near to the sun than the earth but there's only twenty one of them not you know they're not numerous objects and so it's perhaps surprising the we found any an even more extreme example of these and it was found as you said this year in fact the observations were made on the fourth of january twenty twenty hat to a place that in its own strange ways close to my heart because it's the what used to be called the pelham schmidt telescope it's now it's it's basically now called the azad t t f which is vicky transient factory from the americans it's the z. t.f i'm sorry i'm so sorry for that universal a universal language hatred we have indeed yes that's right so few subtleties about this well the telescope itself the reason why i'm very fond of it is that he is the twin effectively of the united kingdom schmidt telescope which is at siding spring observatory and which is actually what brought me to live in australia in the first place hundred years ago the caltech machine the z. t. f. named named after fritz vicky of course the great astronomer in the nineteen twenties and thirties actually the discovery of matter but that's another story the the telescope is a one point two maitre fourteen schmidt telescope and it was the basis of of that element or sometimes called the ocean schmidt now because because it was renamed a few years ago and he's now there's vicky transient facility it it actually telescope was essentially actually modeled on that one also with one point two two diamond to correct so these telescopes are wide angle telescopes they were built for photography i'll tell us go now does something quite different tastes while it will soon when the commissioning work is finished on our new starbucks instrument uses fiber optics to look at many objects at a time whereas the eh contact one of my plumber actually has a wide angle electric camera and adopt his really white can be used for an looking for objects that change in space by changing get brighter dimmer well they move and of course i think moves that's how you find asteroid you look at them at one minute and look at them a few minutes or a few hours later and they've moved in space and that tells you it's a relatively nearby object now that discovery though is unusual because if you think about the orbit off of an object that lies within actually within the earth orbit you're only going to see it soon after sunset or shortly before sunrise because they object toll was going to be close to the sun in the sky and is even more extreme in this case because the object which i'll tell it's nine twenty twenty eight hundred to eight actually as you as you send rice at the beginning it keeps tolbert and tally within the opposite venus not just inside the SOB but inside the over tavini's and of course because it's inside the earth orbit it means it's an arterial asteroid there's a mentioned the ones whose obits are always within the earth's but people are now calling this a vat era because it's within the over to venus and it is the first one that has been discovered how dare we just assume that everything associated with earth i mean exactly negotiations must be getting pretty steamed named yeah they must be an actually are actually getting caught steamed stimulatory that's right so the sulfuric acid drizzle in the rest of it it makes you wonder though whether we'll find ones inside the mercury which might be called matt era asteroids anyway twenty twenty five eighty two the first venus or internal venus asteroid is only no more than three kilometers across across told me quite elongated and in fact when it said these closest to the sun it's not far from the mercury seeing bet your life will will will find a asteroids eventually which are within the office of of of mercury so how did he get there and a while one of the professors offer physics california institute of technology who's actually one of the co discoverers of this object are sorry he's a he's a co investigator later on the vicki transient factory he says in his press release an encounter with a planet probably flung the asteroid into venus's orbit orbit it's the opposite of what happens when space mission swings by a planet for gravity boost instead of gaining energy from a planet it loses it and there is another comment lament as i get stuck it was on its way somewhere and got distracted by google and that was that more komo likely the gravitational pull of maybe mas may be jupiter depends on where started his journey day sell yeah a ah pretty girl in the solar system is venus which is the only female planet so what i said yep that's right so it could have been venus as well another of the colleagues of of tom prince at caltech george hello helu i think he's how you pronounce on c. h. e. l. o. you could be held hello he said getting past the obits of venus must have been challenging the only only way we'll ever get out of its orbit is if it gets flung out via gravitational encounter with mercury venus but more likely it will end up crushing on one of those two planets that's a really interesting prognosis for this little world that yet until the beginning of this year we didn't know about i i suppose oppose we shouldn't be too surprised because there are things coming and going all the time and there are a lot of various forces acting upon and against each other from from time to time it stands to reason that you're not gonna just find asteroids in the outer reaches here we are with twenty one of the murder just just sort of fleeing themselves around in saada sobek going this is nice i can say whatever they want to do really it's all subject check to the the forces of gravity exactly what i think he's the really interesting aspect of this is that people will of course at an encouraged by this discovery look for more because we don't know whether there will these internal salinas orbit asteroids or with a twenty twenty eighty two is unique but notwithstanding this vicki transient factory the z. t. f. the there is a new facility which will come online i think he actually is later this year it's i've been in construction for a good while maybe ten years or so i saw last year on top of the mountain in northern chile it's a until very recently it was called l. s. t. which is the large synoptic survey telescope mehta class telescope which will survey the entire southern sky every week effectively every six nights well that's right and that will be turning up objects wchs small objects in the solar system like you've never heard before so chances are you're gonna love this trade chances are we're gonna find a moamoa i do like that yes maybe even talking of naming weird names i'm glad you mentioned because it lets me segue to something to say a coating last week on the what was being cold large synoptic survey telescope has been renamed it has a full name which i'm absolutely delighted with because it commemorates one of the one of the greatest women in astronomy vera rubin so it will be called vera rubin observatory when it comes online and that's a great night zero of of course also the person who put that my thrown them out back in the nineteen seventies indeed and it's a good thing that changing the names of telescopes the scopes doesn't bring the same bad luck is changing the names of ships so all is well it's bad luck to rename a boat or ship are don't know y but i'm tired that's the case whether or not anything happens i don't know the bach and deva which is one of the great ships in history they used to be called something completely different it was a coal scuttle or something yeah well let me so the an interesting footnote to that is that the certainly the two telescopes which i've been responsible here in australia the anglo-australian telescope on the united kingdom schmidt telescope even though the the institutions that run them have gone through several changes the names of been sacrosanct today were built is those things and that's how they're state so it's nothing to do with look just you know moldes convenient cape eight the same names because otherwise you get mixed up with things like the ocean schmidt in those mickey transit factory one of the greatest challenges was anglo has stri conservatory to australian astronomical observatory because they didn't have to change the logo is better than that because the sydney end of that institution itution these now australia national takes they've still got the same logo we putting together in nineteen ninety one that is just beautiful yeah offense we know how to save money andrew yes indeed looking around designing new law goes if you stick with the name of the place changes changes it's it's brilliant all right so now we know that they were going to go look for more of these these these asteroids orbiting living within earth's orbit and famous for that matter and probably mercury's as well but this twenty one so far there may be more you're listening to new space nuts andrew dunkley here with of course fred what's systems space.
"australian astronomical observatory" Discussed on Space Nuts
"There are protections which are more or less effective depending on you the local circumstances just like to go back a little bit to talk about spectroscopy again and specifically ask you about your role well in developing multi object spectroscopy. I had never. I know what that is. Please explain an executive order it. Does this marvelous marvelous technique invented by William Huggins effectively the idea of using a spectroscopy for a spectrum graph which records the spectrum originally it was photographic now hold on electrically to workout. What's going on in the heavens? That became very much stock in trade astronomers during the first seventy years of the twentieth century. Words up until the nineteen eighties. It still is but the a big change happened in the early nineteen eighties. Because in the early days you had to meet your observations one star at the time. It was the only way a telescope under spectograph combination could work then in the late one thousand nine hundred seventy s a man with us absolutely delightful name Roger Angell who looked to the heavens German Brit. He works at the University of Arizona Eh. He's retired now. Still one of American astronomer astronomy very favorite strenuous Roger. Angell thought well outside outside the box in terms of how you could use technology to to you know improve astronomy and he got mixed up with fiber optics now fiber optics were until nineteen seventy. Were essentially an entertaining diversion. What what they are is stones of glass very fine strands of what we now use for fines and yes? That's right exactly. It's actually not quite a few silica which is classy. Material material drawn into these fines strands seldom more than a tenth of a millimeter diameter with the hair. It's it's yes that's about twice the width of very very fine. And they have the property that like put light in at one end and it will come out of the the other now they were known back in the nineteen fifties lava lamp lava lamp different ones. And the Yes. That's right all right. Yeah go sorry for my aside. There they were known back in the nineteen fifties these fiber optics but it was only in nineteen seventy that the corning glass works in the United States manage to draw fibers. Because that's how you make them start off with a block of glass and then you melt it and pull it out into these strengths. And they manage to draw fibers with extremely low losses by that. It means that if you put light in at one end most of it comes out the other disruption eruption. Well it's it's attenuation is. The technical is a reduction in the amount of light absorbed by the fiber before that you put light in at one into not tiny dribble came out of the but from nine hundred seventy with these what were called low loss optical fibers that's when they became a potential chill for the communications industry and so Calling it it allows sound and light to pass through it does allow any other it allows. There's light to pass through it. You Can put light in at one end and it will come out the other if you want to transmit sound through it. You've got to turn that sound signal into light clever modulating citing a light source you imprint. A sound wave on through and and that transmit through the fiber comes out the other end. You need decode and you get the sound route. So that's how communications work but astronomers and Roger Angell in particular. He thought well. These things are brilliant because astronomers are always jealously regarding the amount of light that they receive because it is so faint usually we're talking about single photons. Individual particles light so can can we use these newfangled optical fibers and in fact he's first idea was to have many many telescopes smallish telescopes all coupled together with optical fibers. So Oh you gather the light from all these telescopes and bring it back to a single place and you cannot do all the light together on one single object or one single object. That's right but then he turned the idea on its head and realized that with one big telescope which is looking at an area of sky instead of just taking one star or Galaxy Alexey from within that field of view you can actually use these optical fibers to line per fiber on many many objects simultaneously. So let me get this right. We have a field of sky. We have maybe a planet or is that too close. We don't bother with planets looking at enough galaxies and fire off stars and we could have fifteen or twenty items in sky and we could be looking at all of them and getting this barcode information from the stars Civil Tony's because you you can put a fiber on each one and in fact the first one I built actually had thirty nine optical fibers which by the standards of the day were quite quite large means thirty thirty nine objects simultaneously. So what what Roger Angell duty you got a PhD student. By the name of John Hill to work on this build something called Medusa which Medusa head thank you and that had think twenty-five fibers and they tried it out on a telescope in Arizona at the Steward Observatory and it worked. It was a technique that worked really well L. But then astronomers Australia got hold of the idea and in particular an engineer at the Angle Shirley Telescope by the name of Peter Gray. He worked out that you could engineer this thing. In a far more effective way the Medusa I worked with Peter. He was working with the anglo-australian telescope. I worked with a small telescope telescope called the United Kingdom Schmidt telescope which has a very wide field of view and together we produced a kind of workable optical tickle fiber systems for these two telescopes which kind of took the lead in the world on this science. Could you tell us the names of these. Well Peter Peterbilt you built the. What was it called fiber optic coupler psychot- remember the name but it turned into fo cap that was the acronym I built? Something called the fiber linked array imagery for matter which was flare then flare worse built in the early nineteen eighties. It was the first multi-fibre telescope spectroscopy system that coupled telescope to a spectrum graph which was actually stationary in the dome. Now that sounds weird an esoteric but what it meant was the spectrum of which is a very delicate piece of equipment was not riding around on the back of the telescope. It was fixed on the floor and was incredibly stable. And that's so we were the first to do that. So flair was the pioneer. Then I built a second version. Because flair had certain inadequacies the second one was the panoramic area coverage with higher efficiency. which was panache panache? A Well what clearly came next finesse. Until one of my colleagues said Venus stands for fails to interest nearly everyone saves spectrograph engineers engineers well. She called it flat to then evolved to a robotic system with more boring name of sixty F- with one one hundred fifty fibers that was commissioned in two thousand one and now a building an amazing machine called Taipan which uses things called starbucks so each optical fiber sixty had robot a single robot move the fibers around but with Taipan h fiber dopey. Three hundred in the end has its own micro robot round meanwhile anglo-australian telescope back in one thousand nine hundred ninety six built something called to death to the F. stands for two degree field. That's the amount of sky the thing sees in two F. Four hundred fibers but after tell you the aero which now stands for Australian astronomical optics used to be the Australian Astronomical Observatory. Hey always building. A system with more than four hundred fibers for telescope in Europe a European European telescope straight cuts way up doesn't it. It really does punch above its weight with regards to -nology develops right. That's why Australian astronomers Jonas have had such an given where small country because we have this equipment that we build it probably more effectively than anywhere else Somebody said we should call ourselves. Fibers are us. Because that's what we do. We do optical fibers the tech. The technique technique is in use around the world but many of the ones that are used elsewhere ones that have been built started struggling anticipate so just keeping bring on technology. Same here I heard Margaret Atwood before papal. She's the person that wrote. The Maidens Tail Modem Handmaiden handmaidens and. She comment was that old. Technologies have got good use a bad use and stupid. I use that we never considered and just thinking about lights and particularly with astronomy. What would you think the good the bad and the stupid well look for optical astronomy that's visible light astronomy not now talking about radio astronomers rexroad strong because these these are all different disciplines? Although we're all looking at the same things in a different way and often those results all piece together optical astronomers and and they're talking trades light so they are obsessed with light a more especially obsessed with with actually getting the very the best information from lies so the good is what we learn from from the from from the sky by Sifting light through the spectrum and other types of interest yep yep the baddies light pollution. So that's when light. which is it's been used for completely innocent purpose but gets out of hand in particularly in the light plumes of cities and and really goes back to the early twentieth century when councils putting lights with really no regard to what that was doing tonight sky because we simply simply never thought about it was becoming a problem by the time of the Second World War? It's really interesting. Is that in Los Angeles which is very next very very near the Mount Wilson Observatory in fact exceed Los Angeles from Mount Wilson. Where at the time? The biggest telescope in the world was during the second world. War centuries had had blackouts in order to to mitigate the possibility of invasion and during that time huge astronomical discoveries as were made because the the night sky koby seeing properly from moments again So it was inadvertent. So that's the bad side just on that I. I've attended some conferences in the U. K.. And one of the issues that they have when they talk about. Trying to mitigate light pollution the K.. Is that if you start talking to pay pooped in that sort of generation of about turning of streetlights and they feel like it's taking them back to that so I just like the blackout out to do that in blackout. Yes or no. I remember people saying that's true but it's not a blackout. I mean what we're talking about now is good lighting eh because this been huge progress in the last twenty years with understanding the ills of light pollution and not just for astronomers where the where the least least important in many ways of of the consequences of Bob Lighting. I again when I talk to groups about pollution. I often or haven't often and but I have been asked by people worldwide. Do we have to keep the lights down for the astronomers. When you've got a whole heaven stars you know? Why can't they study the start of the left or the brightest star or whatever and I think in some ways we lost that argument where we talked thirty years ago when when the International Dark Sky Association started and it was astronomers saying are we losing our night sky that that story was lost on the general public? I didn't understand the information that you're getting about heaven. That's probably true thing I'm most people think an astronomer is middle age bald man with a white coat. Who's got a long spindly telescope? And just spend his nights looking through uh-huh nothing could be further from the truth. It's all about you know. Well directed a scientific problems. We're trying to understand the universe because that understanding my actually actually turn out to be really useful to us one day and it's it's conducted in a very very progressive ways. Not just looking mistake. The sake of looking were studying and of course. The great thing is that it's no longer and more pulled middle aged man we we are. How far more diverse? So that's the good in a bed. Yeah stupid stupid. Use of technology that maybes. He's come through astronomy through light and and I know of things you talked about. Doppler effect isn't so I actually almost Lump the fiber optics work that I was talking about into their it certainly quirky. Because in you know I in one thousand nine hundred seventy. Nobody had thaw in this direction. It was Roger Angell towards the end of the nineteen seventies. We're thinking outside the box or this to what you could use these technologies for and I do remember number when I started working on this in one thousand..
"australian astronomical observatory" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Let us go through the agenda for today shall we. We've we've come across a watery new EXO planet which sounds rather exciting because we've been looking for one of those because you know we we have a planet that's in the Goldilocks zone where liquid water exists and thus life and the school of thought that we can find another one. Maybe that's got life to. I've found one but it doesn't sound like a very nice place. We'll just put it at that point. We've also got a story about a massive explosion. That seems to have occurred at some time in our galaxy's history. This is a an explosion that's resulted in sort of two radio bubbles that have I have been discovered at a central core and what caused it is the subject of much deliberation and and speculation but maybe it's got something to do with the blackhall. Maybe not and we're going to answer a few questions. Somebody's pop one in about the Juno mission and asked the future probes to Jupiter Might Use Jupiter's radiation as a source of power rather than relying on solar panels to get energy from a distant sun. That is a great question and we're going to tackle. It's it's sort of a question. It's it's something that someone experienced some years ago. Lloyd Galbraith from cans in North Queensland Nearly Burgis Tone Iraq some years ago and now he thinks it was a special rock he drew a happy face on it and everything reckon so we'll find out what that might be and a simple question and I must say that the author of this question was a little embarrassed Fred but it is actually a brilliant question to to sort of get us back to basics about the universe. Why does everything spin so we'll tackle all those in this episode of space not so let's start off with this incredible find they're already labeling it earth to a watery planet planet an exit planet that that seems to be in the right place in orbit of its star. Yes that's right the in the this planet which rejoices in the name of K to be of the two tells you it's from what was called the K. Two mission which was the Kepler spacecraft engaging in a for further searches of stars once it's gyroscopes had given up so he could only point in certain directions so this this story is about the discovery of planet which is about one hundred ten light years away so kind of not really on our doorstep but nevertheless of with great interest and what's what's been discovered first of all the discovery of the planet itself which I think was about four years ago with the Kepler to mission that tells you that the the the planet is about twice the damage of the Earth because you can detect that on the planet passes in front of his parents star if you know how the parents stories and we do know generically about the damages of stars of different types you know how big the parents stories you know how much it's like dims when a planet wonders in front of it and by combining those two you can work out the damage of the planet which is about eight times sorry about twice the damage of the Earth which turns out from other measurements that it's got about eight times the mass of the those two figures suggest that it's probably rocky ducks the you know the outcome of the roller being a gas giant. That's an interesting normally. It's twice the diameter of Earth and eight times. The mass is that is that normal because if it's the same material of Earth Two qb these eight and getting into a realm that really troubled me at school okay. It's quite right things like that. The troubled many too so it's bigger than the earth and that of course means is higher level of gravity than the house. How's it would not be a pleasant place to eight probably much heavier you wouldn't be your weight will be much greater but the the reason why this is an exciting finding and Weiss getting quite a bit of media attention is the follow observations made with the Hubble Space Space Telescope that looking at the way the atmosphere of this planet impacts the light of the star when when the planet passes in front of the star so this is a trick we've talked about before you you look for the change in the spectrum of the star when the planet is in front of it because what the atmosphere of the planet does is puts its own fingerprint on the on the Rainbow Colors of the spectrum of the Star and the Barcode of information that is modified by the atmosphere of the planet. That's how the scientists know that there's water vapor. I put that it's an easy read the nature paper because I was asked to comment a couple of times on this nature being the German which this research has been published published and the the modeling that they've had to do to make this discovery is quite significant but but certainly the the the graphs in the data which I saw they do support the conclusion that these authors come to that there is water vapor in the atmosphere in the star and that sounds quite excited because now the thinking or what Viper in the atmosphere. Maybe likes rivers and oceans. Yes that's right the temperate world there are some. I think the temperature range I think that the lowest part of it is debatable but the the sorry but that's I mean the lower limit of the temperature range possibly zero possibly below zero hero Celsius with probable maximum of about forty six degrees Celsius you that's very much like where I live actually actually now. I've just remembered something I read in in when I read the paper itself which I think pulled the lower end of the range as two hundred degrees Kelvin now I two hundred degrees Kelvin seventy three degrees Celsius so could be it could be well below zero but that makes it similar to Mars Mars that kind of temperature liquid water on Mars underneath it South Pole and probably occasionally there's else at liquid water elsewhere Mars on the other and this House has no. I Know Water Vapor in its atmosphere whatsoever at least not detectible it is there but in minute quantities this object K to eighteen be does have because it's been detected now in terms of its habitability one of the problems with this place apart from this. It's increased mass which means that humans wouldn't really be able to survive one of one of his perhaps even bigger problems. Is that the kind of star it orbits which is called in the trade. 'EM DWARF STAR is known to have fairly violent outbursts solar flash of a much more intense kind than we experience on the sun and so that puts the planet in a radiation an environment that is probably not particularly amenable to life. It may even be you know that is just too highly. Radiation is just too high for the to be any living organisms on the planet. We we simply don't know that this kind of study is still in its infancy and so as time goes on we'll we'll begin instruments the I'm James Webb Space Telescope and things like that will probably know more about so given its mass given its parents da given its temperature arrange life would struggle they as we know it and perhaps it's not a candidate to be an earth too. I mean probably we the best thing we've found so far in terms of liquid water planet in Goldilocks Zone but yeah it sounds like it's got a hostile host as a as a as a star as a son and a few other things going against it so we we might have to keep looking indeed probably Earth one point three or something like that being us too but yes we will have to keep looking probably won't be at this particular planet. Though I mean it will be once we get the bigger telescopes but sending spacecraft there is not really on the cards. I did a quick some says that with the you know the fastest spacecraft we've ever launched it would take one and a half million years to get and most of US lose interest in that kind of timescale and it'd be pretty boring during a need to replace you pack of cards several times over while you're traveling at but it's at again the fastness of of distance and time that really cripples us in all air endeavors we we'd probably victims of our own success in many ways when it comes to astronomy because we're finding these things going isn't this exciting ya except we can never go there and we found out so that's the hot as I said with with a Kepler Space Telescope. Sorry I beg your pardon. The James Webb Space Telescope the successive. That's it to hell Hubble which has a six and a half today to mirror and then with the coming generation of ground-based extremely large telescopes. We will find out a lot more or about these objects. That'll be exciting pot. We will we might be able to detect maybe not detect life but detect the the at the elements that would mo mice confirm the probability. Yes so what you're talking about things. We call biomarkers. That's that's it may be. I do so in other words the signature of of biological by products atmosphere of a of a plot and and they include things like oxygen out of balance with of carbon dioxide and methane out of balance with other things the kinds of the the the strategies got fairly well defined signatures is that living organisms might put into atmosphere. It's actually as an Taiji topic as you'd like it to be but and there are certainly a lot of work on this being done actually by one person who used to work at our observatory The Australian Astronomical Observatory Mickey Meadow. She's I think she's a Carmen which institute she's but she suddenly being a very high profile figuring Nassar's astro biology the effort so contributing to this as well very good all right well. Maybe not this planet but on thinking very soon we may will find a an earth two point. Oh that museum exactly the right place. He's exactly the right size next to the exactly the same stars as or one similar or just right region that that could be a candidate for futures investigation who knows you're listening to space nuts with Andrew and Fred Watson is base nuts now fred to a discovery a little closer to home this. This is a discovery that's just being published simply because where we were looking we would able to see until now thanks to to a rather beautifully named telescope. We which we've talked about before we have now been able to have a look at the central regions. Ah Galaxy and what they've discovered is that something cataclysmic happens day resulting in these these radio bubbles. I think they calling them. This all sounds very very we'd but also very exciting and details and it's the first I guess the first really significant result from the complete mere cat and Mika is the name of this telescope is a radio telescope array in South Africa. it's we have talked about its name before because cap is an abbreviation for the karoo array telescope and then when the South African government said Oh you can have a few more dishes isn't that they called it more cat in English which Africans which is very nice little segue to those little mongoose like things that you see in and as I speak they're probably a dozen of them about to kill the Western Plains Zoo zoo..