16 Burst results for "Asia Institute"
Monocle 24: The Globalist
"asia institute" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Globalist
"Last summer's floods in Pakistan killed more than 17,000 people, and displaced around 8 million. The flooding was caused by record monsoon rains and melting glaciers, and it was so bad that the waters are still receding. Doctor Aisha sadika is a research associate at soas the South Asia institute. Ayesha, this was clearly caused by global warming, yet Pakistanis responsible for less than 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions. It's one of the countries most vulnerable to climate catastrophe caused by global warming. We'll get into the financial pledges in a minute. But how can the international community help Pakistan avoid these sorts of disasters from occurring in the first place? Well the international community to start with mistake responsibility and beware, very careful with the missions. And I think this is something we shall need to be done at a global scale. Not at not in a regional or a local level. The other thing is, of course, teaching Pakistan helping Pakistan to administer the aid whenever it comes and also help it build structures inside. And then I'm talking about management structures. In order to ensure that when there are floods, again, because this is not this was not a freak event. The flood this year last year is going to be more floods because climate is changing Pakistan is a place where which has one of the largest number of glaciers. So it is in the, you know, it remains threatened in the future as well. So how does there is a lot of hand holding which needs to be done. So it's going to cost an estimated $16.3 billion to recover from this. And of course, that won't bring back the lives lost. But there has been an outpouring of donations from the international community raising half the amount needed. This was announced at a climate conference in Geneva with the help of the UN. Who are the biggest donors then to Pakistan? See, if you look at the Visa pledges, by the way, it is not the money needs to kind of come to Pakistan. These are pledges. And most of the money has been given by World Bank by Asian development bank, et cetera. There is Germany, which has given 88 million. Britain has given, I
TIME's Top Stories
"asia institute" Discussed on TIME's Top Stories
"Off. Chinese businesses dominate nearly every sector of Solomon Islands economy from natural resource extraction to retail businesses and increasing assistance to the Solomon Islands government, although Australia is by far the largest owner, says committee. In order to understand China's growing influence, one must understand the flows of Chinese capital. The response to China has been mixed in the solomons. Last November, protesters demanded sogar a stepped down for the 2019 decision to end ties with Taipei. The protests escalated, resulting in violence that saw several Chinese owned businesses burned down. The prime minister is sticking to his guns, however, speaking on Wednesday, Sagar said the agreement was necessary to cover critical security gaps and improve the ability of the authorities to deal with future instability. He added that the Solomon Islands entered the deal with eyes, wide open. Development plays a large part in the reproachment between Beijing and onara. Test Newton Kane, the Pacific hub project leader at research center, the Griffith, Asia institute, says that sogar a believes Chinese infrastructure and investment are essential to the country's economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. He's very much made it clear that that's what he sees as the economic path or a significant part of the economic path, and there's no question that China is very much the principal player in economic development of Solomon Islands. She says. Meg Keane, a professor at Australian national university, says that Pacific island countries see security and development issues as intertwined. They want to see strong commitment from their development partners on the full range of security issues. She tells time, which include climate change, human security, resource security, as well as traditional security. What are the implications of the pact? While the pact undoubtedly gives Beijing greater presence in the Pacific, keen points out the signed agreement remains secret, so the full implications are hard to judge. Newton Kane believes there may be a domestic backlash. The issue of lack of transparency is a concern in Solomon Islands, as has been the case in relation to other decisions by the sogavare government, including the switch in 2019. She tells time. Already, a senior opposition figure in the islands, legislator Peter kennel laureate junior is warning that the pact will further inflame emotions and tensions. At the same time, the fact that the U.S. delegation to the solomons is going ahead, Newton Kane says, is a positive sign that sogavare is maintaining communication, and is available to hear from partners as to what their concerns are. Says that the pact will spur greater western engagement with Pacific Islands countries. Already being seen in such initiatives as Washington specific pledge, Australia's specific step up, New Zealand's Pacific reset, and the UK's Pacific uplift. The reopening of the U.S. embassy in Honiara is part of the same drive to counter Chinese influence. It is, however, unclear whether that will diminish China's growing influence in the region, says kabula. So far, it hasn't..
Monocle 24: The Globalist
"asia institute" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Globalist
"We tend to Pakistan now whose parliament was planning to hold a vote of no confidence this weekend in the country's prime minister Imran Khan, Imran Khan came to power in 2018 with promises to create a Naya Pakistan. But we'll explain that in a moment, but has been widely blamed for huge rises in the cost of living, and his political life lies in the balance. But at the last moment, Pakistan's president dissolved parliament, and I'm joined now by the South Asian politics expert Aisha sudika, Aisha is a research associate at psoas. The South Asia institute. Good morning, Asia. Good morning. So what happened? Because what happened this weekend took everybody by surprise. Oh my God, that is very crazy. I mean, nobody was expecting this, but he did not expect it, which is drag the country further into a constitutional crisis. So against article 58 of 1973 constitution, which doesn't allow the president to dissolve the assemblies on advice of the prime minister against tumor no confidence, motion has been presented. The prime minister adviser and the president with his body man dismissed the assemblies. So now we have a constitutional crisis. The opposition has gone to the Supreme Court challenging the challenge decision and everybody awaits the decision now. What's so wrong with him rankine's prime ministership that it's come to this? Well, he is not, you know, he'd always claimed that he was not a politician and people didn't take it seriously. He is actually a man of narratives. He does propaganda very well. He can build stories. He can, you know, he can take the take the people in an alley and show them the things that he could do that others are all wrong. He's the only right man. And there was an expectation that perhaps from his supporters at least that he will build a cleaner Pakistan, whether it be less corruption, there will be things will be economy will do better. And the country's image will improve abroad. But he failed on all counts. He had a bad team, inflation, which has risen steeply in the last 6 months has really hit people, the cost of living has increased. People are hurting, and he has failed to manage on every count. Every time he goes out to speak, his only thing is only messages don't worry all deliver. And he fails to deliver. This weekend's events took everybody by surprise, but one thing that Imran Khan was doing was trying to involve the United States as having something to do with all these problems. Could you explain that for us? You know, this has happened before. Pakistan's another populist prime minister is when he was being pushed out by the military general then. He claimed that there was a conspiracy to kill him and the Americans that. And well, that was in a way was a true story. Henry Kissinger had threatened what a drop the nuclear program. Or he would be made to suffer. Now, this one is concocting that story is claiming that he's copying that design and he's saying that he was threatened that the American government, the assistant Secretary of State, the central lens South Asia, had visited his ambassador in Washington and threatened him regarding Imran Khan that and that Americans are trying to do a regime change. Force a regime change in Pakistan..
Monocle 24: The Globalist
"asia institute" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Globalist
"We know that it takes a marriage of intelligence and heart to create lasting value for our clients. It's about having the right ideas, of course, but also about having one of the most accomplished systems. And an unrivaled network of global experts. That's why at UBS, we pride ourselves on thinking smarter to make a real difference. Tune in to the bulletin with UBS every week for the latest insights and opinions from UBS all around the world. Yesterday, supporters of Pakistan's prime minister Imran Khan arrived in the capital Islamabad in their thousands, responded to Khan's call for a show of support in advance of Monday's parliamentary vote of no confidence in the leader. Well, I'm joined now by the South Asian politics expert and research associate at psoas, South Asia institute, ayesha sadika Aisha. Thanks very much for joining us. I understand that the media were banned from what Khan had built as a million man march. Do we know if the figures reached that target? Well, firstly, it wasn't a million people because the parade ground where they'd gathered. Can only accommodate about 20 to 30,000 people. And it's interesting that the band, the order to ban came from Khan himself, because Khan is the government. The basically he only allowed paksan television, corporation, which is the official government television channel to cover the event and no other private channel to cover it. Perhaps the reason for doing that is that because he's the government, they can firstly say whatever he wants to say. Without any commentary, any independent commentary, which you would see on a private channel. And secondly, because BTV parks and television corporations outreach is the largest in the country. So he was trying to benefit from it to spread his message around the country and the world, of course. So what's behind this no confidence move? Political opposition and to certain level a lot of people ordinary people are pretty tired of Imran Khan. They want to see his back. I mean, it's three and a half years. He has changed Pakistan's politics, he's abusive, his I mean, he has these very fascist tendencies in him. He accuses people without managing to prove anything. He's accused his political opposition of corruption, but in three and a half years not brought any case against them. Not prove any case against them. Economies doing bad people are suffering inflation has gone up. So the number of reasons. But I think more important is that in Pakistan's Pakistan's realities it's powerful military. And what he is done is kind of seems to have rubbed the military the wrong way. That they also want to see his back. And are there defectors from his own party, too? Well, the problem of Pakistan's election electoral politics is that it's based on electors. Electable can switch sides and because he has become unpopular among the people that of course puts pressure on the constituents and constituency politics on members of his own party and because they have been unable to deliver and so unpopular. So there has been such discomfort in the country. Within his party, that it is made, that's one factor. The other is that because these are electable, which means that they can be persuaded by force or. Bribed into changing sites, therefore some of the back benches has been a whole politics around. Political opposition and the military also involved in kind of convincing or pressuring his members of his party to shift to other parties. And finally, his Khan likely to lose this vote, and if so, what's the timeline for proceedings? You know, actually it's a very simple method of really. It's a simple method of political opposition or members of any party, including his party, can do that. Would put a petition to the writing to the speaker of the National Assembly. And then he calls for a session and there is a no confidence or confidence. But they have made it very complex. The vote of no confidence vote is already delayed. By several days and it's unconstitutional. Completely. So technically it's a simple method tomorrow or today there is going to be a vote and if you can not opposition can show numbers. They need according to gray point. They have the numbers. Anything right now there is a lot of political politicking, which is going on around those numbers. But if they can, then Han becomes gets DCT. What I've heard is that in that situation, the two scenarios which are one can think of, one is that Hans get deseeded and he's replaced by another member of his own party, another leader and PTI his party parks are, is allowed to then completed stump, which means another 6 months to a year. The other is what the political opposition wants is early elections. That's what we are looking at. They demand that another three to 6 months. Next elections are held and the PGA entirely get rid of PTI. The party and the leader. So let's see what happens how the matter is negotiated in the next 24 hours. Thank you very much indeed. That's Aisha sadiqa there. Now, here's what else we're keeping an eye on today. Russian and Ukrainian.
The Philosopher's Zone
"asia institute" Discussed on The Philosopher's Zone
"Not last year now in 2020. And kind of unprompted because I didn't flat out ask them about the transactional adoption paradox. A lot of them talked about growing up in say Denmark or the U.S. or France and feeling very much like, you know, just like everyone else, but that that was a very internal feeling. But then they started to realize that the way that people viewed them or were the way that people perceived them created a sense of estrangement from themselves and from their identities. So for instance, one of the adoptees said, you know, I'm very Danish on the inside. But then she had to confront, but that's not how people see me, you know, quote unquote from the outside. And she just wanted to fit in. She said she just wanted to be seen as them. And that I guess was one kind of manifestation of the translational adoption paradox and that bodily estrangement. Another adoptee said that he's very white, culturally. These are his terms, and he says, he said, you know, he doesn't think about it consciously, but he'll have these moments where he's struck by the fact that he's not white. So again, this is not even on the register of conscious identification as white necessarily. This difference between I think something versus I feel something that he never thinks studies what, but then yet he can be surprised or he'll be struck as he puts it at certain moments that he's not, right? And so most kind of had some variation of experiencing a transracial adoption paradox. Although they kind of articulated that differently. And so what I thought was was really interesting is that kind of, again, unprompted, and there was this emergent theme among many of them of the idea of blending in and blending into the crowd in Korea. And oftentimes they would bring this up when I asked them what are some of the things they most enjoy about being in Korea or just what is it like being in Korea? And a lot of them use the term of blending in. Which I thought was really interesting given how blending into the crowd, you know, often carries like a negative sense or the sense of relinquishing individuality or agency or a sense of being politically passive. But yet for them, this blending in was something that they enjoyed and the fact that they could enjoy it too was also really interesting that they could derive a sense of pleasure from being able to blend in, which I think is a kind of, it's a very different experience from that sense of not being able to, right? In the west, not being able to blend in, always being kind of the one that sticks out, so to speak. That is perceived as standing apart from, say, their families, or their friends or their community. I think that's part of why there is this ability to enjoy being able to blend in. And also being able to blend in when they want to. Again, as a way of kind of experiencing that agency that they perhaps didn't. Or don't, when they're back in their adoptive countries, it's an interesting distinction that you draw there between what's known or understood and what's felt. And I think it's useful as you do to introduce a phenomenological perspective here. And in writing about this use site, Franz finance, phenomenology of the black body. What's the connection there between the experience of your interviewees and what fanon is writing about? Yeah, so I think work is an incredibly helpful and useful sort of framework for thinking about creating the experiences not only of blending in and the enjoyment derived from that. But even the transracial adoption paradox on a more fundamental level because I think that his critique of phenomenology as being able to get at, I guess, a anonymous body that is not racialized is not gendered at someone and so forth is incredibly useful for thinking how adoptees at the level of what I guess he would call the body schema, the corporeal schema is always already intertwined with racialization. Because the body image is the way that you kind of more consciously register the way your body looks like and how you feel about it and so on, but the body schema is the kind of subconscious way in which you deploy yourself in the world effectively. It's the way in which we navigate our social and natural worlds in a kind of pre reflective sense. And I think the fact that adoptees can forget that they are not white takes us to the level of the body schema, whereby the very way in which they bodily engage in the world marks a refusal to recognize their racialization. So I think that they are unable to register that they stand apart, not only from their communities, but often from their very families is the only person of color in their families that the internalization of whiteness as norm means that for a lot of adoptees even as a form of survival, they can not register, I guess, on a conscious level that they experience racialization and that actually makes them stand apart from their broader communities. And I think because of that sedimentation over time, whereby adoptees are always having to minimize their difference, that that becomes built in or baked into the very way in which they are engaged in the world. And I think this kind of accounts for this ability for adoptees to not recognize themselves in the mirror for instance, right? The sort of really deeply embodied sense of alienation and estrangement. What you're saying here makes me think of how in a lot of phenomenological writing. Work that's based on what you might call classical phenomenology. The body is often articulated as the site of a kind of freedom, right? The body can know things in a way that's liberated from the shackles of philosophical reason. And it seems that fanon's phenomenology of the black bodies stands more as an articulation of the body as a site of restriction or limitation. Is that partly what you're getting at here? Yeah, absolutely, so I think this is what sir amen calls phenomenology. Sorry, finance phenomenology of the I can't. Or the phenomenology of being stopped. So again, as you said, in more classical phenomenology, you know, selenium and tea. The emphasis is usually on the able bodied, right? The body that can extend itself deploy itself in order to act efficiently in the world and on the world. And in finance work, there's much more of an emphasis on the experience of restriction of being barred, blockage, and the kind of injurious impact of having to say that I can't. And so his phenomenology is also a really good way of thinking through one's inability on the one hand to deploy oneself effectively in the world, but also the impacts that that has on the level of the body, so those elements, the body, it turns the body itself, one's own body, into something that causes one stress. And I think that is very much something that for non introduces. And it's not really the interest, I guess, of classical phenomenology. Well, you do, of course, also draw on the work of Maurice Miller ponty and in particular his writing on anonymity. What does Miller ponder have to say about anonymity that's relevant here? I was really struck by how merle ponti uses the concept of anonymity as a kind of precondition for social life. And as a necessity, so again, we often think of anonymity as a negative thing, but in my little ponti's rendering, right? It is something alongside individuality that is necessary for us to navigate our social worlds. And so he says in the phenomenology of perception that my body is the possibility for my existence to resign from itself to make itself anonymous and passive. And that this withdrawal is always a possibility or should always be a possibility for embodied existence. And so for him, our very openness to the world are variability to be in concrete situations, also relies on our ability to shut for our bodies to shut itself off from the world. So yeah, he says this anonymous life underpins our personal life. And I think that is really useful here because if anonymity is something that again is a precondition for social life, then it raises the question of how anonymity is differentially afforded. And how it's denied even to certain bodies. And the impacts of this refusal, and this, of course, is a question of power and Gail Salomon has demonstrated in her work on phenomenon and also in her more recent book on transphobia, right? That some people are not afforded what she calls the cover of anonymity. And I think that's a really useful way of getting at a concept of anonymity that again moves us away from its negative sense and actually positions it rather as something that is neither negative nor positive, but simply a precondition. And therefore, if you remove that precondition, we can also start to see and maybe account for how injurious it is to not be able to be anonymous. And for that reason, I think it's very useful for thinking for me to think through adoptees expressions of blending in as being able to kind of have an anonymity, even if it's contingent, even if it doesn't last very long, that it's a kind of respite. From the way in which they have experienced their bodies and also possibly their identities in their adoptive countries. And so what do you think that this analysis, this kind of work that you're doing it? And I think we've sort of, we've already come at this question from a few different angles. But just to finish up, what do you think that this work might offer to a broader discussion of racism in general? So I think with regard to the analysis I'm doing on blending in, I think one of the ways in which this work could speak to larger questions of racism is that it actually illustrates quite a classic kind of phenomenological move, right? Because in describing the experience of blending in as something that adoptees enjoy, it actually sheds light on the way that they have experienced racism in their western adoptive countries. So it actually allows us to get at, I think, in quite interesting and maybe unexpected ways an analysis of how the habitual body is impacted by racism over time and how one can achieve a slight sense of difference from that in a different social context that again sheds light and allows one to be more critical of the experiences in Western countries. And so, you know, one of my interviewees expressed this in a really nice way. He said that he really liked the absence of the feeling of standing out because he said that upon moving to Korea, he began to register consciously that there was always what he called a background hum of attention. That was directed at him. And that had just become part of what he said the background noise of being, but then suddenly he realizes that that's not there anymore. And he said it was liberating. And so that really nicely shows how blending in can bring to the fore, what had previously formed the background, right? And as the background, as phenomenology points out, we don't see it. It goes unseen. And so building on the work of Ali Al saji as well, blending in can draw attention to the way in which our very visual fields are structured due to racism in ways that encourage certain forms of perception. So in white dominant societies or within a particular social cultural and historical horizon, the non white body becomes hyper visible, becomes the object that commands attention and that stands out. So I think adoptees experiences in Korea provide a really interesting perspective and way of getting at a broader understanding of how racism functions and especially impacts that it has on the bodily level. Ryan Gustafson, he's a postdoctoral fellow with the Asia institute at the university of Melbourne, more info on the philosopher's own website, and of course you can stream or download this and all of our programs via the radio national website or the ABC listen app. Thanks for joining me this week. I'm David Rutledge, bye for now..
The Philosopher's Zone
"asia institute" Discussed on The Philosopher's Zone
"Adoption and the U.S. immigration system. Yeah, and you try all sorts of really interesting knock on effects from this sort of clean break model of adoption, which minimizes the racial differences between Korean adoptees and their parents. And one of those is what you have described as the transracial adoption paradox. This is something that many of these Korean born children began to experience as they grew older. The transracial adoption paradox tell me about that. Yeah, so the translational adoption paradox is coined by a psychologist Richard Lee. And Lee defines the paradox as a kind of set of what he calls contradictory experiences that are undergone by racial minority children who are adopted by white parents. So these children are racial minorities in society more broadly. But they are perceived and treated by others and sometimes even themselves as if they are members of the majority culture. And what's really interesting and important to emphasize there is that by majority culture Lee means not just that these adoptees are culturally white or as he says ethnically European, but also that they view themselves and are treated by others as if they're racially white, which is according to Lee. And adoption studies more broadly quite unique to transracial adoptees. And of course, you make the point that transracial adoptee experiences are incredibly diverse and circumstances vary widely. But is it possible to based on the studies that have been undertaken? To make some general comments about how the transnational adoption paradox can affect the sense of self or the behavior of some of these adoptees. Yeah, you know, a lot of studies have found that most Korean adoptees in the U.S. at least considered themselves to be or wanted to be white as children. In terms of how I guess deeply embodied this manifests, there's a recurring image or even a motif, I guess, in many adopting narratives and studies of seeing themselves in the mirror, adoptees kind of describe a sense of maybe shock is too strong of a word, but surprise. When viewing themselves in the mirror because they actually expected to see a white person looking back at them. And this kind of demonstrates, I think this disconnect or as some adoption researchers have called a form of bodily, self estranged or bodily alienation that abides because their internal sense of self, so to speak, does not match up with the way that they are perceived by others in the way that they appear when they're images reflected back on themselves. And so, you know, one of the ways in which this has manifested in terms of behavior is that some studies have found that adoptees have tried to modify their bodies through dying or curling their hair, using white face powder using blue contact lenses, so with regard to their sense of identity, due to the transracial adoption paradox, if adoptees families and broader communities do indeed perceive them as white by virtue of their adoption and if they deploy a kind of colorblind attitude, which was really the advice and the sort of prevailing discourse at the time, especially for the earlier adoptions, this idea that race doesn't matter. And this kind of love transcendent notion of adoption. Then for a lot of those adoptees, they're experiences of racialization go unseen unacknowledged and supported, and in some cases, family members will refuse to acknowledge that their child might have different experiences to their own, right? Because they view their child as simply their child, that because race doesn't matter to them or so that's how the explanation goes, right? That racialization isn't going to impact their child. And then growing up another repercussion is that many transracial adoptees avoid being associated with other people of color. Especially in their formative years. And so for some, there's a sense of double exclusion. So in white dominance, communities, they're seen as perpetually foreign. But in Korean communities, for example, they might feel inauthentically Asian or Korean. They don't speak the language. They have no understanding of cultural norms. They don't know how to eat the food. And so a really common theme running through a lot of these narratives is a struggle to find a place in the world. You're in the philosopher's zone with me David Rutledge and my guest this week is Ryan Gustafson from the Asia institute at the university of Melbourne. We're talking about transracial adoption and the ways in which transracial adoptees can find themselves in bodying a strange paradox that incorporates.
The Philosopher's Zone
"asia institute" Discussed on The Philosopher's Zone
"Is the philosopher's zone with me David Rutledge, welcome to the program. And welcome to an extremely interesting discussion this week that has a story behind it. It's the story of an adoption program that got started in South Korea at the end of the Korean War in 1953. And which since then has seen some 200,000 South Korean born children adopted to Western countries. The majority of them going to white families in the USA in Western Europe. So why are we talking about this on a philosophy program? Well, the answer will unfold over the next half hour, but in a nutshell. The story of many of these transnational adoptees is also the story of a weird kind of tension between standing out and blending in between belonging and being different, and this tension can tell us a lot about racialized experience more broadly. My guest is Ryan Gustafson, and he's a post doctoral fellow with the Asia institute at the university of Melbourne. The South Korean program started in the aftermath of the Korean War, otherwise known as the forgotten war, which ended, so to speak in 1953, and the adoption program was initially set up to facilitate the adoptions of mixed race children. So these were children born to Korean women and U.S. European and possibly even Australian military personnel. But in 1953, while there were these special provisions for servicemen to adopt Korean orphans, the kind of legislative infrastructure really wasn't yet in place to organize sort of large scale adoptions. So in 19 55, I believe, an evangelical couple from Oregon by the names of Harry and Bertha holt adopted 8 mixed race children and this was a really kind of highly publicized event in the U.S.. They soon established the whole adoption program in Korea, which still exists today, and very soon we're kind of inundated by requests from U.S. families to help them adopt what we're kind of referred to as GI babies as well. So by the late 1950s, hundreds of South Korean children were being adopted to the U.S. to Norway, Sweden, to England, but by the late 1950s, more children of so called full Korean parentage were being adopted. And so all these sort of adoptions at the end of the Korean War kind of started as a putatively temporary humanitarian solution. By the 1970s, thousands of South Korean children were being sent overseas, and it actually wasn't until the mid 1980s, so a good 30 years or so after the war that Korean adoption actually peaks. So in 1985, just under 9000 children were sent abroad. And to get a sense of scale, Korean researchers have recently calculated that this means that in the year 1985 children sent for adoption accounted for roughly 30% of Korea's total out migration that year. And we kind of end up with the Korean adoption program as the longest running modern adoption program. And it's involved an estimated 200,000 children sent to over 20 countries. And you've written about how Asian orphans at the time were depicted by American policymakers as what you've described as living emblems that appeared to solve America's race problem. That's very interesting. How was that supposed to be the case? This is work that the historian Rachel reigns Winslow has outlined really meticulously. So basically during World War II and in the lead up to and during the Korean War, the U.S. had started to implement some changes to their racially restrictive immigration system. And they were also seeking to portray themselves as a nation that champions and is committed to humanitarianism, often religious humanitarianism, as well as racial diversity. But when Korean adoptions started the race based quota system was still in place in the U.S. and there was no comprehensive legal framework to facilitate these adoptions on a larger scale. But in 19 53, the U.S. granted orphan visas for adoptees, and these visas were actually exempt from race based restrictions. So they were kind of exceptions, I suppose, to the immigration policies at the time. And so with regard to them being kind of living emblems that appeared at least to solve America's race problem, the adoption of Korean orphans was portrayed as a way for U.S. citizens, private citizens to demonstrate their humanitarianism and their altruism as a kind of private so to speak contribution to U.S. foreign policy. I should also note that for a lot of U.S. adopted families, especially in the first wave of adoptions, they also actually kind of viewed these adoptions as a national duty because these children were fathered by U.S. servicemen or assumed to be fathered by U.S. servicemen. There was also this idea that babies are really young children don't have ties to culture, that they would assimilate easily, have brought up in the U.S.. They were considered kind of exemplar potential immigrants and in fact, Rachel Winslow's book is actually called the best possible immigrants, which was the way that transnational adoptees were referred to by U.S. policymakers in the 1950s. And this had the effect of kind of a raising adoptees migration histories in the sense that they often were not even considered immigrants and even today this, I think, persists. And it also says I think a lot about U.S. immigration policy whereby the best possible immigrants are those who can disappear. Who's society no longer views as immigrants at all. So it's a really assimilationist logic that I think is quite glaringly the case when it comes to looking at the history of transnational.
TIME's Top Stories
"asia institute" Discussed on TIME's Top Stories
"But he adds that boosters should be rolled out as soon as possible to contend with the oma cron variant. Despite vaccination rates several Pacific countries are facing their biggest surges yet, as the omi cron variant reaches their isolated shores. Two or two and a half years later, when they try to start joining the world again, kaboom says Mia Ramon of the international development organization Pacific community. Samoa, which sets about 800 miles south of Kiribati, and which has remained relatively COVID free over the past two years, reported in January that several returning residents had tested positive for the virus upon touching down. 22 passengers on the flight from Brisbane, Australia tested positive, as have 5 nurses who looked after them in quarantine, although the government confirmed that no community transmission occurred, and also suspended repatriation flights. At least 5 people died in January in the Solomon Islands, the first COVID-19 deaths in the nation of 687,000. The government blamed the outbreak, the largest of the pandemic on people who illegally entered the country from papal New Guinea. It is clear that if the numbers continue to rise at the current rate than hospitals and health workers will be completely overwhelmed, says test Newton Cain, the project leader for the Pacific hub at the Griffith Asia institute a research center. While cure body relies on tourism, for less than 10% of its GDP, others in the region are much more dependent, tourism contributes almost 40% to honeymoon dream spot Fiji's GDP, and more than 40% of the economy in Vanuatu. A renowned destination for divers. That means that many isolated Pacific nations are facing the tough decision of staying shut and protecting their populations, or risk opening up. Some Pacific nations are keeping borders tightly sealed for now. Tonga turned back a flight from Australia, carrying disaster aid following a volcanic eruption due to positive COVID-19 cases on board, despite the precautions, Tonga detected two cases of COVID-19 this week in port workers, where humanitarian aid has been arriving and local media reported that three more cases had been detected in a family. A senior official in Vanuatu, which has recorded just 7 cases since the start of the pandemic said in December that the country's border could be closed for another year, according to local media. Fiji reopened to tourism on December 1st, 2021, after an outbreak earlier in the year that stretched the health system in a drive to blanket the population with vaccines. 90% of its eligible population is vaccinated. Even then, it hasn't all gone swimmingly. Some tourists have reported being locked in their hotel rooms without enough support after they tested positive. A claim rejected by Fiji's tourism authorities. But the outbreaks gripping places like pure body. Now may mean that some in the Pacific keep their borders sealed for even longer. Says Newton Cain, all of this will add to already high levels of caution about opening borders in other countries, such as Vanuatu and Tonga. Manifold says that cure bodies industry is taking the time to get even better prepared for reopening. On Friday, some staff will set sail for remote areas of Kiribati's line islands to deliver the training to operators there. Instead of sulking, we are taking this as an opportunity to really restart better. Let's be real. But you really care about is getting the most money back on your taxes, and the easiest way to do that is with tax.
Between The Lines
"asia institute" Discussed on Between The Lines
"Overdue, absolutely. And certainly welcome in some respects. What I would say here though is that there's a real danger that so much of what Australian was doing has again been cast through a national security lens. Of course, that's part of it. The region is changing. It is this greater contestation at play. But it's not the whole picture. And I think for Australia, the real worry, it should be that this is just another peak in our diplomatic interests that might weighing again over time. So I think the danger or the real issue at stake is can Australia play the game over the long haul. Can we build and develop Philly genuine long-term relationships that actually put specific island interests at the center of the discussion rather than what Australia wants to see in its own region? So I think there is some real challenges that play here over the next few years and unless we actually stay close to the long game. I think we'll be in danger of losing ground in the region. And New Zealand and a pals you'll base across the tasman tried with China seems to have been uninterrupted and like Australia. So how does the Ardern government differ in its approach to China, particularly in the Pacific region? Well, it actually doesn't. And it's been fairly clear the last couple of years with the release of a number of key government documents, most recently with the defense assessment, but also previously with strategic defense policy statement in 2018 that New Zealand has very strong concerns about China in the Pacific, the New Zealand foreign minister. And then I am a hooter, has publicly expressed concerns that Chinese investment in the Pacific is creating economic vulnerability and debt in the region. And this then relates to concerns about the point at which the economic coercion could potentially take place. And she's been very public in those concerns. But in terms of how that's informed New Zealand policy, what we have seen is similar to Australia, New Zealand, Australia had to step up in New Zealand had the recent. And New Zealand had subsequently then shifted towards a what they're referred to as a resilience approach, which is long-term economic development, genuine relationship building. All of those good things. But the question for New Zealand is still whether how New Zealand sustains that and for many Pacific leaders across the region that I have interviewed on this topic, their question has been very much this time. Is New Zealand and Australian interest in the Pacific, purely as a consequence of strategic competition with China. And this is not something that's new. They have seen strategic competition and great power games come and go in the region for a very long period of time. And so there is a degree of cynicism about how genuine this revitalized engagement actually is. Well, Anna, Caitlin, a lovely and important subject doesn't get enough attention. Thanks so much for being on radio national. Thank you, Tom. Great to be with you. Thanks, Tom. That's Anna pals. She's senior lecturer at the center for defense and security studies at messy university in New Zealand and Kaitlyn Byrne, director of the Griffith Asia institute in Brisbane. On ABC radio national, this is between the lines on Tom Switzer and in just a moment, historian Frank born joiner joins me to reflect on the pandemic and how it's changed us..
Between The Lines
"asia institute" Discussed on Between The Lines
"It's published by the lower institute and the author is Paul Kelly Paul, great to have you again on between the lines. Tom it's been wonderful to have this discussion with you. Thanks so much. My pleasure, Paul Kelly, editor at large of the Australian newspaper. Well, for decades, Australia assumed its role as a major power in the Pacific region, was unchallenged. It's rich and influence was taken for granted. Well, that was until China started to take an interest in the region. Now, if a Pacific nations, Beijing offers new options for finance, investment, and diplomacy, it's become more competitive, and that means Canberra and others have had to lift their game. So to discuss China in the Pacific in what an increased Chinese presence means for the region, let's turn to our panel. Professor Catelyn burn is director of the Griffith Asia institute in Brisbane. Hello, Caitlyn, welcome back to between the lines. Hi, there Tom great to be with you. And doctor Anna pals is a senior lecturer in security studies at messieurs university in New Zealand. Anna, thanks for joining us. Kyra, it's great to be here. Thank you. Now, can we start by talking about the extent of China's presence in the Pacific region, Caitlin? It's certainly increased in recent years, but is it as rapid and expansive as some fear? Well, thanks, Tom. That's a really great starting point. And let me do firstly with the increase. And I think it is worth noting from the outset that China has had a long-standing presence in the Pacific, you know, including from early trade and migration connections that have led to a fairly significant Chinese across the region. But I think certainly over the past decade, China's presence in the region has grown, particularly through trade and economic links through increasing diplomatic reach where they were talking about traditional forms of diplomacy or less traditional public diplomacy initiatives, including education scholarships and cultural exchange. And of course, in the development space, and more aggressive approach, particularly on infrastructure investment under the terms of the world to road initiatives. So I think when you look at the region now, China plays a very distinct role, certainly different from what it might have been a decade ago. It is a significant trading partner for many. It has a strong presence in the business community. And plays a role in this changing development landscape. But I think in terms of the second part of your question, you know, when we think about change in regional order that's always going to make people particularly policymakers in our national security circles uneasy. And I think there is a sense at the moment that this change that China, China's growing influence has brought does impinge on Australia's strategic outlook and that it has been calls for concern. Many commentators believe Beijing seeks to displace the U.S. as the dominant power in the Pacific. And what do you think China hopes to gain? What's driving Beijing? China's interest in the Pacific, probably threefold. Diplomatic competition with Taiwan is obviously been a significant part of that through the 80s and 90s. We really saw that sort of checkbook diplomacy take off through the 90s particularly. Now, of course, there are only four remaining Taiwan Taiwanese allies in the Pacific the Marshall Islands Tuvalu and Palau. And whereas the Pacific had long been this bulkhead for Taiwan in terms of a block of allies..
Monocle 24: The Briefing
"asia institute" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing
"The world meteorological organization italy's health ministry has issued red alerts for extreme heat in several regions and staying in italy. Today's monocle minute looks at what has changed in three years since the genoa bridge collapse you can find the report by going to monaco. Dot com for slash. Minutes those are today's headlines bacteria. Tom thanks very much. Kaleta now. malayasia's rookie. Politics have descended into a full blown crisis. With prime minister muhyiddin yassin attempting to fend off not only the opposition but his own supposed allies. The united malays national organisation the strongest ally of the ruling national alliance formerly withdrew. Its support earlier. This month and demanded the prime minister's immediate resignation joining us now from kuala lumpur. Is bridget welsh. Bridget is an honorary research fellow. At the university of nottingham's asia research institute malaysia bridge. Thanks very much for being with us. Just explain to us the backdrop to this the pm. I believe continues to claim that he has a majority in parliament. Opposition leaders of course have called for him to step down. Why exactly have we come to this. Well the bottom line is is that the current prime minister who came into power with reconfigured coalition in february of last year Wants to stay in office and doesn't want to give up power even though clearly. The numbers of people have come out. That said. we're no longer supporting him. That the letters have been sent to the king. The king has asked him to reconsider and to follow the constitution The current prime minister in malaysia is still holding onto power and has put off a parliamentary sessions in order to actually hold a vote. Keep in mind that that most of the day year so far malaysia has been under an emergency and at the request of the king. They opened up parliament which they shut down after three days didn't hold a vote of confidence and subsequently now fifteen members of his government have basically come out and said we don't support him and the prime minister is still trying to buy time despite repeated rebukes and reprimands and rick and statements made by the king to say. Hey you don't seem to have the numbers and so you should take steps. Accordingly in malaysia unlike the uk doesn't have a provision for a minority government. So this has been a challenge for malaysia. Core the different actors to come together and two former government and the current government is not letting go absolutely and we'll come to the king in a moment. A niece calls to You know Possibly stepped down from fr- from from the monarch but just on this point about what you mentioned their budget which is the fact that pollens being closed most of the anyway. There's been these emergency powers in effect. I wonder given that background whether fresh calls or even fresh calls from new voices for the pm to resign. We'll pull any weight whatsoever. Well i probably not in fact that You know what we see. Our three things going on in malaysia. We have this political crisis. Wear the prime minister is is clearly minority government. He keeps claiming that he's a majority. But the fact is is that the letter show otherwise in that regard but we also have a very serious cova crisis here with record numbers of cases daily and in an economy that is really suffering with. It's the longest locked down in the world in terms of over five hundred days. And i think as a consequence. These things are coming together. In a confluence of forces and calls have been ripped have been ongoing for months and the fact that they have to reach the highest level of the king and continued to be to be articulated. Shows how much that the current government is just within living within. Its own denial world that it is a sense of lack of accountability sense of entitlement of wanting to stay in office. Well how unusual is the fact that the pm's ignored this royal directive to bring back parliament. I mean is that. Is that an unusual class. Even by malaysia standards. It's an extraordinarily unusual clash. Keep in mind that the rule of the it is a constitutional monarchy. The role of the monarchy in malaysia has been very minimal From a perspective of interventions and domestic politics that changed somewhat last year when we had a crisis within the governing coalition at that time and things began to split and the and the king basically Allow me at any acid to form his government at which he took over in february. Now what we see our repeated statements from the palace And repeating meetings When when every week when we had to report to the king and explained before the cabinet meeting what is going on we now have public statements coming out about what their conversations about our about. And i'm sure from the parallel you don't see other constitutional monarchy monarchs making statements about the things that they're having in terms of private conversations unless they want to be making very clear their statements and and basically putting pressure on the government to resign. I was gonna ask you about these privates Discussions backroom deal something of a hallmark of malaysian democracy. And it was interesting and there was a One of the directors of the penang institute talking to monaco described the situation as looking like a roulette table which is either amusing or terrifying depending on your your view of things. How what if. It is a roulette table. How high are the stakes. And how concerned should we be that. There's not any kind of imminent resolution to this crisis. I think the issue is that the real gamble is that they're gambling with malaysians lives. The government has had very serious competency issues in its management of covert before emergency was declared. We had there. Were only three thousand cases now. Six months later they're over. Twenty one thousand cases in which the government itself with its low testing admits could be three times that much so in the sense of the way the political the politics is playing out We do see a situation where the power of office is being used to advantage But the government has been in the system as a whole has been basically caught because of the inability to be able to call an election to resolve the crisis Given the high numbers of cova cases that exist bridge a really interesting stuff. Thanks for your time here on the program. That's bridget welsh of the university of nottingham asia institute malaysia. You're listening to a monocle. Twenty four is proud to partner the briefing on monocle. Twenty.
"asia institute" Discussed on Newt's World
"As left this pressure mounts for student. Debt forgiveness more stimulus checks expanded unemployment benefits and a two trillion dollar infrastructure plan. The question comes to mind who is gonna pay for this clearly. The biden administration thinks they're playing with monopoly money. Listen if all your investments are tied to greenbacks here sitting on a ticking time bomb invest a portion of your savings and two gold and silver with birch gold group. They will help you convert an ira or ineligible 401k into an ira backed by gold and silver. That's right to a little known tax provision you can convert your retirement savings that's tied to the stock market and to an ira back by precious metals. It's your hedge against inflation tax. Newt two four seven four seven four seven for your free info on precious metals. Ira's or to speak with a birch gold representative today with ten thousand customers an a plus rating with better business bureau and countless five-star reviews birch goal can help you to tech newt two four seven four seven four seven and invest in gold before. It's too late at children's national hospital. Everything we do is just for kids. Our top ranked specialists are here for kids of all ages from babies. Who need help. Before they're even born to teens and young adults are pediatric together to diagnose problems quickly and thoroughly and use treatments designed exclusively for growing children with convenient locations. All across the dc metro area find specialist today at children's national dot org slash stronger illinois along parallel line was the whole blow up about the nba. And i think it's the houston general manager. Who tweeted something. In favor of hong kong within hours. The beijing regime was on the move and applying such enormous pressure to the nba. That they just crumbled. It was almost embarrassing. How rapidly they backpedaled. Apologized is that what we should expect more of in the future. Well i actually hope we don't. But i think we will and that was actually as crazy as it seems. That was the moment that really awoken me to the fact that wow what was i doing. The last twenty years was i engaged in the same kind of behavior is something we need to change. In fact at that moment. I just got back from china co hosting a trip through the us asia institute for three house members. It was an kirkpatrick a representative and can patrick. From arizona dina titus from nevada and alan lowenthal from each and we had met with carrie lam and we had met with protesters in hong kong. And we also were up in beijing and hurt all the party lines about various different policies issues and i came back and i was pitching publishers. The idea of this book and lo and behold fight for freedom stand with hong kong. That tweet comes out from a man. I had never heard his name before but he was the gm of the houston rockets in the second. I saw that tweet which was forwarded to me by somebody. I said oh no the nba in a lot of trouble in the guy who sent it to me said well. Why is that. And i said well houston. Rockets are the biggest branded team in china. Why is that. Because yao ming played for them and he was their stellar player. Coming from the homeland. What i didn't see. And i predicted it right that that was going to be a big issue for the nba in china. In fact it's still an issue philadelphia. Seventy sixers which is where. Daryl morey now is the president and gm is if they don't exist in china they are not aired. There's no merchandise on store shelves over there and that's all because of what he tweeted out that day in october of two thousand nineteen but what was interesting to me is that was easy to predict the repercussions for the nba. What wasn't easy to predict was the bumbling and fumbling that the nba had in regards to what their position was with. Daryl morey freedom of speech rights that he exercised outside of china number one and number two was the reaction of journalists politicians and american citizens over that. Bumbling fumbling with super loud and vocal. It was as if everybody Finally got awoke into the problem that we have with the current engagement of us china relationship and it was something that i could feel. A groundswell was saying. Hey it's time to change this and that is the moment where i said. Oh my god. I wanna bring to life in a book how we got here in engaging and entertaining way and also lead forward some ideas of how we can change. This moving forward wasn't some of it. A little bit inevitable. Just because of the sheer scale of their market well is all about the sheer scale. The market i mean if you go back to the while even kissing her nixon days just opening up dialogue with that country than seventy nine sort of really starting doing gauge in trade and then the moment that tnn square occurred which by the way. You're not even allowed to talk about in any form content when it comes to china and they don't want that in any form of content even if it's not even playing in china but the square june four nineteen eighty nine moment and the reaction of the business lobby shortly thereafter of. Hey you know what that's behind us. Now let's continue. The engagement of china was the perfect example of everybody in the business side. The capitalistic side of the equation. Going you know what we can look past. What's happening in china because that market is.
ABC Radio MELBOURNE
"asia institute" Discussed on ABC Radio MELBOURNE
"This week on Australian national security official warned that the drums of war are beating again. Mike Pezzulo said. We should be prepared to send off yet again, our warriors to fight It was taken as a warning that the U. S. And China could go to war over Taiwan, and Peter Dutton, the defense minister said. That's a threat. We should not right off. I just think people need to be realistic about the activity when there's militarization of vices across the region. Obviously, there's a significant amount of activity and this There's an animosity between Taiwan and China. But tensions between China and Taiwan have been simmering for 70 years. So how did it all begin? And why is it such a flashpoint now? So we're talking about a relic off the civil war in China. Melissa Conley Tyler is a research fellow at the University of Milburn's Asia Institute, and she's in Taiwan for her work. So you had the Nationalists in the Communist fighting for control of China, the Communists win and the nationalist group trade to the island of Taiwan, So China sees Taiwan is a breakaway province on day school Children have been towards for the last 70 years that it's In a naive you nibble cache of the country and I can't ever be lifted to go. Where's Of course, Tony's these days feel very much like their own place. And you now at the point, I think under 10% of the population would support reunification. So you've got this strange frozen conflict from the 19 forties very hard to know how to resolve. It's a very interesting moment, isn't it? To think that an island like Taiwan can congrats to have that identity and its democratic as well, But to still have paging, wanting to take it back? And and it seems that she Jim seems pretty keen to do that quickly, doesn't it? Yeah. Up Until now. It has been seeing this something to do and basically just kicked down the road. Andre people you know was used to talk about, say, 2049, which isn't too tannery as being That's the time when maybe we might resolve Taiwan. But what's interesting is in the last year President teaching ping hose Said that? No, actually, this should be a problem for al generation. So with heads, you know record numbers of planes doing incursions into colonies s face. No navy drills off Taiwanese coast and there's just this week, for example, there was a spy plane that tried to get in it. You know, I'm 30 m above ground to try to get into the Taiwanese spice. So so there's a lot more pushing from Beijing on the idea is that you know that sort of gray zone tactics would push Taiwan into more negotiation at very least. Not pushing forward with further attention for independence. Let's just talk about a cup of the other players in this tell us more about how America and Joe Biden's administration is responding to this up to now, the feeling is pain that is in everyone's interest to avoid direct confrontation. It's better to keep the status quo and U. S. Has been part of that. So the U. S doesn't have a treaty Security guarantee for Taiwan in the way, just say has a trading with Australia. It's trading with South Korea or Japan. The Taiwan What you have is an act of Congress called Taiwan Relations Act, which pledges the U. S to help Taiwan my time. It's self defense, but it will short or the full treaty. So this is what the ambiguity you know, if there was an attack on Taiwan would do us come today, not how does that work? And that has been somewhat useful just in keeping everybody from Changing situation. So if Taiwan declared independence that would cause the hot conflict if China invaded that, because the heart's conflict keep it and big Ewers keep the status quo as long as you can, because nobody wants to get to that position now on about the Trump Administration and the by the administration. There's been a lot of really supportive statements on Taiwan, and I think that has been a bit of a change today, even more explicit about the support for Taiwan. But again, the support is always saying reunification has only happened by peaceful names. Everything has to be done by peaceful means. That's the statement the kids being made over and over again. Where do those tensions between America and China leaves Australia? It's Julia. It was a hot conflict. Australia, right? I don't think would be found by treaty. So the the answer's treaty wouldn't extend this far. But I think they'd be a different question about if the U. S was getting involved. Would distract you want to And yet what? Australia want to support a vibrant democracy of around 24 million people again. We don't want to get there and it's important. We keep saying strongly, it should be a peaceful resolution. And so how hypothetical is all of this? And I guess I'm interested in mainland Chinese public opinion, too, because although she jumping is is kind of ramping this up He would surely have to be cognisant of public opinion in his own back. Absolutely, And I think Chinese public opinion in almost all circumstances. Now, it would seem is quite apart to have Chinese killing other Chinese because that's the flip side of everyone having been taught for so long that Taiwan is a part of China that there's a really strong sense of identification and the idea that Chinese government would invade and kill other Chinese well, that that's very problematic, So it sort of depends how it happens. I mean, if Taiwan word to unilaterally declare independence, that's one thing and I can see that there would be an immediate China's response. But anything short of that It's quite hard, which is why you see this graze on tactics and I would expect that to continue. But I think China will calibrated to try toe. You know, keep it below a level with the world community has to respond. I think the biggest worry we have these probably and accidental escalation. Something happens with one of these incursions and that turns into an incident but it's very hard for people to back down from Melissa, You are in extraordinary place an extraordinary time. That's true. Very best of luck with your research. Thank you so much for talking us through it. Thank you, Linda. Well, that Saturday I am for this week. Subscribe to our podcast or find us on the ABC. Listen,.
The Money Advantage Podcast
"asia institute" Discussed on The Money Advantage Podcast
"Of someone will present something the way. Now my senator it or the way you know someone coming from the insurance sector would say it might not make sense to me and i think about it in terms of economics and then all. That's why that works. And so if i explain the sometimes it clicks with people if i say it in different words are coming from a different angle but we end up at the same spot. I think that's one of the values of having multiple people will be able to explain what infant making is and there's also different personalities and different skill sets that are trying to grapple with this concept that seems like this hidden gem. It seems like this thing that nobody knows about. And that if you have heard anything on the street about infinite banking or whole life insurance if more than likely negative versus positive and so then you have the personalities that say while. I'm very skeptical It sounds too good to be true. How in the world are people. That are smart. Actually doing this. I don't understand and you have people who are more conceptual you have. People who are more tactical and all of those different people are trying to figure out for themselves. Is this something that actually wanna do. So i really appreciate you sharing your background of skepticism. Which is extremely beneficial to somebody. Who's also maybe a little skeptical. So let's talk about. So you and nelson nash. And carlos laura created the the or the nelson nash institute and the certification program. Talk about that a little bit. And then let's jump into y. You specifically created this book shirt and also david stearns was integrated involved in creation nelson asia institute. So it's again. I give a little bit of background. Is i realized what this was. They had me come down to what's called the think tank. Which is the annual conference that the banking professionals have every year in birmingham alabama. And i was a guest speaker. And that's where i saw presentations in there were like. Cpa's getting up and doing things. And i realized this this really works like the you know. This isn't just you know people waving their hands around and talking about general things like there's real numbers behind this it makes lot of sense even include the taxes. Whenever it makes even more sense is great. And so carlos in. I wrote a an earlier book called hal privatize banking really works. And you. i know you guys mentioned that. You like that phrase. And that was actually carla's idea that he was the one single of bob you as an economist was subscriber. What's called the austrian school so the time just to give people was two thousand nine people remember there have been the financial crisis in the fall of a and then.
Between The Lines
Muscling up to China and 25 years since Srebrenica
"Tom Switzer, he and welcome to another episode off between the lines now today on the program will be commemorating the twenty fifth anniversary of Europe's worst massacre since the Holocaust in ninety, ninety, five more than eight thousand people died in Shrimp Nitsa. The town was supposed to be a U N protected safe haven in the vicious civil war that tore Yugoslav apart instead the civilians ended up being massacred by Bosnian Serbs. Were lightning fast with their superior weapons. They easily overran the lightly. I'm Bosnian government troops and the token full civilian peacekeepers. The UN's Valley to protect the civilians inspired Washington to launch unilateral action against Serbia and end the civil war. Would things be the same today now? That's later in the program, but first defense. Last week the Morrison. Government launched a defence strategy and force structure review now the move signals a major shift away from the strategy outlined in the last defence white paper. Remember that just four years ago in two thousand sixteen. It plotted out Australia's strategic costs for the next decade. But that White Paper has as we know been rapidly overtaken by Vince covert China or that now the new review has promised two hundred and seventy billion dollars over the next decade to enhance Australia's defence capabilities with renewed focus on areas like Saba and spice capabilities and the possible development of hop sonic weapons will be fitting aircraft with long-range anti-ship missiles, increasing underwater surveillance and boosting fuel ammunitions reserves. Now, underscoring the seriousness of the shift, the Prime Minister even drew comparisons to the nineteen thirties and the lead up to world. War Two that period of the nineteen thirties. Is Been Something I've been revisiting on a very regular basis and when you connect by the economic challenges and the global uncertainty. It can be very haunting, but is the money too much or not enough is going to all the right places, and we'll do enough to safeguard Australia from China's increasing assertiveness and is rapidly growing military capabilities. What's the role of Australia's diplomacy? And all of this will joining me to discuss this at three distinguished guests. By skill is professor of Asia Pacific Security Studies at Macquarie University Holiday Bites. Thank you good to be here Melissa Conley. Tar is a research fellow at the Asia Institute at the University of Melbourne. Hi There Melissa could to speak again Tom. And Pay. The Jennings is executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Tom No. Can you talk us through the top of scenarios and potential conflicts that the defense review is preparing us for the scenario that the review is focusing on is one involving a high end conventional conflict, so I've gone to the days of stabilization operations in t more Counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan This document is preparing foresight on onsite conflict. Involving countries that have sophisticated military forces. And, of course, the document doesn't say. I don't think it would be reasonable to expect it to say. That China is the problem. But let me tell you China is the problem that is the now neoplasia competitive that way of thinking about when we think about what's adequate in terms of the topic of military capability we need to have. and to does reflect to change. From past years Tom I recall when I started by defense career, we were thinking much more about the risks presented by Indonesia, and the so called low level in cushions in the northwest. Of course, that's no longer features in anyone's strategic thinking. Really it's about China and the risks that the People's Republic is presenting to all of its neighbors in abroad since in the Indo Pacific region and beyond I cabinet crudely putting it some sites laying the groundwork for fortress Australia US sign. This is preparing us to join a potential use LID. Containment slash war against China for example to protect Taiwan Peter Jennings. I think that is it covers a spectrum of possibilities. One possibility which I think is Epson you were in terms of language of the document is that we might conceivably end up having to face military conflict without being able to rely on the direct combat support of the United States, and that's what leads to discussions around extra stockpiling munitions and fuel insightful. But I think in general terms. Yes, the expectation is that Australia. Through its history has been a country that forms coalitions usually have like minded partners, the share the same types of objectives. And the the plan will design the Defense Force. Really gives us the capacity to do that with Rachel Ellis lecture, example, Japan but also with our traditional ally the United States okay bates skill. You've recently completed a review of China's defense capabilities and its recent military modernization, specifically looking at the implications for Australia Wind you expect the Peo- The People's Liberation Army and its navy. When do you expect them to have the capability to project power as far as Australia annual Pacific knives, well in many respects Tom, they already can I mean they have the long range missile capabilities to do that? Know as a from a standoff position launched from their own from their own homeland against hours. But what I think, the the new strategy is looking at is really the development of capability over the next ten fifteen twenty years, and that's by the Chinese own own acknowledged calendar that they would be able to by that time of mass, a large enough capability, both in terms of its long range strike, you know striking from their own homeland, but also bill to project. Project Power passed the so-called first and second island change and being a position to more directly threatened through those platforms Australian security. So you know we're talking ten or fifteen year window here and I think given the time it does take to try and respond to develop the the deterrent and defense capabilities for Australia. That's that's you know that's in some ways a short window. for Australia to be mobilizing in reaction Melissa Tali. What's the role of a strong diplomacy and all these well I think it needs to be growl. And one of the concerns when we look at the deteriorating strategic environment is we think all that's a defense problem? And so when the prime minister launches the strategic update with those comparisons with the nineteen thirties. It pushes US toward seeing in purely military terms but we don't just want to say things in that security lands, we want to think about all of the parts about national power projection, so that's diplomacy and development as well as defense I think if if people thought about it I think what we invest in all three strongly, but that's not where it is if you look at federal budget fifty. Fifty nine billion to defense and less than seven billion to diplomacy and development together the lowest point with ahead in our history and I think we missing that opportunity. If we don't take US seriously, the way that diplomacy and development can shape things in the world so I was struck. Today was a defendant looking at the latest poll on what are the major concerns that Australians have at the moment of the top threats in the world and the first five, a role nontraditional that drought, environment, disaster, climate change, pandemics, and downtown, global economy, and those places where you know military spending isn't going to help shape that environment. So we need to have an effect on those. We need to be thinking much more about what we can do in the diplomacy and development to mind Peter Jennings. What would you say in to Melissa's observations? Because they reflect a certain mindset that that perhaps we should be focused more on non state actors rather than say China for instance well, I think all of these you know threats that have to be taken seriously. I'm and simply because we're living in the middle of a pandemic for example, doesn't the climate change is gone away in this no longer going to present a problem to us. I guess what I'd say. Is that the you know the five things Melissa listed? That were in the featured in the low e Poland terms of popular concerns. Are also the things which could. In different ways late to the risks of conflict escalating in the Indo Pacific region generally so You know my my view, please while I would like to see spending on diplomacy increased. While I. Say Development Assistance is being something which is effectively the United soft in of Australian power, and the military is the hot end of Australian power. I think. The message against all of these areas is that we have just been underinvesting for decades underinvesting for decades, so we're we're all. High fiving ourselves at just reaching about two percent of gross national product, being spent on defense, but that is compared to what we spending in cold or years, which was sometimes between three and a half percent in four percent of rustic product. So what we have grown used to Tom I would say is. Free written on the United. States code tiles of security for for decades. We've dramatically under. Invested in the things that we need to do to strengthen Australia's position, not just militarily, but also diplomat. A now. We're rather surprised to hear the news that Gosh the bill is a lot more expensive than we really thought. It was only if you've got that confidence in the US. and. In fact, the whole trump stories, the story of the Americans really big being fed up with the rest of the world, thinking that the US can fund the bill for their security, so we're going to have to do more and I think we're going to have to do it against multiplicity of areas not. Justin sought the defense organization. We'll some scholars such as you want and James Current from the University of Sydney. They say that this document sounds a lot like an acknowledgement that the US might not always be there to help us out. By are we starting to plan for more independent Australian defense posture I think it would be a wise move to keep that option open when you think of the capabilities that the Chinese developing in which do have a direct pose a direct threat to Australia or could do so. In many respects, the I think the types of threats that you might not expect an immediate or even timely response on the part of the United States what I'm thinking here. Cyber capabilities is a huge priority for the Chinese. We already know what they see the sort of capability. They can wield against Australia and that's not the sort of thing you can expect a kind of cavalry to. Lead the charge from from Washington to come to Australia's defence slowly long range strike capability on the part of the Chinese capability. They already have in which are going to continue to develop. which could threaten Australia down the road now? These are capabilities that I think that Australia's going to have to develop their own defenses for. They can certainly do that with United States, but again it's not necessarily the sort of threat that we would expect some sort of traditional ally joint response not to make it well. Some of are in listeners will email me and they'll say that if Uncle Sam struggles to police. It's own CDs. Melissa. How on Earth Can Uncle Sam Police? The Asia Pacific region in the face of a rising China. What's your sense about us staying power in the next decade or two in look? It's difficult One of the things that strategic update looks at is more threats to the global rules order, and unfortunately the you know, the US is part of that. the US is not along with the strategies interest on things like global trading system, and a number of international issues like global health where we would say you need to be supporting. A Global Response that said I don't think the strategic update will be read negatively in. Washington, it's my guess. it very clearly couched in terms that I think the US will lock about Australia contributing more and having more self. that could be seen as a statement that we think that the US might not have outback, but can also be seen as something that the US has been for for a long time. I particularly liked a few elements of the update things like making sure that we have. You know material ammunition You know that aren't going to be disrupted. Buckle supply trying having more capability eight industrial cut suffering capability here antiques fuel reserves, which is not as long sane as an issue for us, so I mean those are things that are worth investing in. Regardless of US resolve because as we've seen from COVID, we know that supply chain can be disrupted very quickly and easily, and it's worth having eligibilities. Cepeda Jennings bite skill and Melissa Conley Toilet and Melissa. The Pacific step up last year. That realigned Australia's development budget to deal with some of the strategic challenges posed by China in the Pacific Do you think it goes far enough? The step up was followed recently by strategies new International Development Policy Partnerships for recovery, and that's made it very clear that strategies focus should be on the Pacific and also southeast. Asia including. Indonesia and team August. I think that has a very clear statement about what we want. In the region of being entrusted trusted development partner and influencing those societies that we think positive for four region. Again you're going to. You're going to say you. Hear this from me all the time, but again the problem is that we not really making much invasive lunch, so partnerships for recovery head no new money it talked about the massive challenges that covered as as creating for for the for the Pacific, and for for our region broadly, and the only funding announcement was that we're going to repurpose the money. We would have spent on sending Australian. Volunteers in scholarship holders. And we're GONNA use that so I I suppose I. Feel a little bit with all the areas, not actually include district update in that as well that what we've seen through the foreign policy, White Paper and International Development Policy through to to the defense. Strategic Updike is. We talk about how. how? What a time! These these frosty leaving a contested difficult awful environment that we've now got to leave in and the Dow L. Easy Times over, and then we say, and we're not gonNA. Give any new money so I mean the defense announcement is essentially just that we're going to continue to you know, extrapolate out the money that was planned to be spent in the twenty twenty six, and we're going to extrapolate that out to twenty thirty terabytes skill. Do we risk getting into a bidding war for influence in the Pacific? I don't know if it's a risk. If it is a risk worth worth taking. I mean obviously the Pacific region is so extremely important Australia's future. Both for for defense reasons for regional engagement for diplomatic reasons, developing reasons and the like. so It's quite possible that we're entering in a more competitive phase with China in this. SITES WRIST BYTES I'm talking about more the budgetary concerns he because in the wake of the Corona Virus Crosses. There'll be serious limits on how we can spend on these things scholley. Yes, there is and party left to be be developed for that, but you know when you're talking about your own backyard. I mean I I. I don't think it's the kind of country that can simply. Pretended it's by itself getting back pay to Jennings to the region, generally in the rise of what. Angus Campbell is of the Defence Force he's talked about the rise of political warfare, the idea of grey zone warfare things like cyber attacks, economic coercion influence operations that fall below the traditional threshold of war. He says we need a whole of government response to it. I, you seeing that whole of government approach happening in Campbell, or is this Manley focus on defense and the spy agency so far Peter Jennings. It probably is focused on the national security agency's Tom. That's not too surprising because you'd expect them to sort of pick up on the risks I. But General Campbell is right. It does need to be all government is. There's a whole lot of things happening there that simply cannot and should not be done by defense organizations. and. I think that realization is slowly dawning. Along as both of the speakers have said that actually ladyship comes with cost of infrastructure is going to play that role, but you know, give you a small example of this we. We have lost the ability to broadcast into the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. In a way that we used to very successfully over over decades to give us the capacity to do that. We're probably talking about you know that. He million a year forty million a year, which sounds a lot of defend. It's nothing if you're in the Defense Department. Let me tell you. But you need to be able to do things like that. To be the truth teller in the region to actually tell the region that there are alternatives to Chinese Communist Party authoritarianism I think that's what's needed with responding to this grey zone on threat. Is Actually to be the truth teller. In this part of the will and getting our system in Cambridge used to that reality to understanding what needs to be done. To starting at different type of conversation with our region. With our own people for that matter that that is a sort of a psychological change which I can see happening, but we're not quite yet. There's a bit of work still to be done to get to that point Melissa. Conley Tyler. Is, just responding on that. I agree entirely with what pitcher saying on on broadcasting. It's a small investment, such a an increasing influence. It should be Brian and I hope that did that's being seen. I think having defense voices. I will help a lot in a banks, seriously I'm but just went. When you ask Tom Balaton host government and what's happening there? There are some really good examples, so for example win. This Pacific step pop started an office of the Pacific was established in that apartment and tried and each job. He's to be that coordinating body, and it's bringing together the. The defense, the development and the diplomacy in a way that he's gone to maximize our influence. and I've noticed this a lot more discussion about that that three. How do you bring defense development diplomacy communities together? I'm involved in initiate the Pacific. Four Day and I think a lot of people not talking about what more we can do for that that joined up coordination to make the most about national instruments by skill. You're an expert on China. The elephant in the room of course is China doing need to be careful not to overestimate China's military strength. What about the weaknesses? Exactly right I mean you have to know your enemy's weakness as well as their strengths in the case of China, they are undertaking enormous reforming organization effort. They're pouring billions of dollars into new capabilities, but there's a lot of things we need to recognize I. Mean One is that the Chinese have not fought a shooting war and more than forty years. They are have no. They have zero experience in high end combat against a serious. Adversary, scenario, so that's not to downplay them, but to understand that they've got enormous obstacles to overcome that day. Themselves acknowledge that they themselves. No, they have to overcome, and that's why we had this window that we've been talking about. A fifteen to twenty years. to try and develop capabilities to get in front of the kinds of things that the Chinese want to bring to bear around. Around, twenty thirty or twenty, thirty, five, twenty, forty, paid-up Melissa to be continued. Thanks so much for being on our in. Thank you, tell my pleasure. Thank you, Tom. That was paid jennings. He's executive director of the Australian strategic pulsing suit by skill professor of Asia Pacific Security Studies at Macquarie University and Melissa Commonly Tyler. She's a research fellow at the Asia Institute at the University of Melbourne. These between the lines with Tom Switzer. Coming next, we're going to replay a version of a segment from between the lines. I 'cause commemorating the massacre of Bosnian Muslims at shredded Nitsa on the eleventh of July nodding ninety. Five twenty five years ago this week. More than eight thousand people were killed by Serb forces. It was the worst massacre. Europe had seen since the Holocaust. Serve softening up Trevor Nature for the army's final push into the town. Town of course was supposed to be a safe haven protected by the United Nations, but the civilians ended up being sitting ducks as I woke Larry. Hollingsworth Remembers I. Myself Feel Devastated and ashamed I was there with them? When we told them that it was a safe haven I watched. Many of these people walk in with the minimal possessions into shreds, knowing that it was a safe haven, and now they're fleeing out because we've let them down, let them down to the extent that within dies. About Twenty three thousand women and children were deported, and about eight thousand Muslim men and boys left behind where executed and buried in mass graves. Now, reports from the time described, frightening scenes stiffen overawed from medicines on frontier. Speaking he. Loading some of the children and women into buses, but there's no indication as to where it was buses, going with seen some horrifying streaming, going on women and children going into the buses being taken away from their family This was going on with a lot of crying a lot of panicking. The slaughter had been planned carefully and executed with precision. All the wall Dutch. Pace is literally stood by, and did nothing indeed even when the Serb assault on Srebrenica was imminent. in-command is still rejected Kohl's racetracks. Positions. Pope John Paul. The second declared ribbon Nitsa a defeat for civilization as media reports begins to reveal the scale of the unfolding tragedy. The UN says nine hundred thousand people are still unaccounted for. About some became clear as government soldiers emerging from the forest in central Bosnia, told of horrific massacres at the hands of the Serbs one young. People executing them on spot, but this didn't come out of the blue. By the time this massacre took place the civil war that tore the former Yugoslavia. Repot was heading into its fourth year. More than a million people have been displaced, and the world became familiar with a new term ethnic cleansing. So? Who is to blame for these well? Let's start with the United. Nations from ninety two to ninety, five shrivel Nitsa was the world's first union declared civilian syphon. It was supposed to to her aggression. It was supposed to aggression and set the scene for political negotiations to end hostilities between the Bosnian Serbs, and Muslims, but the UN soldiers in the SIPHONS. They were bedeviled by problems. If you declare an area safe haven in the name of the United Nations. Nations if you tell the people if they are safe in the name of the United Nations you have got to put the troops on the ground, and it's no good for politicians say yes, we go for safe havens, but we're not gonNA put the troops meanwhile the Europeans vacillated and equivocated failing miserably to cope with across at its own back door. America was also reluctant to get involved as then President George Bush senior explained in Nani Nani to. I? Something because I learned something from Vietnam. I am not going to commit US forces until I know what the mission is to the military. Tell me that it can be completed until I know how they can come out. You have ancient rivalries that have cropped up as as Yugoslavia's dissolved or getting dissolved, and it isn't going to be solved by sending in the eighty second airborne, and although on the campaign trail that Ye Bill Clinton pledged to reverse the appeasement of that bushes of Belgrade as President Clinton allowed the Balkans to bleed for three more years. French President Jacques Chirac was moved to declare quote, the position of the leader of the free world vacant. Trinite Sur changed all that having done nothing the before during the mass killings in Rwanda Clinton was galvanized into action, and crucially he cut the United Nations out of the Decision Chine on August thirty Washington led a night bombing campaign against the Serbs the NATO action began early this morning. The harsh light of fires and explosions coloring the night sky. Some people watched the bombardment from their houses, but after more than ten thousand deaths here in the last three years, most Sarajevans had given up any hope of outside intervention. Last night it came on a scale which could yet change the course of this war by the end of not ninety five sixty thousand nine hundred troops, including twenty thousand Americans were on the ground in Bosnia. Pace was declared. The BOEKEN's wars ended only because the US finally acted. He's President Clinton in November ninety five my fellow Americans in this new era there are still times when America and America alone can and should make the difference for peace. The terrible war in Bosnia is such a case nowhere. Today is the need for American leadership. More stark are more immediate than in. In Bosnia in the years since the Mexica Europe inaction was heavily criticised, and the US was held up for its global leadership in particular for its unilateral humanitarian intervention. This is when the US secretary. Of State. Madeleine Albright said America was the indispensable nation, and that idea would fade into the justification of the Iraq invasion in two thousand and three as a war of liberation, but he's a question with the US intervene. If the shrivel Nitsa massacre happened today from the standpoint of twenty twenty, we might ask if the era of US unilateral humanitarian intervention is well and truly over. Well, that's it for this week. Show remember if you'd like to hear the episode again or download segments since two thousand fourteen. Just go to ABC. Dot Net dot US slash aren and follow the prompts to between the lines, or you can listen via the ABC. Listen APP, or wherever you get your podcast. You can even subscribe, so you never miss an episode. I'm Tom Switzer continue next week.
Monocle 24: The Foreign Desk
2018 in Review: Election Highs and Lows
"Unsurprisingly all things considered the citizens of many countries decided that it was time to put someone else in charge in two thousand eighteen but did they make the right choices on nonstop net. Extra jet that award hundred. I should is a military scientist author and research associate at so SS South Asia institute, she considered the decision of her country Pakistan to elect former cricketer Imran Khan as prime minister. He has really brought about a new generation of supporters and voters who are very grateful. Very intolerant. To give you an example in Karachi, Imran Khan recently made a speech saying that, you know, people in job who support Nevada schrief donkeys. And then what is body follow? As did the got hold of a real donkey in Karachi and beat it up to death. So it's violence. I mean, they're very Gresley. If you watched them in social media the foul he's foul mouth. So it's almost kind of fascism that he's bringing a new fascist flavor. That is bringing to politics. That's what's different. I don't think that the taste will change is just that a new make belief world has been. Created through media through narrative management, and in this the military has a large and to play giving the view from Mexico where voters bucked international trends by electing a left wing populist is Andre Rosenthal. A former deputy foreign minister of Mexico ambassador to the UK and Sweden Representative to the UN and now international consultant on Latin American affairs. I think the first thing new president Mexico has to do is to tell the truth campaigns are one thing, but once you're in office, and once you know, what the situation is regarding the checks and balances that you have either on the legislative side, or in the media or civil society, you need to tell Mexicans the truth. If you continue to promise all sorts of impossible things like free education for everybody know exams to get into university selling off the presidential air airplane fleet traveling by car everywhere giving up the president's residence and and living in his house or renting. Little house near the offices things like that those are very populist promises, which resonate with a group of people. But they are things he will not be able to fulfil. And therefore, I think at the end of the day, his first speech his first act as president elect, even before he takes office needs to be to begin to tell the truth one of the main themes of elections this year, wherever they were taking place was an increasing disconnect between the public and the politicians. It was no different in Iraq, which was long overdue. He is NPR's. Jane Arraf, people are incredibly disillusioned with politicians and not just politicians. The interesting thing is they're disillusioned with tribal leaders. They're disillusioned with religious leaders. So there's a lot of skepticism we've seen that reflected in the turnout results in the Iraqi election, for instance, and really a lot of cynicism about whether this group of politicians will. Be any better than the next group. Even though they talk a good game. And also in Iraq Renauld monsoon academy fellow with the Middle East and North Africa program at Chatham house. Well, it's been fifteen years and the Iraqis are asking fifteen years, what have these leaders done, the political tribal religious leaders? What have they done in terms of basic services in terms of employment and the answer they're coming up with is not much? And so the bigger gap in Iraqi society today isn't the gut between Kurds and Shia which is sort of defined post two thousand three Iraq. The biggest gap is the gap between the citizens and the elite between the rulers and the ruled many sort of people from bustling all the way up to slay. My NIA have very similar demands. So what you're seeing are the Shia protesting against their own leaders and Kurds protests against on Kurdish leaders. They're tired of identity politics. They know that any Iraq since two thousand and three Kurds Sunni and Shia leaders have all become wealthy at the expense of the majority of the population. Those are the citizens. But to go back to where we came in and to try to conclude review of two thousand eighteen on a note more positive than being mealy. Glad it's all over is it possible that the tunnel down, which we all traveling has a light at the end of it. And is it possible that that light has been illuminated accidentally by the most unlikely Pathfinder more presidential than any president that's ever held this office that I can Amy pope is associate fellow at the US and the Americas program at Chatham house and former deputy homeland security advisor to Barrack Obama. So she's not quick to jump to President Trump's defense. But is the even a glimmer of good news from his presidency? So far, I think it is the role of women in society. It is the election of so many women to congress, and it's the conversation that has been going on since his election about the metoo movement about the exploitation of young women beh-. Savior is that had pretty much been accepted for decades as long as women have been in the workforce are now front and center. And that's frankly in large part due to him the access Hollywood tape and comments about how he was treating women galvanized a conversation galvanized commitment from women to engage in public life. Women. I know who had no interest in politics are now organizing fundraisers getting out getting out the vote writing speaking. That's a great thing. And that is not that we've been trying to crack for many many years. And so I suppose hats off to Donald Trump for bringing the women to the table before to UCLA, Geoffrey Howard, Jeff any optimism for us. I think the way in which Trump may be an advertently making America greater again is by getting Americans to think seriously about the role of moral values in politics. And I think there's a long standing. Tenancy to think that when you go to the voting booth you're just going to vote for your own pocketbook devote for your own self interest. And I think that assumption is is under pressure and people are once again as in all the great moments of American history in the great moments in the history of any democracy taking seriously, the idea that the purpose of politics is to provide for certain basic rights and opportunities for all. And when our institutions are subverted in when they are not being dedicated to that proper purpose, it's important to hold political leaders accountable. So if the president is able to inadvertently reawakened in people a sense of moral commitment in passion in public life. That would be a terrific inadvertent achievement.