20 Episode results for "Antarctica"
Penguins, Biodiversity And Antarctica
"What are we doing in this frozen wasteland on it's not a wasteland Yale aw okay fine I see a colony of penguins over there but wasteland isn't too far off Antarctica isn't exactly full of bio-diversity Monja and then when picks up the ammonia and blows it inland ammonia includes nitrogen which all plants need to grow and the nitrogen enriched soil one hundred thousand per square meter in the grasslands of the US or Europe. You know I'm still not wrong when I call this place a wasteland you're saying that makes it possible for some lichens and Mosses to grow quite a few lichens and mosses which then provide homes for a whole lot of small invertebrates it's such a spring tails and mites scientists found millions of invertebrates per square meter in some areas of Antarctica whereas you can usually only find fifty something all animals do pooping researchers found that when colonies of elephant seals as well as JEN to Chinstrap and the daily Penguins poop enriching the soil in and around the colony creating the perfect environment for mosses and Lichens to grow what happens is that the PU partially evaporates as we've just spent all this time talking about Penguin and seal waste troot just happens that the soil puts all the waste to good use this moment oh is it limited to the confines of the colony researchers found that the ammonia can enrich area up to two hundred forty times the size of a colony and science comes from Indiana University on the web at a moment of silence dot org. I'm John Glass. I'm Yahya Cassandra EH. You'd be surprised I was at least the colony of penguins over there has essentially creating a hotbed of biodiversity by doing.
Bad Boys Breakfast Show - 11 May 2020 - Captain Antarctica Dispels the Flat Earth Theory
"This is the bad boys breakfast. Show the daily podcast. Get you up to speed with today's new sport him with a plus a daily dose of comedy with two guys that have been there done that and got locked up for it fresh from self fifty three. It's time to get real and get role with batboys. Shannon Darren on the bad boys breakfast show welcome to the bad boys. Breakfast show four may twelve. Is it my twelve month over the? I just happened so quickly quickly. How is You know don't haven't seen you for a couple of no look. I bought a new shirt. Now I'm just GONNA I'm GonNa just position at here because Oh I know you love this guy. So much okay. Okay Shit for the land that we haven't seen each other for a couple of days. I mean he's been off on a date. Update out in about one of those one of those dates. What have we got The Hof yes the Let me just jump rope every guy I mean what can I say? What can I say a man after my own heart this? This man is just a legendary. Just feel like a million dollars wearing this. Should you should see out of all the people in the world that I would want to make Ilan mask and all these wonderful people around the world you know I just WanNa make. I wouldn't WanNa make the hall. I mean. Look at what he's done he's had like you know being on the beach. Will these Babes? He's he's driven a car that talks to him. Hey sings in Germany. Does he sing in actual German? Always I don't know actually I haven't actually taken the time to listen to his Elba. I didn't even know that he sang until you were talking about the other yeah. He's massive massive in Germany. We understand him and get him. He's pure we've got least in Germany. I know I'm sorry I've just insulted you with the Nazi policies for then. I'll put my foot it again already Donnie. He doesn't really apologize now. We have a very special guest here. Today we His name is Sean MacBride. He is also nine as Captain Antarctica. However you show on. You're coming to us all the way from Antarctica. I love it not fly but it looks that way so You know just we're going to have a little bit of a talk about your drain fuelling. So you've you've put in for a dream fuelling request and thanks to my balance. He showed us a message. And said you gotTa have a chat to Sean? He's got this incredible idea. He wants to go to Antarctica and we thought what a great day to have a chat with you because it's also tin hat. Tuesday it is ten. I've forgotten and you can help us with this with this letter to bite. Tin Had choose is that is that in your program. Even got the hat here. We talk. We're ready to roll way ready. I mean so. So what are you? What are you got thirteen? Tuesday today is actually going to have part two of the flow theory. We're GONNA and show actually to tell us the truth but you might have to rehash a little bit for those people who didn't see that show or listen to that show because it was quite interesting and the emails that you got from David David what account remember. He's some really caroline downloaded. He's Song you love me a song. You love his music. And he's he's like a complete flooded earth and all music you listen to the lyrics it is it is a flat. Everything is flat. We'll already too little snippet of his of his email because it's golden but also to to to find out what shown knows about the truth of Antarctica. So you know I wanna ask him about everything in the asked him a little bit about that in all understands what this treaty is and why yes exactly. Well let's get cracking with Andrew in hang on a SEC. My ready then. Newsdesk turn into the news around the country today with people returning back to work of the next few weeks. It is looking lock logistical nightmare as things like ending public transport years is rising concerns of the second wife of the businesses are looking at a range of options like staggering wartimes an increase in ongoing work from home arrangements and even fundamentally changing the way we do business to future proof this way of life. The with the spread of the virus coming to a halt and lockdowns Spain as our intrepid leader has started to wake up to the cost of everything that has been implemented and he's now starting to realize the impact the need to get businesses open again is important to kickstart economy but skyways worried the job. Kepa program will stop them opening the doors with the stage. Three reopening of the country plan now in place. The sheets cost of the program is being looked at with other models. Being considered time will tell to see where this one goes so they shot from. The HIP is what they're saying pretty much shot from the hip. We'll see what Almo God never got. No money I know you know it was funny because I heard that they only had like that rental relief on about I think two weeks and then they just shut it off and people are saying ball. Can I get rental relief arm? So we've got no more money left literally so we've got no more money left. I mean you think if they're gonNA do something like that they're going to plan for someone to do our budget anyway. And in the biggest news since draft mill Megan McCall's biggest critic piece Morgan who branded her a shameless piece of work in blaming her for the ultimate destruction of the monarchy. As we know it through convincing hurry to leave as finally started to realize he might infect overstep the Makalintal. He admitted his might to personal. And in fact will be changing his rhetoric in future. What didn't he want to date her? Something wasn't there was something going on and she'd then didn't respond or something shits and started really bagging around a main seriously like prince. Harry Peas Morgan. No I'm all you know. I mean come. On and further. The Queen has decided to withdraw from public duties for a number of months with uncertainty over the virus mess. But the really big news is the major injury forcing hospitalization of the Queen. And that's what everybody's talking about Queen. Guitarist. Brian May has rather spectacularly injured his bum in a strange act of extreme gardening the Gluteus maximus into the human hospital leaving his instagram followers. Alone and tearful at his untimely demise. The Ferris esque ground works campaign is starting to save. Brian in what can only be described as a need to save a national treasure. You know what the bad boys route Froyo Bryan. Even if you can't lucky gluteus maximus guests truck name. Is You know what's better off doing your glorious maximum gas stroke Namias because you're out of action for quite a while even know what a gastric namias is? Look you look it up after the show and you'll see what a main town wasn't the other day naked gardening and I have a connected soon. Was it what's happened Heck Him. That wasn't on our gender news out of going in now. I'm glad it wasn't actually because you would have wanted to get videoed. No-one no-one needs to see that could be quite bigger writing really built in trail. Sorry thank God Nike. Gotten just as dangerous as oh it does that. Make Your Thang Thanh this show just whipper-snipper whilst out gardening knighted only you would have that issue anyway. Looking at sport. I want to get something clear. He goes just because someone chooses not to have the flu. Vaccine doesn't make them an anti vaccine. A number of our players have been stood down in contravention contravention of the Laura. I might add because of their refusal to have a flu vaccine. My kids have extradited unvaccinated. But I wouldn't touch the flu even if you pay me handsomely. That doesn't make me an anti vaccine in me sensible. I don't get sick because I look after myself. And I haven't been seeking over threes and I cold not even a cough. I bit the NFL players of the sign so look let's cut good people that look after themselves and are doing the right thing a bit slack and focus on what's important. The game has never required a flu. Vacs to be taken by players and eat one. Help them avoid the corona virus. In fact to be goners it actually wind hope the much to avoid the flu for that matter. So let's put this debate and just get on with the bloody guy. I agree you know we. We actually said we weren't going to talk about the antics. But we're here. We're talking about it. I think the simple fact is that I don't know about you but every time you know he is. Someone has taken the flu vaccine. They get possibly the worst case of the flu. That has that ever has been simply because they putting into their bodies so why would the NRA players do that but just on going to get myself sink? I can play the game and the fittest around on. Look this flu. Vaccines Audit understand it because there are so many different strains of the flue right so how can you be vaccinated against four thousand different strains of flu? So what they do they guess. Which flu is going to come out this year and they go? We think it's going to be this one on hanging bull out of a hat. It's it's we'll just use that on this year. Sure I'm pretty sure it's just a bit bit random and it's like well let's just say you know this. There's obviously some components that will kick over through all of the different strains. Maybe I don't know it's just over. It can understand it hitting shots polio. Vaccines Mazel Vaccines. Let's stuff they proper vaccines domain. And I I personally support the benefits in the use of that as part of the normal childhood shots now the flu vaccine. That's not enough to solve of got the flu vaccine right here. Say both you and shine the shot for losing hair. Did you to get that one this is my concoction that I normally make of a morning fixes everything up nine. It's got garlic. It's got Ginger Risk Right. It's got lime A little bit of honey to make it a bit sweeter and some orange juice so that put now guys. Niimi for three days. You did have that Viper thing. There's a cloud around for the next three days. That's it it's not when you WanNa Bay near seriously either and you're in the bed boys bunker and I'm no. It's time to work with this morning. Now now Andrew Andrew. I'm GonNa hijack you now because last week I made a promise to keep up on. My promises are made a promise that I was going to do a bit of an impersonation I was going to do Robin Williams. Good Morning Vietnam Right. Remember now firstly apologies. It'll sound nothing like Robin Williams. Just want to get that straight but I thought you look a lot like. I thought it would be really good to do the weather. Good morning bad boys style. Okay this this is going to be silent here. We got good morning boys. This is not a test. This is rock and roll. Time to from old. Bugger Road to Waco Jailhouse. Is that just me or does that? Sound like an Elvis song coming up. So what's the weather like out there around the country? It is going to BE MOIST AS MOIST. As Granny's UNDIES. Opt sitting through the new Chris. Hemsworth movie if you're in Brisbane and the Gold Coast. It's moist Sydney Moist Camera and Melbourne Moist Adelaide Moist in Perth mostly moist moist everywhere except for Darwin. Where it's hot damn hot. So hot hot is my shorts like I can cook things in it. A little bit of Crutch. What does it feel like? I said it's damn hot so those guys burst into flames. Is that hot? You know what I'm talking about. What do you think is going to be like tonight? It's GonNa be hot and wet. That's right it's nice if you're with a lady but it's no good if you're in pain chased by Cook at all. So keep your eyes on the skies. And what's up flying kangaroo testicles? It's time to take to the rest of the show. So here's a song coming your way tie me. Kangaroo Down Sport by one of Australia's most famous criminals Rolf Harris. And now it's back to the other criminals who run the first breakfast podcast around the country. Those fools who are too cool for school Shannon Darren the bad boys. Thank you know for two days. Actually you know what I wrote this morning really did I. I work out this morning. I gotTa do this. I've got to do this. And when you sleep and dreaming and suddenly you start writing things in your mind. You ever done this or do that when I run. Oh man it's just like so I had to get up and just talk while I well. It was fresh among the problem. Is what get back from our run of Lawson hanging on the beginning need to find out just record into it. That'd be great running huffing and puffing actually next time good thank you thank you so definitely dummy out of a job so you use the word moist an awful lot there. That's a bit of an inside joke. That's an ongoing thing. Say that the other day I was watching you. Podcast voice came up a lot. It's one of those words just like talk to use it. It's a it's a word that just sounds so wrong when The gangs in Los Angeles refer to women as Moist. These really well so. I didn't know that either today well moist. It's just a word that shouldn't be in the common tongue like it's like it's one of those words where it's just like uncomfortable. Yeah TV and listen to its local. You say shine shine shine rolls off the tongue lock lock muster up so when we when we were in prison and we were assigned that just so casually when we were in prison digest and there was a what they call a muster where everyone had to get together to to say that were that were here beside. They made sure that no actually missing. They would always come up. Darren's Room Raymond and it would be like out and the way they said he's last night it was like they was speaking out. Vomits looked good tidings all was it was and you had this three times a diet. You must have the three times and that was a unless you go ramped which ramping. Us okay. I'll explain. A ramping is when they tossed you room. They toss you room you come back. In and all your. They've taken your mattress. You pillow and in your soulmate. So let's just quickly kick the mid showing tro back in and thanks Andrew for for letting me take over the weather for you. You will love fun. You dummy out of a job and now it's back to the first breakfast podcast around Australia. Those food too cool for school shine and Darren and the bed boys breakfast shirt so sorry. Captain Antarctica Sean. Macbride how are you? I'm great yeah so thanks for coming on the show today. We really excited about the fact that You know we thought that was just a dream of yours but we find out that you've actually been trained TACTICA. Yes yes I have. I've I've been to Scott Base in McMurdo base in Rossi region of camped out on the Ross Ice Shelf. Beautiful place fantastic just death-dealing if you get if you have a chance in the lifetime to get there really recommended is so you? Is there certain places that you can only go down there? Is that bice camps around the place or is it just sort of one area that you can go to look for about seventy six camps or study. The steady seeks basis permanent vices. And there's about thirty six thirty seven seasonal camps as well. We'll see you got gotta recap that. Anti cure is a big place. You know it's got It's much bigger than an Australia. And it's got a population in summer. Maybe five thousand people at the various spices. So okay we. We're going to talk a little bit about flatter theory as well You know you. This raises a lot of questions because the flat earth is believed that Anton carry exactly right around the the rim of the Earth. And there's actually nothing in the middle of soccer one big wall of Of of ice and in fact I received an email from David. Jake Karen is his name. Rather interesting Fella and he said that because I said to him we'd love you to come on and talk about the flatter theory. Well that was the worst thing. Do you never say it's a fighter theory because it's real it's real and so he said I realized that you'll show is a fun. Lighthearted podcast which is great but I must advise and stress that the globe earth is a lie. It's the greatest David Deception on humanity. And it's not to be considered presented a lighthearted. Meta since all the children of the world have for the last four hundred seventy seven years being intentionally deceived. I'm thinking seriously. Yeah he's very passionate. I mean it's tragic. The has been set to save for so long right. Yeah to saving children. That's so bad but know I think you've got to look at the underlying psychology to you know. Flat Earth is like religion. They have found the truth and now they want to share it with other people and you know account had beat them up for that you know. They feel that they're onto something and they've found the truth behind the great lot. I'll go could you imagine a born again flooded with a holy? Here's my little helmet to put that onto. Sorry my Tin Foil. Tin For all those people who haven't heard before. Tuesday we talk about something conspiracy theory. But but you've obviously been down into. Antarctic that area now from understanding. There's a treaty implies down there can you do you know about that? Could you tell us a little bit about that? The treaty was Was brought into place in nine hundred fifty nine so it's been what sixty one years now? pity it was at the height of the Cold War and they actually got together all. These countries got together and decided that they would Cape Antarctica For Pace science exploration. It's and this lasted for sixty one years so good because normally they would just thought and trying to get any natural resources there and absolutely you know and then Back in the ninety S I added a protocol to called the Madrid protocol which banned mining without talking about money and talk and then they came up with this. Madrid protocol which banned monning So the places still free of anything. Admiral Byrd was it who they sent out there originally to to find out what was what was there and he said that there was a lot of natural resource. They will. He came later in the patient and there are a lot of people before him. But he was there through the nineteen thirties and forties and Was the first to fly over the South Pole and he set up a number of vices that we call the little America and from that McMurdo basely. Us SPICES IS DOWN IN APP. But they were looking in the early days. They were looking for possible resources since they've grown in the environmental protocol. No one's well. I think some countries are looking at it behind the scenes in either a little bit thinking. Well one day we might be able to exploit it but it requires unanimous agreement from all the parties to do that. So I think I'd be pushing it uphill but is that A. Is that a tough thing to to enforce. I really a unanimous agreement with all the parties. We're talking how many different countries what crazy. Kim Jon decided well go down there might use out of it exactly I don't think Kim is a potty to thank God for that have to sign up a China Russia in the US. Lots of countries are involved. Not all have not all have voting rights on it but look it's which will so file and down there. A lot of these spaces cooperate. There's a lot of issues right at nine at this issues. Between strider in China for instance now at one level but down in Antarctica the Australian toxic division and the Chinese cooperate very well and the Chinese allow us to utilize their icebreaker to transport. Ghia we help them with stuff. You know it's IT'S I. Guess you almost got to really I mean like you know. You're you're down there in the middle of nowhere you know. 'cause I look on the show. Look it's the it's the coldest highest driest windiest continent. And you know it's it can kill you if you're not careful. What the Hell do you WanNa go there home? It's not always. It's not always that bad. Actually summed is quite beautiful. It's just it. Has This mistake about it. I think it's hard to explain unless you've been there once you've been there you want to go back and the the early explorers like Scott and Shackleton does people they they can returning because it has this which is how to put in words so is it like I mean. Obviously it's and you can see a picture behind you as to obviously that's kind of like what it's like. Is it just constantly windy? And and just all as far as you can see. There's no other landscape. It's just us well. It it varies finally point. What is it point? Three percent rock that you can see is contained Ninety percent of the world's seventy percent of the world's freshwater about it stretches out for forever and his places is like on the polar plateau is unending stretch of us but in other places along the coast you know. It's quite spectacular in terms of mountains and the wildlife and all that kind of stuff so it does vary a bit and the wind is not always. There are some places of much worse than others. You know in Saddam was Morrison was down there. He he read a book called Heim of the Blizzard where he set up the Australian original advice income wealth by that he recorded With almost three hundred kilometers an hour Lou. Wow that is. That's hard I stand up. That's a yes. H Five hurricane isn't it? Yeah pretty much and I think that the highest recorded wind speed has been three hundred twenty four kilometers now. But that's not. That's not everywhere. Spot cold winds spot which was still a bit windy but was was pretty calm. Love the time. When it's you sit you tend to really well a new and we're still using the Scott. Hala tents we're Designed by Scott in one hundred years ago. What worth what. What do you think would be worse would be like doing man? Everest or checking across Oh definitely tricky across. Antonio meeting more people have climbed Mount Everest Ben into the South Hall. You've got something like a few hundred people have actually made it to the South Hall and on talking here about Tricking pulling sleds. And that kind of thing and a lot of them just fly in for that. Last one degree and I'll I'll travel about one hundred and eleven kilometers to reach the God so is there. A big game of thrones big wall. What on the other side I when I was down there I looked I searched Nah. Didn't find one too far enough. Supposedly the the wool should be right there. A and I flew in and I didn't say a word from the aircraft and all I could say was stretching away for thousands of thousands of kilometers and I still didn't zero wall so I think now if if I put my tin hat on right you're actually from what I can tell. You're actually toeing the Party line here. You're you're actually part of the government conspiracy so you're you're actually giving us the narrative that the government wants us to hear you know the the flatter is in the conspiracy theorist. I abused me all the time on my facebook price and a part of the reason I think is because I used to be special forces so that makes me pot conspiracy special fair it is. I'm guilty and of course you know when they abuse me it's funny actually usually enter into the bite. You might have found by well. That's an interesting Viewpoint you have the showing but I disagree. I think this you know. They say what they do say is your navy. Nothing did some research. You're part of the conspiracy. The cold eight one of them have been called. Sri mation gatekeeper. I've read the freemasons into it output. Put that across the front of Moya. Outfit Captain Freemason Gatekeeper. Been LONG FOR THE CHESS. Just the other. He's so so you know you know you've already been to Antarctica the the The question that I've got ease jove you're registered for dream fuelling DOT COM so for those who don't know dream fuelling. Is this incredible site That outbound has put together an incredible movement that might bounce as put together and basically you can register. There's three things you can can do. You can either register what. Your dream is so You know if you have a dream to do something. Put that down as As a drain you can also registered to be part of the dream fueling army which is what Bad Boys did so. We're we're on there. We actually giving someone I the ability to to have their podcast produced for twelve months. So that's part of that's out in the training yes riding academy part of the Academy. We have as well for a whole year. We'll we'll look you'll be under the bad boys Benhas and we'll help you out exactly right and and I think we've got even apple juice joining us as well For the for the show so He's just sort of hooking on. So I'm sure Evans going to love to hear about About this little story that you've got so you've got you don't. It's not so much that you want to go back there. Well I do WANNA go back there. But but what's your dream? What is the dream that you'll putting out to the dream fuelling? Okay well the background is that you know Antarctica at an death in general is under threat from climate change. And there's another conspiracy thing. I'm sure you've come across this whole late. System that the earth is are the cooling or climate change isn't happening or if it is happening it's not us that's causing it in and really all that stuff has been disproved but it doesn't really matter to the people that believe it because it's it's audio logical rather than about science. Yes so what I'm trying to do is to turn people to MANTECA and get them to understand that Antarctica protects US Antarctic reflects a lot of the sun's heat and if we didn't have Antarctic we'd be in a big world of hurt. Yeah it not. The reflects the heat of the Sun. It also affects all of the climate at the flow of the ocean currents the the movement of the air. It's it affects Ryan fold in the Pacific all kinds of things. Now what's happening at the minute with climate changes that West? Antarctica is actually melting. It's happening it's visible. It's it's slow. It's not gonNA happen in the next five years but it's going and what I'm trying to do is bring people's attention to the fact that we need to start moving away from fossil fuels not fossil fuels a bad or evil but they had the use and it's time to stop moving on and so my goal. My dream is to fly an electric aircraft from the coast of Antarctica to the South Pole. Which depending on where you go from can be one to two thousand kilometers at the current time. That's not possible with the technology but the technology is improving on the daily basis and becoming more efficient so my dream is to do that to bring attention to the fact that we need to one protect Antarctica to get our act together in terms of climate change and three start really getting on board with renewables and move away from all the misinformation. That's out there about it. I mean let's let's face it we we we have. The technology is there. And we've got I mean we've been using solar and not for for many many years but it's been used effectively and one thing I came say I can attest to the fact that What you're saying is accurate as far as you know any talk to your is is melting. Was Running Out Holiday Park in barn by and And part of that whole park is all. It's right on the coast and in the last year. That holiday park has lost about ten to fifteen meters of coastline. We've actually had to move villas a WII and out of harm's way from that coastline. Getting taken out. That's actually happening. That's cable there are. There are plenty of anecdotal stories about that happening. But people that have a vested interest in having anything changed a telling you that the water level has risen all that the cooling or whatever it is like imagine if you were watching a video on TV showing you. That outside was was Uinta but if you look at your window it's actually sunny. It's that kind of thing. Because we're so immersed in in social media people believing that for instance the Arctic Sea ice is not melting but it has been ages for decades and up the now it and you look at the the Russians and the Chinese are putting a awful lot of Resources into that area because they know now that the guy to be able to get to mineral deposits couldn't get to before because of the US now that the ice is going to get further in. I mean it's it's INCR- wanted to happen. Yeah look some. People's climate change is going to have some advantages. Some people in some places. That's just the way it is but on the whole it's going to disrupt a huge amount of the population who would probably have to in a lower price but even that long term sustainability avail if climate completely changes if we lose INC tactic if for example when you talk about the ocean the flows of the ocean. It could totally devastate the whole planet. Really if you think about it could end another doom and gloom guy. I think we can. We can win this. We're going to change it again. Slowed down. Yeah we have to stop making some China's now it's interesting because there's being a few videos going around about how you know with with The whole Kobe. Nineteen thing and everyone staying inside. You know that we've actually had you know the planet starting to rejuvenate a little bit starting to I mean it is you know it's almost like it's almost like the the the planet's gone okay. It's time for May decide. Yeah this this place is in. I think whereas overseas where there's villages that couldn't see the Himalayan mountains at all now can see them Not Crazy crazy. Animals COMING BACK TO PLACES. They went same for decades. Exactly just goes to show. You know the doesn't need us so much but we certainly need way way too so you can find out more about the dream. Fuelling DOT COM Your drain fueling the the project. Just go to dream fuelling dot com and you can also go onto the dream. Fuelling facebook page and registered. There is a group you can join to be part of the Dream. Fueling army and we'll put those links in the shower but if people want to get in contact with you and find out more about what you do. What's your website? Well they can either go to captain. Talk Dot Com Dada you or they can go to my facebook page. Which is they just look up kept in Antarctica. There aren't many of us APP. It Claw facebook page and I put posts about ANTACTICA every Every couple of days and I actually just put I just. You'd like this one. I just put one up yesterday. Which is about a new pyramid that they found in Antarctica. This is one of the favorites of conspiracy people You know that it's the result of civilizations on the guy. Yup It's it's actually just a pyramidal mountain or cost curve. Boil excited no gatekeepers. We'll have to look it up hills. It'd been there and I know a little bit about anal probes. The prison context guys a forgetting about that. I thought it was pretty much. So so head over you and you also run the mammoth hunters club. Is that correct EXA. That's more of a sideline thing that a setup when I realized that many guys out there that are going through mental health issues depression dramas in life and I've experienced that myself. The is the different things Antarctica publicized me from From date depression went up by going. This I'm trying to encourage guys to join the mammoth Gaba. So supportive group. We don't really go on about mental health and depression but we we talk about a lot of positive stuff from the hero's journey that roll onto to wealth creation to health and exercise at the moment. We're doing a hundred push up day challenge for one hundred days which joining on. So that's awesome. I'm glad I mentioned that. I knew that it was going to lead into that too. Because you know that's actually something that we are Really passionate about as well You know the the bad boys team you know we come on here. We have a lot of fun. We have a joke around but we also know that You know there are some really serious things that we need that need to be addressed in in in the world especially when it comes to guys and mental health in that. So you know I really applaud you for for what you're doing the work you're doing out there so very much and you know what are the reason it saved you ain't top to was because it's too bloody called to think of anything else. How well it varies too. Like and todd has had a coldest recorded temperature on earth. The Russian Bostock station back in the eighties. It was minus minus eighty nine point four. Oh that's cool. I can say some shrinkage. Their petulance nutca- phrase much than that was. Yeah you have a hard time with vehicles and drinking but the The coastline of antic- you if you're inside West Antarctic peninsula. It's it's usually on the about maybe minus one minus two degrees only can handle that you can handle it not much. Anything BELOW. Twenty degrees now ness speaking of warm weekends. Darren Yeah you had a bit of a bit of a off a hot date this weekend. What do you mean you had a set day morning and this is actually leading somewhere this conversation. Look you did a great job. I have to say you know Darin Rush Dean and he had He chopped up all of these little bits and pieces like he was going on a little bit of a picnic and chopped up some some cube dumb cheese and some little Kevin and some twiggy sticks and some some carrot and some celery and it just got me thinking it's like connor of reminded me of and I'm not taking anything away from what you did because it was very special but it kind of reminded me of of a bit of a seventies party. Really you know where you'd have everything in the in the platters just jets crackers like. Is that something that your family used to like to do. Like like put together little platters like that. Yeah it is. It isn't that this is exactly taught because we find ourselves like a product of of you know family me thinking about got me thinking about the things that we do that you know that we get from parents and families and it got me thinking about the seventy s clothes that used to happen in the seventy s parties and because it was very very seven. He's the only thing missing. Was the little cocktail long INS. No I had the best allergy so you know with the little cocktail onions. And you'd put the toothpick in. Yeah it was pretty amazing groping that stuff so did did your parents also used to wear a safari suits so this an awesome talion here as well. But he didn't because I fan an offer to my father and he had he had and we were a young at the time. So it must have been the must've been like seventy and and he had the Paisley the brand Paisley Shit it and the The the Light Brown Safari jacket but he went the whole hog. He didn't just have the selects with the flays. He had the shorts the safari shorts Roy and the pulled up socks as well. Right up to your to your name. He was going to organize parties. You drop the case at the door. Was the cocktail onions. It was kind of one of those like okay kids when when dessert comes you know everybody has to go to the rumpus room. Come out doesn't matter what you hear. That's what you grow up you your your Geika sort of thing. Because they've put you all put stalls on time kids. Sit Down there and what are you going to share the case around on my God. Could you imagine those days? Can you imagine thinking you bet your parents doing that now? It's a bit of a smile on his face. I feel like the clinic. Going some of those quote me me on and also part of that. What's the favorite when they have the the site mystique sex groupings? Oh well not now. Just Jack She's know but you were but you but you actually You from the seventies you did the the seventies swinging safari parties. Yeah I had a misspent youth in comparison to you way back then. That's why I started going to the now. Why why do you think so? That's your stink. I'm captain Antarctica. Looks on in these out? Massive Big Siddique's Bu- coming with me. Nice groups that I think called ferries. Oh Yes yes I remember. That show was trying to tell you about entourage that we're talking about fairies where they have six in full a costumes. How do you do that like well? So just learn what bits of hanging out. I've got little latch like that. Little Velcro thing said POPs out where it goes and they actually have sakes wearing the ferries and this is the real thing. It isn't real thing is totally thing. What's it cold of this very seriously? You look ferries. Evan had been to. That sort of thing varies porn. I'm hedging my bets. That's why I had to up here. I was wondering about that. I was GONNA say something but since you brought it up living do you have a velcro? Latch no bio miserably. Doesn't it gotta get lucky in these guys so it's a big called Anyway Antarctica? Little bit of action. I think the Argentinians actually sent people down there to have sex that they can come use some babies as a kind of territorial client really the thing in kids born in Antarctica. Have they really? So they live there in luck. The little tents and still they'd be they'd be on the base for a period of time and then they bring their own if they're on the base for twelve months you know gets lonely in called Disney. Bit obvious I really encourage that. Usually you know the medical facilities are not like back here. Thanks guys long meter. It's very difficult to get into or out of Antarctic. Who would be going? Oh my God it's been an absolute pleasure having you here today Make sure you hit over to captain. Antactica DOT COM to find out. More about Sean MacBride and his little culled adventures absolutely is and with these latch and everything wonderful place to cook. We wish you all the best with your dream. Fuelling dream as well Big Big thank you to outbound us. Full dream fuelling together absolutely such a a worthwhile program. We really proud to be part. We're happy to be a part of it and really make sure you go to facebook. Pages will official bad boys DOT COM or future bad boys podcast and go to a batboys dot com which is our website registered to go into a fighter jet. We need people to register and listen to our podcast. Jump on and listen to that It's the every everyday we podcast every six a week. Mine show exploits comes out every Saturday. Mike Show you you listen to that. It's really going to be awesome this week. Yes so make sure you also subscribe review and leave a writing as well. Let's either let this really awesome reviews. If you love those people actually people actually like us. They do some someone. Listen to us the hallway across the nullarbor appliance. All the way. Wow look at some of these. Why would you then seriously? It's too into tiny. Can I say entertaining so Us on twitch facebook on instagram every way we Now excellent. We're the bad boys. Don't forget it.
Ode to Antarctica
"Professor Emma Johnston has another love letter for us of a rather different kind. It's to celebrate exactly sixty years since the Antarctic Treaty Eighty was signed. This road is based on her writing an Australian quarterly magazine. Something's cut through illuminating and potentially blinding you. The prudent sparkle of the isolated continent of Antarctica is one such place so substantial aw and so heavy with frozen mass giving an air of permanence and untouchability and talked a cuts through. There's no need for homage if you have seen it even translated through the eyes of a scientist like myself. Something's cut through. I can recall Kohl for example with intricate detail. The fluff of a young snow pitcher chick hidden by parents in court cave. I can quickly bring to mind. The oddly growing crystal is geometric shoots growing up from Blue Lakes in my head. A clip can play of a penguin swimming past pasta grounded. Iceberg leaving steady trail of feathered bubbles fields of fan worms like poppies in the dock. Peaking plancton certain from the Paucity wild storms above circling cyclonic Dabo low pressure systems ready to swoop down and literally sweep me off my fate. The Summer Sun never fully sitting on an iridescent silk of pinks purples and apricots Antarctica is screen saved on my mind as it will be for many Antarctic scientists but Antarctica itself off is not saved nor are we ANTACTICA cut through to the core of my understanding as marine ecologist the core of my world the few but the Antarctic continent shouldn't just tattoo the consciousness of scientists. It should cut through to all of us with all of its is beautifully brutal critically. Harsh reality eat is. After all a conveyor belt of Blue Creator and Feta of the second Polish cycle of currents and wind that encouraged by the melted fresh snow and ice prime the sinking pump of reporter formed and lost into an astoundingly wild and deep surrounding see that see sink feeds leads a global conveyor belt of cooling winds waves and currents and this is of course our last remaining cap once. They were a pair poles apart since. The Arctic has been fleeced to a single year snow layer of Brittle. See US barely really strong enough to support the birthing. igloo of a pregnant ring seal. We've got work to do to cut through without precious last CAP. This is a place that left misunderstood. We'll touch saw a place that ebbs and flows like no other after thirty million lean years of icy isolation today we encroach upon that isolation. The Ice floes faster and the seas warm in perceptibly. Perhaps to asleep you seal but faster and faster still. This place left misunderstood. Understood will hurt more than the seals and the penguins. The ice unkempt. We'll be more than screen saved on my mind. It will be indelibly printed as water on the walls of our cities. Emma Johnston Dean of Science at the University of New South Wales and she stepped down this very week as S. president of science and Technology Ustralia former prime minister. Bob Hawke you'll recall was also passionate about the southern continent strider. Hi Dear is vigorously pressing the case against mining in the world's last untouched wilderness of necessity. That argument is being conducted a diplomatic channels and at government level in the game. However I believe the Shia right public opinion around the world will obey the decisive factor and there will be no mining in the Antarctic late Prime Minister Bob Hawke an effort of which he was most proud?
Penguin Poop Helps Biodiversity Bloom in Antarctica
"This is scientific American sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Dodd Yata Antarctica is known for its great expanses of white and not just snow if it's fresh coming to be still white or pinkish eventually all turns Brown Monty Brown. Steph boekhorst is an ecologist at via university in Amsterdam in the initially white stuff. He's talking about is penguin poop to firstly notice of it is the smell, basically, you're squishing. True. Puddles would you I guess mouth? But it's actually just poop and up producers that really strong ammonia smell 'cause you can really smell from for miles away. But it's not just the smell that travels on the wind ammonia contains nitrogen a- valuable fertilizer. So the winds carry nourishment to nearby mosses and lichens and that in turn supports teaming communities of the largest fully terrestrial animals in Antarctica, invertebrates, like spring, tales, and mites. Boekhorst and his colleagues took air and plant samples around the poop piles and. I found this airborne ammonia fertilizer enriches life as far as a mile away. The full details are in the journal current biology in the work makes it easier for scientists like bow course to remotely estimate in articles biodiversity, they don't have to go to all these different field sides. You can actually basically sit at home. Take these pictures with satellites and then get an idea where the highs by the should be along the peninsula. Of course, doctors have long taken a stool sample to get medical information about a patient, and now ecologists will be able to use imagery to track feces and predict it's beneficial effects at the bottom of the world in short don't pooh-poohed the PU. Thanks for listening for scientific American sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Don. Yata?
Machines of Antarctica Pt. I - Die Like Gentlemen
"Hey It's me Holler Moriarty proprietor of the PODCAST Network Collins last stand co host of the mega popular playstation podcast sacred symbols and also co host. Another show that I think you may enjoy a retro and esteemed romp called knockback. I co host. The show with my brother Emmy Award winning sesame workshop lead animator and character designer digging Moriarty and we posted new episode each and every week celebrating. All that mattered most to us growing up from the seventies eighties eighties nineties and beyond on one episode. We'll talk about an old video game on another classic movie and another yet stories from our past delving into all things old school. If you WANNA tickle those gestalt muscles within you remember the glory days of years gone and have a lot of laughs while doing it join us for knockback with new episodes posted each and every Thursday on your favorite podcast service. Hey welcome back to pass gas your favorite podcast by media I'm Nolan Today with me I have Mr Joe Weber. Hello and Mr Jeremiah Burton. Hello Today on pass gas. We are starting our two-part series on the machines of Antarctica. Dang doing I'm so excited for this one get used to enunciating Antarctica because it's hard is that the north part of the south part is the south that is the South Pole is located at at the Antar at the Antarctic. The penguins are there. They actually just drilled down like thousands of feet into this lake. That hasn't even been been touched in like millions of years. That's the only so you get like the thing. The thing right. Yeah why are we messing around with that kind of stuff. Didn't we learn anything from the thing ever seen John Carpenter film Anyway so yeah to give you guys some context here listener We're going to start with the very beginning of ant Arctic exploration and see why they needed machines in the first place. Because you know what kind of it's hard to get around Tell you that much. There's no buses. Let's say that. Yeah let's get that out of the way no uber no scooters here's There will be car talk near the end of this episode. We just have to get there so get yourself some hot cocoa ready because it's about the cold in here. Hey guys welcome to the pass gas podcast. If you like passed gas please help us grow by giving us a good rating and a nicer view on the podcasts platform of your choice to really help us out and I really appreciate that. So thank you all right now for the show on board his ship. The resolution captain James Cook. I discovered the continent of Antarctica on January. Anuary thirty-first seventeen seventy five after discovering quote discovering New Zealand and circling the globe. A few years prior cook hated that much of the Pacific still remained unexplored so he had returned to find what he believed to be a hidden seventh continent many offered to do this exploration for him but he refused to let others hinder his imperialistic. Swag Cook. Listen you've done a lot. aww exploring let us do some exploring. Come on no no way Jose. I'm going into that frigid seventh continent so he set Out to find it for himself he had thought he discovered the continent but he refused to row ashore in claiming land for the British Empire because the land he saw appeared inhospitable and believe it would never serve as an asset of the British Empire as it turned out though James Cook had not discovered the true continent of Antarctica Instead he'd only discovered the Sandwich islands but that didn't matter to him nor his explorations investors back in England and to him any further southern expiration would be pointless as the southern sea was just too dangerous and was as cold outside the icebound continent was now globally understood to be a worthless asset but time would soon challenge that idea cook. Never got the chance to be proven urban wrong. No as he was dismembered and killed on a Hawaiian beach seven. Seventeen not yet he. That's a whole other story Shortly after he quote again discovered covered Hawaii's existence. At least he was in a Hawaiian place. Mahalo babies because of Cook Britain did not yet James Cook. It's not a good guy I can just want to say that Britain did not have any intention to explore the frozen wasteland but there is a different sentiment over in Russia in eighteen eighteen nineteen czar Alexander the first dispatched to Pacific expeditions with the sole intention of discovering the Antarctic continent. He knew there'd be some scientific havoc benefits to such an exploration but what he really wanted to demonstrate was his control to Alexander. The control of both the North and South Poles would be global demonstration. Shen of CZAR's power to the entire world kind of Mir's like Russian history has been like that forever whether just like we want power. Russia has a very very complicated in super interesting history. Yeah yeah it is kind of funny to think the guy was like I want top of world I want but them of world middle report little sweaty down there. Also it's hilarious because most of Russia's it's like frozen wasteland and they're like I want more. I want more shout who are Russian listeners. Retrieve again on January twenty seventh eighteen. Twenty honey the Russian expeditions crossed the inked Arctic Circle. It was the second expedition to have ever done. So and just one day later the crew of the Russian ship the Vostok stock reported sighting of the continent the once again. The discovery was only Some more islands close to enter Sandwich Islands. It's pretty hard to discover land. It's made out of Ice Mountains and snow. The first actual actual sighting of Antarctica was by a small American crew of Seal L. Hunters and February eighteen. Twenty one But the siding was swept under the rug as only quote real explorers could make such a discovery. Would you ever eat seal meat. I couldn't do that now. Acute Dank you I would imagine it to be very like fatty almost for sure goose of ood Uh Cows or whatever yeah actually kind of sounds good in one elsewhere uh-huh q.. Magic being a seal hunter in eighteen twenty. One there's nothing more shittier. Think of on a boat in the water. Freezing your balls. Yeah Yeah and then you have to like you can't shoot him. You have to club beat the John. James Kirk had described the land as inexpressible Sibley horrid in every aspect At this point in time the existence of Antarctica had yet to actually be proven but race to be the first to truly discover the continent had begun gun. I it was the Russians that wanted a piece like we said then the French came along then the British and the Americans and even chilly at a point a joint German Norwegian exploration team was formed to try to claim some of the land. What made this team unique? Though was the people it was composed of the majority of the group. whaler's tough men who a thing or two about being cold like being cold. They're the closest to experts on the terrain that existed at the time. Now finally the first actual landing aunt and Artika was by another group of seal hunters in eighteen fifty three report. Nobody cared and the Norwegian expedition declared themselves the first people to ever stepped foot on the land on January twenty fourth eighteen. Seventy five life. The feeling of being the first people to have ever stepped foot on on the new land was quote strange yet pleasurable Until at least the locals attacked. It took nick two hours to fight off a colony of Adelie penguins with sticks but once they hunted a few seals They they left after that so I guess they got attacked by paying win. Some seals bounced I think that's so crazy that these people from like take the top of the world. Just go all the way down here. Pangolins Edith and like okay. We did it. The Norwegian whalers arrived to prove that landing was possible there returned to the land would be accompanied by a wave of scientists and explorers. They had unknowingly kicked off. What would become the quote heroic age of Antarctic exploration that would dominate the early twentieth century? If you don't know much about the terrain of Antarctica it sucks WCHS allot original. Explores did not see much commercial gain from the continent. They saw tremendous scientific value for their home countries. Though specifically Britain Britain has a nasty habit of wanting to dominate. Every piece of land in sight So most things were done in the view of how could this benefit Britain. Well there there is always we need for our T.. Don't don't people in your typically not like ice in their beverage yeah uh-huh that's true so weird So that might have been something other than have a warm Dr Pepper night. Yeah like after after a hundred years of this place people like they go down there they see it there. There's nothing here and then it's like they forget fifty years later another group the report stuff they get down there. There's nothing there might be or get their Joe. We'll get back to more pass gas right now over at my sponsors a private expeditions skyrocketed in hopes to claim the land for Britain Britain took the lead When it came to the expedition's but the Germans also wanted a little piece? Kaiser Wilhelm the second wanted wanted to dominate the southern seas solely leave for Prestige and glory and began sending expeditions down to claim territory for Germany. Everyone's is freaking going down there in nineteen ninety one. The British ship discovery departed from London's east India. Docks onboard were two men who had become the most infamous explorers of all time. Ernest Shackleton and Robert Falcon Scott. Really good names. Yeah yeah those are sick ball and asked me on this expedition. They explored nearly five hundred sixty kilometers inland. And we're officially claimed all of Antarctica for Britain much like when the US astronauts. Linda Moon so we basically claim the Moon Right we on the moon we on the mound. Yeah you against ah other. Countries claim that the land was obviously too vast to be conquered by single run like that so they continued sending more and more expeditions in nineteen. You know seven Shackleton's set off aboard the Nimrod in an attempt to claim the earth to conquer the poll and undisputably conquered the land for Britain. Okay wait it. Quick aside for Nimrod a lot of people think it means dumb no but that's only because of the bugs bunny cartoon Nimrod was actually like in accomplished hunter in Old Greek Lore. WHOA so it was? He was saying ironically to Elmer fudd because he wasn't a good hunter. Yeah Yeah and so then. People mistook it for or yeah put down But Nimrod was actually like like hunter. It's such a great great insult on cartoon but he got the meaning totally taken away. Yeah Interesting Shackleton claim the exploration was for scientific purposes. But in reality he knew that being the first to conquer the poll would bring him great fortune and fame. Hey you discovered Antarctica. Here's a bag of money But you really didn't because a couple people did it before you. You just governor beach on it you just you just dug a flag in the ground and said I declare its mind guest. People you know history goes to those who What what's the flags? That was what I was thinking As he had learned from his previous expedition with Scott he needed to bring two things first he brought a pistol so he could dispose of horses as as soon as they had completed their job. I'm bringing a bunch of horses just to shoot on the beach of Antarctica Second. He brought an automobile His goal was to determine if a car would be capable of eliminating all need for animals in future expeditions. This four cylinder fifteen horsepower. Air Cooled Beast. I was provided for his journey. Shackleton claimed that his automobile would be capable of traveling up to one hundred fifty miles in twenty four hours under favorable conditions. But those claims would prove to be just claims. There's no way an old car like that would be able to do. And can you imagine getting your car in the morning and waiting for it to warm up. As soon as the car was lifted onto the ice. It only moved a few feet before stalling out. After quick tuneup. The car ran but it was obviously that it wouldn't work. The petrol engine had not been tested in extreme cold. And there's no adequate way to combat the lack of traction. The car could barely start and it was abandoned shortly after the expedition again though shackled in the ponies carried on the ponies did horribly in the snow too. They barely lasted longer than the car. Because they don't have any I don't have for right. Bullied have little legs glue anyway. Camel feet they can spread out no donkeys with big all. Lose shoes snowshoes. Yeah yeah that's kind of fucked up brings them ponies. You know like the whole place is snowing. You know like has this guy ever been in snow like you can just like you you know again. I have long legs and even I've walked in snow. They've gone up to my waist. Toronto yeah that's that's the size of opponent like did that. There's a constant theme of the show run into just Hubris. And just being like we'll do it that's fine yeah and then just failure once they get there and they didn't put any thought I didn't know it was a different time. That's an extra space on the ship. Let's just We've got these six ponies yeah The expedition was forced to end within a hundred hundred miles of the poll. Wow although some people claim the number was fudge to make Shackleton look better. We don't really know gone like five hundred yards and then like I'm just I tell people here a few weeks back. They began running low on supplies. And they're almost out of ponies to eat. The real reason they brought like will they might be useful but if not they'll be entered we didn't bring any food because we took all the space up with all these ponies Just ponies because they couldn't figure out how to control the dogs well enough to use them on dog sled teams So that was the real reason they just didn't want to spend the time to train the dog and apparently the dogs they brought also eating so great post Christmas episode if you like animals all you've bailed early on because of the seal stuff but but if you made it through you're just now people in Early twenties injury or a bunch of decks so yeah it was pretty clear. The animals were not suited to this environment so it was time to design a machine that made the animals obsolete rolled amid sin was was a Norwegian explorer who had made himself famous a year earlier in nineteen o six by discovering and navigating the treacherous northwest passage above Canada Canada beating Britain to the prize he was a passionate explorer and believe the only way to explore was to use the environment to your advantage. Sponsorships sponsorships for explorations were pouring in from everywhere to every explorer. All people wanted was to discover the South Pole and governments and newspapers would pay you a a pretty penny to attach their name to that discovery. I love like even before going back to the first guy who did this. He was like he was paid. That'd be job. Hey here's some money from the the king or Queen or government go find new Lan- you know so no wonder why. There's a lot of pressure to bring back stuff. So when he did it find it and he's like there's nothing down there and now it's just full circle again. They're trying to find some sweet golden. That's now but not the goals it's not that the real race the polls began as soon as people learn that it can make you rich. The main competing countries where Britain Germany Norway and now Japan Japan was a member racist to everyone. The piece of that sweet polar pie baby sounds really good. Sounds like that Thirty one flavors treats pizza pizza. I remember the Choco Taco. Don't sleep on Jacko tire so good. They're so okay hi scream and COMESA ring and that's my number one order. Whatever took down and uh-huh oh that's for sure? Yeah Ice Cream in horse me. On September eighth nineteen eleven enrolled agents season now representing Norway set sail to reach the South Pole. He hoped accomplishment in the south would help him. Further Fund future explorations in the North his biggest competitor Robert Falcon Scott had set sail in January but had been delayed to do issues with his ship. So at that time eight minutes Jason had the lead over Scott but that lead was quickly shunted as soon as they meant intense cold weather of negative fifty six degrees Celsius in Antarctica Artika. Let's say conversion on they. Let's guess on it. What do you think fifty fifty six Pelosi is wasn't it thirty two plus like five four force of whatever it is? I don't know say minus Minus one twenty I think minus sixty five minus sixty eight point eight they did. That's freaky and like and they didn't have close lady didn't have hot hands. Oh yeah they didn't have that seal. Pelts Adelson was forced to wait until October fifteenth to finally set sail for the South Pole. Good Lord isn't that that's yeah that's a terrible well hold hold on. Is it October four. You're getting into winter. Yeah Oh yeah. Yeah and does it like an Antarctica probably gets bigger in winter the land to go. Oh yeah the more freezes. This marked the beginning of one of the most famous exploration races in history. The amid Sin Scott got race to the pole. Oh now now remember yeah. Overall Amazon's exploration went without a hitch his team of five men including him successfully raised the Norwegian flag over the South Pole on December Fifteenth Nineteen Eleven. Well Amilton was raising. His flags Scott was more than four hundred eighty kilometers away from the South Pole. which I I don't know why this is all metric? Can I guess sure One twenty four eighty eighty. I think that's Three hundred miles two hundred ninety eight point two. Oh and that's kind of what set Amos Jason and Scott. Apart Amy Paulson worked with the environment. You know adapting to the requirements of the harshest terrain unearth. Scott on the other hand wanted to conquer it. He believed that he had with a heavy enough fist. He could shape the land to obey him but he lost so that didn't really work so I think rolled was right. Sorry this is kind of out out of order but I remember this Shackleton's expedition they. A lot of their ship was taken up by whiskey. They had crates and crates of whiskey but in two thousand ten they found all this whiskey. And so there's like crates of whisky. That's like over a hundred years old and down. And then they found it and he was still good. It was like because the snow had like they did wear their camp was because it's no head kind of like covered. Yeah Yeah and then they finally found it with like sonar and then they found all these creates a whiskey. Wow I'd like to ask. Yeah and it's still good. They said it has a lovely lovely aroma. We'll get back to more pass gas right now from our sponsors Hey It's me Hala Moriarty proprietor of the PODCAST Network Collins last Dan Co host of the mega popular playstation podcast sacred symbols goals and also co host up. Another show that I think you may enjoy a retro and nostalgia themed Romp called knockback I co host. The show with my brother Emmy Award winning sesame workshop lead animator later and character designer digging Moriarty and we post a new episode each and every week celebrating all that mattered most to us growing up from the seventies eighties nineties and beyond on one episode. We'll talk about in all video game and on another a classic movie and another yet stories from our past delving into all things old school. If you WANNA tickle those aesthetic muscles within you remember the glory days of years gone on and have a lot of laughs while doing join us for knockback with new episodes posted each and every Thursday on your favorite podcast service so Scott God had brought with them three Motorola motorized sleds that wrote on Tracks instead of dogs on paper. It would be the savior of the expedition. They could carry tons of necessary sources But actually in reality they failed spectacularly and they also didn't run on gas they ran on pony blood much like Shackleton's attempted use of the motorcar. The sleds turned into little more than a publicity stunt. One of the three sleds was lost almost immediately during unloading when it was unloaded onto thin ice that plunged into the ocean. What are these guys doing? This is like a If the dude sins they sent the dude since to go export man you guys are not ready for the next episode the the other two were so inefficient on loose snow that they're forced to be abandoned after only fifty miles. I guess I I W- I feel like it would be equivalent of US making a rover that goes to Mars and not testing it in like the sands buyers over like like someplace that is most equivalent like scratching their head. Like why do we send so much whiskey up tomorrow. It was. The failure of these slides leads though proved to be Scott's downfall before long Scott has men were forced to haul the sleds themselves. What a waste of time? The extra effort caused by the hauling meant that his men were slowly starving to death It was not until January of nineteen twelve that he had he and his men finally reached the pole By which time Abramson senator already. He's already returning to face. They pass them like the flag there. It's not worth it. There's no there's nothing down there. There's autism borrow. Scott was not thrilled to see the numerous Norwegian flags poles in my gosh weighed down by scurvy. Frostbite and failure began the long trek back to base Scott collected rocks. EXC bring back as proof that the entire journey was for scientific purposes. Those pretty obvious Scott only tried because he wanted. That'd be the first to claim the land for Britain The extra weight of fourteen kilograms of rock sealed. His team's fate soon. They began dying one by one. They're within two hundred kilometers of salvation. But Scott insisted they remain in their tents to quote. Die Like gentlemen. It took nine days as for all remaining men to die the thing. That's funny about. This is that he went and saw a bunch of flags and then like if it was me how are they going to know. Just pull up the flags and then put your own flag in but even if you did that WHO's going to know you don't know when you can just lie. There's like a seal with a little camera insane. I mean obviously they took pictures. I see some stuff here but you know you could probably fake it doesn't look like anything. Scott had failed due to his I would say hubris percents incompetence but prewar Britain needed a hero morale so they may do and transform Scott's legacy and turned him into a national hero despite bite the poll now being under Norway's claim the British government understood that the public support for their fallen hero would only convince people to support further exploration of Antarctica. Arta only a few people. At the time knew that Scott's lack of knowledge adopt a billion less than stellar preparedness. Were to blame for his failure so he was openly accepted accepted as a hero in the history books both Scott and Abelson had one thing in common. They both viewed Antarctica as a path to great things specifically that fame and fortune. Douglas Mawson on the other hand was like no one anyone had ever seen before he didn't care about money or fame he just wanted to check out. That sweet sweet ice Mawson reasoned that the coastline nearest Australia obviously should be under the control of Australia and secured funding from the Australian and British the government for his expedition to drum up public support. His wife thought that an aircraft could really increase his popularity and it did but almost immediately. The plane flipped and crashed into an airfield during an air show but Mawson was not the type of man to let a small airplane crash. Stop Him so he removed the plane's wings wings and retrofitted it as an air tractor sledge and if you look at these pictures here it just looks like a plane fuselage's with skis on the bottom. That's a really good idea. It's freaking cool. Yeah I don't get so. He was at an air show in Britain Australia Australia showing off his plane his sled plane. Yeah Yeah Okay and then crashed. And he's like well. We still use. The propeller Mawson brought two new pieces of technology. With as well I he brought a color camera But more importantly he brought a radio his radio health connect them to the outside world during his expeditions and proved to be a major milestone in the advancement of industrialization realization of ant Arctic travel. I think it's funny that they brought a color camera to as white and gray that's hilarious. Yeah So yeah the stories. This week are pretty much ones of tragedy and failure but they served a greater purpose. It was these failures that really set the stage for what would become one of the most innovative exploration races in history. Within a matter of decades people went from pulling sleds with dogs to transporting themselves in a giant boss that was designed to comfortably house for people. It was these revolutionary stories that would inspire one of the most well funded and little known failures of the entire and Arctic research expedition addition the Snow Cruiser. Who but we'll talk about that next week? Come on and I think you guys only bring me on when there's a cruiser in the title of cruiser and you know what I'm finding a lot of Holes in this story that I don't particularly like okay. I is this place sucks. Just right off the bat that they don't I they don't know that it sucks and everyone's claiming as they're all I don't know I'm excited to see what they're gonNA find down. There will be some good stuff in. We'll find out for sure Yeah so thank you. For listening to pass gas I've been known sites at known sites on Instagram and twitter. I'm Joe Weber. I'm dark underscore. Webinar webinars on instagram. Jeremiah Burton you can follow me on Instagram at Jeremiah Burton and followed doughnut media purse. CHECK US out on Youtube if you haven't I'd be very interested to hear from someone who only listened to the podcast and not let watch the videos. If you're out there let me know. Oh Yeah Hey if you prefer watching your podcast instead setup listening to them we have a new podcast channel. It's called Donut podcasts. Go give it a subscribe. We have like a thousand subscribers. Right now Please help us. Throw that channel on the tube on the tube Thank you so much listening See next time. Thank you bye guys. I'll make this quick so you can get back to your murder podcast or whatever. You're listening a two. I'm drama from group. Chat the number one podcast in the world. We make cool people smarter and Smart People Cooler Seriously. Our topics range from Kim. I'm Kardashian to Jeff Bezos to Donald Trump and everything in between if you want to be entertained and educated check us out right now in the podcast APP. Just research group chat by the way. The EX boyfriend isn't a killer. It's her best friend who is sorry for ruining that but now that you have a little bit more time give us a listen.
It Was 65 Degrees In Antarctica This Week
"This is startling. It was hotter in an article last Thursday then it was in New Mexico sixty five degrees Fahrenheit according to researchers in the Antarctic Peninsula. It's a record high temperature if it can be verified. NPR's Dwyer explains when you think about a sixty five five degree day. Plenty of things. Probably come to mind. Antarctica likely is not one of them. And there's a good reason why that would make it the the hottest temperature that we have seen over the link to record that we have for an article. That's Randy Servini. He specializes in weather and climate extremes for the world meteorological organization Argentine Argentine researchers reported the temperature at the very northern tip of Antarctica and its partly ceremonies role to verify that report. We'll get a panel of experts. Put together they are the best in the world. They will look at the data. They'll discuss it and tear it apart and then they will recommend to me as to whether or not this should be the valid observation. Now it's also important to remember that this is just one data point here and it's the result of very particular weather conditions but it does match up with what scientists have been seeing their over time. It's one of the fastest warming areas on the planet. Alexander ice earn as the head of Antarctic Sciences at the National Science Foundation and she says the region has been warming for decades and the previous record. High was reported just a few years ago. This warming climate requires some practical adjustments adjustments for the researchers. We've definitely had to kind of rethink a bit. What we provide people with that means more geared to deal with the kind of rain and sleet the warmer weather brings. It's been going down for ten years. And even I have seen the changes I bring different close now to ice says there are also other bigger consequences says of this warmer weather in Antarctica contributes to a warmer seawater in general which means melting glaciers and rising sea levels worldwide. It also means more extreme extreme events for serving and his team to verify when I started this project all the way back in two thousand and seven. I thought we would have. Maybe an evaluation. Shen once every few years and now we're having multiple observations of extreme climate every year. So don't be surprised if we see yet. Another their record high in Antarctica soon called Wire N._p._R. News.
Animal Week Morning Riddles (12-21-2019)
"Good morning shake off asleep and get ready for another fact filled day on chompers and we're going to continue to explore the amazing world of animals. Today we've got some riddles or you originals. But your brain we'll give you some hints and then you try to guess what animal we're talking about start brushing on the top of your mouth. Pick aside and make sure to brush the entire tooth. You Want Barack and here we go. I riddle some types hide in Bush's some solicitor up Trees Cobra. Oh Bre Viper. Adar's what animals are these keep brushing. Okay got an answer. That's right snakes. Switch you're brushing to the other side of the top of your mouth. Make a little circles with your toothbrush over your entire two. Snakes come in all shapes sizes and colors and can be found on every continent it except for Antarctica. Snakes never have to brush their teeth because snakes don't chew their food. Snakes can stretch their jaws open open so they can swallow their food whole. Are you ready for another riddle first. switcher brushing to the bottom of your mouth. Don't forget to brush all the way to the back. Okay here's a riddle. When we are stomping bang in a heard you might get hypnotized where black and white and stripy? 'em By lions weird surprise. What's the answer? Zebras look like horses. But the first is striped. Every zebras pattern is unique. Just like you switch. You're brushing to the other side of the bottom bottom of your mouth. Here's one last riddle for you to think about. During the day howler green or golden baboon or or Macaque Gibbon Spider Marmoset Kappa chicken and silverback. These are all on the same kind of animal but what kind of animal is it. Come back tonight to find out the answer and for a whole new set of animal riddle ready.
Gravity Assist: Theres Life Under Ice in Antarctica. How About Mars?
"Have a single origin in the solar system or could there be life on. Mars came about totally independently from wife here on earth. And how would we knew that? And that's one reason why I have a special love for tight because there's no way anything that lives in liquid. Nothing is related to anybody. You Know Hi. I'm Jim Green chief scientist at NASA and this is gravity assist on this season of gravity. Assist we're looking for life beyond earth. Ooh I'm here with Dr Chris. Mckay and he is a planetary geologist at the NASA. Ames research center is current research. Focus is on the evolution of the solar system in the origin of life. Welcome Chris to gravity. Assist the beer. Jam distinguished career in Astro Biology. Where do you think you would look out into the solar system as being the best places to find life beyond earth? I think the places that were most likely to find life beyond the earth soon are Mars and enceladus and the reason is those worlds have or had water liquid water. We have clear evidence that there's organic material present nutrients needed for life like nitrogen and a source of energy that life. Can you so all the big boxes are checked for those two places? So those are the places where I'm focusing my energy in terms of trying to do a mission to search for life a couple of important points that we learned from Cassini about enceladus. Is that in that water in that ocean. That's coming out into space. There are chemicals. That are the sort of chemicals that many microorganisms us to get energy so called. Reebok's couples for example hydrogen and Co two. Now that doesn't sound like dinner to us. Human beings but some microorganisms. Just love to eat that stuff. So a source of biologically available energy is important and also life needs nitrogen. Fertilizer is basically nitrogen and we see that in the plume to so that Cassini results have just been outstanding they have really revealed the interior of enceladus by analyzing the plume and shown us that Interior is habitable. It's very much like our own oceans It's it's very Tantalizing and and their samples coming out into space. It's almost too good to be true. I think the best thing to do next is fly through the plume now based on what we find there. We may decide. Well we we'd like to land or even like to go diving into the ocean but clearly first step fly through to plume collect material and see what it is is the expectation that life would be microbial or something more complex. The expectation is that it would be Crowell for two reasons one is when we look on earth at environments like what we expect on itself as what we find microbial life what are the kind of organisms that eat hydrogen and Co two and make methane. While they're there microorganisms. The other reason is that we don't expect enceladus to have oxygen in its ocean and all large forms of life on Earth require oxygen. So we really EXP- what we're planning for what we're developing instruments to to look for is microbial line. Now one of the things. We've certainly learned from Planetary Sciences. Be surprised though who know who knows is one of the reasons I like. The field is because we are often wrong and often surprised. What about Europa? Is that a good place to go looking for life or would you rather go to enceladus? Well I think we want to go to Europa and what. We need to do there what we need to do at Eur. Opa IS DO. What Cassini did it in salaries was show that there's organics show that there's biologically available energy and show that there are nutrients like nitrogen containing compounds. We know that there's water but we need to check those other boxes to and I think and I'm hopeful that the clipper mission which is being built and GonNa to it. We'll do just that. So I think clipper will be for your our hope what Cassini did for salary and really open up our eyes to what the potential is for life and how to go about searching for it so you know Titan is also another exciting moon of Saturn and in a what do you think about. Its opportunity to To be able to harbor life Titan is in a category all by itself all the other targets said working on for life are interesting because they have a liquid and that liquid water or they had a liquid titan has liquid. It's all over the surface. It's the only world that has beaches besides the earth but that liquids now water it's liquid methane now that is interesting and challenging. It's challenging because we have no idea how life could use liquid methane as a substitute for water. We can't we can barely understand life with liquid water but it's interesting because if we were to find life on tight rolling in liquid methane that would tell us not only that life is widespread in the universe but that it's really diverse that is weird. They're weird forms of like now with just tighten and earth. We don't know who's the weird one is the hemorrage but it tells us that the universe is full of life and it's full of diverse light to me. That is the best possible outcome over exploration we go to tighten we find. Lai and we find. It is so different that it's clearly a second genesis so Chris when you talk about a second genesis what exactly do you really mean. And what would it look like? Well we we can say clearly what we mean. By a second genesis we mean life that had a separate origin than life on earth the challenges. How would you recognize? How would you know that it's different? That's really the hard part and the answer that we've come up with so far is if we look at life on Earth we see certain patterns that are completely and one hundred percent universal to all life on Earth for example. All life honor uses only left handed amino acids in the formation of its proteins. So all life uses proteins and it only uses left handed amino acids in those proteins but proteins. Come in both right and left handed. This life is chosen on. Earth has chosen. The left-handed is supposed to go to Mars. We find that we think are biological contains a lot of amino acids and they're all right hand. I would argue that. That is a persuasive evidence that that life form is completely different than life on earth. Did it dries on the other side of the road and that that is such a fundamental difference in biochemistry that it has to represent a separate origin and a separate evolutionary path. There there may be more and it may be a combination of many things like this. That tells us that yeah. This has similar bio-molecules in us but it represents a completely different way of coating that information. It really is a second genesis and that's one reason why. I have a stretch love for tight because there's no way anything that lives in liquid methane is related to anybody you know. We have what I would call a lot of circumstantial evidence that there may be life out there. But until we get it here get it in our laboratories and can really examine it In many different ways with many different tools were not necessarily going to be sure we also are about ready to launch You know the Perseverence Rover With its helicopter ingenuity to Mars They're going to be creating samples and we are going to bring those samples back so we'll have an opportunity to to to look for life in the rock record but you know there are other places on Mars that we ought to be going. There's things that we ought to be doing. What what is the next best idea to be able to look for life on? Mars missions that I've been looking at and I'm interested in is landing in the polar regions and drilling down to the ice on earth in the polar regions and I've specialized in the polar regions. I like it cold in the polar regions. We find that. Ice is very good at preserving bio-molecules life is made out of so there we might find not just evidence of life not just fossil's but the actual frozen remains of my bio-molecules think of the woolly mammoths in Siberia frozen and preserved nights. We want the microscopic ancient equivalent of those on March and so going to the polar regions. I think has is very attractive. From a scientific point of view it's very challenging from a technical point of view. Because you don't have a long summers. Not Very Long. Son Likes not very bright. We you know the ice on the on the Mars polar cap when we look at the spectrum of reflected light. It's it tells us it. Co Two but isn't that just a veneer and don't we believe that there's an enormous amount of water trapped underneath that veneer of Co Two? That's correct that's correct. And if we get the permafrost areas where there's ice cemented ground for example at the Phoenix site. Where Phoenix landed in two thousand seven at sixty eight degrees nor that is clearly ice cemented ground berry just a little bit below the surface and that's water ice and the interesting thing is at that site. Few million years ago when Mars was tilted more in its orbit that ice could have been that ice cemented ground could've been muddy like the Arctic on earth becomes in the summertime. Oh Wow I didn't think of that but you're right. Yes so there's some we really need some sort of Is Interrogator mission to to go back there and and take a look at it right and drilling through ice drilling through ice ground very hard? Think of it as concrete it's dirt and ice cemented together. It's very difficult to drill through. It's hard enough doing it on. Earth is very challenging on March. That's the technology hurdle that we're focusing on is drilling into the ice. We call our mission icebreaker for that reason. Well indeed as you say drilling here on earth those those locations on earth for which They're much like that. Which would be at. Mars gives you the opportunity to test your instruments. So what exotic locations have you gone to be able to do these tests and in the field work here on Earth for the Phoenix side for the Mars polar regions the best analog the site on earth that my favorite spot for testing instruments and technologies like the drill are the high valleys of the dry valleys of Antarctica? These are very cold and very dry. When we think of Antarctica most people think huge ice sheets and glaciers this viewer standing in the upper valleys of the Dry Valleys. It looks barren. There's rocks dirt. There's very little is. We have to hike to find water to drink. What drinking water. But that is a good marsh analogues for the Mars polar regions it is the coldest desert dry desert location on her and like on Mars the surfaces dry but underneath the surface there's ice cemented ground. We dig down to that ice ground and we are doing the closest parallel on earth to what we will hope to do on Mars. One we go back to the Phoenix site that area and drill down and get into the ice instead of just reaching it. Get into it and what we're finding in these high valleys is pretty tough for life there and We're still working it but it seems like that. That's very close to the limit of what life can do in terms of cold and Dry. And so it's it's it's really. It's at the edge of exploration. Is this a place where life can survive in a lot of extreme environments we go there and yeah it's extreme but it's just full of lights I think of salt ponds extreme salinity purple with life pink with lives in the DP events very Haslett full of life here we're finding extreme environments where life all forms of life find it extreme and so we're it's a challenge when we don't yet have the answer? Is this telling us that there could be life in the permafrost mark or is it not one of the things about that as you point out is because the access has changed over time? S- called the AB- liquid of the planet We're finding at at different. Locations would have been more temperate so indeed Maybe that ice was was was water. And then here on Earth where we go where we find waters you point out you find life so That may mean that. Maybe life is trapped in that. I so you have that opportunity even in the permafrost areas of Mars to find while you've been out on on many field experiments as you say you're planning to planning to go back to The Dry Valleys Would you be able to do that this year? I mean the summer is coming up in the November Time. Frame is at the perfect time to go a try. We we normally go to the Antarctic when it's summer down there and it's winter here and how how that's GonNa work. This year's unclear. Everything is right now in a state of flux but if things in essense return to normal in time then we might be able to still do our field work but In the big sculpture things. We've been working in the Arctic for many decades now and so we miss a year. We miss a year. What would you say is one of your more unusual experiences while you've been out in the field? Well I would think that the most unusual experiences we've had in the field two of them come to mind. One is in the Antarctic where we under the leadership of Dale Anderson our our Pi in one of the projects we dive into ice covered lakes. So imagine imagine a layer of ice it's Almost ten feet thick Floating on top of a lake and a very cold remote environment. We drill a hole of a meter in diameter hole and we dive in and investigate the life and the bottom of it is really like entering into another world. Environment is so isolated so remote that there are no fish. There's no tadpoles. There's nothing swimming microorganisms. You would think it was lifeless. But it's not it's teeming with life. They're microscopic and the interesting thing we discovered. Is that in this lake in Antarctica. The microbes are building. Mounds that are about ten or twenty centimeters high. If you think about microorganism that's a million of millimeter building a mound ten centimeters high. That's enormous scale difference between the things they built and the size of the organisms makes the Pyramids look like an easy and easy projects and these mounds when microorganisms dying. A dries up would be preserved. The organics would be preserved structures we preserved and they represent potential evidence for what we might find for life on Mars or or on the earlier so diving into that lake. The thing that I keep thinking if this is like going back in time to the earlier three and a half billion years ago when all that was here on earth was microorganisms. And maybe at the same time it's like going to Mars and finding what life was like on Mars. Back when it was only microorganisms. The second similar experiences going into a remote underwater chamber in Mexico called the Cave of crystals which was a huge room but giant crystals The size of telephone poles that had formed over millions of years very hot very humid. We needed protective suits. Just like we did in diving so the cold extreme and article in this other worldly environment of an ice covered lakes and the hot extreme in this Bristol Save Mexico so then when you got into the Cave. What are those crystals look like? They look like chandeliers gigantic pieces from chandeliers that have fallen down all throughout the cave and they have grown up slowly over millions of years and the the main reason I was in the cave was to further research in trying to investigate things without touching them. I'll think back this was. This was ten years ago before curiosity. And before the development of remote sensing instruments on rovers. We were just beginning to think. How could we analyze something without picking it up without touching so I asked myself? Is there some way to analyze them? Look for Mike. Orders in organics in the crystal without chipping anything off the crystal without without treating it like it was a work of art like it was the Mona Lisa. Wouldn't wouldn't tear it up to analyze it and so we went in there with a Rahman Spectrometer to see if we could to characterize mineralogy look for organics and even bio signatures without sampling. The Crystal and we could. It worked out very well. We were very pleased with the result. And this was part of the logic that led to the current focus on remote sensing instruments on rovers on Mars until I if we can sample things without touching them. It makes life on Mars a lot easier and in this case into crystal. There was a a deeper motivation for wanting to do it. Well many the do that have expressed the fact that they believe. There's more biomass below. Our feet in there is on the surface of the earth. Now when you think about it You know that means that life has got a tremendous hold here on earth and if that happened at Mars in even though the surface life not exist anymore. We may find evidence of life below the surface. Do you think we'd find it? In aquifers or or in deep areas on Mars have very important point that subsurface hold a larger biological signal than the surface on earth and on Mars for sure and so we need to look aquifers any any environment. I think our knowledge of the sub surface of Mars is so limited and our knowledge of how life spread on Mars so limited that we have to take the approach. Look everywhere look wherever we can and everywhere we can. And if we find an aquifer obviously that would be a hot place to very important place to go unfortunately so far. We haven't found a lot. There's some evidence of one. Underneath the polar regions. One of the polar caps but searching for water is definitely the way to proceed and if we find subsurface water from find aqua I find even ice that could have melted millions of years ago or we find high levels of hydrated minerals. There's are all possible targets that that we should investigate I think we really should take a philosophy of leave no stone unturned to to be a lot of stones. We should start on turning them. Yeah you're right because you never know what you're GonNa find underneath the stone. Yeah indeed well okay. Let's say you find it. You know you spent a significant amount of your your research. Life developing instruments capability thinking about it. Deeply what we should be looking for. Now you've come across it. What do you think will happen next? What would your reaction be? And what do you think about the public's reaction? Oh we ready for that discovery. I own answer to that question. My personal answer is we proceed very very carefully and the first thing we do is we removed from ours. All the spacecraft. We've sent there because they are all harbor earth contamination at some level. We remove it. They're not that contamination isn't growing. It hasn't altered Mars but it's there with the potential to grow. These are DOORMATS ORGANISMS. That we know are inside all of our spacecraft. We remove them and then we think what do we do? Do we still send human surface? Do we leave Mars alone. Do we actively try to support and enhance the life? They're now being a advocate for life. I favor the ladder. We studied that life and once we understand what it needs. We try to help bridge. We try to make it more like life on earth spreading all over deeply rooted extending overall parts of the planet we try to encourage it on biosphere we you know. A Carl Sagan always said that if we did find life on Mars we need the leave it to the Martians. But you know as you point out in the end we know. The evolution of Mars has been from Blue Planet. Much more aired planet And and if life exists perhaps below the surface maybe it's in the waning era of its existence in. And that's something we would want to investigate. Think about Determine what its future is with ours right I I. My approach would be where from the government. We're here to help. Well you know Chris. I always liked to ask my guests to tell me what was the event or person placer thing that caught them so excited about becoming the scientists they are today and I call that a gravity assist so Chris. What was your gravity? Assist that that's a good question. And the answer for me is very clear. It was coming to NASA Ames as a graduate student for a summer internship. They haven't been able to get rid of me since that's where that's where and when. I decided that I was GONNA do ask a biology although we didn't call it that then that's where I got involved in the Antarctic work in the dry valleys. That's where I started working with Jim. Pollock and Brian Toon. Other and really While famous planetary scientists and trying to understand the link between planetary science and the origin of life It started at that summer. Eight week experience and that was my gravity assist that Delta v that I got from that gravity assist has been carrying before it ever since. Well that's fantastic. I really appreciate talking to you. About some of these issues. You're really right at the forefront of all that research so. Chris thank you so much for joining me today on gravity assist. You Bet. Join me next time as we continue our journey to look for life beyond earth. I'm Jim Green and this is your gravity assist.
Australia and East Antarctica share geology
"Before that we leap to Adelaide and an exciting paper on Antarctica. But just think if you wanted to predict the melting of the ice sheets there would you go drilling on the nullarbor plain. Meet Licia polit and Tom Raimondo. At the University of South Australia. Tom This is what I find. Incredible here we are in South Australia. Tomorrow's GonNa be forty two degrees outside and you'll saying there's a connection with Antarctica which is zillions of kilometers away. How come well allow will depart in terms of their climate? Yes but very close cousins in terms of the geology. So if you held up a mirror to the Kasana vase Antarctic a really. What you I would say is exposed geology? That we have in southern Australia by counterpart STI- Derived from the same land originally separated a pop. Millions of years ago as a strategy drifted north and lifted. Santa cousin behind Sorry by accessing the geology of southern astray we actually get a window to seek beneath the AUSTER. Put Away for Mason Talk to Gary found out exactly what's going on rock and the dips below. Teach Gang. What's the flow? Well I guess. The conditions of the bicycle nausea really influential in terms of the way I move in flows so we know the Kleist who were trained driven largely by the conditions of the surface. And how that's changing with the anthropogenic climate change on butts the Bison which we can observe is equally if not more important because if you have meltwater that exists on other words if temperatures are above freezing and we have actual water that the lubricating device to the sheet it enables it to move at a much more rapid would right the bid that sits rod of the base of the glycemic right afloat becomes accelerated because of the existence of that meltwater and we know that hot hot rocks in other words rocks that contain radioactive elements that naturally became produce hate are able to produce thermal energy that produces milk quota an idol's mcglesias to accelerate their right of movement so rocks the conditions of the Bison at the bedrock bicycling sits underneath glasses is critical in terms their ability to melt and the right which will melt the we can project into the future to understand how the behavior will change over time? Let's say you've been to see the University of Queensland Dorsey who's Dorothy Hill say. Dorothy Hill was the first female professor in Australia and she was a professor of geology at at the University of Queensland and I seem to remember she was specializing in the rocks associated with reefs. And she was the first woman in history to be the president of Ketamine Science. Yes absolutely an amazing woman and for the research done the paper just published with your name on the front. And she's very nice you had to go to the nullarbor how come yes. So beneath thick layer of limestone on the nullarbor some of the books that we expect to observe under into the ICY NASCENT TACTICA. Sorry we were lucky enough to get on board with a drilling program that was undertaken in out on the laborde and twenty seventeen where they were drilling drilling through to the basement rocks where they pulled them back up. And I could do some laboratory measurements on the properties and then we also temperature logging down the the whole to see what the temperature is. Elect Dan at those depths. How far down do you have to go? Ask the drilling range between about four hundred meters up to eight to nine hundred maters deep deep. Yes Dave enough to get to those hawks at the bottom. What should rocks? Are they mostly Granitz. And Nice Metamorphosis Code Nice Pun intended not spelt the same and I sound pulled hundreds of different core samples from across eight. Different different drew hosts just to collect a wide range of daughter across the largest area possible. And what was the nullarbor like as you were sitting there in your camp empty. He is a very good word but in an amazing way it's a very special education and particularly not to see the night sky. The wildlife blacked out there. Surprisingly although we guaranteed we wouldn't see any. We managed to see quite a lot and just really amazing place to experience told me about that night. Yes Sir I was the only scientists out on the camp that was actually camping tent. The rest will in caravans and I wake up during the middle of the night and could hear rustling near the tent and I chose not to go and investigate because I didn't want to and go back to sleep. I mean lead to realize the next morning that one of the men had gone to the bathroom at about the same time that I wake up to see pack of wild dingoes roaming around around the back of the campsite which is most likely what I heard from my tent. Lucky me while you were Tom Safely at home. That's right there Aaron Spirit. I wish I could have commented the time. It didn't work out but the novel is spectacular location of its own rot but to be out to save beneath the limestone which obviously wide so we'll known to reveal for the first time that was the beauty of being involved in that drilling program we the Geological Survey of South Strand geoscientists try with the driving forces behind that went to open up mineral exploration in in a region that's known as the Campana region fraud that drilling program we actually had no idea what existed beneath Lobstein was a total the mystery and in particular point of view. It was a total mystery in terms of what it's thin characteristics were so we did was really reveal for the first time in a total black spot on the continental data set. That exists for Australia. What the heat flow conditions are beneath available playing and by association with the entirety? What conclusions can you draw about the effect of those similar properties on say the melting? Well the thing about what is that has been a lot of modeling to look at the range of heat flow values that would influence the dynamics of the sheets. And if you change things by about twenty million square meters which sounds like a very very small number energies you can induce a huge amount of additional meltwater vice of the Ossete now now. I'll values that. We discovered in southern Australia. Easily within that fluctuation and if you continue the trends of we observe in southern strategy the closer to Adelaide and the Flyers Ryan extension into what we call the Ross origin of Antactica. Those values are even more elevated again. So there's definitely definitely the potential for quite elevated values that we observe consistently throughout southern Australia to exist in their counterparts in eastern Antarctica and the Lucille. Why didn't you simply or can you just whip down south to Antarctica? Get the drill and see what the right with your calculations well that it would be the dream but unfortunately the logistics and the environmental impact of drilling three such thick ice just makes drilling quite a difficult task collegiate in some pots kilometers thick which is more than what we could through through with. Little getting through is first and then into the bedrock. The thing is in Antarctica. Have you been down Tom to Antarctica Noel. I haven't on on the old one out. It seems amongst the community here and had light which has had a really strong legacy of researches. Look the thing is you your actual base. In the universe strays Morrison Punt Morrison emotion. Your leader your inspiration and you haven't been south yet that's correct but we do have his legacy in terms of all of the samples that he collected so whatta but at least there has been no saying doing in conjunction with this study is looking at the heat production of those rocks. Most of them come actually from LICEU marines. 'cause they're the easiest. Thanks to sample. When you're down there you basically get a mixed bag of rocks deposited them in the marina itself and of course thyroid effectively proxies of the rocks that the glycemic transported across? So you can use them as a way to sample rocks beneath the offshoot as it's made his journey across the Interior wrote down to the coast saw Whipping using those rock samples. Most himself brought back this huge collection which has given us a message advantage in terms of being able to get the breadth writ of Rock tops that may exist analyze them for the production to me. The really exciting thing was when we did the reconstruction so we tied that he flow data that we have from all the different continental fragments. That are the conjugates to Ason Antarctica. So that includes southern strategy but also India and Africa and we talk all of the existing data that exists for those continents and then paste together the jigsaw puzzle again so that I will move they way back towards the Antarctic coastline and then to create the heat flow map. I think that was the most exciting thing when we'd assembled all of these individual ingredients and and then produced for the first time tectonically reconstructed he flowing that and see what it looked like. That was the really a HA moment. We sort of pulled all those Fritz together to say what we found around Tom. Raimondo team leader of that group at the University of South Australia and Olympia politics. Who's doing her P._H._d.? And was the first author of that game changing paper.
Two visits to Antarctica
"The sancho on in now. Let's get tough to go with foreign correspondent. Your witnessing time travel in real time I descent into the icy podcast searching for clearview avow ever Wyoming Future. This is not science fiction just size cold and how a crack team Australian specialists. He's battling the odds to hunt down tiny missing pods of the global climate puzzle. It's the culmination of his six year. Quest to return with just a handful of atoms atoms with the power to revealed without our atmosphere is using the fight to clean itself we've been rapidly increasing concentrations of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere since about the early mid eighteen. Hundreds bubbles in the US recalled. What we've been putting in but our future will also be determined by how quickly bulletins taken out when it's how the atmosphere handled emissions that we have netted it really is a question of increasing the sum of human knowledge in terms of climate science and ultimately the future of and L. Species. There's only one place on the planet to go. They need particularize from a particularly difficult place. Richard Smith's terrific documentary in foreign correspondent grooming with good signs. Do I view the program broadcast just recently but amateurs since can travel there as well? This is medical scientist Sally Smith now a farmer. She was entranced recently. We've heard that the highest ever temperature of eighteen point. Three degrees was recorded. The Argentine Research Base Esperanza in Antarctica. And that a giant billion tonne iceberg has broken free of the Antarctic. See Us these events and increasing concern about the impact of global warming elsewhere. Make me wonder what other things changing in the southern frozen wilderness. I had the privilege of visiting the Antarctic Peninsula earlier this year and was able to ask this of our experienced tour guides. Who Know an toxic a will. I travelled on a small expedition ship with one hundred and thirteen passengers and fourteen guides including a botanist a geographer so all adjust and historian kayaking experts and polar explorers. Antarctica is managed under the Antarctic Treaty. Which was signed in? Nineteen fifty nine by twelve countries including Australia. It provides that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes. Only that scientific investigation. There shall continue freely and cooperatively to that end and that scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available. The treaty provides guidelines under which travel companies chewed operate to ensure no damage to the continent and its waters. A maximum of one hundred people may land at any one place at any one time and these landings booked in advance by visiting ships. Our expedition team and company were at great pains for us to leave. No trace of Al visit special boots were issued. An our personal gear was thoroughly inspected. Those were scrupulously disinfected and scrubbed before and after each onshore visit. We were instructed in great detail about how potentially impact on the land and its wildlife L. Gods were active members of citizen science programs and encourage passengers to become involved in monitoring for example cloud tops Vanessa Globe observer program and wildlife sightings. We recorded over fifty species of birds. Whales Seals and penguins during our ten days at C. L. Ship Left Era del Fuego at the tip of South America to cross the six hundred nautical miles of drake passage to the Antarctic peninsula. The next day we were in our kayaks and we saw is fragments in a myriad of shapes dancing by on the waves tiny ones like swans or angels or dogs or immense ones like palaces or ships containing doughnut holes tunnels and caves tempting for a kayaker reached or stippled an appropriately coloured deep equa marine or even violent. They were all fascinating to watch. Occasionally a slug like seal would be resting on top of one or lonely penguin or Kelp Gull supervising US unnervingly for US kayakers the will of a glossy carving head us on alert because the resultant waves could be life threatening on this first Kayak Venture we encountered a group of Humpback whales. They must have been curious to know who we were and breached quite close to us roaring to each other. It was awesome vast masses of creatures live in Antarctica. Maybe five hundred thousand million tonnes of Krill the small crustaceans which live on fighter plankton and red and green snow. Algae the KRILL thought to collectively way more than Earth's entire human population. They are in turn. Asian by five million seals twenty million breeding pairs penguins and hundreds of thousands of Wales apart from the penguins. Millions of birds breed each spring in Antarctica including that heroic wandering albatrosses which has a wingspan of three meters and stays airborne for five years although relatively distant from other continents Antarctica and its surrounding ocean have far-reaching effects on the wrist of the globe. They are key drivers of Earth's Oshii Anik an atmospheric systems. Scientists say that the Antarctic is one of the three gracious hotspots for climate change on the planet. Winter air temperatures have risen by six degrees Celsius in the Antarctic Peninsula since the nineteen fifties many times the main rate of global warming. I was keen to know how this ecosystem might have changed about precipitation. Temperature Wind Storms Sea ice cloud cover seabirds penguins seals fish and Krill. Al Guards told me that they have seen more frequent and more intense storms over the last twenty years in the drake passage. They suspect more clouds fog and even rain not snow on the Antarctic Peninsula which is technically a desert over the last fifteen years. They have not notice changes in the abundance or types of plant life but penguin numbers are changing ocean. It's a US based not for profit. Group has studied science based conservation under the Antarctic Treaty for decades and reports increases in the numbers of Gen two and a daily penguins but falls in chinstraps and some other penguin species over the last fifty years. This could be due to loss of sea us because of warming and declines in its algae independent cruel populations and rising amounts of co two dissolved in the ocean acidified and are predicted to have crew numbers by the end of the century. So this will mean less food for Wales Penguins and seals. The Gen two has been described as the peach in of the penguin world due to its very diet including fish and squid. It can thrive in a wide range of conditions than some other penguin species. In fact we mostly saw genta penguins with some chinstraps but no dailies however a national geographic report somewhat contradicts the ocean. It's findings saying a daily numbers vary by site because they depend on sea ice and only Aku where it's prison for a good part of the year where sea ice is disappearing in the northern Antarctic Peninsula. So the daily penguins. Alex put said she has seen many more humpbacks over the last few years in line with reports of their recovery from wailing up to the nineteen sixties. I've found some fascinating organisms. Floating singly and in chains in the ocean and stranded on the Antarctic beaches. The selfs these rather delicate and beautiful creatures look like jellyfish but because they have a central nervous chord a more closely related to humans. Each one had a clear to like body encasing. An orange beach shaped got soaps farther plankton and they facie struck quickly to the ocean floor with the benefit of locking carbon down there. We do not know what it's helps but penguins don't they have exotic reproductive behavior and can transition through two generations in a day where there is abundant krill. The self seem to be rare and vice versa. The experts on my ship. I saw them just ten years ago. So yes some things are changing in the Antarctic or visited and I came. Home is concerned about this out of the world as I am about others but I was amazed that the Antarctic Treaty. Coalition of fifty four countries manages it using just trust and collaboration because no one actually owns this fall place. The International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators I auto under a similar impressive arrangement overseas safe and environmentally responsible traveled to Antarctica. What concerned Al Guides was the increasing? Number of tourists ships. We saw a monster ship carrying thousands of passengers. The guides came to measure the impact of tourism on Antarctica because the number of ships is growing rapidly with fifty five thousand tourists visiting last season. I'm told that seven years ships are being built for Antarctic voyages. This could impact the continents plant and animal life but ocean. It say their studies had so far found no evidence of damage to penguin colonies from visitors however with increases in tourism and the use of flights in and out it seems the threat to habitat will only rise with pressure to open up new travel destinations numbers so many numbers in the sideshow and so important that was medical research of Sally Smith who now farms walnuts and I see the news. This week that Krill yes combined weight equal to all people on Earth those griller expected to move north according to PhD student. Divvy Bichir from the University of Tasmania.
Ancient Civilizations in Antarctica?
"Hi, I'm Alison green. I'm the host of the ASCA manager podcast where I answered questions from listeners about how to navigate all sorts of sticky situations at work from what to say to a co-worker who smells to how to deal with an overly critical boss to how to handle an office lunch thief each week on the show. We'll talk through your toughest most frustrating or just plain weirdest work predicaments and we've just added a second show each week so you can now listen every Monday and Wednesday on apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts from those two psychic powers government conspiracies. History is riddled with unexplained. Events can turn back now or learn the stuff they don't go to. No. Hello, welcome back to the show. My name is Matt nine names. No, they called me Ben. We are joined with our super producer Paul decade. Most importantly, you are you. You are here and that makes this stuff. They don't want you to know quick as I say Pete behind the curtain, the the four of us rashly relatively well traveled people, although I have never been to Antarctica rights. Right? And that's the subject of today's episode. Very, very few people have been. I got very close to go into an article once number of years ago, Matt, you may remember it was with. With a good friend of ours. Fringe of the show who does a lot of write ups on the house of works website about our podcast. Diana Brown checkout her work. If you get a chance she was going, her family was going to go on a group expedition and Antarctica is one of those places that is very, very expensive to go go to by your lonesome, you know, for you gotta roll deep and get the price cuts. Unfortunately, that didn't happen, but I'm hoping one day to get to this continent. I think it'd be a cool thing for all of us to do because of all of earth's continents. Antarctica remains the most mysterious today. It's it's nice box. It's a gigantic ice desert. It's one of the last places in the world that is largely or somewhat the same as it was before, what we call the anthropoid or the age of humans. And you know, it's no wonder. There's not much reason for human being. Is to be there, not not that it stopped us before, and for a lot of people, this may be weird to think about Antarctica wasn't always a frozen wasteland. In fact, it was kind of balmy for a while. That's true in just before we get into that you, you can take a flight crews to Arctic. That's probably the easiest way gotta fly somewhere that's closer. And again, on a ship rights, she can't fly into Antarctica, really? Not not really. No, not easily. Yeah, it's not a delta flight, right? Yeah, even thing called icing. It gets worse when you're an anthrax. Yeah, even spirit won't take you there for about virgin. They go, I don't know. Yeah, they do. They are trying to go into space. Richard Branson, trying to go to space. So in aren't has kind of like space on earth similar to the Mariana trench. There's a lot of stuff we don't know about either environment. That's a very good point. What we do know about how Antarctica arrived at this strange position that works on multiple levels. I comes from a series of theories and a lot of research into timelines, so we can. We can explore that just briefly be here are the facts. Yeah. The first thing you have to subscribe to is continental drifts. Yes, that's the first thing you have to buy the idea that once upon a time or several different times throughout the history of earth in times had nothing to do with human beings. We weren't even a twinkle in the ecosystem. Is I the continents as we know. Today, we're actually part of a larger things called supercontinent super continents. Perfect, super continents because they not because they add extrordinary powers. They were just really big. And from what we understand, they shifted into each other, a number of different super continents about one billion to maybe five hundred and forty two million years ago, and they formed this huge thing. We call Panja and the southern part of Panja was a place that we call Gondwana. Of course, we made these names up after the fact because again, no people were there that we know of right or at least no life form capable of naming things. And guns wanna was made up of what we call South America, Australia, India, Africa, and Antar ticket today at this point in Antarctic is life span. It teamed with plant and animal life. It was lousy with it. It was actually pretty hot. But around one hundred and fifty to one hundred eighty million years ago, Gondwana began to separate or drift and eventually Australia, which was still attached to Antarctica. Eventually, Australia moved pretty quickly for continent speed toward southeast Asia. While Antarctica finally became isolated about thirty four to thirty five million years ago. It went from a subtropical environment to a place just covered with ice riddled with it. Yeah, in the theories go here that as it as it was finally separated from all of these other continents embodies of bodies of land. It's now surrounded by bodies of water in a place that so far from the equator, the ice just began to form just starts forming continues to form and it keeps going. Yeah, it keeps going. So any living creatures on this continent are facing. Increasingly inhospitable environment, and perhaps you eventually because of this get some evolutionary traits such as what we find in polar bears and some of the other Arctic life. Although in Antarctica, you don't find much rights, right? But maybe as it was transforming into this just frigid wasteland. The evolutionary pressures on the animals that live there before resulted in things like you know, layers of body fat, like a lot of heels, have you know, but let's get back to the ice. Okay, let's let's get back is ice baby. How did it get there, though? Exact story of the ice development is not certain. So we return to another theory and the theory is that the reduction in earth's carbon dioxide levels as well as the changes in its orbit caused a high degree of cooling and that this with the formation of what you have mentioned before, Matt, the Antarctic circum polar current. It's neat word. Formed these glaciers on the land, and they grew sties -able. They grew larger and larger and larger, and they began carving deep valleys in the landscape which if you check out the right satellite images, you can see today. Yeah, and you can also see that there's this massive ice sheet a across almost all of Antarctica that is pretty much a plateau. It's an ice plateau, and then the highest peaks kind of peak out see works on level. So there you go. Yeah, the top of the ice, it's a fan. It's fascinating to to see it into understand how much is physically on the land there. So what about people were? Were there people involved in this at all? Yeah, here's the thing. I mean according to most of the records that we have civilizations were pretty much completely ignorant that this place existed at all. And you know, humans were spreading across other continents. But Antarctica kind of hung out on its frozen lonesome, you know? Yeah. And even in places like what we call the far north of North America today, Alaska Canada, and stuff and Siberia on the other side. Even in those also brutal environments, people were able to move around because they were able to go on land across things like the Bering strait the tundra released, shorter travels across walk across water if you had to write was freezing. Yeah. And that can't happen due to the open ocean surrounding Antarctica. It's like the perfect prison continent, hey, there we go in more if your you know, perfect continent for super villain to have their icy lair. Absolutely, absolutely. Possibly hide a death, Ray of some kind beneath. Ian, aren't the guys. There you go. I like that idea and it's, it's. Interesting because there are things that we know from various ancient cultures, some in South America, for instance, that can be interpreted as the people having some vague knowledge of a distant cold land to the south. But the problem is that they could be talking about islands. You know, there are a ton of frozen islands around there in the ocean. So we can tell you the official story that you will read most mainstream textbooks about humans in Antarctica, since you know, as you said, no, we don't have any proof from multiple civilizations that most of them had any idea that there was something down there. Right? And also we get it. There's no upper down in space. They had no idea that there was something over there. We can't save for absolutely sure who got there first, but we know there's noted expeditions to the area and these time lines will become more important as we go. Most of them start in the fifteen hundreds, the sixteenth century when Europeans are trying to explore more of the world and claim it for their countries or their gods. Yeah. Yeah, take all of the stuff. Make sure it's ours exactly. So we go to fifteen nineteen o Twas a good year specifically in September Ferdinand Magellan he takes a trip sales. That's generally how you you get anywhere on the seas. You sail from Spain towards the Indies always going west in a westerly route. We shall say, so he's sailing down the coast of South America and you can imagine him going. We're showing you a map right now. It's an old tiny map from fifteen hundreds and he discovers this narrow strait that passes through to the Pacific Ocean, which today bears his name, the Magellan strait. It's not the well. I don't think it's the Ferdinand Magellan strait. I think it's just the Magellan strait, yeah. Sorry for an end. We didn't include that, but you do have a great story about a cow named after you. Okay, anyway. So to the south of this lies the TRL twig. Fogo which is, oh my gosh, this the early geographers assumed to be the edge of the southern continent of South America. So Thira del Fuego. We've talked about this before, it's what does it called the something of I know, obviously a fire, forget the name of it. It's like it has specific thing because it's it's governor Cannock activity in the ring, the ring of fire, Johnny cash. That's what it is. The ring of fire. Very cool. So fifteen nineteen for image l. and goes a little bit south, right, right. And at this point for. The majority of cartographers in the majority of map makers we know of they were ranging into what would be called terrain cognito yeah. If you've ever seen pictures of an old map or if you were fortunate enough to have seen very old map in person at a museum or in like the home of a wealthy eccentric, then what what you'll see is after a certain point, there's a blank space in you might see like a sea serpent. Then you'll see some kind of warning that translates roughly to something like here be serpents. Yeah, because no one knew no one entity for for me. It's like the fog of war. If you're playing a video game or something, and you have a mini map a map setup. You can only see what you've explored so far and the rest of it's just who knows the windows, but that was what humans were going through in real life. And so in fifteen seventy eight, many decades later. Francis Drake. Yes, that Francis. Passes through the straits Magellan only defined himself blown significantly further south than the intended due to a big storm in the Pacific. And this event proved that terra del Fuego was separated from an east southern continent, and you could therefore sale around tear del Fuego. If the wind was at your back and you had good fortune, this particular passageway came to be known as the Drake passage, and this has nothing to do with anything. But after ask, do you think these guys were naming this stuff after themselves like saying, I discovered this, therefore it's, you know, like the the Frederick canal. Something I think is by the crown probably or or at least some. There's some decree that occurs Shelby known as the Drake passage also unrelated the different courtesy that almost any bio you read of somebody was actually written by that person. I think about that a lot. It's weird. Yeah, I think especially. In the modern day, it's absolutely true. Even if you're hearing an introduction like we would do on our show because we we're not immune to this. Your that bio is usually going to be constructive pieces of a bio that somebody else wrote about themselves, right? Most bios, our auto bios, right? True. We, we wrote our bios on our about page. We hate writing bios by the way. What do you because you have to write in third person? It feels so weird. Yeah, it's just very, like strangely aggrandizing. Yeah. Yeah. And you have to try to figure out what makes you sound legit to people. I actually got asked one time at work to a cut, some jokes out of a bio, then they're like, yo bolan you legit and you're like, all right. All right. All right. But I thought that was good now. I think there was one time. I don't know what bio problems you guys have had in the past, but I hated writing bio so much for a couple of months here. When we were asked for bios, I would try to turn in one that just said Ben Bullen was asked to write a bio nice and it never. It never flew. My favorite version of you for your bios is Ben bolan is exploited explores many varying and interesting pursuits. There's something to that effect. Oh, yeah. Straight up. Straight up. Just like Ben is an interesting human. I would agree that's to kind watch out him googly met Frederick bio now, are you won't find me. We'll see. So. Bio's aside and whether or not these guys were self-aggrandizing a love that them self aggrandizing enough to name these geographic features after themselves. We do know that they got stuck in modern culture at least in the west. That's where known as today. And after the discovery of this passage after they say, oh, terra del, Fuego is the end of the world as we know it. Other people try to push a little further in fifteen ninety two, an Englishman named John Davis discovers the Falkland islands and MRs messed up. Yes, this is a very unfortunate experience. Yes. So in August fifteen ninety two on this guy, John Davis, who was an Englishman had a really, really dope name for his ship. By the way it was called the desire, which I like a lot. He discovered the Falkland islands, like you said, and this was not. A very happy expedition at all. Things got pretty dire in terms of scarcity of supplies and food and potable water, and the crew was forced to take advantage of their surroundings and ended up having to eat somewhere in the neighborhood of fourteen thousand penguins that while can't be right, they attempted to eat them. Yeah. Well, these are also these kind of penguins. They're, they're smaller. Yeah. Then like the maybe the emperor penguins you're not. They really fatty like, I would think that penguin. You don't hear about people eating penguin? No, it's not a. It's not a super fun food to eat. Now. It's typically not a first choice. They're hard to catch me. Those things are so slippery slide around and their families, and they danced so well and tandem. Crazy choreographed numbers. Yeah. And there's also a question of whether or not these penguins were familiar with humans, isn't it writers? So that may have made it easy. Fear to catch. But the reason we say attempted to eat them is because once the desire reaches the tropics, the penguin meet that they had tried to store has spoiled and it's poisoning these increasingly desperate crew members out of the original seventy six who went with John Davis to discover the Falkland islands only sixteen members of the crew survived. Yeah, made it home. That's crazy. Not good is no, they're not. Although if you're if you're one of those lucky sixteen, you know, you're probably riddled with scurvy probably had just a series of bad years and you have to ask yourself, you're going to go back to the ocean or you're just gonna pack it up and be a land Lubber a surprising amount of people by the way, do decide to go back on the seas. Yeah, the sirens call him boats in your blood who must go down to the seas again to the lonely sea and sky right in if you remember that poem or that reference to that poem. So fast forward sixteen seventy. Five in April, a guy named Antonio della Rocca is blown south of Cape Horn and is the first person to see South Georgia. Very nice. Jump forward a little bit seventeen. Thirty. Nine Frenchmen new may remain. Recognize this name. Jean-Baptiste boo. Dentals EA he discovers Beauvais there you go. He discovers bovi that so crazy. But that's such a great name. Ovadia those. Yeah. Yeah, exactly. Sean Baptiste Beauvais man, that guy just had all gone for him. So who knows, hey, I can't speak to his character, right. Spare the island is not this island that he discovers movie. It's not cited again until eighteen o eight. So a while after he discovers it and is due to these significant Ike ice packs that end up on it and around it. And the first landing didn't take place until the American Morrell, their Morrell. Another explorer landed there in eighteen twenty two. So that thing went almost one hundred years. So vague dealers was simply the first person to see it and report back that he saw it. Yes, anyone there was definitely they're right over there. And then in seventeen twenty two in February Frenchman named Eve's Joseph day. Here we go goo goo. Then three Marseille discovers the aisles caregiver Lynn. So he just they get his name and then in seventeen seventy three, captain James Cook and company become the first people to cross the ant Arctic circle. They're still not the, they still no one has officially seen the continent known as Antarctica, yeah, but they're seeing all of these islands and places around them near them enough, but he just can't see it yet and they're all brutal. Oh yeah, you don't want to be there. Why would you send another ship out there? And it's like again, if you wanna do a video game reference, it's like when you're starting to go. Off the edge of a map in an RPG hearings. Just get less and less and less friendly. Yeah, or less and less. Interesting because the developers haven't put anything out there like like in skyrocket. Yeah, yet we got one a spoil it for anyone, but it is interesting how the on maps, the monsters Bahir kind of fan really does help prevent people from exploring out there in the same way, a game developer will prevent you from being able to get any further there. Sometimes it's just through invisible wall other times. It's like you should. You have to turn back. Huge mountain. Yeah, it's really interesting or there's some games where it'll just teleport you back to some other place. Oh, yeah, true. Sure. Nope, which can be rotated bounce initially because you have to go all the way to the edge in the first place. Well, that's the thing about an article. If you actually get to the south pole, you just hit the portal and you head back up like you probably go straight through the earth and end up in the Arctic talking about the famed and Arctic portal. I'm yeah. Well, I mean everybody knows that if you get to the south pole, you just go, why do you think NASA keeps covering up the images of the actual pole? Yeah, exactly. If you didn't know this earth is kind of like a Donut in the center. It's hollow. He goes all the way through come on. Yeah, he used to be a great neighborhood, but now there are tons of Nazis there. We have a video about it. Check us out on YouTube or on her website stuff, then what she knew dot com. So it isn't until eighteen twenty on January twenty. Seventh, that a Russian explorer named fobbing gold Leib von Bellingshausen becomes the first person to see Antarctica, very nicer, Fabian good lib von burn house in the and Charleston Charleston house. So he again, he just sees it nearly whoa sums there. It's way bigger than the other islands that we heard about vaguely, yes. And officially speculation over the existence of a quote. Southern land was not confirmed then until the early eighteen twenty s when these commercial expeditions from Britain and the US and these national expeditions from Britain in Russia started looking at the Antar penins. Sheila region and other areas south of the ant Arctic circle people just kept finding more remote. Freddie pretty brutal islands, and it wasn't until twenty years after Bellinghausen that someone established. The Antarctica was actually continent and not just a group of islands or an area of ocean that it wasn't just ice. There was there was land and then they're glaciers. Q. magin, just traveling the ocean in those frozen waters all the way round. If it was even possible. It wasn't at the time, but just traveling all the way around its Arctic because they have ships now that like will slice through parts of the ice breakers. Yeah, those are killer. The US only has one, two, three and operation yet. Right. And it's officially is true. It's usually, yes, it's going to change as trade passages opened up in the North Pole on, do we ever do anything about that? Who's going to control the North Pole? No, we'd we talked about who's going to know. We did. We did didn't. We remind us if we don't, that's on our list and it hasn't been forever. You got a tunnel links. Yeah. Okay. But, but that's that's the state of affairs and we can imagine we can all imagine how bleak of a discovery that must have been what a cold comfort and must be for all of these explorers finding these islands. Because despite the somewhat alluring names, the the fact of the matter is that they weren't. They didn't have resources that the crews could successfully extract other than means of survival. Like the story told all about the penguins in the Falklands. Instead I think the best way to understand it is to imagine in your own life listeners, have you ever been on the way somewhere and got to your destination arrived and realized that you forgot something important and you had to turn around, oh, God, I know, right? Like I live so close to where. We work and I lose my mind if I have to turn around and walk know another twenty minutes home. I can't imagine sailing to Antarctica, and then I get here Tate if I leave my wallet in the car. And yeah, we all the way back down the hall to get the wallet so can relate dude, exactly. And if you, you can just imagine in the early nineteen hundreds for several decades. There were numerous expeditions to the to actual Antarctica where people were attempting to do this very thing just like get pretty far and then they'd realize, oh, while we have to go back because we didn't pack enough leadoff we just ate Neil. Yeah, all the dogs have died and they are the ones who are supposed to carry us here, but he's just happened over and over and over again. And again, it's all part of the same motivation that we spoke about in the beginning of why its Arctic just became discovered in the Falklands and all these things because there was colonial expansion occur rights and in the nineteen hundred. It's Britain again, trying to just expand what if you find a source of a rare spice or a strange animal, you know what I mean? Yeah. What if you get past some of this ice and there is an actual place, some kind of OAS land 'have system or. Yeah, like the savage land. Marvel comics very much so. So without going too much further into the early history, one establish a time line. We're going to take a quick break from a for capitalism in a word from our sponsors, and then we'll be back to explore the story of humans in Antarctica today because there are actually are some. Over three hundred twenty five years ago, the community of Salem, Massachusetts was rocked by something that few ever thought possible. It's been called an outbreak a wave of hysteria or the perfect storm at the confluence of seemingly unrelated ideas, events, and beliefs, whatever we try to call it though we always seem to miss the Mark. What bothers me so much so many people say how ignorant people were back. Then that's historian Emerson, Baker professor of American history at Salem state university. How could they possibly believe in witches and that they were? Well, I remember in sixteen ninety two which is were real. Everybody believed in them university ministers, doctors of theology, governors pope's, which is our real, the Salem, witch trials are equal parts universally known and barely understood by most people. That's why this series exists new episodes of this twelve. Part series air every Wednesday, learn more and find links to subscribe over at history on obscure dot com. All right and article today, you know, who can really use the sponsors that we just talked about these people that are living in Arctic. Oh yeah. Shipping for most everything we sell on this show. They're shipping involved. It's true. There's shipping. We should tell them. We should tell them, yeah, it's, it's home. It's home to people. It's got the smallest human population of any continent surprise. But it also has a very international population because none of these people are citizens of Antarctica. Instead they are scientists and staff from around thirty countries. They live on seventy different bases about forty of those are year round basis, meaning someone's always there. Yeah, even when it becomes impossible to travel outside of that base, even when it's like the setting in John carpenter's the thing someone's been worse always. And the other thirty bases are only open in the summer. The entire population officially again of Antarctica is about four thousand people in summer one thousand souls of winter while eleven people have been born there. That's incredible also makes it the continent with the lowest birth rate. Yeah, that makes a whole lot of sense. I can only imagine the circumstances that would lead to deciding to have your child there. I mean, what? If you can't get out what if it's there's Huish. It's pretty cool though. Yeah, it's a good story out, you know, to be polar baby, so. Okay. I know we don't. Yes, really have this information. I wonder in those instances of those children being born there, do they take the country that runs the base as the primary country that runs that base this and it? We don't have the answer, but I believe in this just speculation, but a believe it they get the nationality of their parents of the mother, I guess. Right. Makes sense. He'll be cool if it was just there were eleven Antarctica theories, you're like accidentally Argentinian. Yeah, that could get complicated real quickly. If you're one of those eleven people, listening are related to them right in and let us know how that how that all works leave. And so that's that's Antarctica today. That's how it got there. That's who who lives there. Now in generally they're doing climate related research, but they're doing another of an number of other things as well, especially because of that massive ozone hole. But other people have a question that has haunted people since the eighteen hundreds since the official western discovery of Antarctica. And the question is this, what if there was something else beneath the frozen wasteland beneath all these glaciers and all these, like howling Bisa wins? What if there was something there before? What if there were people there before? Here's where it gets crazy. So the hollower be no, I'm just kidding doughnut. Yeah. In this case, it's the hollower though doughnut theory slightly different things sometimes completed with Holloway earth, but. We want to keep that street. Right. Well, okay. So I'm just kidding. No, we're, we're going to do it. We're, we're, we're, we're jumping right into Graham handcock which is, I think the correct place to start. I'm we have to Hollywood at some point we will. Okay, right. All right. So yet as we were saying, we're in a century, people have argued with varying degrees of seriousness that Antarctica may have once been the home to forgotten civilizations. In some cases, the stories of this ancient society are conflicted with other stories of places. They're generally thought to be mythical like Atlantis or la- Miriam, right? Yeah, it would make a lot of sense. If a lost civilization was truly lost because it's covered in ice and there's no way to find and it's on a lost con- they, you're going to get there. And one thing we've found pretty interesting comes from Graham Hancock, who is a a fringe researcher who writes some really. Fascinating stuff. I would say he is exciting to read. I I don't find any. I don't find major problems with like sentence structure or thought structure veers off a little bit sometimes. But overall, if you're gonna read somebody who is writing about these kinds of topics of Graham Hancock's a good choice. Oh man, he has a great take on DNA to, oh yeah, which I don't do. We have got, I don't think so. That would be a good one. So he wrote a book called magicians of the gods. The forgotten wisdom of earth's lost civilizations in twenty credible title. Yeah, which and it's an update. It's a sequel to a book wrote in nineteen ninety-five called fingerprints of the gods. The evidence averse lost civilizations. This book is a massive. If you are interested in this sort of alternative history revisionists stuff. This, what if every good thing to call it, then you have at least heard of this book. Fingerprints of the gods. If you're interested in this and you have not read it, I recommend checking it out. You can get a cheap, paperback copy real easily, and you can get in pretty much whatever language you speak with a lot of exceptions. But there is a good chance that you at least can somewhat speak a language that it's translated into. Yeah, because it's in what? How many twenty seven twenty seven languages sold more than three million copies of this book. So in the original book, fingerprints Hancock looks through all these creation myths in ancient texts, and he goes through these various geological scenarios. And his argument is that Antarctica moved to the south pole much more recently than we originally thought and much more recently than the mainstream folks sink today. So instead of moving lake, thirty four thirty five million years ago getting covered with is all that jazz. He says that it happened. A little less than twelve thousand five hundred years ago, which means people were around. Yeah, most importantly, and that it was it was moved not by a slow, continental drift. But instead it was moved relatively suddenly by major quote, crustal shifts earthquakes tectonic plates, subjecting, and crashing together and tearing apart. But like end of the world stuff scenario where if you were on planet earth at a time in that was occurring, it's not good news like, yeah, like if the Pacific rim, the ring of fire finally erupted in everything blew up at once. That kind of thing that could end to civilization if it did exist somewhere. And so according to handcock win, this cataclysm occurred. Several remnants or groups or factions of this pre existing. Ancient civilization were able to survive specifically on Antarctica, at least long enough to take their to take trips to other parts of the world where people survive and to give knowledge of things like agriculture, certain religious myth practices and folklore and stuff. Symbolic like the symbolic nature of certain structures and it. Yeah, exactly. It's all the things you end up seeing in all these places. Right? And maybe to teach teach the concept of metaphor to people who were having a bicameral mind period of civilization, right? You go. So. Listen to our bicameral mind episode featuring Jim McCormick. Exactly. It's a classic already a classic. It's a good one, right? So yeah, his argument is based on perceived commonalities in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Babylon Mesoamerica the Olmecs and on and on and on things like why do so many people build pure mid esque structures? What's the deal with obelisk what's going on? Kgo kgo Beckley tippy. It's weird. It's super weird. It's super weird. It, it pushed the time line for humanity back much further than we thought or at least for civilization. And so in that first book, she says, the tectonic shifts were the source of the ancient civilizations, large destruction, but the big differences in the second book magicians of the gods. He says, we looked back into it and it was actually a comet that caused the damage. So if he went back and forth and he points out things and megaliths Cairns tombs nip the sort of stonework masonry would see that it was just everywhere. That's his argument, and it's not. It's not taken very seriously by a lot of mainstream. Archaeologists do an anthropologist even due primarily to the fact that these are kind of like cherry it. So the gods by Eric von Daniken, these arguments are made. Based on his interpretation of what he sees no one's arguing that these ancient structures don't exist in these different parts of the world. But he his argument is that according to him, they are very similar. Yeah, because he's he is making connections because there is there is no tangible connection. So he is kind of creating a theory about it, which is, you know, one of the things you do in infra policy, you try and connect things up. Yeah, I, in his case, it's a if feels a little more out there and it doesn't go along with a lot of the other notions or at least mainstream notions about how these civilizations forms, right? Yeah, absolutely. One of one of the things that's very important for us to underline in the case of Graham Hancock is he's not trying to con people. He's not. He's not saying things disingenuously. He. He wants you to buy his book that will, of course he wants you buy the book, but he also is not trying to purposely put the wool over people's eyes snot trying to bilk you. I would agree with that. Seems legit tells legit then. Right. So. We're, we're going to leave that there. The idea that's one ancient civilization in an Arctic ID Atlanta's who do we have? Now we've got another guy who is an archaeologist and an engineer by the name of William James veal to wells. Yeah, to else. Right. Matt, you're rare form him my friend. Oh, I didn't have response. It's fine. Yeah. So William James veal, and this guy uses satellite technology to find these ruins in kind of find where some of these monuments might be hidden by the ice. And he studied engineering at Basingstoke and Southampton colleges of technology and archaeology at the university of Southampton in the UK, and he is a bit of a tinkerer. He designs these unmanned drones for surveying these completely inaccessible areas. And he has a really pretty unique dial as far as I'm concerned, he is a satellite archaeologist, that's by favorite title of the found research in this because that's just gotta some great. When you tell people for the first time, wait, hold on. You just get a hold of old satellites and you like figure out where the satellite came from, how long it's been up there, which country it is to get about it. You'll satellite ideology. Do you have to go to space? And then you know you have your chisel now. Okay. You go to jersey. Let's go to Basingstoke and Southampton college is apparently right. That's true. Yeah, that's it spot on. He believes that a prehistoric civilization may have sculpted huge human heads, animals in symbols on the Antarctic terrain, very specific part of it apart called Cape Adair, the northeastern moves peninsula of Antarctica. And so it's kind of like the NAS Caroline's nets as argument, those those huge cliffs built out of earth that are only really discernible as pictures from the sky. Yeah, right. Which is self a very interesting story or very interesting mystery still, and for him, these are clearly. These are clearly as Noel said, man made monuments and visible from the air. His interpretation knocks a whole lot of people for a loop because instantly when you hear someone say, oh, I found a gigantic face on the land on Mars, right? Exactly. That's what you think about, right? Yeah. And you know, that's not his fault, but it's it to a lot of people at similar to the claims that there's a huge face. So there's a pyramid Mars and skeptic. See this as an example of we can make this our word for the day. If you want period Dollah, which is the tendency to see patterns in randomness, like when you're hanging out with people and I guess innocuous version of this would be sitting with your friends and you know saying, oh, this cloud looks sorta like this a turtle? Yeah, a turtle, it's and then someone else will be like, yeah, it's definitely a turtle or some might say, no, no, that's clearly Christopher Walken from Pulp Fiction during the watch speech, definitely. And then they'll ask, I was like, nah, it's your mom to someone. I five years every time every time, I guess. So it could just be the argument goes that with the best of intentions is his brain is working overtime to make order from chaos. But he's responded to this. And veal says that he is quote research, satellite imagery and rock cut and scripted material for nearly forty years and of necessity had to develop strict criteria to eliminate frequent accusations, aquaria Dolan. So he's he's familiar with his Accu -sation and he says that he's been working on this for decades. He knows the difference between a random shape in a cloud and actual language written on something. He also to his credit invites other experts, especially if they disagree to evaluate his findings, the long and short of it is pretty simple. He thinks it's possible that about six thousand years ago, the. Sumerian culture that would be located in what's nowadays known as a rock landed in this location in Cape Adair and the culture was the most advanced of his time, and he did ask people for help. And if you want to look at some of his research, you can go to n. a. s. codex c, o d e x dot com. And you can go here and you can check out. I mean, it's a text is a long text page essentially with some images in there. And this is from Williams. James veal's veils. It's his, it's his website. NASA o. d. e. x. dot com. And one of the people he contacted for help is a linguist named Dr CLYDE winters and he said, Dr winters, could you help me? I believe this is a language. Could you tell me what this language is? What it says, cetera, Dr winters, there was a legit. Published academic, received these images and symbols viola taken from his findings and Dr winters confirmed that these symbols did appear to be linear. Sumerian particularly passages that indicated there were talking about some great person or profit for some people. This is a smoking gun, but we have to remember it's possible. The winters was not viewing the actual satellite photos. Instead, he was viewing possibly re-creations of the images veal thinks that he saw in the original photos so may have been may have been thing where he just got a series of symbols and said, yes, these are linear scenario. I can tell you a little bit about what that means. Yeah. And if you go through the website and you look at some of these images, it is. I can understand where we're William is coming from, like seeing seeing the imagery that he is showing you because it will have some satellite imagery and then what he believes like sketched out next to it, what he believes it is. And some of it does look similar. I can see the pattern that he is seeing in there. If I, if I look at his picture right, if I if I cover up his picture, I see absolutely nothing in the satellite imagery. So that makes sense. Reading, tea leaves. I don't know. I mean, he's he's obviously been doing it forever. So he true. He understands it much better than I, but I don't know. It's tough. Just looking at it. Well, here's, here's something interesting that. Surprised the hell out of me. If okay, it sounds crazy. Ancient Sumerians making it to Antarctica for most of the trip. It's pretty possible that they could make it because with the the kind of maritime technology they had, they could get as four south as Tasmania, sticking mainly to coast and just coast hopping. The would only really run into a tough tough stretch when they try to go from Tasmania to Antar Tikka because then they have to go over the open ocean in a very unfriendly neighborhood of the open ocean. Basically don't do that right. But once once they got there, that's where it becomes more difficult to believe because they would need it would need tools time and support to build I structures in which they could live, and then they would need more help quarrying large amounts of stone. Right. Because it sounds like stone is one of the things that veal. Says he sees and then they would have to be eating the entire time. Man cannot live on penguin alone, right? Yeah. Unless they were having other ships come through with people, they could eat, but could you live on fourteen thousand penguins? You live for awhile, but you probably encounter rabbit starvation strain. It's a bummer. There are no no sorts of sources of citrus. Right. Well, maybe seaweed. Yeah. Could I could see working seaweeds a citrus sources of vitamin c. again? Yeah, vitamin c. we'd maybe maybe, but that's the thing is still it's still hard to believe now that they would have been able to have an adequate food supply, adequate shelter, and then just built all these rock monuments that are massive or at least carvings like the NAS lines or what if it's something where they traveled down from South America in the summer, and then they leave in the winter and come back in the summer. You know, that's if we're trying to be as generous and fair as possible. But then there's this other question. So usually when we find ruins of an ancient culture, they we're gonna find foundations of old buildings structures, right? Temples houses, palaces, it's cetera we're the those are the majority of ancient cultural ruins. It's it's more rare to just find monuments by themselves. So why would we see monuments but not see the homes of the people who lived in nearby, right? Maybe they're just so far covered by the ice, maybe only the monuments are large enough to be visible. Well, maybe grandma handcocks thirteen less than thirteen thousand years ago. Williams six thousand years ago. Maybe their way off on how long ago structures were there because we do know that that over time nature takes over. And we'll erase almost anything like weathering and just like totally wearing down mountains over time, and it's crazy. But yeah, I'd love to see a time lapse of them pretty cool. Yeah, exactly. But then you have to start thinking, well, then how old have humans or at least intelligent life actually been on this planet. Right, right. Which that date keeps it seems to get pushed back further and further every decade. You know, Minu discoveries who new discoveries going back as far as what sixty thousand years, I think is one of the newer ones at least close to where we're at right now. So. There's also argument that we've brought nature into this. There's also an argument that maybe the ice on Antarctica is not even if it formed millions of years ago. Maybe it wasn't as constant a presence as we have initially assumed. Interesting. Maybe the ice ebbed and flowed. You know what I mean? Waxed and waned. Maybe there were times when the glaciers retreated away from coastal areas, right? Then possible and maybe they did that for long amounts of time. Yeah, there. There's so many possibilities. I, I bet there are scientists out there going. No, absolutely. Not. Studying this entire life and no, you can't say that. Well, we don't know. That's true. We don't know, and we're not saying that the entire thing is covered with a glacier. At this point. It's just it's still inhospitable. Yeah. So we can tell you, however, about a very particular map, which for people who believe in our to maybe more familiar with to our species than we have always assumed this is sometimes seen as a smoking gun. Stay tuned after the break will introduce you to period Rhys. It's Barrington day Thurston host of spit, iheartradio's newest podcast, twenty three and me that explores how understanding your DNA changes, how we think about ourselves and the world around us. John legend joined us to discuss how are we all related. We're not a nine point, five percent the same, but that point, five percent is an area. We have an eager to explore those small differences, inspired a lot of discrimination. I feel like we're. Becoming more connected. I feel like we're learning more about how much we have in common listened to the full episode of spit with twenty three and me. Now in the iheartradio app will wherever you listen to podcasts. So what can you tell us about this map? I can tell you to watch our YouTube video on it. I can't remember the name that YouTube video studious maps cuff in the keywords. You can find it. Yeah. It's almost it's, it's often referred to incorrectly as the best map of the sixteenth century. The people say that all the time right that it's and they say it's the best because the claims are usually that it's the most accurate the most complete inaccurate. Yeah, the most complete knackery. Yes, thank you. That is not the case, but the periods map r. e. s. p. I r. i. r. e. I s. was made in fifteen thirteen and just to get the badger out in the open here, it appears to depict the coastline of Antarctica free of ice. It appears to it appears to certainly and it all depends on what you're looking at. If you're looking at the map itself, generally, like I'm looking at it in a vertical way and if you go to we Kapiti dot com, which is probably how you're gonna find an image. This thing in you're looking at it. I'm trying to see which way is true north on here in a can't tell, but it looks like it's oriented as though if you turned it ninety degrees to the left, that would be north. This is hard to do audibly, yes, you're doing it. But if you're looking at it, there's a land mass to the north, and then most of the rest of the map is ocean. And then you've got. Mirena incorrectly. No, I'm reading that correctly. And then you've got another landmass that is to the south, like kind of, I guess, southeast to where that other landmasses above it in. It's thought that that mass in the south is it's Arctic. Oh, sorry. I'm just trying to let pedia see it if they can't. I mean, that's a really good explanation era walk through and it's important. Go look at it for yourself. Yeah, we do want to hear your take on this. So. This this map has been around for a long long time and it wasn't until nineteen fifty six, that people began thinking. It shows Antarctica. There was a guy named captain Arlington Humphry Mallory, who first proposed this depicted the coastline of Antarctica. He was retired military man. At this time. He was amateur archaeologist. He also believed in earlier western arrival to the new world as it would as it would be called at the time. So he thought Celts and Vikings and other groups of people. Maybe some some missionaries from early versions of the church had arrived at the new world, various locations what's more may be made maps in some cases and that these maps were lost later ages, but they were accurate far beyond what most of you. Europe would have known about at the time and to his credit. The later research did prove like after the fifties. Later research did prove that there were probably small groups of European descended people who at least made it to the far eastern coast of Canada Newfoundland such. Yeah, specifically the Vikings essentially, you was right about that part and it makes you wonder if it's a long journey from the area where they would be from down to Antarctica, but it does make you wonder if maybe William from earlier who is looking at the satellite imagery. Yeah. Yeah, maybe there is something there where just small groups of of just ancient Europeans ended up there accidentally and then perished, but, but before they perished made some carvings or get stranded due to the treacherous nature of the waves. Yeah, possibly possibly a or even, you know, I don't know. We, we see so many things about out of place artifacts in South America in the Middle East, and in China and far reaches a Russian stuff that we can say for sure that it's, it's it's almost certain that different small groups of people interacted largely through trade and exploration in ways that we have yet to understand. Absolutely. I feel that's. It is safe to say that it's actually very safe to say that and your word of the day is an acronym. Said a word of the day. I think everybody should be. Yeah, but it's fun to say. I think that's all it takes the day. It is. It is if you want to be a real pedantic, nerd insult person. Yeah, can always decide to call someone anachronistic when you think they're not being cool. Using completely inappropriately to. But but yes, all that aside this this map itself is an agglomeration of twenty twenty something other earlier maps that already existed before it was made in fifteen thirteen and. Moose cartographers, mainstream historians today, believe the map does not actually depict Antarctica. That's a bummer. It's a bummer because it looks cool. You can see how it would you. You can see how someone could look at that and say, holy smokes Antarctica. There's a group called bad archaeology and they have a great right up on this. We recommend visiting their website for more details. Just Google bad archaeology period race. But we do have a quote, describing their conclusions about this map. It shows no unknown lands least of all Antarctica and contained errors such as Columbus's belief that Cuba wasn't Asian peninsula who swing in a miss. Yes, errors that not to have been present if it derived from extremely accurate ancient originals. And it also conforms to the prevalent, geographical theories of the early sixteenth century, including things like balancing landmasses in the north, with others in the south too. Keep the earth from tipping over. Yeah, don't wanna do that because it's balanced on the on a turtle's back. That's right. True Sawyer. The the idea that the earth itself is sort of like a. Has its own geographical equilibrium too many continents of one air quotes side or another will inevitably tip the scales because it's. Right? Although it was relatively common knowledge at the time that the world was globe take that for which will the the maps is based on our older, but they're not. They're not ancient. It's not as if they found some six thousand year old. Sumerian map depicting lands that had never been heard of in the modern day and said, let's just copy this, right? Yeah, at least according to the different experts who have examined the actual map. So unfortunately periods while being an incredibly tantalizing possible indicator of ancient exploration of an article if not ancient civilizations in that continent, and just a cool map and just a cool met. Unfortunately, it really is a tantalizing thing because it doesn't deliver. It doesn't. It doesn't hold up, but we would be remiss if we did. Shout out something completely different. I think thing that we're all fans of, which is. Are. And. HP lovecraft as the author of the mountains of madness famous author, terrible person, inspired millions of people with his story. I was so taken. I was hypnotized by your depiction of these of these ancient pre human races got a little mad there for a moment, but I'm feeling better. Now you're back off the mountain. Yeah. So it's it's. And I want to say it's a really well written story, but it's a, it's, it's very, it makes a great impression. It's cool in people. Yeah, that's one of the best ways is so cool. And and the idea there is that there is an there ruins of an ancient pre human civilization hidden in the hinterlands of Antarctica. That has not been proven on this bite. What some people have tried to depict in earlier arguments on the fringes. There HP lovecraft was writing fiction. He knew he was writing fiction and he liked it. Yeah, but other, you know, just kind of like Moines did. We did an episode on Grimwasde and we talked a little bit about the Necker NAMA con- yeah, another HP lovecraft creation. He's very adamant that's work of fiction, but people like this story so much that they want it to be real. Yeah. In some cases they kinda slender mandate isn't it becomes a self fulfilling prophecy, much like slender man has at least once yet. And then the last thing which we don't have time for, but we'd love to refer you to one of the first videos we've ever done the fool society. Yes. The idea that there is a civilization or ruins of civilization that survived some great cataclysm by going underground. Round similar to the Ben folds five song with ancient technology and that the Nazi party and the US military were both aware of this possibility. And as they were exploring the region through various various cover stories through the use of various cover stories like operation, high jump out, they were instead actually exploring these the possibility of these subterranean civilizations or waging war upon one another in secret at the south pole. Those are fascinating tales and all in an attempts to gain the favor of whatever civilization is down there. Yes, yes. And spoiler alert there, of course, the Nazis in this tale in this tale, the Nazi party thought that the subterranean civilization would of course be aerienne. Yeah. Yeah, and super into geopolitical happenings on the surface world the because it's. You know. I have nothing to say there. It's just it's, it's messed up. It's it's an interesting story and you'll a lot of Antarctica has not been fully explored, certainly not to the extent that other continents have. Yeah. And we have to remember there's still parts of there's still very remote parts of the world where no human being has ever set foot that have nothing to do with Antarctica. This is this is one of the concepts that early on when we started making this show been really got me into even further into these subjects, some of these, especially ancient civilizations. This one in particular Klaudia. Yeah, no, really be because I could imagine a world in where it was real only because we've found so many real things in in this world where opposing powers have been in a race to achieve something I or get somewhere. I because the other team is going to get there. For sure. At some point, we just have to get there before them and with everything from nuclear powers our lands to ensure this. Yeah. And so this was just another version of it for me where maybe there was something there or at least to establish bases on versus if some. Yeah, I'm so sorry. Mashes said operation Stargate. Oh, yeah. Started not wrecked in kale Tra. Yeah, that's a great point. This is if it's not a thing, a government did it certainly in line with the MO of most world powers. Yeah. So this leads us to conclusions, right? We don't at this point, have any solid proof that there was some sort of permanent settlements. In in Antarctica, at least not antiquity, and we don't have proof that there was even a a notable temporary settlement, much less a civilization or remnants of an ancient civilization, and this problem where this lack of knowledge is compounded by the fact that it's just devilish -ly difficult to do a lot of exploration in Antarctica, at least it becomes devilishly expensive. Yes, and astray of difficult just to get any kind of transportation there. Right. And now we're in a situation where our entire species and whatever Eldridge species may await us under the ice. Doesn't have to wait much longer because as the as the earth leaves as temperatures shift around the planet, we know that glaciers are receding. They're losing mass Ryan's. It's just getting a little warmer in most places, and we do know that we will see some pretty strange things when the ice actually melts depending on where it melts we, for instance, we don't know very much about the dinosaurs range of animals that roamed Antarctica when part of Gondwana. So. All we found so far about the from fossil life. There are going to be things that we could dig up on the margins of coastal islands or exposed mountains that have gone above the glaciers, and they're the few places that don't have a thick layer of ice. We might also find sources of geothermal energy. We are almost certain to find forms of life that are almost alien to us because they have been isolated for so long, they'll they'll probably also this may be a little disappointing though. Probably also be really small, but then you know, they might be they might be really big like those several meter long worms seen though. Yeah. Oh, yeah. That would be the coolest if it was just giant giant creatures that we find. Yeah, yeah, man. And one of the new groundbreaking tools that the three of us really loved to talk about when talking about this kind of exploration is something called lied. Are light are allows us to detect otherwise invisible ruins the most people would fly over without a second glance, if there is some remnant of an ancient civilization or ancient settlements somewhere on anti Artika lied are is probably the best way to find it right now as we record this in twenty eighteen the other problem, but the lighters perfect. It's also expensive, crazy expensive. It's expensive in more accessible areas. Let it's it's crazy money. Once you try to take that out to an article in twenty seventeen a group did that they were well. They did it in two thousand fourteen twenty fifteen, but they released the data in twenty seventeen and it covered two thousand seven. Hundred seventy five point six, five square kilometers of an area of Antarctica, known as the McMurdo dry valleys. They did not find evidence of a pre existing civilization, but for those of us who still want to hold onto that belief that such a group community or society existed, we can always remember this. Maybe just maybe this first light are true was looking in the wrong place after all after all, what? What? Two thousand seven hundred seventy five, something square kilometers. That's not all of an Arctic. No, no, no, no. No. No Antarctica has a total land area of about fourteen million kilometers square. Good God. Yeah. Yeah. And we would love to hear your thoughts on where people should be looking first off. Is this bunk? Is there something to it? The stuff we looked through. You know, you can see some. Of the problems that people might have with these claims. But we, we want to know if you have something to add to the conversation, and we definitely wanna know if you've visited at Artika yourself. It's not. It's actually not that hard to get a job there on staff. Oh, yeah. The NRT staff like to be a cook. That'd be cool. There's, are they like, are they like lodges out there? They're like. That's it. Yeah, that's what she got. You can visit tour. Stuff is like as Matt said, like a cruise, something. Look Alevis crazy scientists spend their their days in their summers down here, walk. All right now get out of here. Seriously believe now. Hey, test is blood. I. But honestly, we, the best stories are going to be the ones that are real being in an article. And then I also want to hear the most far out ideas about what you think if there is anything beneath all the ice, I want to hear your really far out ideas specifically year. Yeah, go ahead. Just write it, write it out Senator away because I just want to eat popcorn and digging, but that how do they send it to us? Oh, they're a bunch of ways. First thing you can do is find us on social media and that way we are conspiracy stuff in most places. Conspiracy stuff show in others. You can send us a voicemail. If you want to describe something to us, like we described the period map terribly, I might add sorry about that. But you could leave a voicemail and you know, describe something to us about that or just tell us a cool story. We are one eight, three, three s TD w y que you can find us live. Yeah, you can actually come meet us in person. Yes, we're going to be on tour from October twenty third until October twenty eighth very, very soon. We're going all over the place. Check out our website stuff. They don't want you to know dot com and click on the live shows and you can get tickets from there and don't forget that. If you don't see the live shows tab right away. Click on more stuff or whatever it's called and it'll it'll be in that dropped exactly. And yeah, if you don't want to do any of that stuff, you can send us just good old-fashioned Email, but, but before we get to that, just really, I just want to say something personally, and hopefully there are many people listening here, but this will exist on the show until the internet dies. I've, I know you guys have experienced this, but I've lost a lot of very important people in my life over the course of making the show with you guys. And yesterday yesterday my my dog buddy my little my little dog buddy died in my arms, and I just I want to put it out there if you if you can hear this in some weird way. I don't. I don't really have specific beliefs about Infinity or other planes of existence or anything. But if if you can hear me little buddy out there. Years, you're still with me and I love you. Man. We love you man. I think that's the last word for today. I'm Joe Levy back again with inside the studio iheartradio's original podcast featuring intimate conversations with some of music's biggest stars. This time around we decamped to Winnipeg to catch up with an upstart named Paul McCartney, Sir. Paul touches on everything from the Beatles onstage volume wars to the making of his new album. Egypt station on capitol records is always children. George of about who would I'm loudest they degree. Okay. Look, let's put it at seven and you just see Jewish can back tools his own pungo nine. And then Jonah knows storied quietly sneak tools, ISM. And then that would go well. You doing Mike inaugural. Although we played music, it came good for more great conversations like this search and follow inside the studio on iheartradio. I scribe wherever you listen to podcasts.
Cleaning up Antarctica
"Antarctica has a coastline even bigger than USTRALIA 's and it also needs looking after Claire Watson reports from Woolen Gong. What comes to mind mind when you think of Antarctica? An icy continent desolate all the Antarctica. That comes alive with scientists in the summer months. Everyone's working working on very different projects. You have people looking at climate science. So how the sheets melting there was people looking at add diesel in soils and how we can remediate soils and chime reduce thursd diesel concentrations. There were people looking at meteorites. The space debris that falls Antarctica in his undisturbed can easily be collected. Darren couple a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Technology. Sydney kidney doctor. Couple is an Acre toxicologist. He investigates the effect of metal pollution in Antarctica's coastal environments. He is spent three months at Ustralia earliest Casey station. A permanent research outpost managed by the Australian Antarctic Division. So too has Belinda Ferrari a microbiologist from the University Sti New South Wales so Antarctica is one of the last pristine environments somewhere like no other place on it so I think it's very important. Wouldn't that we look at the biodiversity there with the goal of trying to protect it for the future because we are seeing more tourism with saying contamination due to legacy ace of the way we treat waste. It's an important place and we need to actually look at who leave Sir and try and walk out how to protect them. Not much grows in the way of life in Antarctica. Yeah but what there is is unique. There is an incredible diversity of microbes particularly bacteria which dominate the soils and Ferrari Orient team have made some surprising discoveries the souls of pretty much fries and for the majority of the year I've actually found that some of the organisms. They're actually consuming consuming trace gases from the air to fix carbon and grow. So we're plant life energy. These organisms harvest hydrogen gas. And it's these tracks gases. This is an consuming those that what producing enough energy to stay alive during those long periods. So some remarkable life forms have evolved in Antarctica by adapting adding to the extreme conditions but Antarctica is not as pristine as we'd like to think it is a continent dedicated to science and his research activities. Intensify Safai fuels used to run heavy machinery and vehicles a contaminating. The soil fuels are a complex mixture of molecules code hydrocarbons which can accumulate in the environment. After Spill Belinda Ferrari has been investigating the impact of fuels on Antarctic microbes by sampling. Clean and contaminated soils from around Casey AC station and on the sub Antarctic Macquarie Island. She says that fuel contamination is completely changing the mix of microbes present. Some bacteria a capable of degrading. The hydrocarbons use it as food bicycling and pre sitting to less toxic molecules so the negative side of that is that those organisms aren't usually in hot pundits so when we try and look at the health of soil and whether remediation has been successful or not we actually need to look the other organisms that were present before is hard to compensate because you do see a big shift for example the eighteen bacteria in response to hydrocarbons almost recipe. And here's the crux of the pollution problem. When it comes to protecting Antarctica the same thing that makes Antarctic life unique? An extreme aim environment like no other is the same thing that makes the icy continent. Difficult to protect Dr Darren couple again. The cold temperatures mean stat chemical reactions happen a bit slower. The interesting thing is the biology down there. The organisms also grow a bit slow. They've got a longer developmental title times but they still have this very productive summa bloom where they go from a winter dormancy to sludge of activity liberty where they do all of their reproducing. All of the binding holiday growing in a very narrow window where they've got a lot of nutrients deposited from Melting Sea ice and nearly twenty four hours of sunlight. So it's this weird dichotomy where you've got potentially slow chemical reactions because of the temperatures you've got lower song abilities of some of the pollution because cold seawater just doesn't dissolve a lot of contaminants like metals but then got longer developmental times with the biology and still the summer explosion of life put simply Antarctica is such a different place that environmental protection guidelines developed elsewhere the specific contaminants constantly be applied. There at the moment we've got a really nice set of environmental quality guidelines in Australia. And and they do a good job of protecting out. Temperate and tropical regions with Dr are how applicable they are in Antarctica because the organisms are so different and and they thought unique niches in the ecosystem. So there's been a big push to try and develop guidelines specifically for Antarctica. There's also a legacy of waste aced that scientists are grappling to deal with things like oil drums gas cylinders. An old lab supplies left over from decades of research at the permanent research. Stations Shin's dotted across Antarctica. The particle on environmental protection to the Antarctic Treaty was only introduced in Nineteen ninety-one before which any waste it was either burned buried or dumped. Australia's Casey Station has been operating since nineteen sixty nine and others have long since been abandoned duct couple says logistics and cost a one thing that the USTRALIAN Antarctic Division has to consider before cleaning up these historic waste sites but knowing how to safely safely removed legacy waste without damaging. The environment is another thing altogether. We'll bringing up that waste. Will that cools more harm than just leaving it in place at the moment. We don't have the signs of the tools to be able to make those decisions. A lot of the work that I've been doing has been trying trying to empower the environmental manages to make those decisions understand what's toxic what needs to be cleaned up and then help them triage. which sites should be prioritized? I ducked Darren couple his work because involve testing the sensitivity of marine microalgae to metals then using devices to detect whether those contaminants ants alleging out of historic waste deposits out devices when deployed into the environment will only look at the contaminants that can actually affect organisms. So they ignore anything found to strongly to sediments too strongly to organic matter not in the ride foam to be able to cause harm to other organisms. And what they've told us from deployments to the Marine Environment Around Casey Station which is currently operating station and whoop station which has been abandoned for about fifty years now. Is that the water column around. Those stations is pretty clean. Whether that's because we've minimized impacted the current station. Oh whether whether the abandoned station is weathered and any contaminants were going to flush out of a ready flushed out. We're not quite sure but we are still looking. That is way that contamination has ended up if it's not in the water column. Does that mean that. It's sitting in the sediments. So we also have devices that we can push into the sediments that'll that'll tell us walk contaminants flexing out so a lot of contaminants will be bound to the soils and sediments but when you have a change inch in environmental conditions or maybe when bacteria munched on some of the iron oxides they might release some of those contaminants and that's what Michael Toxicity. Listen to those seafloor communities back on. Land Belinda Ferrari has also been working with these trillion and toxic division to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by fuel spills. Remember those few eating bacteria so it's about trying to stimulate that portion of the community and they start Antarctic Chick Division is leading. I think the world in terms of Paula remediation. So they've developed some novel technologies sets bicycling digging up the contaminated soil in a pile while adding into nutrients to try and stimulate those organisms. Size some nitrogen some carbons moisture even trying to hit up a little bit. So that comes above freezing to try and activate that part of the community. Belinda Ferrari from the University of New South Wales on the native bacteria helping to clean up contaminated soils in Antarctica. PGA You also had from Darren couple from the University of Technology Sydney and that report from Claire Watson in woollen gone.
Roald Amundsen Reaches the South Pole - Dec. 14, 1911
"Did you know the air inside. Our homes is five times more polluted than outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem. Microscopic allergens pathogens login that live on our bids counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier by better air can better air uses environmental probiotics to remove if those microbes from your home so you can literally breathe better learn more at better air. PROMISE DOT COM. There's a sixty day. No Risk money-back Guarantee E. Plus save twenty percent. When you place your order? Now go to better air promise dot com and start breathing better. Hey history fans if you want a double dose of history. Here's a rerun for today. Brought to you by Tracey Wilson. We hope it makes previous episodes for this date. Easier to find in the feed. Welcome welcome to this day in history class from how stuff works dot Com and from the desk of stuff. You missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the PODCAST. I'm Christopher Haciendas your temporary the host sitting in for Tracy B Wilson this week today is December fourteenth and rolled Amazon reached the South Pole on this day in nineteen eleven born in. What's now Norway? In eighteen. Seventy two Aronson was born into a nautical family. A family of captains and shipbuilders shipowners. His mother wanted him to be a doctor. So Emerson Emerson attended university with that intent but when she passed away when he was in his early twenties he dropped out and took to the seas as polar explorer he exported Antarctica Antarctica with a Belgian team in the final years of the nineteenth century in about five years. Later was the first to make a successful expedition through Canada's northwest passage which connects the Atlantic and Pacific goldens. He was inspired by Robert. peary reaching the North Pole in nineteen o nine. In fact he wasn't just inspired he'd he'd actually been planning his own trek to the North Pole so instead emin decided to head for the South Pole he set off on June third nineteen ten and though he was planning to head South he he knew the plan all along but he allowed people who finance his trip to believe he was going to the North Pole the same held true for his crew but when they reached the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira era. He let them know about the change in plans and six months later they arrived at the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica the crew that base and named it from Heim and spent months is preparing for the trek to the poll. Amazon had learned much from the injured people while exploring the North Pole and adopted some of their seal skin technology rather than relying on wool clothing for example example the first attempt for the pole took place in September of nineteen eleven. But it didn't work out. And the team departed had to turn back a month inflator for the second time Amazon and four others set out. This was on October. Nineteenth nineteen eleven. They took four sledges and fifty two dogs and the plan was to eat some some of the dogs along the way and nearly after crossing ice and snow for two months straight Emerson and his team arrived at the South Pole on December fourteenth nineteen gene eleven now it was another month and a half back to their base camp then a few months onto Australia where he finally announces successful expedition. You can read Emerson's own account of the journey in his nineteen twelve book. The South Pole on account of the Norwegian Antarctic expedition in the from nineteen thousand. Nine hundred twelve now amundson. Jason was called brave. He was called prepared. He was called smart but in his own words. He attributed the success of the expedition to preparation in his own words he wrote wrote. I may say that this is the greatest factor the way in which the expedition is equipped the way in which every difficulties foreseen and precautions taken for meeting or avoiding weighting. It victory awaits him. has everything in order luck. People call it. Defeat is certain for him who has neglected to take the necessary precautions in time. This is called bad luck now. Speaking of defeat. Here's the thing I haven't told you yet. Amilton wasn't the only explorer trying to reach the South Pole. Oh there's another character crucial to the story. And that's a British man by the name of Robert Falcon Scott. In fact Scott an Amazon were in a heated competition to make it to the south poll. I and you know that Amazon was the first person to reach the pole. Scottsdale of failure though is fascinating in its own right and includes English pride ride ponies devoured by ORCA and tens of thousands of cigars. Good stuff in fact. If you'd like to learn more about the race to the South Pole give us to the September twenty second two thousand ten episode of our stuff. You missed in history class. PODCAST does aptly titled the race to the South Pole. Thanks to Casey Perriman Chandler Maze for their audio work on the show and you can subscribe to this day in history class on apple podcasts. The iheartradio APP or any place. You'd like to find podcasts. Make sure to listen tomorrow. When we delve into the death of an American cultural leader an icon of resistance did did you know the air inside? Our homes is five times more polluted than outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem. Microscopic allergens pathogens wins that live on our bids counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier by better air can better air uses environmental probiotics to remove those microbes from your home so you can literally breathe better learn more at better air. PROMISE DOT COM. There's a sixty day. No Risk money-back guarantee plus save twenty percent when you place your order now go to better air promise dot com and start breathing better.
"The. Hi, I'm calling your host for the good news podcast. I'm neil. The other host the good news podcast is your source for good news, fun stories auditory, delight and sonic. Joy. We're bringing you all of this goodness from beautiful downtown Chicago. It's springtime, and we at the good news podcast. Hope that means that temperatures are rising with that in mind. For today's episode. We're sharing three quick facts from the coldest place on earth Antarctica. There aren't a ton of people spending much time in Antarctica except scientists here are two female firsts. That are good to know. Caroline Mikkelsen was a Danish slash Norwegian explorer, who is considered to be the first woman to set foot on Antarctica another. I was Mary Alice McWhinney biologist from Goodall Chicago. She was the first woman in charge of an Arctic research station. Speaking of those research stations it has become a bit of a tradition. So the story goes to run outside. Buck naked a human conservative for about three minutes in Antarctic temperatures, but it helps to breathe through a snorkel. If you wanna keep the outside from freezing your lungs, that's cold. And finally, there has been a Tinder match in Antarctica a few years ago a scientist at McMurdo research station, matched with someone camping about forty five minutes away. They have eventually did meet up a few weeks later making those two lovebirds. The first two to match on the continent. Thanks for listening. Do you have good news incredible? Or maybe wanna tell us a joke or idea? Excellent Email us at Hello at the good news, podcasts dot FM or leave us a voicemail at seven three two one seven zero one five six you can also tweet us at the good news pot and follow us on Instagram too. And if you love the good news podcasts think about supporting us on our Pitron page. Most of our music is by putting bear.
It wasnt an instant goodnight for all when the asteroid hit
"And said to a crunch we could not have escaped the asteroid that fell sixty six million years ago. Did it kill all those dinosaurs immediately or did some managed to linger associate professor. Jeffrey still is tracking this admonish. That's right many years ago. I was actually doing some field work in the Chatham Islands and managed to actually collect some fossils from the so-called Tucker Tika Grit so if you don't know where the Chatham Islands are there any emerging part of the Chatham Rise is extending eastward about eight hundred fifty kilometers east of mainland New Zealand. So it's very remote and I was told don't waste your time and I I always take that as a challenge so so Team and I actually went in two thousand three. We started collecting fossils and low behold we start finding dinosaur bones which is really exciting because these were the first dinosaur this or bones found in eastern Landhi at the time. So if you don't know about the geologic history of New Zealand. It actually broke off from west Antarctica about eighty two and a half million years ago so any organisms living on it so we're talking about plants and animals. We're kind of on their own evolutionary path for a very long time after because we know dinosaurs are earth thought to have become extinct sixty. Six years ago we're talking about the Non Avian dinosaurs birds which persists across the boundary and we start finding lots of bones was really interesting is that we know that. This layer of rock contain fossils birds. But they're also bones looked like to be theropod dinosaur bones so I can also embarked on a project with fellow colleague in Denmark and we decided to actually have a look. At some fossils were reputedly found above the boundaries hundred and these are organisms called ammonites of these are cephalopod molluscs. Look at all the textbooks. All of them say that the extinct and we thought well let's look at some of the ammonites that were found above this mass extinction boundary in Denmark and Lo and behold. We're finding several different types of emulates. The that probably persists it for maybe two to three hundred thousand years something like that and we also have fossils found in New Zealand on the mainland of snails. There persisted above above and also Antarctica. So it's not just one place. It's lots of different places. And what's really interesting about this is that they're called Dead Clayton walking taxes Exa and you might say well this a funny name. But it's actually named after a book called Dead Man Walking by sister. Helen Preaching from nineteen ninety. Four and and David Blonde skit the University of Chicago in a paper about seventeen eighteen years ago coined the words Dead Klay Walking for these tax. That actually persisted across the boundary. and then they went extinct not long into the first stage after that mass extinction success. We've always believed that. Dinosaurs went out in a blink in other words. They're so big so vulnerable old. They all disappeared. Apart from the five different ground dwelling species that gave rise to the birds as we last week. How long do you think these dinosaurs dinosaurs did last? After the crunch in my opinion it probably wouldn't have been very long. Probably we're talking hundreds of thousands of years but the reason for that is researchers have often wondered why so we get snakes frogs and birds but all these others like. Why did tear sores go extinct? Why did the all the marine reptiles go? Oh extinct the non avian dinosaurs. Did they go extinct in its related to what's called a sheltering phenomenon so if we actually look at the mass extinction event itself then what happened so we had this huge piece of rock okay. You've probably heard some of the story before but you may not know some of the details. This rock was about ten kilometers in diameter. He massive Manhattan size piece of rock that crashed into the earth. We actually know that happened in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico so this rock is ten kilometers across it. Came came in from the southeast. We know of of about thirty degrees or so and it actually hit the earth twenty kilometers per second. That's about seventy thousand kilometers per hour. It created created whole if you can imagine about thirty kilometers deep and the whole is about one hundred eighty. Two two hundred kilometers across the explosion was just beyond belief. The whole birth was probably ringing like a bell. We have massive tidal waves. Happening probably wanted to Congress high. The first splash probably reach space. I mean it was just something that you can't even even fathom. We know that anything. Living within probably a thousand kilometers radius was completely incinerated and so we had basically a magnitude of the difference in extinction intensities from where the impact happened to places like Antarctica where we have one of the best extinction rises on the planet. And you'll still following this up. Yes I am still doing this. And I'm quite passionate about the work I've been doing in the Southern Hemisphere and my first research project ever was on this exact exact topic looking at the extinction of Antarctica. So it's very near and dear to my heart and always has been but I think textbooks really need to be rewritten because we do have have proof that some organisms persist for a short period of time. They weren't all exterminated at this boundary. And I happen to spot that story in a recent letter in the New Scientist Oranges magazine. Associate Professor Jeffrey still at Monash.
Antarctica Military Whistleblowers with Linda Moulton Howe
"Aliens structures deep under Antarctica ice. Who knows the answers? Well today we find out with the one and only Linda Moulton how she will talk about her upcoming workshop at the conscious life. Expo talking about Antarctica military whistleblowers. She will go into details about the Spartan one and two in the military very whistleblowers where she has received confirming information about huge mysterious architectural two to three miles deep under the ice of Antarctica. As you know when Linda speaks we pay attention. It's let him on. How much of I think you guys? It's been a while since you've been on the show but we've seen you many conferences and we're so happy and we're going to talk about the dark and Artika and Also also conscious life but there's been a huge huge news lately and A big Breaking news today there is after I go ahead and start it off. The breaking breaking news is that the World Health Organization declared this virus a public health emergency just today and Linda. You called for that the other day on your show. It's the Rutan. Tom Corona virus. And why don't you tell us the details on your up to speed. Yeah it was only one week ago that there were five. Five hundred nine cases of that were confirmed in China largely and there were at that time. One hundred and seventy death toll in one week today when the World Health Organization declared this as a global medical emergency the number that they reported boarded were seven thousand eight hundred and seventy four confirmed cases of the Wuhan Corona virus when they made this release today. That's five hundred and nine up to seven thousand eight hundred seventy four in one week now. Let's put this in MM perspective back in two thousand and two. I remember what it was like when the SARS was breaking and I was trying to stay on top of that day okay by day by day and yet as deadly as SARS was by the end of an entire year of twelve months the total cases that were confirmed where somewhere around eight to ten thousand or already near eight thousand one week from what it was five o nine. They're saying eighty three hundred already. Okay see it's gone over eight thousand since this morning when they released this. It is and a doctor that I have interviewed said this. is they think now more contagious than SARS SARS. There's may have been more deadly. They're not sure but the contagion the fact that it is spreading so fast and there was really one ominous note in this past week and that was confirmed by the. CDC that a father who was Lived live in Wuhan had no symptoms had did not feel sick. Got An airplane and flew to Hanoi in Vietnam to visit his twenty seven year old son. The son came down with full. Born symptoms. Sounds of the corona virus which means that was human to human transmission without the first person showing symptoms and transferring to the younger son. Who became ill enough to be hospitalized? That is an ominous note. Because this week on Monday they started taking our I- embassy staff that were in Wuhan out and putting come on On probably at least one large plane because I think there were about three hundred and the idea was that they would come back to California in the San Francisco Area Korea probably to a military base and maybe people did or didn't know this that it was decided that they and people going back the France people going back to the UK the same thing they would have to be held for fourteen days before they could be released into the United States population again into France into England because fourteen days appears right now to be the furthest average wjr in which symptoms would appear. And you can imagine how terrible would be if we already know that. Transmission of this corona virus is occurring occurring between a father and a son and the father never had symptoms. What about these people coming back from? Wuhan on to the United States into England and France and to all the places they're trying to get out of and not having symptoms but then getting out into into the stores into sidewalks airplanes. The bus stations and transmitting. This is why right now as we speak on the afternoon of January thirtieth twenty twenty. This is danger that means that the doctors a World Health Organization the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They don't have any more ideas than you and I about. Who could be coming down down or carrying the virus or not if they are not showing symptoms and that Vietnam case hangs over all of this what? What will this corona virus do in the next month if it is now over eight thousand cases SARS got there? You're in a year. This has gotten to this point in a month. Hey Linda since this started in China. Don't you think that the eighty three hundred figure figure may even be low because not everybody's getting tested and maybe they don't WanNA release. How bad it really isn't that? What they said is they said? It'll because a lot of people are now getting tested rested. These are the confirmed rises. That's right and there was a doctor with the Imperial College in Oxford in England and he made the statement a week could go anticipating exactly what is happening and said that based on all of the data and the fact that China is giving out numbers but they have admitted they do not have all the the kits that are necessary to do a corona verse. Accra Navarro's test that means we're only getting a percentage and we don't know what the percentage is of the confirmed potential cases and this doctor in England said this past past week his estimate of the actual numbers of combining the unknown. That could be a now transmitting and the known. Nine hundred thousand to two hundred thousand people are I. I saw this article. Maybe yesterday day before they were talking about you know when the Bowl I came out and it's like oh it's the it's the end of us. And then they kept listing. The bird flu. It's the end of us and now I mean there's tons of other viruses that have came out why should be. Why should we be so concerned when you know I know? There's a lot of cases but why should we be so concerned. This is not just me. This is other people asking When all these other viruses came out it was supposed to be the end of the world each one so yeah? I'll tell you do right now. China is answering your question. Never in the history of human medicine have twelve cities cities with fifty million people in them. Been Lockdown quarantined by government. And that's what China did good. That's also now updated to over sixty. Okay China took that really aggressive move and yet after they did did that. Look at all the cases. And that's why I led with the death toll in on January twenty nine hundred twenty twenty had gone up to one seventy and it went from seventeen to one seventy seventeen interns uh-huh and this is the week of all of the lockdowns of trying to get people in America the Americans and French and everybody Eddie out knowing that these numbers are there. They're saying this is dangerous because it is going. This is a gradual will. This is where you're getting these kinds of exponential leaps over time and right now when you read some some of the quotes at Earth Files Dot Com. I had another quote just a this week from doctor and he is in Europe and he was a doctor he dealt with the Asian flu SARS with H One n one. He's been dealing with the mall and his quote on Monday. Was I have done a lot having to do with a name to all of these epidemics and he said right now now with this Wuhan Corona virus. This is his quote. I feel helpless for a man with this kind of experience. What's with these kinds of pandemic? That's another thing. What is the difference for the New York Times for you for me for all of us epidemic versus pandemic? The Pan means the whole world. When does it go from an epidemic in China that is now in eighteen countries? I don't know if you've got the updated date we're GONNA map here. Tony's got a map that shows that some kind including the United States has six cases. Already Fun I don't know I don't know if you can see this Linda. At the Arab Emirates that was added to the list making being at eighteen countries today. That's not on the published list from last night so eighteen countries over eight thousand confirmed cases estimate by medical doctors that the true infections meaning people who may not. We know that they're sick yet. But they are carrying the virus hundred thousand to two hundred thousand and that you guys that Just just from two to three hours ago it was. We were dealing last night with seven thousand seven hundred When the World Health Organization changed to Global Public Kelsey emergency this morning they said seven thousand eight hundred seventy four and you're saying that right now this afternoon it's gone to eight thousand any hungry? It's crazy amazing. And you know I I know. There's I don't know if it's necessarily a conspiracy theory or even just you know thought but in seventeen twenty was the plague. Eighteen twenty was a a clery Outbreak nineteen twenty the plague and then in twenty twenty the corona the virus. It is kind of weird that in the last four hundred years in the twenties that some kind of big virus came in in two people. You're making an excellent point. I hadn't thought about that that in decades there have been cycles in decades. We have enough time on this and then look back to the thirteen fifty s to fourteen out his win the black plague. It took out one third of Europe's Europe's population. And you know what is really interesting about that black plague it was summarize with tremendous footnoting and hard data data in the book the Gods of Eden a by Gramley the attorney and when the Gods of Eden came out and I read the chapter that he he is an attorney. He told me 'cause I called him up. I was absolutely stunned by all of the hard data in his book which is about Twenty Years Twenty twenty years ago I think that the gods of Eden came out and I said if you're an attorney and this book is filled with historic anecdotes and other What we would call evidentiary statistics about UFO's and et's interacting with this planet? What provoke votes you to do this book? And why are you focusing on the black plague of Europe in the thirteenth hundreds and he said because I I started out to do a book about why is it that humans going back for two thousand years have had so many intense wars over things having to do spiritual issues. That's what he was going to do the muck about kind of a schizophrenic French contradiction of human nature. Why do we wore about? Who's God is superior to another when he started doing investigations looking for for specific documents along that theme? He spent time and I think it was in England that he actually took the time and the money to go over and it was in the Oxford University Superior Archives that he began finding all of these old original books in documents about the black plague and he documents in the gods of the page by page footnote by footnote. It's it's really well. Well done like at a lawyer would do that in villages maybe a hundred villages in the UK that people would be reporting at night. They saw a figure silhouetted all black. It had a hood the came over so you couldn't see the face. The Cape went all the way to the ground. There was a rod odd in one hand. That was doing this. And that's they would see the rod in the hand of this cloaked figure. There appeared to be mist or fog coming out of the whatever this rod was and that is what became the basis basis for the famous figure of the site of death plague of people eyewitnesses seen a dark cloaked. Figure doing this. And the implication that he leaves in this chapter in the Gods of Eden is that something not human wanted to call the human population for reasons unknown and that they that clay. It was a deliberate outside manipulation by whoever these figures were in the cloak in the hood that were spraying. And it's not proven because they didn't even have diagnostic labs at trying to keep chain of custody on origin Up to case studies like we do today it would have been all of the local testimonies of eye witnesses and remember when when they started dying and one third of the European population died. They were have the problem of bodies that were stacking up and having to dig huge holes and burn those local testimonies they would've added up from all those villages ages who they would have said who was the lack of cloaked figure. That had something that it was spraying that once that appeared in a village everybody got sick. That is truly one of the biggest mysteries that has a lot of data behind it in our our world. Why were there these black figures associated with that black plague and what was was the goal if a third of the European population died in a short period of time? It's really truly puzzle so it raises questions now. If you if you're noticing that there have been big we'll we'll call it an epidemic type diseases. Maybe every ten years is it manipulated from the outside it or is it something that is part of a cycle of this constant battle between the microscopic world of viruses and bacteria and they matter world the large macro world of humans humans and animals and that is something that I think. All of us We no one has answers for that in any definitive way but what we have to do is educate not be terrified but be educated as much as possible about. How does this spread spread? Once they begin to know that to know that there is right now. There are three different labs. Three different labs are working on a vaccine as fast us as they can and that win your mom said Wash your hands. He wasn't kidding. When it comes to the corona virus it was the same thing thing was SARS? It put out big signs. Wash your hands. They actually said Wash for twenty minutes. Wow I understand that. Very few people will do that outside of surgeons in hospitals but the point is we don't know where the virus is uncertain. Mrs If people now are coming back in airplanes and they're going to be out in the world with us so one of the things that will help you in a lot of ways is truly think think contemplate complaint. I must keep my hands washed. Every time I go out every time I drive the car every time I come back. You've got to wash your hands. Russia just closed its border with China just now forty minutes ago that's scoring everything. I'm saying. Russia Russia any border with China of the quarter million people locked down. What do you think those sixty million people people? What do they want to get out of? China and Russia sees it. Discuss probably going to be a lot more borders. I'm telling you this is is in an another example though. She the leader of China who has been considered by his people to be the perfect leader. And what did she do for the entire month of December. The first corona virus I think it was a fatality was about December one or at least in that first week she punished doctors punished. The local government authorities punish anyone who was saying that there was spread of a new corona virus for a month she was punishing. When are we going to get passed on this planet? The the powerbroker leaders who don't want truth they don't want facts to reach the public whether it's UFO's in et's or something as dangerous as a corona virus and we're right I've read brilliant It was Nicholas Kristof. It was in the New York Times today and that was his. The whole column was Chee as many Backs as there might be to blame the inefficiency and the problems in the hospitals cheese stands as the major figure because of the denial for almost an entire month of December. Think about this the nurses and the doctors in the hospitals who knew they were facing a crisis. They couldn't go out and order the masks. They couldn't or the increased supply that they knew they were going to need which Kristoff puts into the column in The New York Times today so for an entire month when China could have been a hero she could have been a hero. We're going to get as much supplies. We're going to to try to get on top of this as fast as possible. The rest of the world. We're going to a not let anybody travel into our country until we are on top. Love it but on the other side of that logic that would have been strong rationale and she would have been a hero all the door. I I think the figures low against it. I think some people all of our companies that depend on the Chinese to make products for like the apple flowed right now. One of the big stories is apple has been shutting down its starbucks at shut. Shut down over half of of their Companies in China. What happens on the other side of companies pulling out? Where are they going to go to get the well? If you guys are just tuning in of course you know you know this. Is Linda Moulton Howe. That's our guest today. I'm Tony Sweet. Captain Ron for truth be told Lind is going to be conscious life expo next week as will be there also We're talking about the coronavirus. That's coming out of China and and we're going to be talking about the Antarctica here in a second and other people that WanNa talk about that but You know here in in southern California. We had our first case in Orange County not too far from here in La County. Yeah so so I mean I'm not too concerned yet until it's you know it's fast fast it's spreading You know who knows. Will I have my mask already. I have a whole box just in case I'M NOT GONNA freak out too much But Yeah I think a lot of people. Are you know they're scared. A lot of people are wondering what to do In in this you know like the HIV virus in certain viruses. A A lot of you know sexually transmitted airborne So we know that You know a lot of these people that are flying over on the These airlines that are spreading thing and I know they contacted a lot of these people that was on the same planes that Some of these people that contract contracted with. So do you think. Do you think I know now you said they're moving quickly on this but do you think that This possibly could get under control sooner than later. Do you think this could be pretty. Pretty Scary The next month or two. I think than my gut feels that. It's very dangerous and dangerous. means a sense that the numbers are climbing so fast every twenty four hours that nobody's got a handle on this yet at all and especially the China and that headline that you just said came out that Russia has closed the border with chart of never heard them for that that I mean talking it and you guys know that the medical people in the scientists in China communicating with doctors in other countries. There's no question about it. So even though she finally got onto the ground that he should have been a month ago and that was. Let's close down any finally made these public statements and said we're going to get on top. Ah that other doctor. In England who said the number of the cases could be a hundred thousand. Two hundred thousand because a lot of people now are going to be looked at just like the Father from Wuhan who went to Vietnam. He had no symptoms but that has to be the source and his son got really sick. How much of that? That is now going to be something that we start seeing. What's call the transmission from people who do not have symptoms? That's why this this is dangerous and I would say that very fact that Russia is now closed down that border with China implies that the Russian government terminate you gotTa something that may not have been published. Well I mean this is Something to watch. I think this is something I we're going to continue to talk about. And you know good earth earth files dot Com. I'm sure Linda is going to be researching that but I know a lot of people are interested in ant Arctic guys so we're going to kind of transition Russian over so next next week. We're all going to be at the conscious life expo. We're not speaking. We're just Attending but Lend is going to be you know pretty pretty much one of the main headlines. Because she's she's Linda Moulton how and So and are an article. So we've we've been hearing about this for several years. Now we've talked to many people about The you know basis and limited documenting on data documentary about it So tell us any updates You have some whistleblowers and tell us any updates because this is something people are really interested in because this is one of these continents that you don't get to hear a lot about bat you don't it's not like you get a fly there and enjoy the the beach and you know a nice hotel. So it's it's really hard to to to get there and To enjoy joy so tell us about some of the people that you've talked to. Well I would like everybody to know that I have a sixty five minute documentary. It's called Antarctica Alien Secrets Beneath the ice. And if you go to my news website. WWW dot files vials dot com right at the top of the headlines page. There is a picture of Antarctica and the title. And it takes you to a link. Think where now the whole sixty five minute documentary can be video on demand through Demio or Amazon prime and I would urge all of you. You can rent it for only ninety nine or purchase it. This is my best. I accumulation of the best information on the fact that there is an ancient. At least maybe in terms forms of earth timeline but to whoever constructed they military whistleblowers would say even if it was built thirty eighty four million years ago the last time that Antarctica was free of ice and there was land and it was tropical and there were All kinds of palm tom and tropical animals and plants. Something happened and it's truly a mystery to this day. Geophysicist businesses don't understand what happened Antarctica. It's wide is the United States a huge con. And where did it come from from about Hundred Eighty seventy million years ago. It was part of what we call South Africa. Today it was a big big landmass called Panja and there was only one that one ocean went around Panja and for reasons that are not clear either forces inside of of our earth started expanding Jia and the part that we look at Uh South Africa today is where this huge United States wide wide continent called and Arteaga for at least a hundred million years hot tropical went sal and ended up at the South Pole. Thirty four million years ago to thirty three million for about a million years this this mystery while the rest of the world was not icing up that big continent began building is to the point that By thirty three million years ago it was one to two miles thick of so the navy seal that I called Spartan one in my film he has walked in. This ain't it will call it alien. Archaeology alleged alien structures as a navy seal on an extraction mission to bring out language expert. Because what to summarize what they know is there two miles and in one case three miles under the articles are structures that are measured in acres by our government using deep ground deep ice penetrating radar and the Spartan Navy seal. His extraction mission was in August of two thousand and three seventeen years ago and when he was giving the latitude and longitude where he was to go in a mission he had never been shown photographs or breached on exactly what he would find. They wanted him to go there and what he did encounter. Were Act on channel. Eight sided black assault assault huge structures like telescopes you'd come through one big eight sided huge blackstone stone and it would take you down to a ramp no stairs as we know stairs to three. Miles Octagon gone. Ramp Octagon ramp. Going down down down. He walked down the whole thing and he said and then to his shock he had been relieved about where he would find. And how you would communicate and where you would get to the scientists and he had to go through all these architectures because the scientists was down deep studying hieroglyphic. A symbol between Mayan and Egyptian hieroglyphs is the way it was described thousands of them now to stay carved the Navy Shield said No. We're not talking about carving. He said it was expressed to me emphasize. The our government had known about these locations covering sixty two acres half a dozen of them with rooms measured in nine Acre spaces rooms and that these black basalt walls where we'd be glowing green light that you could walk down three acres with all these symbols and hieroglyphs. They took laser measurements into all of these symbols and hieroglyphs and they always got seven centimeters seven centimeters. Everything was inside of this hard hard dense black basalt seven centimeters. He said that one of the discussions that he had with the scientists that he was there to extract. What and who didn't want to go? Because he said the scientists told the Navy we seal that is in my documentary that in tier he understood everything about this incredible place and all of this language that were so mystifying. The scientists didn't want to leave the seal Spartan Martin One said he didn't take him out somebody else may have come but he thought the scientists stayed there and a part of the reason is is that they were trying to understand. How would you do walls of dense black assault covered with symbols in hieroglyphs? All at the same depth an interestingly enough I said to him you know what this reminds me of back in two thousand seven to two two thousand and eight. I did a lot of investigation reporting about what was called dragonfly technology. Perhaps in the skies for coming in in and out of invisibility from something that was extraterrestrial according to military whistleblowers. Jimmy back that an at what emerged urge was a man who signed everything Isaac and he sent to me. and to Coast to Coast Webmaster mastered. The two of US received original documents that he had there were photographs. And the whole okay. Call it the physics of these dragonfly. Drums he gave us all this information. About knowing what these strange things were that were suddenly appearing appearing in a whole bunch of skies and being seen and photographed and videotaped in sketched by a lot of people. I have a lot of this. That are vials dot Com dragonfly dragonfly drugs and the physics that came in these leaked documents with the photographs. was that all of the symbols. That were being photographed on these strange dragonfly shaped drones Match the the same symbols that this scientists said that he had worked in an underground lab In Palo Alto California trying to back engineer and it was there were they didn't make any bones about it that they were back engineering extraterrestrial wrestler technology. That had either been handed to us or retreat from extra terrestrial biological entities and that the drones the work that they had in the lab the pieces of extraterrestrial technology all function in and self activating software. What he meant? Is that when you get to extraterrestrial technology. You don't have a like. I have a tower computer and it powers this computer and interact with the keyboard. No in that world of the dragonfly drones and the Ananth Artika is the implication all of the walls the searing the floor every single thing would be made out of material real that was encoded with Zeros and ones the binary language of computers every single else thing would be artificial intelligence you would be interacting mind to walls two floors to ceilings to objects and when I brought that up with Sparta won the navy seal. He said that the scientists that that he was there to retrieve extract is the military word. Talk about the fact that perhaps the reason that all of these complex fascinating symbols and hieroglyphs majored seven millimeters every single one. It was exactly that that the Black Salt was somehow interacted with self activating mating software. So everything in the walls. The floors and ceilings were interactive artificial intelligence and that it might be that all of the ET's ever had to do was to project a certain frequency that would interact with the atomic and molecular level full of all of this black hard dance stone an instead of writing carving typing it would be instant atomic molecular transformation into all of these symbols and the hieroglyphs. And that I have heard something like that. Before from businesses who worked at area fifty one in the nineteen seventy s and he worked also back engineering extraterrestrial technology and. He told me that he had first first-hand his own hands in one of those panels retrieve one of the many crashes in New Mexico that has six fingers he said it definitely had six figures he said. I had my hands in those impressed pals and he said I have five fingers and there was an extra finger. Whatever was Lou? Those panels and those craft had six fingers and he said that he discovered because he had been told he had been briefed in the seventies that we had we realized that there was a connection between the panels the minds of the beings and the whole craft flown in some way and he said while I was working on this S. four areas fifty one deep underground God that it was suggested to me that I should look for the link at the tips of the fingers and in the hands to what they had discovered between the outside skin of this particular a UFO on the inside skin there were two parallel skins and inbetween twain. Were what we would call today fiber optics but he said Linda the sophistication of what was between those skins thousands in that UFO. We don't have anything on earth yet. That is like what I dealt with at area fifty one and he said I was able because they told me to look and I got a magnify her and at the tips of each of the imprinted imprinted six fingered hands in this panel in the craft with the magnifying. You couldn't he said you could not see it with human I were some of these will call them fiber optics for lack of a better word. These fiber optics were coming proudly space as between the two skins coming into these panels and when the hands of these beings were in those impressed six fingered panels. They were hooking themselves through what he found in the microscope. These fibers that. Dan went into all of the walls of the whole craft and he said that then finally we understood that there was a concept here of how you could join the mind the nerves through a panel that would be tied into these various the advanced fiber optics that would then be operating. said that you would be like the self activating software. The entire craft all of the walls the fiber the beans the hands the panels. The everything would all be one. I bring that up because that is the same kind of technology. I'm going to say concept the thinking that is an Antarctica based on what the navy seal told me and he said to me. Well Linda if your research that the last time and Artika was free of ice was thirty four million years ago and he said it in a very humble looks likes he said what right. Do any of the leaders right or any human on this planet have to keep from the current civilization of Homo Sapiens sapiens which is only forty thousand years old compared to thirty four million. What right does what is in an article? Does anybody have to keep from you. Me and the human civilization Jose Shen and that is the question that drives me every day of my life in my work. Well Linda I WANNA ask you this in and and I mean that makes great sense but what what do you feel like you're whistleblower Spartan one and two you know there's a lot of risk of speaking out. What did they give a reason why they wanted to reach out to you? And what did they know the risk that it would take to to speak out and in share this information with you have either of you ever served in the military. All right now I I have had so many colleagues in collaborations with people in the military. And I've come to have the sense. They they bond especially especially units like the Navy Seals and the other Spartan to as marine analyst. They bond an in their bonding. They have protectors people in the Pentagon in the fifth floor. See Ring People at the CIA. Nsa Dia the IRA geospatial. They have protectors the guys that have done. Really really hard and dangerous. Dangerous special ops they have protectors the protectors. I think that they assume because they you have somebody in a high ranking position in the Pentagon that they will be protected for life and what I have learned Spartan one has an uncle. It is the uncle who was a seal. It is the uncle who inspired sponsored one to go in a long time ago to become a seal. The uncle described for sparking one. That starting in the seventies the uncle with leaving planters with extraterrestrials on actual and real interstellar trade routes this is what Spartan ones uncle described his work. He said I am now going going to go out. Onto to five year missions sparked one told me my uncle will protect. Here's the problem. And they're not the only ones who have had this problem if you have protectors especially if their relatives and ministrations changed. And depending upon whether the protectors have powerful allies in any current changing administration or part of the reason why so much is black and deep not in the public the most of of the Intel world world is underground literally and black dollars and I think part of the reason why that happened is is for exactly the binding of people around the U. F. O.. Et Interstellar trade routes. We've already been to Mars as we know a hell of a lot about what's Mars and we know what's been on the moon for a long time. We have a lot of information going on out to this solar system to other solar systems. There's not one question in my mind. We have had people going and it could be that they're going with collaborating advanced intelligences. It's not a ship we built. It's we're going in somebody else's and that that Interstellar Trade Trade Division which is supposed to be in Cyber Command now in the National Security Agency building on the eighth floor they had the challenge in Spartan one got this from his uncle which gives some insight perhaps today on the whole issue of space ace force finally being pushed into the public. We had been doing so so much work with extraterrestrials. We had been trying to back engineer. So much technology allergy we had non humans that were in the Pentagon underground area fifty one edwards all over the place right. Patterson is an and every administration from FDR to Truman and on Eisenhower Eisenhower. Being I think the very last president who knew everything that was how they kept making decisions. Based on a discussion that Eisenhower in Howard had with Prime Minister Churchill around nineteen forty three to forty four World War Two. They knew they were dealing with technologies in Europe. The couldn't be German couldn't be. US can be anything and knees. Were the disks that would do really fast rings like this around around the plane and there's an actual report about that. You could not get a human pilot who could take the G. Forces like that right so there was a decision by Eisenhower and by Prime Minister Prime Minister Churchill that Churchill said. Let's keep this. It's a secret for fifty years. Well that would have been around nine hundred ninety three and nineteen ninety-three Bill Clinton was president and that was an administration remember. That was the year that Laurance Rockefeller was bringing game. Hillary Clinton and Bill Clinton when he was president and others to his ranch in Wyoming. I was part of one of the groups that Laurance Rockefeller took to the ranch in Wyoming. He laurance. Rockefeller ask me to to bring what was then the manuscript of my volume one glimpses of other That that is a two volume and I had my binder with a hundreds and hundreds of photographs and maps and illustrations in a medical reports and everything and I was one of about fifteen or twelve fifteen us that were doing presentations. Laurance Rockefeller all every single one about UFO's at E. T.'s. And he told US quite straightforwardly forwardly there at his reg that he wanted to put the Rockefeller name behind the truth. That extraterrestrials else The that we're not alone in the universe he wanted to put together a booklet that he would send every member of Congress and he did that he took our work and he put it into a booklet that went to every member of Congress. Laurance Rockefeller thought that in ninety three ninety four time period that there was so much leakage then and they rockefellers knew a lot about U. uh-huh any cheese that could push that headline finally into the world. Were not alone and what happened was Bill Clinton became impeached or there was an impeachment inquiry. It's a long story. But that was one of of the possible in real potential where we would have broken through because so many people in high power positions positions. No we're not alone know that non human intelligences have been apart a fabric of this planet and this solar system system for millions of years. Long before Homo Erectus stood up a two million years ago in South Africa. So if you jump to Antarctica a huge continent that got to the South Pole and in thirty four million years ago it was still hot tropical. Land Ah could the change to two to three miles of ice have been a strategy by by one or more of the other intelligences that have been interacting with an experimenting with this laboratory Earth for at least two hundred entered in seventy million years as one defense intelligence agency analyst told me he said Linda we have proof. Our government has proved that two hundred and seventy million years ago. This planet was being used as a laboratory mixing and matching genes. And that there there were three competing civilizations when I said what is the proof sir. He said Linda. If I told you it would be too dangerous for your for me. And when I'm an investigative reporter and even if he as I never I always always always have honored requests for anonymity limit but all these people who come to me. They are trusting that. I'm going to find a credible and unsafe way to transfer information in my work. Even if I can't give the source even if I don't have a document so when he said it would be too dangerous for me and for him he meant even if no one ever knew about the meeting. If no one ever knew who it was it would only be a very tiny group that would have been analyzing extra terrestrial biological entities at the level of this man which was considerable so they would not the powers that be want to hurt whistle blowers. Instead of. Tell us all the truth. They would know who this was and then he'd be hurt Komo to to come around full circle to part of your question which relates to what I just said after. I've never told an may never that what it took for me to be able to videotape for two days it when I look back it was just me and a camera and setting up as best I could and what these guys went through to get to where I was what they went through in terms of putting guns all over the room. I never been in my life a room where there were many guns because they said Linda. You're our first priority. We were raised will protect us. No matter what and I had decisions that I would be running the Cameron asking questions and finally getting the truth on video and that a band of military guard people people would come crashing through the door through the window and kill us all it was. It was amazingly stressful. Which makes the documentary to me like gold? And I don't know how to transfer that to the rest of the world. What is in the sixty five minutes documentary? Sorry I have is true and I have heard from another navy seal and if I could tell you where what he's doing doing and where he is right now and this man is the real deal he he approached me but very very very carefully. And people can communicate with me from whistle blower positions of real knowledge by Fedex is one of the best ways still. I hope we don't turn into a to talent -tarian fascist state eight where everything everything will will be blown up or a look through it and so we are still. We're we're still United States of America enough. The people who really really have solid knowledge can carefully get it to me and part of what. I'm going to be talking about conscious life. Expo is that these whistleblowers missile blowers they have become so frustrated because an increasing number of men going back at least least two Apollo those Apollo astronauts knew we were dealing with extraterrestrials then Buzz Aldrin and Armstrong. And there's a a big long store they knew. So by the seventies when squadron one talks about his uncle who is going out into interstellar space not talking in the solar system. I'm telling you about going out into the Milky Way. Galaxy on the establishment of interstellar roots. Okay what is an interstellar route about. We want more gold. We want more numidian. We knew that rare metals on this planet were going to become crucial as we got into the twenty first century. Free now China for fifteen years. China has been pressuring the Nation of Australia trying trying to get a treaty or or by a huge section. That is north northeast of Perth Australia and it has is one of the world's last largest concentrations of what are called rare minerals and rare metals Australia's prime minister minister. I was there when it broken headline about fifteen years ago speaking connects US conference S. Why remember this so vivid that the prime minister stood up against China and said if we sell you all of our metals invaluable minerals near Perth? We will have nothing in the future. That pressure is still on from China and so if you take a look at the geopolitical territorial okay conflicts of humans on this planet right now between China and Russia and the United States and North Korea. And what's happening opening in the Middle East and you look at what the human need is for web weapons and computers and all of the advanced. Now just take it up another huge layer a milky way that people or humanoids or intelligences. SA's are always looking for planets that will have X Y and Z resources in many ways talking with Spartan one one spartan to the navy seal of powerful whistleblower and others. I get the impression that at that phrase as above so below translates out there that in a strange way we you are conscious in a universe that appears to be teeming with life but they are operating with frequencies and technologies that we may not even be able to measure. It's a strange idea. But it's possible and that when the Defense Intelligence Agency said that in his work for twenty three years for the DIA is job was to monitor and analyze the competing conflict between three extraterrestrial biological entity civilizations. He called all them. Civilizations the competed for resources from laboratory or they use this remarkable planet a two thirds deep oceans for all kinds of genetic manipulation experiments. And they did manipulation of DNA on long long lines of evolution and this. I'm never forget him saying this for reasons that we do not understand and what he means is we are one of the creations homeless Sapien Sapien. Technically is a genetic android android android. would be a biological creation by something else mixing matching jeans to serve it in some some way. It could be that where the rubber hits the road today where we started. Could the corona virus be a population poppulation reduction action by advanced intelligences. Who have been doing this in a periodic cycle on this planet in order to keep their population laboratory of down to a certain number? There are people like the attorney. William Bramley the Gods of E. That was his conclusion. I step back and say I have talked with thousands of people over the last forty years. The one thing. I'm really Lee really certain of is that when the Dia Guy said that there have been three competing in conflict act civilizations with their own priorities and they don't get along if might explain the strange strange mixture of of light and dark hate and love the undisposed planet where the greatest latest wars have been fought over. Who's God is superior to another if this is manipulation and humans were created for this specific kind of warring and you come back to the Dia guy saying the key? Linda is that if you take those three competing being extra-terrestrial civilizations and he said if I could tell you everything I know about the agendas most most of the world's history would become clear And we are on the precipice the intercession intercession the broncos Elon. Musk I think he's been read in to the same. Dia The CIA NSA geospatial program. I think musk knows as much as you. And I and others who've been investigating for a long time and that he has moved closer and closer to the present time his goal to launch his starship with the goal of going to Mars. And did you see it was two weeks ago. He says he's going to launch Eh. Some maybe between twenty four and twenty six and he has a plan now to take a million humans uh-huh from earth in like a relay race from Earth to Mars and that he plans to have a million humans. Humans settled on Mars by twenty thirty. Did you see this was I did not see that at all and and real quick with into before are we get going we have about just a few minutes left because we got we got another show after this but no please i. He said when Linda talks we. It's like putting back in the day. We listen because we learn and and or so honored always to have you on the show. And you're going to be a conscious life expo next week and any of you are in town or Wanna fly in to see. She should be a lot more details than what she's talking about today. And like I said truth be told Captain Ron Myself. We'll be there but we'd love to see you guys but Linda is always. She never fails of just being her and being tell the truth to people. I want all of us to share in truth. Yeah and this is why we have you on and it's been a while but It's always a pleasure but truth me. Oh that's right. But police subscribe to our channel and please go to earth files DOT COM And check out the documentary film. We we love it and I think you guys should see it and please wash your hands my Wednesday night livestream files every Wednesday eight thirty mountain time in all time zones and the dialogue that I'm having with people around the world now is extraordinaire. Yeah and people in a chat room. You can tell just love you because you do. You're so knowledgeable and you don't always tell you don't tell the same stuff half because you you do your research. It's not just a dialogue. It's actually research thank you. I am trying to break new ground all the time all the time well we. We can't wait to give you a big hug conscious life. I love you too and everybody out there. Please subscribe to our Channel Truth be told we have Scott Walter. They're coming on this coming Monday. We had a lot to talk about also conscious Life Expo Speaker and then a lot more next week because we're going to be there live live and If you guys can share this show please do it. And I'll again go to earth files DOT COM and go and watch your every Wednesday her own and livestream. So Belinda. Thank you so much we love you lots. I love you guys really island together. We are together. We conquers occurs. So everybody this is true. Told Tony Sweet Linda. Moulton Howe and Captain Ron see you then bye.
175. Accelerated Climate Change, the Melt and Science Fictions Role in Saving Humanity | KE Lanning
"The real thread moral thread. That goes through. All three books is the human relationship with the earth because to me it's like climate change is only a part of it. There's so many more segments of our relationship with the earth to simply like pollution main like these plastic set are all over the place. The air pollution water pollution. All the stuff that we do s humans to the earth. Are you founder looking to raise money but struggling to get traction investors see hundreds of decks a week? Trust me if your pitch deck isn't hitting home. I've got good news. I've put together a free step by step guide with killer examples to create the perfect elevator pitch and pitch deck that. Vc's can't ignore. You can grab it for free at Matt Ward Dot Co Slash Elevator. If you're in the market for venture dollars in WanNa make sure you get the meeting and if you need more help with your delivery or VC's keep passing on your company. I offer one one Pitch Deck Critiques and coaching to help you. Close your round fast. Just visit Matt Ward Dot. Io Slash pitch for more details. I WANNA take a quick time out to give you guys a personal update. Many of you know I've been working on my dream of becoming a Sifi author will now. I've got a couple of SCIFI books and techno-thrillers coming out soon to help me enjoy my advanced Beta reader team and get free or deeply discounted copies of my upcoming books to review and helped me improve the stories. If you're a fan of Michael CRICHTON Daniel Suarez a good dystopia Ian or epic fantasy. You'll love my writing if you join. Share your feedback. It would mean the world for me in my writing career seriously. I'd really appreciate it. Few Visit Matt Ward Dot. Io Slash Book and enter your details. You'll be notified and occasionally selected to pre. Read some ally books before everyone else share. Your thoughts works directly with me to help me make the story better and much more. I want to give you an epic. Thanks for listening to the podcast especially for folks interested in the books and again if you WANNA get my books before they come out before anyone and help me make this writing career. A success. Please visit Matt Ward Dot Com Slash Book to join and get your free early copies and now let's get on with the program. Welcome to the disrupters. Podcast about the future of all of us. But we look at the technologies trends and societal norms shaping. Our collective future here. The world's top mines share their insights been predictions on the convergence direction. Ethics of exponential technologies. Transforming you can learn more and stay up to date at DISRUPTORS DOT FM frosty. The Snowman was a jolly happy soul until the sun came out and he melted everywhere. And that's what we're talking about today with key lending the prolific astrophysicist hand SCI FI author. Who's melt trilogy? Series focuses on the dystopia in but possible future where the ice shelves on Antarctica Melt and the land becomes usable. What would happen in what would be the consequences. I think it's always interesting to explore big picture problems and ideas and iterative and that's the role of science fiction to get us all to think outside the box on what could be what will be and help us steer. The world starts a better future in today's episode. We discuss how Sifi helps humanity cope with and prepare for societal change. What would happen if an article became landgrab? Are we headed towards a world of robotic riots? Why Science and art or two sides of the same coin and how they can come together and why this'll be the century of synthetic biology regardless of what happens and now without further ado I give you care not leaning we choose to go to the moon and this decay. Then do the other thing. Not because they are easy but because they wanted to get into your work but before we do. Can you give me just a quick thirty thousand foot? Overview has an astrophysicist become a Sifi Actually gift as a geophysicist. That's super embarrassing. I wrote that totally wrong in minute. Satis we're not we're not looking at. We're looking down. Well I've always been Really Interested in science and also in art which I think is really the science and art are two sides of the same coin and what we find with those types of people. A lot of times is that they are such a similar personality type. You have scientists that goes into a lab and then you have a an artist that may be goes into a studio or something like that and so I've always had those two sides to me and I was very interested in multiple things besides warning about the Sciences. Also learning about what sort of what makes people tick as well and so. That's really kind of how I came at this. I have a physics degree at when I was in Texas. I got a physics degree With the geology as a side piece and And so as a geophysicist. My particular area was Imaging sub surface of the earth with a seismic data. And but really for me. I was interested in pushing a little bit more on the art side and I actually did a lot of photography and art gallery as well so and I I read a lot of science fiction and you know a lot of awesome off and Arthur C Clarke Robert Heinlein. I really liked. Robert Highlands work so I came at this and I again. The reason I started writing was the sort of idea which a lot of people are interested in is you what if we went to say. Mars or the Moon is sort of the concept of humans escaping of migrating always thought. That was really fascinating. When you think about the whole thing of humans leaving Europe and coming to America I mean what leak that was and people are just. I mean. They've got that in their is that desire to migrate that desire to find something new explorer and so that actually was the core of the The books that I wrote for the melt trilogy. The book in the middle the sting at the bay has this migration of when you have had this global warming and the ice caps have melted. You have an article. That's de-iced and available for a home standing at the man would that it's really cool and I I've as yet have not heard of anybody using the The de-iced Antarctica as a setting. And I thought man that you know what a place to have something like this homestead ing and I opened it up with a Oklahoma style. Land Rush so that I was interested in this escape. That's actually was the core piece of that book and then it sort of expanded into more the political social stuff that what might happen if you had something. Catastrophic happened like the melting of the ice caps within one human life span sped up the scientists interesting while you brought the Antarctica thing. Because we never. We haven't really had new available land on earth and longtime sadly that is something where you don't have a government with a gun to the head already there. Yes but one of the things that I was interested in is because an Artika all of a sudden this virgin continent imagine all of these countries trying to Take take it over and corporations and the minerals the riches that would be there that in other parts of the world have been mind so it would be huge or people trying to take over and really a somehow control. What's happening down in Antarctica? So climate change in a generation as opposed to the long term was really the genesis of the book. I mean it's basically squeezing that timeframe for dramatic effect and so over you know like one hundred years and the first book starts sort of not at not at the total end of the melting and the spider sat beside her. But it sort of the start of that series and then the last book is a Basically the one of the characters up getting shoved into this Presidential position even though he doesn't really WANNA be. He's not a politician. But I had so I kind of broke it out into a over about a fifteen year period of of this event toward the end of the melting. So part of the reason I wanted to have you on his I think. Sifi is super important for giving us a glimpse into the future making it a little more extreme so that we can react in the present better and I don't know if that was your thought process for the books if you were trying to inspire more climate change based solutions today. What was what was really. What got you to push through for that well. It was a combination I guess at the very beginning was this core of people escaping people exploring but the the real thread moral thread that goes through. All three books is the human relationship with the earth because to me it's like climate change is only a part of it. There's so many more segments of our relationship with the earth to simply like pollution main like these plastics. That are all over the place. The air pollution water pollution. All the stuff that we do as humans to the earth and one of the things that I was interested in is sort of revealing that which I know people know but trying to put it into another idea of what what can we do about that and one of the reasons interested in this de-iced Antarctica as setting is like here is a new land that we haven't screwed up yet. And what could we do? And this is the the main character winds up being the president. his name's John Barras. He decides that he wants to sort of figure out how He can serve ride new chapter and use an article as an example. What we could do here and one of the key things that he does is he creates a cabinet position of an environmental of minister. Basically a where they are the Basically the voice of the earth so that when they are trying to do stuff like wait a minute you know what about this? You know can't or can we just take this? Maybe shifted a little bit because we do have to obviously live. Even the one of the other items is in that book and in general is our population. You know there's so many humans that we almost can't help but to be detrimental to the earth. How many dying your book so let? Let's go. Let's get into some of that so I imagine you looked a lot in a lot into the science. Oh this what's it look like if we were to accelerate climate change so quickly? Well there are yellow I I I don't have a figure of how many hundred thousands of people I guess. Yeah well I don't know I mean it's it would be obviously in the hundreds of thousands that they issue really isn't are these people going to you know drowned or something. It's going to be the migrations and think about the whole thing when you had the Syrian war you have these migrations going into Europe and that disruption. Can you imagine if all over the world you had a sea level rise of two to three hundred feet you would have entire countries that would be gone but these people aren't just going to sit there and and and drown? They're going to run and they're going to run to the higher ground. They're going to run to the next country over and so. I have in the first book. I show Scenes and one of the things that it's it's tricky to. Do you have a character a main character and in the case of the. First Book. It's a woman named Lowery Walker. And she you're so you're showing up out of her viewpoint. And how do you do that? You know 'cause you got these huge global things that you're trying to show and so one of the things that I did is I have. She's inch winds up going onto the space station and she one of the reasons I wanted that as a device is so she seeing the globe as this is a revolving around the the earth. And so you can see the global changes and sea level rise the effects through her eyes as she goes over the earth and so one of the things that the I did in this. Show the scenes on these huge video. Monitors okay. These people are leaving Say Indonesia and they're running into Going into China say for example or parts of India. They're moving into various other places like China and they're getting killed they're getting massacred because you can't have. What are YOU GONNA? Do you know in in this particular sincere Scenario Beijing would be under water. I mean they would be all these things people moving around and the one one of the things that I was interested in is. What would happen which you have all this social chaos? You have an incredible amount of political manipulation is basically your your entire. Chessboard is being thrown out of the window. And you have an all of these things moving around and you know you've got one hundred years that is shifting but in the first book spider sat beside her you have. The Country of America has merged with Canada and they formed a new country called Amerada and one of the things that the the this corrupt administration is in charge. And so they're now doing what What happened in the West? And they're taking the ENU it land now and so it kind of goes out. I was really interested in this sort of political corruption. That would be. What would occur if you had these global changes that would again? You're talking about a dramatic squeezing at time but it's it's kind of shocking actually follow Some of the things that are happening on Antarctica and the warming. That's that's occurring in a lot of these things. They are happening faster than what they think. I'm not saying that my book is GonNa Happen or anything. I hope to God. I think every Scifi writer is that when they righted Dystopia as I hope to God. But there's so much truth in that that. Hopefully it's helpful. Yeah Yeah Yeah it's It super interesting. How you see these major changes happening I mean you. You created a cabinet position for the voice of the Earth so to speak and we have trump essentially fighting to get rid of the EPA. You must be mortified. Yeah exactly it's it's really terrifying. I mean He. You know the Margaret Atwood of course in her handmaid's tale. It's almost like it's coming true. You know with with the trump in charge sort of situation so it's It is definitely worrisome. What do we do? What do we do about that? How do we mobilize support for something that should be seemingly obvious for everyone yet is against all of our internal besting surf the easy solutions that we want? Yeah I think again one of my a things that I'm interested in. I'm actually currently the book. I'm writing now is is not science fiction but it's really delving into this whole thing with political corruption and the fact that there's so much dark money. I think that underlies so many of our issues where somebody wants to get rid of this regulation or that regulation and when you have corporations too close to the politicians it just really creates a catalyst for things happening. That shouldn't be happening. Because what you really want is what the government is for is to keep us safe. And that's the mandate keep us safe both externally and internally and so if they're not following that mandate there's some reason they're not following it and that's I think it's because there's too much money going in from corporations or wherever it's coming in from which primarily corporations that are controlling the legislation so and you've got to have some regulation one have reasonable regulation where. It's not stifling stuff but you have to have enough regulation that. You're keeping the citizenry. Saif completely agree. I was listening to a podcast earlier. And they were arguing about unions and regulations. Nos interesting that the guy who had actually been in a union was very much woke. You Know Union to the reason you have work hours and you have a livable wage and you have you have weekends and all of these benefits and the people that were arguing against. Were the ones who were arguing. Purely based off of theory and I feel like a lot of times when you get into an argument. You have the libertarian arguments. That's pretty much just theory based in never been tested and that's kind of the the. Us Leans much more towards that than a Lotta arrested. It's just interesting. Yeah the the proven way. That seems to work better is not the way that theory says and people will still stick with a theory as opposed to going with what seems to be better. Yeah I mean I think you have to have the the unions eh versus the corporations create a balance of power and if you don't have a balance of power then you have issues. Either you know you can have. The unions can be too powerful and create issues of that way or you can have corruption of course within any entity and you can have corruption and they have had with the unions but you wanNA balance of that and basically you know back in the eighties when they started outsourcing the basically manufacturing they in effect killed a lot of the unions and it created a problem with balance and so you had too many people that were getting laid off because they didn't have the safety net that the unions and just having work create. God speaking of a safety net. You're you're a writer. I guess you have a real job as well besides just being a writer so you have some type of health insurance. Yeah I mean through my husband I do. I consult yeah. Hell insurance is through his work out. I was GONNA I was Gonna say just from the the and even if it's the the the safety net problem is something the US really struggles with in terms of entrepreneurs. Writers self-employed folks creatives without that. Without that safety net. It's nearly impossible to to survive just with the cost of healthcare and rising. Yeah exactly Yep so what technology? You'RE TREND. Are you most excited about these days in lie? Karen I the thing that I keep my eye on is the. I'm hoping crossing fingers that within the next five to ten years we will have viable nuclear fusion as an energy source. It is something that a lot of countries are working on right now. There's a huge Nuclear Fusion Power Plant that's being built in Southern Excuse me. Southern France called the eater project director on. Yeah and of course. That's a sort of a world consortium for that particular one but the US has Facilities China is working on it Russia written there bunch of them. But what's the most fascinating thing is? And this is always something that when you start seeing private investors putting their money into more of a sort of non-governmental projects. That's interesting and that's telling you that there are have been some huge leaps forward and nuclear fusion is the opposite of what we have now. It's basically you're taking two hydrogen atoms and you're using them and in that process you releasing energy and you create a helium atom from that and so if we can do that then we can get off totally off fossil fuels and move into something that would be able to give us enough energy for manufacturing going to Mars Going to the moon. You know all those things. It would solve a lot of our problems and it's doesn't have the problem with nuclear. Waste like the vision process does now and it's basically non omitting so that's really you know. I keep watching it and and really fascinated with it and it sounds like within the next five to ten years. They're going to have some of the first real power plants not not saying that they're going to be functioning but they're going to be hopefully getting energy out rather than just just putting energy into the process. I'm super hopeful. I'm a little skeptical just based off of some people I've talked to. I feel like people in the industry. You kind of get one of two either. It's gas everything's GonNa work and we'll save the world or its will if you actually look at it. We're not sure if it's ever GonNa work and it's it's one of those things where if we pull it off. It is so critical to humanity's future. Yeah we could also create a black hole that kind of eats us all apart so that's a whole nother a whole nother. A can of worms dependent on the star recreate. Technology's always yeah all go down together US coin. We got climate change on your voice and it's all going to happen in one hundred years and we're screwed and headed Antarctica so we might as well. I have the blueprint to go on. You think about unintended consequences so it that's a lot of what scifis about. That's what we're talking about. That's what pretty much everything comes down to. Is those regulation. There's a new technology. There's something in everything changes. Yeah yeah I think the unintended consequences huge and I. That's one of the things that I tell people that when I start a story you know it's like I put up a pebble or a ball on a piece of board and and let it go and just see where it goes European so Yeah I'm I don't outline. I don't have all that what I do is. I want to see where it goes. I mean I have like an over view of kind of where I'm going to certain extent but I I kind of want it to be become a live and see where it goes because that's the thing about it when you start saying one thing. Oh this is what I'm going to do. And then you have all of a sudden you realize no I'm GonNa have some Russian mafia a group. That's going to try to come in and steal the election and take control of rain Artika. That's that's the counting is like that could happen. I mean you know. That's the kind of stuff in got the location wrong. Well you know talking about all of the above I mean there but yeah but the one of the things that These different countries would be interested in again is all the raw materials that would be available. all of a sudden on Artika. That would be worth an incredible amount of money. So you know I mean. I think unintended consequences. You know Some of the things that you know the AI and Virtual reality of those types of things as we have no idea exactly how that's GonNa work how it's going to affect society and I think that we have to try to humanize as much as we can and kind of have a balanced. They're one of the issues that In the first book that I wrote a spider sat beside her is part of it was the clash of cultures of when you have these migrations of different societies because the global The sea level rise but the other thing is clash of cultures between humans and technology. And we have to be mindful of that you know as we create technologies that we don't sort of go into place that we don't really. WanNa go that's not comfortable people and so that was one of the things that you mean. Let Me Doris box. Especially things. One of the scenes I have in in. That book is issues with people who may be a prone to addiction. I mean virtual reality. That could be a huge with these people and so create in this this one character and he actually has an entire suit that he puts on and it's he'd literally completely goes into this virtual reality and one of the things that happens as he falls e creates this virtual woman and falls in love with this virtual woman and the main character is arguing with him. It's like wait a minute. You know this is not real. And he and he's saying was. Yeah but she's beautiful. She's wonderful and of course she is. And and then Lowry the character says will what are you? GonNa do have a baby. And all of a sudden his eyes light up and can you imagine a virtual baby that you just put away when it starts crying like being a grandparent. Its purpose and it's like I guess it'll help the population growth. There are certain technologies like that word is it is super terrifying verge virtual reality especially just with the number of people you see walking around locked into their phones exactly. Yeah when our the number of people that are in prison there's three million in the? Us could be in a prisoner if you could be Kanye West and VR. A lot of people would opt for being Kanye West. I imagine. Yeah Yeah yes. It's interesting if you don't know your numbers you don't Know Your Business. Today's episode is brought to you guys by net suite by Oracle. I know I personally struggle with staying on top of business expenses and that's even running a small team. I can't even imagine some of the large organizations out there. That's why those guys trust net suite by Oracle the world's number one cloud business system that offers a full picture of Your Business Everything. One place finance inventory. Hr customers you name it. No more guessing no more worrying. Run Your Business like it's a business. Companies Like Ring Hint Boll and branch and over nineteen thousand others. Trust in that sweet. Because if you don't have your house in order it's real hard to build it bigger schedule your free product who are right now and receive their free guide. The seven key strategies to grow your profits at net sweet dot com slash disruptors. That's D I. S R U P T o r s net sweet dot com slash disrupters to get that free guide the seven key strategies to crushing growth. For Your Business. I struggle with managing the numbers. You struggle with managing the numbers. And there's so much more that goes into running a business. Make sure you've got that top level overview net sweet dot com slash trump and now on the episode. What is that? What is the role of sci-fi and dictating public perception and public policy? I really think that what it can do is similar again. Back to Margaret Atwood and the handmaid's tale is it puts a magnifying glass on some particular item or some multiple of items in. So it takes it almost into a place where you can see it. You know it so hard you know because you have this disparate things going on here and there but if if you see it kind of does the thirty thousand foot Viewpoint of what would happen if you had all these social issues or or something Going on and that's I'm more interested in science. Fiction is the social commentary the human condition and it it really does play a role. Science fiction can play a role or some people. Call it If it's near future Fiction they call it speculative fiction Do that actually is a good definition. A because it sort of tells the reader this is GonNa be usually a near fix. Excuse me near future fiction and it's usually has social commentary so sort of gives them like a warning warning. You might make you uncomfortable because right right. It's not sorta like star wars or something which is more futuristic space type. Things that it's somewhere else. The speculative is much more what I write by the way. If you guys are interested Matt Ward Rights Dot Com. You can grab them free stuff over there. Check it out but I I totally agree. That's the that's the interesting area in my opinion. That's kind of what this podcast is. Speculating on the future with the world's smartest folk. So we we speculated a little on what's good what about what's bad outside of climate change. What has you most worried. And why when it comes to technology and trends and if go if I went really near future I would say misinformation in our social media and particularly with the next election coming up so that is something that we need to somehow get control over and you know. I'm not knowing which is the way to go with that Besides just you know the last couple of months shutting off your social media outlets but besides that is And I think that's one of the things that In your writing the sort of genetic engineering I think that is Something that could be both terrifying and Helpful in two different ways. One of the things that On an article that I was doing is there would have to be genetically engineered plant life more than likely to be able to grow in that environment. You do have You know the dark time. Even though I've set up a series of a satellite based light sources reflective sources to try to get additional light. But you know that that so in some ways you could have some genetic engineering. That might be helpful in to as we go forward particularly in farming. You know there may be some things that we can do. That wouldn't take as much water. For instance wouldn't need so much fertilizer or whatever there's certain things that might be helpful but then there's the whole human element of God knows what's going to happen when they start genetically engineering humans and of course a voice started the scientists in China. Move out of other as well but yeah yeah off right right. They've got him some some room somewhere. There's there's just so much promise. Trees that consume more carbon dioxide? You can wipe out malaria based mosquitoes said goodbye to the corona virus. It's it's Kinda crazy to consider that we I think we're moving into the the century of synthetic biology where we will begin to become the masters of life and everything there is to do with it now. We may not be good at it but we will be the ones who will be painting with paint brushes and yeah. I think it's a definite double edged sword Yeah and with all double edged swords. You've gotta you gotta cut something off before you realize the need to slow down a little bit. Measure twice cut once. I don't think we're going to be headed in that direction. But we can always cross our fingers and hope. Yeah Yeah I definitely agree with the information. I don't really know how to handle misinformation going forward with the upcoming elections going forward with society in general everything so polarizing and I hope we can get out of this particular era sooner rather than later that makes a lot of people will have to see the so many so many things are based off of the economy of your economies. Good than everything's good so it's tough. We'll see it's good that it's all told it's good. We're pouring steroid based rocket fuel on. It has better be frigging God so i WanNa talk a little bit more before we start to wrap things up about potential political ramifications of climate change just from the thought processes of what you went through to create the books. What are some of the bigger issues that you thought about that you included or didn't include that you think not enough people are talking about since mice a Gig? Is this sort of political social? That was what I primarily looked at now. Of course I the the melt series. Which is the name of the trilogy? The melt trilogy is after the fact of course of the melting so there isn't sort of. Let's put the genie back in the bottle. Scenario so these people are just coping with it and the and as the oceans come up they lose land and so that's it's not only just people moving that even the countries who have land are losing it and so that's an and that's not to say that people aren't thinking about that already but you you have to squeeze the timeframe it becomes just more More of an issue and that the other things that you would look at when you have climate change are you would have to move or have issues with particular plant people site talk about. Okay where where are you going to grow your coffee and all that? I actually think that you would probably move that type of thing. You may not be able to have it in the same place you have it and again you would probably have to. Ju- engineer excuse me Genetically Engineer maybe new of coffee plant that would Be Able to live in a different type of climate. That's really what I think that one of the things too that I was interested in is how would you create a world or a continent where you don't are not using any kind of artificial chemicals things like that I mean? That's that's something that we need to think about. Where do we want to be one hundred years? You and I realize that you can't exactly have planned society but I think if we could kind of come up with this is what we want to have. You know let's figure out We don't want pesticides. So what do we do then? And one of the things that you know mother of invention I create An actually since I wrote that book I've heard of people Starting to create construct these robots that do the weeding. And so you don't have to have pesticides if you have like like constant a robotic tractor or or some sort of Utensil that will go out and get rid of the weeds. It completely obliterates the need for having pesticides or are we chillers anyway out on you and your fields so everything could be organic to think. Most people would push or grief or something like that. I think that that would be important invaluable but I feel like there's not actually near enough support for something like that if anything a lot of scientists are saying that pesticides and genetically modified food isn't problematic. I think the pesticides are problematic. Fitting into your stomach seems pretty straightforward. You don't want to be eating pesticides but yeah it seems like that's not the way the world is moving so much. I don't know about the I. I don't think people want pesticides I really. I think putting that type of chemical I think they were to happen to the the soil or ended up plants. Yeah sorry sorry. Little lag technologies great until it isn't right I think they'd prefer not to have it but I think right. They wouldn't prefer it that much over having their coffee or having to spend the extra twenty five cents at post melts starbucks. Well hopefully if you do it to scale you know if you Figure out how to get these in robotics again is another item of sort of a two sides of an issue. There you know you have bad aspects of robotics and good aspects of robotics but I think robotics are going to be the way to go That's going to be what's happening out. So yeah I think that that in a hundred years we're GONNA be just inundated all types of robotics doing everything and that's again that's sort of the good news and the bad news. 'cause what's that? W- how is that going to affect society? How's that going to affect employment and things like that? I want three bold. Contrarian type either predictions or possibilities from you predictions around the future or possibilities of really interesting places to start businesses. I'm hoping that we get a better control over our population and become more sustainable. I mean that's I don't know if that's a prediction I you know. I think that you're going to see a robotics to really take off and again. You're are you going to have a riots where people are trying to destroy these robots because they're taking their jobs like that happened at the start of the industrial revolution? Yeah the LUDDITES that Basically destroyed all of these mechanical looms and things that were being created so you could potentially have the the robot riots that would be happening. Of course that would be a bad thing. I do think as far as one prediction is that we are going to be going to the moon And Mining and all that type of thing and I don't know if you've read. The Moon is a harsh mistress but I think that's fantastic. That's by Robert. Heinlein predictor of what might happen if you had a colony of their Anna particularly if they riot against the their masters on Earth. And what was the other thing you were saying that they're asking me interesting? Business Cases One thing that I think is going to be. Ns Looking back a little bit but it's going to be a case study. A major case study is the whole Boeing debacle of how not to create a software. And and you know the whole thing where you think software is going to be the savior and the software wind up killing. You know hundreds of people as far as a new business you know. I think you're going to be talking something in the robotics Is going to be you know? One of their major new businesses and of course the synthetic biology of those are going to be two super growth areas in the world for sure so robot riots. Do Think we would let people starve if we could just afford to do their jobs with robots. I don't know if you know The author Lucic seen or sixteen Lou. He actually writes His English author name. He wrote an article and basically his premise is. That the rich people are GonNa have robots and then they're going to have sort of these pet humans and who knows what's going to happen with the rest of them. You know the I I really don't know you know it could be that we get People migrating to places like the moon where maybe robots there'll be a combination but unfortunately I I think that actually robots we're going to be more expensive and humans are going to be disposable. It's it's not It is a scary future. Actually it really is like I said we're GONNA have to figure out a balance to make it not be horrible. It's been this. This has been this week. In dystopia SCI FI and speculative fiction author. Kind of gets into. I know that when I started this podcast I wanted to present a better future. A better vision of what the future could be because Hollywood sci-fi books everything was dystopia. And I wanted to be high and mighty and thought well Dylan away. You can create a better future by envisioning it but now sense getting into writing since writing a couple of sci-fi books which hopefully you guys are going to check some of amount and you'll see bestseller lists very similar but in all seriousness. Dystopia and problems are what sell? But it's also what creates the guard rails. You go to the bowling alley and the little kids get the little guard rails on so that they can have a better job avoiding the little lanes and I think without Sifi without things to scare a shitless we're going to head into those gutters so to speak we'll have more gutter balls so I think having these miserable conversations about why the future may suck actually make the future better in the process. I agree I agree I want one thing from you before we wrap this up Karen and that's shed to leave people with one thing quote a call to action before you tell them where to find you. What would it be and why I think that what we have to do? Each individual is figure out their relationship with the earth and it may seem sounding a high and mighty or all that but a lot of times. It's just okay. Let's recycle this piece of metal speed metal came out of the earth. It's been a changed into something else but let's just recycle it. You know. I mean it's just simple things like that that each individual can do in their own lives. That one person at a time you can really make a change and I think that's what we have to do is just think about what we do. Think about where we want to be a like. I said in in ten years and fifty years and one hundred years and make those changes now step by step by step through set your New Year's resolution to lose ten pounds. You're gonNA think twice about those New Year's cookies that you've got sitting on the taste. We gotTA WE GOTTA HAVE SOME GOALS. I think about where we want to get to guys because it is small little decision decent everyday. Which changed everything exactly Karen. Thanks for coming. Where can people learn more about you? What do go to Atlantic Dot Com? And it's all the air and of course guys links and everything the show notes disruptors dot. Fm fear interested. Check out her work at early. Some interesting stuff. And if you're interested in the to post gene editing society books that I have coming out soon Matt Ward Rights Dot Com. You can grab first five chapters free over there and get some bonus discounted offers when it all goes live Matt Ward Rights Dot Com. Thanks for coming on Karen. Thanks a lot of really appreciate your time. Thanks for tuning guys and if you can buy land on Antarctica do it now. Make sure you've got the cryonics survival. Talk to you. Guys later cheers. Thanks a lot be the change you WanNa see in the world that something I strive towards and fell towards every single day. If you enjoy this podcast if you think the world could benefit from conversations like this the greatest compliment you can give us is referring to the disrupters to a friend are talking about us on social media. Please take thirty seconds to do so. It would mean the world to us. If we're lucky. Help US build towards a better world. Thanks so much for listening. Thanks so much for helping us. Spread the message and have a great day. If you want more of the disrupters you can subscribe to the podcast on Itunes or go to disruptors dot. Fm where you'll find tons of audio video interview stories with leaders in the field of genetics crypto currency longevity Ai Space Vr. And much much more. You can also follow me on twitter at Matt Ward L. If you enjoyed the show please leave a quick review on itunes at disruptors DOT FM SLASH TUNES TO HELP MORE PEOPLE. Discover the PODCAST and help us make a bigger impact.
AWTY 93 - Eat Dirt (A Place Further Than the Universe)
"Hello, and welcome to are we there yet? An exploration and education and anime. I'm your anime. Idiot Patrick. Dugan I'm an expert. Dana Hollander. Brennan McCullough your animate. Forget to come out with one today this week, so say Carl Sagan. And Carl Sagan was not gonNa Bacon Anime Pie. Baker, 'cause Sagan's space man. Yet, he had a thing. If, you WANNA bake a pie from scratch. You have to invent the universe. For some I forget the exact quote, but the. Thing. Is just a Turtleneck AFICIONADO. I didn't know much more about. yeah I forgot to come one this week. So that's the cloud. Why in by the seat of our pants this week plus GOT POPA T aw! SPURT OF I! Don't know what I'm doing anymore. Well what we have going on this. This week were watching a listener recommendation from a Hattie play on twitter. And they recommended a place further than the universe. This! I know nothing about it. I'm guessing space with the title and. They recommended that based on our laid back camp, saying hey, if you like girls doing a bunch of fun stuff together having a good time watch when I was a soul I'm don that's all good. That sounds about as much as I can handle. Yeah? That's the most stressful media I can stomach. I. Burke delayed back him so fucking I. Think I finished at that day. If not immediately the next morning recorded like I fell in love at show, and there's like absolutely nothing to it. It's just fun time with friends, and it just so pure funny. Sometimes, that's all you need. All you need housing well. This is happening right now so I'm going to need again. We need another. Pick me up. You just say this. This gesturing vaguely everything in. This is happening, so we need something light and cheerful yet, yeah? Yeah Also real quick I said last week. I would update you. If I finish be stars, I have not so. Earlier. I no surprise. He Dina House given going to finish given. Left I saw spoiler. I saw spoiler so that I was just like well. Do I even WanNa? Watch it yes? Could finish to do. This. To Your, birth But I've. I've already seen them kiss. Else to I care about what there's more follow the journey. Okay! Do you. Topic. Do you know thirties? Further journey beyond this podcast Do you know anything about this show? I feel like I've heard of it, but I looked it up I thought it was newer. Original run was a twenty seventeen so newish in in the grand scheme of Kinda shoes. We watch from the eighties now, so yeah, it's newer so. Hey for fresh off the presses, and like sat on the shelf for awhile, but we got around to it and it's still. Just a new area. And just recommendations anyway their legitimacy to them yeah. I used to work produce. It's a lie. Don't trust the government. God I used to. Meet and Faster, so they put like discount prices to try and sell them quicker like if it was closer expiration date, so hey, this means like within a week. Is it and I just slapped like fifty percent off? Stick around there. You GotTa get out of here and. I. Just that one's on me. If he talked to me when I had this. Because my hand, you got a discount I. don't care what it was. I slept bottle milk. It's gone. WHO NEEDS IT WHO NEEDS This light expiring. US still fresh. We're a little pudgy this opening because we just have no context of show. I'm excited though I like a chill time with girls. This should be fun. Shall we dive on? Let's explore shoot for the stars. Finally have collected all seven dragon balls now to make. My wish shed long come. Work your. I wish that there is a podcast that combined dragon ball with Improv comedy that is beyond the scope of buypower. Yeah, I figured because this podcast you seek all ready exists one. What what are these two hosts explain? Oh, thank you for the introduction shed long. We're comedy House Party. I'm Erin. I'm Vince and we are the only Improv Comedy Dragon Ball podcast in the universe. We go through every. Of Drag Franchise episode by episode, we've covered the original run of Dragon Ball and we just started dragon ball Z, but don't worry. You don't have to start from the beginning because each week we do a one minute roundup where we summarize everything that has happened in Dragon Ball, thus far new episodes. Come out every Tuesday wherever you get your podcast. New episode just drugged. By which has been Greg. That's much closer than beyond the universe. False advertising fucked up I. Don't want to split ourselves. We don't research and sometimes we were just super all. Universe space got it. That makes sense as Art Takata Bats. Interesting when I when I hear, lay back, camp laid back camp, but with space I imagine like astronaut girls like camping on planet. That'd be great. That's not what this was, but you know still good, still delightful list. For the most part still makes sense because I was like Hm. How are they going to get into space in? Yeah! It makes sense that they would make sense that it's not about space at all this realistic. So I on a scale of one to ten, we have seen some extremely hyper specific, adamant rare. Do you think this show is about planning an expedition to Antarctica I? Think we're at least about seven but I. don't. I don't know I feel like we're gonNA see much more hyper specific stuff down the road and I don't want to skew the reading system this, so I'm trying to think of what ten would be right now. Would it be like silver spoon? I don't know I mean so specific, but I don't know if it was specific. I'm thinking Sarah. Sano was like real new. But I'm thinking about mythology, though it's about, it's about a Japanese ministry happens. Yeah, it's about the same as a show being about Haiti's. Any? I, Love them so much. I mean we have to keep in mind. The realism gauge of like style stuff. That's actually feasible for a person. Magic like 'cause the magic stuff can always get so much more specific. I think specifically with it being in realism, because if it's like, I'm a wizard. I'll send you Antarctica real quick. That does that that could be episode. That's not a hyper specific. Show does the wizard. I'm like yeah, it's like okay. This series is about one boat trim. Yeah, I put it up. There I can't think of what ten would be, but yeah attend is Uber. Specific Yeah I figure at least probably about a seven yeah. Well, let's get into it. Let's. Episode one starts out, got a girl talking about how she's interested, stagnant pools of water and she likes to see them overflow and all the water rush out. I don't know what this is about at this point and it was very confusing. Oh, I'm sorry. That is the most hyper specific. About titles. That's all. I would watch that. There's the audience the marine biology anime together this. Do. I, it animation studios are just like he'd shaft. What are you really into and let's make a show about Q.. Four girls bonding over that and then going to do that, and that's just what this genre is, and like I'm Super Board for that John. And yeah, so she's talking about the same pool of water. And a dream or a memory. And it cuts to women. GOING TO A girl WHO's laying down on bad sleeping, and she just takes a wet wash cloth and puts it over. The girls face as she begins to clean up the room. And the girl freaks out and wakes up because she. Her mother tried to waterboard her, and we've all done that in the shower once or twice, right, yeah! Okay just making. and. You know mom's matter room so turning tillerson cleaning up in neo. Wake up on time. She's sleeping in. An end the girl finds a diary and what she can through it. She sees it was a diary. She started presumably in middle school and it was what she wants to do in high school. And now it's our second year in high school and she's looking back on it and it was like you know I one start a diary check. Thing. Get somewhere. You're not playing like you. Don't plan to just go on a journey on anywhere. Step three. Really play Hooky from school wants. That's about it. That's it's a short to do list for high school. I have modest dreams. Really crowned. And so far, she only started diary, so and like the last one make the most out of her youth. which that's a lot of pressure. Put yourself in highschool truly. And once she sees that she starts crying. She's realizing like I ain't done any of this I wasting it wasting my youth. The opening, which is just a montage of girls going on expedition, doing a bunch of activities in Antarctica around the lake. Surrounded Point I was like Oh Diane Space. warps are they on the Ice Planet off. Hopeless But still on board and we see the girl. After the opening we see the girl talking to a friend of hers. She's wasting your youth and she wants to make the most of it, and she said she's going to play Hooky tomorrow at skip school and she's going to go to Tokyo and just do something. She doesn't know she's just gotTa. Get Out of school and friends. Yeah cool. She's, but I'm playing hooky. I'm going to be skipping school. My words yeah it. Yeah, what? Everybody else has done it. Yeah, she's like no, but like. I'm skipping school together. Literally. Everyone else I've done. It ever was on it. It's not that big of a deal, but me a nerd. I'm not cool is again. This isn't cool. And say so. We'll find out being girl's name is Kamari and yeah. She's just just real nerd, just real big Doric, and she goes home, and it's all excited planning a trip and packing a big gym bag for extra clothes. Sushi can change out of her school uniform at the train station. And the next day. It's rainy a bit. We see her. Get to the station and We see a low. Cut Away of her like talking to a friend on the phone saying. I'll tell the school some story while you're not in. If your parents, call me if you stay overnight somewhere. I'll tell them like. Oh, you stayed at my place and give you a story. She's a very cool. Thanks Bud. And cuts back to Kamari back in school with her friends sitting at the desk. The fuck you back here for. I got scared. I. Be Wet on the outside of the train I'm. She starts coming up with excuses, but in the end she's like I I am I'm a baby I'm baby got scared. That'd be me. She's like. Will you always over think things each figuring out like every possible scenario could go wrong anything like Oh, well if that's going to happen, why even bothering you end up citing yourself out of stuff? She's like that can be good like you're very precautious. You try to avoid bad things. She's like yeah, but I. also fucking hate that because nothing happens, I ever do anything. Yet it me. Checks out taught me next to. Our old friend. I was just thinking about how even when I would like. Decide to not go to class one day like even at Community College I would like justify it to a lot of people. I'm going to help my parents. I would tell Paul. Tell myself over and over again like it's okay like I'm doing really well and I really don't need to be there and I don't feel well. I never skipped high school. When I did it was like fake sick days I just hung hung out at home, but I never like. Skipped class or anything because I'm like no I'm GONNA get insurable. Nope, I never worried about getting in trouble, but I always worried about how much work can have to catch up on any of two days of work to catch up on. I just don't want to do that. And then. Sometimes you're on an enema wedding at city heroes till three in the morning. Mama now. There's sometimes I just can't believe he was. Oh. I'll sick all the time anyway I had excuse built in. It's called. Anyway. As we see Kamari going home that day from school. She's hopping on the train to go home, but she sees a girl run by, and as the girls running by trump's a little envelope. Picks it up, she's like Oh. Wait I, excuse me, Miss You. Drop your loop and the girls already on the training gone. Cigar right well. Let me see what is who should just money just a fat stacks again just? Stupid money. We see her the next day at school showing her friends and she's A. It's a million yen that a lot of Quiche. Some real though that's a lot of money to be carrying around did it's what ten thousand hours so? He might be one hundred. Okay? Yes, it is ten thousand. It's like it's well. It's ninety two hundred, but you know. It's a lot of money. Yeah, so it's like ten thousand dollars, so it's yeah. Don't want to just drop that at a train station. That's for sure and like all right screw tops like no. I got nervous. 'cause I got anxiety. Right Nagai. Forgot remembered. Door nerd. Confront anyone ever. Art Fine do you remember what the girl looked like like I think she had a school uniform for our school. Think she goes here I. Don't know the grade. She had long hair and she had. Heard, smelled nice and her friends like cool. That's weird. Why did why is that what you remember not helpful? And she's like all right. We can start looking around, and there's a lot of girls along hair, but I guess we can just try to find her. So you okay. And we see tomorrow like immediately. Start looking around, and we see a girl walked by with long hair goes into the bathroom. Kamari fouls are in there and girl goes into a stall until they're freaking out slamming doors. Screaming like a million yen a million tired. With them, we hear crying competitors just like Oh, I'm going to just chill out here for a second. Not, litter ever moment and when the girl comes out of the stall. You see she. She was crying and Kamari. Comes up to her and I was like Oh money alloy. You can't really find the right words and the long haired girl just like flies into like up her face. It gets real intents. And we find out you know. She's panicking and the girl starts sobbing on orico shoulder. Thanking or so much for finding your money and stuff. And it cuts to them on a balcony. Before. He comes to them cuts to commercial bumper and we see Comores French around sniffing girls. Yeah. and and it comes back to Comorians. The long haired girl on a balcony right outside of the classroom. And she's talking about the long haired girl's talking about like her mom and saying like Oh. My Mom wrote a book called a police further than the universe. Is and it's all about Antarctica and cheese has all that money because she's been working a lot of part time jobs. That's all she does in her free time. Outside of school is working. You know various part time jobs to earn enough money to finally afford tripped. Antarctica because that's shoots expensive. And Rare? and. We find out. The girl's mom actually went missing on an expedition. And, that's what she wrote the Book On. So that's why this girl's Kinda like. With it and her mom was never found so dead parent club cushion. Oh, you know she's holding out hope she's alive. I was wondering because he's not later. Episodes of like company Article Mom. I've come to find you and I was like hey, sweet sweet honey. It's been three years. An Ice Berg like. She's not. Like. I'm I can't tell if the show is gonNA. Have like Oh! I got stuck in this abandoned research station how you found me. Everything's Okay but like. She's super super. Bad for two years and Eleven. I feel like they wouldn't do that. Though, I think it's more of like I'm coming. You know coming to Antarctica mom like in urinate in your spirit like to do what you did to the place. You loved sort of thing rather than I'm going to find your frozen body. Mom and I'm going to bring it back to Japan goes. Says I'm going to find my mom. She chignon specifically going to look for. Yeah I don't know. I think she's still. She's just like there's no proof that she is dead so I'm just she's alive. And My right fellas. We've seen because she's a high schooler. Denial. I mean like I. Get it, but. I have I have a feeling that the show would not be. Unrealistic enough to be like here. She is under, but who knows it is an Afro. Figure that's also reason why a lot of like enemies and tissue generals, about high scores and teenagers like they're dumb enough to believe this, yeah! That Lara Croft Tomb Raider Movie, the Real Dad's on this island for like seventy. Anyway, I of problems with that. So she s. she says like my mom was never found, but I'm hoping to find her one day. And that's why she's sitting out the money and cuts to Kamari and her friend at like comedian store. She's kind of discussion about the long haired girl. She says her name is co Bucci as. Chirace. Rossy GONNA. Say Sure I'll say. She's just kind of better like Ashi. So determined, oppressive cool and learned all that money and she's got a goal of mine, and she's doing something crazy like I wanted to do in high school. That's so memorable envier. She's so cool. and. We've got a little reaction advocacy. As at this point I was like the Gay Hold off. We don't. We don't want to burn that square. Right away on the bigger card but like. My depends over it. And Her friend is saying like Oh. Yeah, sure I'll say is only known about. She's known as Antarctica 'cause. That's all she talks about it. She of Weirdo so people Kinda give a shit for it. Yeah I called her. Auntie and my notes. To Honor That and not laziness because I missed. This is my uncle and my Auntie and the next day we see Kamari, goes to the library and looks up the book that. Shas, mom wrote. She's a looks like it's photography books, so there's a lot of pictures of Antarctica and she just gets. Sucked into it right away. And Then? It cuts to try getting bullied by her bike rack bullies being. Maybe you can get your bike out. Maybe you can't. Maybe if you talk to me about fifty bones, we can talk about this. Because, the rumor got out that she had money. She had a billion yen when they were looking to give it back to her, so people know she's got that K. Ash. Kamari around the corner bailing Oh. Hey, sure a teachers look at forty. You better go talk to that teacher Oh. Quick before they punish you like they could punish us for any given reason, wink and just. Trying to scare the boys often. Fight and they walk away so works and Kamari says she wants to encourage. She wants to encourage her. To, go! Because Oh she wants to encourage her to go. Because she gets scared of elite by doing like chickening out at the last second shows, she's like no I. I want to encourage you to do this. You're not a weird I. I WANNA support you in this. because. It's also Kinda my dream of doing something big like that while still in high school. And she says Oh. Yeah, people say they want to support me before, but now they always. Was Chicken out. She's become like no I'll come with you I'll go to Antarctica with. We'll have heard that before. Don't bring. You wouldn't believe. People if I had a million for. My own expedition. I wouldn't have had to work. Somebody God goddamn jobs. And she says if she's really serious about her and supporting her come to this location gives her like a pamphlet. She's come to the stock tomorrow to scout out the. Shipping vessel that's go on an expedition Artika. I'm going to be there tomorrow morning. If you show showed there tomorrow. I'll tell you seriously. And then we see a little montage of Kamari looking at stuff and you know we have the pamphlet and stuff done an online and flip-flopping whether she should go or not. Because now now she's about the chicken she usually does, and her sister goes to wake her up on Saturday morning, and which for Headingley you gotTa Wake Up. She's gone. She's already awake and she's out of the House. Boat. And at the train station see. You know another woman touch per going from a train, the trainer finding her You know route that she has to go on and we see you're getting nervous. About backing out. Maybe it's not too soon to run back home. No Gus stick with it. And what you wanted the trains. Sh- issues runs into sheriff. Say See oh well lookie here. And we. Get the ending credits going over while I. The trade secret stuff plays out and we see them saying to get onto the last train and. You know like all these like cute little shots like they're trying to get a picture of like Mount Fuji and guys heads in the way. They're looking at like train lunch so unbought and they bought like the whole, many or just a lot of food and early trolling over it, and we see each Rasi like pulling out her money like the million she has no. I can't put up hungry and I need to. Know. He's planning a launch. And we see her falling asleep on tomorrow. Shoulder. Putting heard there, so that should feel a Bingo card enough. I think that's gay. That's. I feel I should. We should put. That should be a bigger on the card because I feel like I. Say it every now. And then we get. After the credits go and the song ends. Get shots of them running data dachshund seeing the boat. The boat is named traffic, so it's got her name on it, too. I don't I'm. That's just coincidence, or if it's like your mom named the boat, nor like what? Destiny well. And It ends with a Out? and. Trust like. Was Commodity Azure something. Like how are you going to? How are we going to get on trousers like you leave that to me? It's like smiles and then commodities head. She's like. The way heard the. End of her lips curled around when she smiled like me. All excited I was all right there. It is gay gay. I was like that's if you're feeling when she smiles at you, that's that's gay. And at the very end we very little clips at the very end of the upsets super porn. He had shot the comedian girl. Named Tanada looking at the globe, and giving it sore, looking down at the bottom of Antarctica, and we sparking her interest, so that's absurd one. Cell. The we pick up episode two so their game plan. That ship leaves later that year in November it sales down to aunt art. Of course, it sales an article. For you, Australia stops to refuel. AMEND FINISHES THE TRAP A to Antarctica, so they're like okay, so we're GONNA. Need it down there in Australia in December. Hop aboard, and then will take down so they're like okay. All we need is money for a plane ticket to Australia easy peasy sell. Qamar is looking for a part time job trying find something. That will pay for the flight. Is Looking at like a escort? Not. Reserve. But. Simone. Like the hospitality market being God. You're looking for high school girls. But her friend is like you. Don't do that job yeah. Don't but also like. Are you really going to? Really As, she's doing research in class. She seemed like okay the last expedition. I should also say that they're going down as part of civilian expedition group, because it's like the first one in a few years, so as their as Kamari looking into it, she is learning about the last expedition, which was super dangerous. I believe this specific one was the one. Sheriff as mom was on, so they're like a the people went missing the lost their sponsors, so it it. It's a troubled trip at this point, three shifts rough. So she gets called out in class for doing this research and given detention and she's. Late after school and she was supposed to meet Sarah. say the out been about so they can keep finding jobs and all that stuff, but she got stuck in detention. Her friends stuck around him was like hey. Really really. Think about it because I to say I hate this bitch. She's so discouraging I get it, but also like all she does is like discourage Kamari shooter down on stuff. Yeah, it's I don't like her I mean episode one. She was like Yeah I. Got You if if you're gonNA play Hooky yet? Yeah, go for it and then was like what the fuck you didn't do it. I can understand though because it's like seems like she will support her. Like yeah, you download things find, and it's like I'm going to a giant ice content miles away. It's like you couldn't get on a train yesterday with the foot yet. Where did this come from so I? I see more concerned, but she is like kind of pessimistic with the shooting it down. I was getting very big. Energy laid back campfires from. because. There's one friend and laid back camp WHO's. With the dog, we saw his always at home for like most of the season and then joins up later. because I actually watched episode four Sh. But we. Spoiler but we got a shot of her like seeing a picture. Tamari says she kind of looks reluctant of like I was doing stuff, so it kind of has summer vibes of that. She's not in the opening now now. Yes, I, don't think she actually joins, but I, think she. Maybe we'll support her more maybe later in the season series. Komo he's got big. FUJIKO energy of like golden retriever of just super passionate. Just no idea what's happening. But yeah so A. Friend is like hey. This expedition. Not GonNa just let high school girls join. Are you sure you can actually do the? Oh There's so much of what's going on right now. Like in my neighborhood. It's driving me crazy. Spooky. She meets up with the say ends like Oh okay? Sorry I'm late trust. It's like you can't be late. We have to be punctual in a in an Arctic. Immediately is like what are you doing? It's like. Maybe. This is why people. On the trip with you because you immediately start yelling. Real intense. She's gotta find her mom who super alive. But she is like okay I. Found some part time jobs. Here's this. Block I didn't understand what happened here. they were looking at the like same job. Posting like go on walks with boys and get paid for it. And then they cut to a vending machine, and then they cut back and like Oh, I'm so embarrassed and I don't. was. Was Kamari explaining to her what her friend explained to her about that job and saying like Oh. You're essentially paid once again nine escort, but you're getting paid to date these boys and don't want days with them and walk around and like they're paying you to be there. Girlfriend, forbid and Sharada gets like embarrassed 'cause. They're kind naive and didn't know that Gotcha Okay 'cause I was like I thought these were mainstream enough that they would know. What like a me? Cafes but I guess not okay seem pretty clueless in general. They're innocent. But yeah so. The. They're walking down the street. And Kamari is like hey, so My friend said that's crazy. Thing that like. We probably can't join the expedition, but you you you. You have that figured out right. Right right. And SORTA like questions like we can actually do this. Right and trust like. I knew fair weathered friend. We will never speak again because you asked me the question how? And I refuse to answer. Your blood of what took your blood, but yeah so they. Part ways, and then they come back together is like okay, we're. We're still in it. And then they pass the convenience store, and they see assigned for help want. So. Kamari gets a job. There meets new CO worker. And it's like you get your neom. School are just looking for money for job for a trip and coworkers like. To Antarctica See. She's like mind reader. Which? But This is Milwaukee and she's like Oh now you're. You're in the store a lot and I hear you talking, so you're very not quiet people. But. She's like that sounds. Rad I am in because you seem like cool people I, WanNa. Hang out with, and you're doing cool shit like going to Antarctica so Kamari takes her to assure to introduce her. Then joined the team and she's like okay, but like. Money for the flights. Can you leave school and she's like? Oh Yeah. No, I I have A. ged equivalent in Japan I. Forget what they actually said she. She's like. Yeah, I'm sixteen. I have two years until college entrance exams so I can dick around. That's fine. I'm so. So. They go into the city. They're looking to find the expedition team meeting they. For whatever reason this meeting is held in the Red Light district of the city, so they're like Oh these strip clubs and people asking they want to hang out. There super innocent children. Don't get it. And then they get to where the meeting is held, and as like okay, now for my master plan. Someone goes seduce one of the boys. They'll sneak onto the boat. It's like. I'm sorry all of this. was. We didn't know what hospital ity jobs were, and now you want us to seduce strangers. I don't think so. You don't do a reoccurring Li like a job. You've got to do with US one time. Just the ones for no money. So, they They Push Kamari out and she awkwardly like hoses like. Poised. Donna good. Of. Time you like. How you doing valid. On! And like the two other girls look behind the training we could. Get, your Another game moment. COMMODITIES LIKE Ten sure us has the best one. It's like Oh yeah good. I've checking out. So sure I'll say gets pushed out and. Is Seen by the group and some people recognize her and are like. This FUCKING BITCH GET! Bird! So! We have a a pointless JC Gwi-. The girls go over to talk to her and trustees like run. They're about to murder. Everyone split up scattered. So, they run through the city Kamari is like wow, this rules. This feels like the remotely issues. That I was looking for this great. This as living. but This is truly just filler chase, because they all run into each other and just end up talking with the girls anyway so. They go into fun. Yeah, they go into his pretty. Yeah, it just certain. It didn't serve a purpose. anyways back to where we were. So they meet and they're like hey, look. No I'll know how many times have to tell you, but now. You, you know like where adults and we're like trained for this and ready to go, and you're a high school girl. and. She's like but I. Hear me out I. Have Your sponsorship money and throws down the million yen and they're like Oh. Cool still no. Good Job Kinda. Say No debt great. You give us ten thousand dollars to have you die on our hands. I mean. But Super dejected. She's like This is the only thing I have in my life I. Need this bubble. But they leave and on the train back. They're all bums and A. As like okay I, propose you are fired as team leader, because clearly you fuck and suck at this, even though even fixating on it for three years. So you're no longer the leader. We will figure this out just not following you. And Yeah. That's basically where we end up I, did like during the chase sequence. Miaki breaks on her own and she tries to just hide for by sitting at a table with two drunk women. As woman chasing runs by, she's like Oh i. did shit she saw me. The trump woman really by see. You later didn't know it. So an episode three, we see a girl with dark hair, and she has like one braid, and we actually saw her like in the group that was having the little Antarctica meeting. She's like a bus stop and she stayed there. She's she says I could just die. Unlike what's your issue, baby? What's going on with you? And then our main trio are at Sarah's house, and they're doing some research, and that's when they find out that an actress. Their age will be going on the Antarctic a trip. WHO and say like freaks out? And she finds the number for this girl's agency and she's like call them. Tell them I deserve to go. To Star here. Since my mom was an explorer and I'll come on. And then they're like. Wow, you call her call them and she's like I can't. To nervous and I'm like bitch. You're all talk. And, so he not to like. You're calling here. What's her name? I kept calling you not man she presses like the call thing, and holds it to shear off as face, and they have like a little tussle over it because she like. I'm not doing it. But then they realize that this girl is right there. She's come to them. Behind me the whole time has. Her name is use a key. and. They're looking stuff up about her while she's sitting there and she's like Oh my God. Embarrassing! But she's there to ask if she. Would like to go to Antarctica in her place. Because she doesn't actually want to go. And the only reason she gives is because she's sick of the cold. I'm not sure that scene, but there's also onerous. She's like what is it that outrageous that someone would want to go to a giant? Ice Berg in the middle of the ocean. Point. I'm. Sure I'll say like celebrates kind of rubs it in the other two faces being like I, told you work. Very proud and slams very. She's very hard. He Susan Mia. The. Doorbell rings and use is just like well, I'M GONNA go. I'm ahead out. And then she runs into the woman rang the doorbell and it is her manager and mother. Her name is Tomiko. And her mother is kind of like listen. I, know. You don't WanNa go also not your place to decide. Contra Insurance as like I like I have to go, though like let me go in her place, and then Tomiko is like. Can you perform though like she's going to be a reporter? Can you do that and say like tries? But she cannot, and then he also tries Ed, but she does a better job and then Tomiko. CAN YOU BE PRETTY? Damn bit. First of all, she is pretty second of all. Say a high schooler. so-called. Yeah So, while they're kind of like being silly and like showing off their quote, talent Tommy like sneaks sees a key out. and we see like a quick flashback of us a key asking some girls if she can be their friend because she's texting them and they're saying like Oh. Can you come to this and she's like? Oh, I don't know yet. But so we realize now like her. She just wants to be a normal girl, a normal high schooler, but her mother does not understand Hannah Montana well. She does get to be normal girl. That's the whole miley thing. Yeah. So. Her Mom, her mom says Oh, it's fine like you'll be back in time for like entrance exams, like for college or whatever and she's just like. Do you not understand that that's not what I want? And she gets mad and runs off. And then he not, so Kamari are at work and Sharada breasts in and She has Tommy Coz business card and she's like. Her Mom came back to tell me that. If we convince us a key to go to Antarctica, we can go like they'll take us with her so. Who Bureau entre music he would have like built in friends. Insurance as like come on, let's go see her right now. And then they're like it after ten PM, also we should like probably have a plan. Twenty storm in on a celebrity. Yeah, and they're like well the also the only reason she gave us for I. She doesn't WanNa. Go is because it's cold like there must be some other reason you know, we should find out. We should talk to her. Then we see Sheera on the train. And Shira's as like. I've been pretty selfish and he knows like yeah. But it's okay like obviously this is something you've wanted for a while, so she say like self isn't Nash, selfishness and self-assertion or like a thin line between yeah? and. It's just a sweet moment, and they lean on each other friendships are blossoming. What Oh, my phone auto corrected glasses two gladiators. gladder I don't know so. Museum L. An animal crossing. Yeah, that one. Loves. Kamari glasses, friend asks her if she wants to go out to get something to eat and she's like. Oh, no, like I already have plans with my new friends. Glasses friend. Is Jealous. so I wrote notes about how I don't like her. So. They go to use key hotel and they like just so happen to get there. She's coming out and she sees them and. They. They like pushing out and she's like what a coincidence you're saying here. I never would guest. Look running into you. Want. And then they go to a cafe together the four of them. A user keys going out to study because since she doesn't go to school, she has to catch up on her own. and she's like I haven't like convinced. My mom of anything and they're like Oh. We know we we like. We do want to know why. You don't WanNa go, but they don't push her like she's like I. I think this is what you're thinking of Brendan when she's like. Is it weird that I don't WanNa go. Yeah. But they don't pressure her. They're just like no like few. Don't want. Tell us cool, and they just sit there for a minute and then she says I. Just don't think you'll understand. And then she goes into explaining how she's never had friends because she's been an actor since she was four, so even though she's been going to school, she just doesn't have the time to like. Hang out and do extracurriculars and make bonding. You know French have time. Kid. Life. EAT dirt. No I didn't. But so when she got to high school. This is it. This is the time I'm GONNA make real France Amazon do normal high school stuff, but then we see the rest of the flashback from earlier that when she asked those girls to be her friend, they immediately got up and like. Let's take a Selfie together your celebrity. Let's take a Selfie. We saw earlier to when she got first introduced. Okay you! Know that'd be against the. Usage of my image or something online like yeah, some technical reason yeah! So she wants real friends, and then Kamari gives her a big old hug, and she's like I totally understand where you're coming from and then use the key is like no, I don't think you do because like you guys. You're all best friends, and they all look at each other and they're like. It's not that deep baby. Like. They kind of are like. We're not close like we're all trying to do this together, but we're not quite there yet, but you know we've known each other for like what a week now! Yeah not even says we've known each other for a month, and we don't hang out all the time outside of school or are anything so like. Yeah, there's like friendship. Perform along the way baby, but from right now. and they take her back to the hotel and they're like We didn't really do what we set out to do and sure says like. Oh. She doesn't want to go like they're just gonNA. Find another famous person to take her place. Our only chance of going is to convince her to go and then you. We see us a key in bed, and she's remembering Kamari hug her and she's like that's the first time anyone has done that and I'm like. Does that mean your mom? Do you I hope you mean in a friendly? US Go. Yeah? She's like I would. It's like like. Is that what it's like to have a friend? Humid contacts well. And then she hears a knock on her window. And it's them on a ladder and they're back. They're back to convince her to go on the trip. And then come take my hand and she takes her hand, and then the ladder falls, and then she wakes up. It was a dream. I was. Very surprised. There's also this better be trained because if that letter falls, they're dead. She's only. Rolling Yeah. Say, she wakes up and she goes over to the window and laughs at herself. And she looks at her phone, and she sees that those like fake friends that keep trying to hang out with her have just removed themselves from their group chat and I'm like that's fine. You don't need them use Yuki. You're better than them bitches. And then she hears a knock at the door and that's real. And she opens the door and it's. It's her three new pals and they're like. We heard you had a job in Tokyo, so we thought maybe we could go with you. And then she starts crying because she's just so happy to have friends. They want to hang out with it. Is Very Nice. I have moments like that where I realized that people are my friends. I just had one last week. When do. They. But so they're like. Oh do you like have time before you have to leave? We should go somewhere together and they go to the Polar Science Museum. Yeah. And use the key insurance. They are freaking out over some penguins. And they get into a model of a truck, and they're just looking around learning, and they take a selfie together and use accused the one that initiates it and I think that's so sweet because they didn't push her to take a selfie because they don't care that she's famous. They want to be her friend. And also go to Antarctica. That's the biggest one, but. still a factor. It's blooming on the way. I mean they care about her? Obviously like after hearing her story, they're like. Oh, I, think well. We can be your friends I. Really like the restaurant scene because it wasn't like you're all like no, we're just not sociopaths. We just care about other human beings. To called empathy. And then they're in like a planetarium looking up at a display of the Aurora And they talk about how beautiful is that? Not many people get to see it, but they will and I thought it was so sweet that the episode star with us a key saying I could just die right now in a negative context and it ended with her. Saying it like happily. Oh. All Circle Yeah 'cause she's like Oh, I could just die right now like she's so happy. Yeah, because it ended on, that was like. Weird thing that. She says it in the beginning that makes Merson. Though yeah, the I know I love a full circle. And that's three. Yeah, so gain our rebe there yet I think I think going into it with the. Expectations of laid-back back, camp. Her. This for me really. Yeah 'cause I was like okay, the. Not Space but okay and ARTIKA WE'RE GONNA, WE'RE GONNA get there right, and then it's three episodes about planning a trip, and it's like no I thought. We are going to be outdoors in having fun. And we got. Let's find a part-time job. Let's. Let's do a bunch of tasks and I was like. This isn't I went into it with the wrong expectations. So that's on me, but. I wasn't the biggest fan. I mean the build up to where they can't be like. Hey, boom Antarctica how you doing I mean. Way, back, camp, there were like eight episodes of like okay gotta find the right tents going to rei all episode. It's like no, if if you want to have a show and Artika, we can just start there, but like I know they're doing a different thing and I have the wrong expectations, but like. I? This isn't what I signed up for. It is sort of my feeling. GOTCHA! I, see it as like the Bill Lloyd. Until the eventual goal, starting valley, here's something where you you get the slow progression. And then when he finally get to the reward, it's that much more sweeter more of a payoff rather than just like we're in Antarctica, and it's just them sledding for eleven episodes. Yeah. I think the only the only way the show could disappoint me is if they don't get to go? Out. 'CAUSE I. I really liked it. I thought there was something really cinematic about it. like the way it's animated in the way. The shots are composed. Feels like an indy film like it. Has that tone to it I? I would see this as like A. Eventually like adapted into an indie movie or something like that. Yeah I I like all of them. And like I, think the I think these three episodes were good like I think we got like a good opener to story, especially with all four of them coming together, because obviously there the for their the group. So I enjoyed it. I don't know if I'll keep watching it just because like. I. Don't think I don't think about it. I like to read I'm into reading right now, but maybe I would. If I thought of it, because it is really pretty like I, love the part where I love the beginning when they're like in Antarctica, doing stuff and I also love the part with the book like when they're looking at the book that I. Don't know why that. They gave me like your name. Vibes I guess from when they're looking at pictures of the town. Just made me think of that, so I enjoyed it. Yeah, it's more of a very pleasant. Powell cleanser, but just very pleasant moment, but it's not one that leaves you. Find? Out happens next. Yeah and I think it's supposed to be less about a trip to Antarctica and more about some girls Ponti coming friend. Finding finding each other and stuff like that. Yeah because to. Watch the next episode to my opinion on it kept doing. They do SORTA like. Training experience for a long weekend when it got camping play with the equipment play with the equipment, but like learn how to utilize it and stuff with the rest of the expedition and stuff so there is that camping out of them coming together with it and. The very you know, they wake up in the morning. They see the sunrise. It's beautiful, shot, stuff but yeah. I I was on board with just from the initial premise is laid back camp and then after watching. I'm still onboard with us. This is exactly what I wanted and how expected it? Is the one scene where. Sharon A. They say as can take your place on the Antarctic position, and she's like jumping around cheering like yes, I know it we're this is great. It's all coming together as she slams her against the wall Angelique curls. She does like in pain. Go anymore. My one good. kind of like also kind of Karma does like. You're saying Dana where she's like bragging i. knew this would work and ends like. She Gets A. They'll don't too high. Open your horse their body. Remember Europe panicking every five seconds. You'RE A goof like there S. Yeah and like the chase sequence I really enjoyed like there's just a few moments. And then bumping ended other people swollen was right January was laughing out loud, so it's that's a rarity for me, so yeah. I I really enjoyed it. I'll probably finish this of near next week. Well. Yeah so. Thank you for the recommendation. Had cars play yes. If nothing else. This was a nice change piece. It's nice. Nice quiet moment to reflect an enjoy yeah. I'll ask what we have going on next week next week. We will be watching. It's a small indie movie I don't know a lot of people have heard about it, but. We're watching the nineteen ninety five movie ghost in the Shell. Sounds familiar, never heard of. Kids. So if there's a show, you would like us to watch, you can send your recommendation to us at. Are we there yet on twitter and instagram or email? Are we there yet at G MAIL DOT COM? You can find me on twitter and Instagram Mr Patrick Dugan. You can find me on Instagram at Queen. Period we abhu on twitter at Queen Underscore. We Abhu End Queen Score. We'll do art. You can find me on twitter. ABT S Brenton that stands for almost better than silence. which was a video game podcast? And Quick, shadow, to Louise, along, he's got a new album out called pocket. Yes, kind enough to let us use a song for a theme song I. Forgive Him. Shout down to yeah. We always shout out his band camp. You can listen to his music on spotify. I do it at work. Sometimes, it's just a nice nice pleasant wasn't way to. See the world crumble around you. Listen to levels it's nice. Thank you to Camille, really and Louise You can find all blues music at Louise Dot Band Camp Dot Com. Thank you and we hope you'll join us next week. As we learned to live with anime, bourgoin penguins leading.
The importance of Antarctica for the Earths climate
"And so let's now leap from Western Australia to Tasmania and the famous Beka Street Festival. I want you to meet Steve Rintoul from zero in Hobart Abud and a public event put on by the Ustralian Academy of Science. It was that really your ship up there. They'll let me borrow it now and then. Would you travel south. I always leave Hobart head south. We traveled throughout the part of fantastic Australia. Claims which is pretty big pie wedge of Antarctica. So it's not too restricted while we worked from the southern Indian Ocean right across to the civic mostly South Austria now. The news came today of course about the Arctic plastic being found there and so on but why is the south so very different is it. Because because you've got the continent north and down here you got fewer landmasses you've got this gigantic oceans current going past quite differently clean so the Arctic Ocean that's around by land and the Antarctic continent surrounded by oceans so fundamentally different in that way but the Southern Ocean is say unique and on spiring place for a number of reasons. It's the only belt of latitude around the globe. That's full of ocean so the Ocean concurrence that move through that channel connect the ocean basins and it turns out that transforms how the US climate works. And how the global ocean circulation works. It's home to the world's largest just ocean current I got into Southern Ocean research because as a PhD student. I was taking an oceanographer class. And they said well down. South is the world's largest ocean current but we actually don't know how it works. Wchs all the dynamical ideas that we have that explain how the jars go around in the subtropical latitudes and how the equatorial currents work. It doesn't really work down there. We don't know how it operates operates so that sounded like a pretty good thing to do and Hobart sounded like a pretty good place to do it from so. That's how I ended up here thirty years ago doing all sorts of technical things but you also use seals. I do work well. The elephant seals are remarkable. Animals can dive down to fifteen hundred meters depth pulling breath and feed while they're down there you're in the biologist needed to know where the seals were going otherwise they see them on the beach and then they're gone. They don't know what they do. So they invented tags that would allow them to know where the seals were how deep they dove and also to measure things like temperature and salinity so they actually knew what sort of water they were forging so it really started with biologists and then the oceanographers realized that hold it. This is amazing because not only do they dive that deep but they go there and winter when we're usually back at home and so the seals have really South of sixty degrees south. We now have more Oceana graphic data collected by seals than in the history of chip-based oceanography. What should of Allah Gist are you? Are you a physicist. Assist physical oceanographer and a climate scientist covers the field. Isn't it now. What I want to know is how is the southern thousand part the ice getting on because what we saw of the northern part it really is crumbling? And we were vaguely aware aware of the West Part pent-up what about the other part so when we talk about ice down South we have to be clear to pay attention to whether we're talking about the is the frozen seawater or the ice. That's on the Arctic ice sheet. So we'll talk about the Antarctic ice sheet and Arctic Ice Sheet. It's an immense amount of ice. If all of that ice melted into the sea it would raise global sea level double by about fifty eight meters. That's not going to happen anytime soon. But as that ice runs off the continent and reaches the ocean it starts to float and that means it's exposed to the ocean and if the ocean warms or if currents carry warm water beneath those floating ice shelves the shells melts or thin and so particularly in west Antarctica. The ice shelves are thinning. And they're retreating. What happens then? Is the ice shelves like a buttress holding the ice on Antarctica and without that force that back for us that's provided by the shells more ice floes off the continent in into the ocean and that raises sea level and so in that sense the future of Antarctica A- and the Antarctic ice sheet is really tied to what happens to the surrounding oceans. And that's what's motivating our work at the moment going on the field. Yes exactly what's happening to Arctic. Ice Sheet is something that for a long time. It's been the largest uncertainty in terms of future sea level rise but satellite data shows us. That not only is Antarctica. Losing mass overall therefore raising sea level but the rate which is losing masses accelerating. And so we see that in west Antarctica and just recently. We've done some work. In fact on the voyage H we took the Aurora Australis to place ship. It never been before the front of the totten glacier. The glacier is important because this single glacier holds enough ice nice to increase equivalent to three and a half meters of global sea level rise about half a greenland in this one Antarctic glacier satellite data hits told us that it was thinning. But it didn't didn't fit the pattern. Warm water wasn't supposed to get there and so on that voyage The ship was reaching the front of the totten glacier and we found that actually there is warm water reaching that part of East Tactica. That's important because most of the ice more than ninety percent of the Antarctic ice sheet is in the eastern part of Antarctica. So if that's also exposed to warm ocean moderns debts are concerned. It means that we need to take that contribution to sea level rise into account as well have you told skomer my doors open and we're doing everything we can. Maybe use doors closed to communicate the scientists effectively as we can but sometimes it is a challenge whose moods so Merz. Let's was part of the famous Australian Arctic Explorer Douglas Mawson's expedition down to Commonwealth Bay and one of his colleagues who was a particularly skilled skier And so he took Murzyn on his trip west to explore west of Commonwealth Bay famous story. I'm sure all of you know it but it didn't didn't go so well so new. NFL Crevasse with most of their food Murzyn and Mawson continued on. They didn't realize at the time that eating dog liver was not a good idea. You and Mertz died and so eventually got back to the base just in time to see the ship. Sailing away and spent another winter is famous. That's Australian Antarctic Story. So much somewhere down. The glossier and Mitch is on the move again. I understand stand. That's right so in two thousand ten long extension of the Mertz Glacier broke off in a forum to a massive iceberg about eighty kilometers long and Benoi. Ny Legacy one of my colleagues. It's IRO works on. Glaciers did a calculation of where merged body would have been at the time of the glacier calving and it looks likely that he's he's on the move and floating along with this massive icebergs. See Twenty eight which is making its way westward and so much is on the move again on the move again now I mentioned William Hewlett before Cambridge invented the word scientist in a question from Coleridge. The poet actually heating thirty three and the other word that he mentioned. You mentioned a number of words in signs many many of them and the the one I'm very fond of is conciliates because that's to do with a number of different elements of evidence. You have to make a case that something is so and when you come to climate change here you have in Antarctica and the southern ocean and all of what you're measuring yourself and your colleagues so many elements and you add those all the other ones they've got for example in San Diego the keeling curve killing he went up the mountain. The measured calm dockside. First Time no one knew why and he told this graph going up and up and up and up and up and anyway these numbers of evidence you got fifty one hundred. Two eight hundred. The evidence is staggering. Isn't it that we have a problem. The evidence now is completely clear that climate it is changing. It's changing more rapidly with time and that human actions are responsible so that the scientific evidence for that is clear the the scientific evidence is also clear that we were humanity was blessed in a way by getting delivered a fat wallet full of Carbon To get it through the lifetime of humanity but the temperature of the earth depends on how much of that carbon we spend. It's a very clear almost linear relationship and so forth nightly pay packet and you blow it all in the first. Tonight's IT'S GONNA be tough to eat later on and that's basically what we're doing with our carbon budget. If we WANNA keep carbon below level at which the consequences will be manageable. We need to rein in the rate at which we're using up the carbon that we were blessed with in the analogy is not so distant not so far fetched in the sense that we will literally find it more difficult to feed ourselves and to find shelter as levels rise and the other consequences of climate. Change come through unless we change our behavior one of the things. I WANNA come back to the notion about what you see if I go into a conference. Mm Front in North America in February gigantic snow into these huge cold winters and people come and say well. Where's with global warming gone? Tom and here is a case. Of in fact it's suggested took the wind up. North a wobbling and bringing down these Turkey Nicole streams of air and similarly. Do you get wobbles with the current in the Southern Ocean or do you get some changes to the currents that way we get wobbles in the current but also wobbles in wins over the Southern Ocean currents respond to those some of those are natural wobbles but some are are caused by human activities and there's not just carbon dioxide but of course the ozone hole is a big issue in the south and so as the ozone hole develops the winds shifted did south and that was a direct response of the system to a human forcing but a different one than the greenhouse gas. And the other thing that really puzzled me is is that with what you described these huge ocean moving so fast down the south unimpeded by quick continents nonetheless. You can take water coming all the way from the Arctic all the way from the north. How do you do that so it is connected? So the the global ocean circulation is fully connected and so the properties ladies that are set when water sinks from the surface in the North Atlantic. Give a parcel of water. At a certain fingerprint that allows us to identify the origin of that water. The reason is so important for climate really is that it plays a big role in driving that global network of ocean currents and it's that global conveyor belt of ocean currents the transports heat and carbon into the oceans when we talk about global warming. It's not so well known that it's really ocean warming that we're talking about more than ninety three percent. Ah of the extra heat energy that's been stored by the planet over. The last fifty years is found in the oceans. The implication of that is if you want to track how climate is changing. We really really need to be using that Planetary Monitor. It is the ocean we need to be measuring the oceans but the oceans also influenced by taking up so far about a third or thirty eighty percent of the carbon dioxide we've emitted into the atmosphere. It's a service. The Ocean is provided in the Southern Ocean is the primary way that heat and carbon dioxide get into the oceans. So that's why it's so crucial that we understand how the southern ocean works now and also how it may change in the future because if it becomes less efficient it picking up carbon dioxide decide that will act as a positive feedback and that will further accelerate the rate of climate change. You think the heat will come out of the ocean instead of being absorbed by it so it does eventually come back out again and how long it takes depends on how deep it goes in. What part of the ocean circulation gets wrapped up in so the changes in those ocean currents are part of how climate change will unfold now? Obviously we've talked about a number of different elements here and you're getting two point. Perhaps perhaps although it seems to me a consistent story that you might find duct members of the public stop giving so many elements. How'd you put them together? What do you you say when they seem to be asking that question you know? What's what's the big story? What's the clear line? And why do you keep having to have more and more evidence adding up. You know I said that. The evidence is clear that climate is changing and what that evidence is is looking for changes in all parts of the system in the atmosphere. The ocean the ice the land and vegetation. We know what to expect in terms of the pattern of change and so when we look across all those different parts of the system. It's all pointing in a consistent direction. It's all changing aging in a way that's consistent with climate change signal. Put another way why you keep having to do more research to find out more things and what are you doing infected among among. We don't need to do more research to show. The climate is changing. We need to know. Exactly how rapidly climate is going to change because that will affect the actions we take and we need to communicate clearly the evidence that we have already obviously because it's important to remember that it's not too late but time is running running out that wallet of carbon that we have it's getting pretty thin and that has to last us for the rest of humanity. The grounds for optimism are that were making and changes to decouple our economy from carbon at a rate faster than we ever have. It's already cheaper to build a renewable energy with storage jdpower plant than it is to build a coal-fired power plant. It's already impossible to get an Australian insurance company to ensure your coal mine. The future is is coming. The problem is it's been a little slow and if we were where we are now thirty years ago we'd be a much better position what it means is we're we're in a race and we've given the other guy very big headstart and so we have to use every tool that we have to try to catch up one thing. The brilliant puzzles me. Everyone it comes back to the dollars and the GRANTHAM institute which is connected to the London School of Economics led by Lord Stern Nicholas. Stern must be by the Lord. They did the crunching the numbers to find out whether it would cost so much to tackle climate change or whether you save money and it turned out that you'd say between one point five. Trillion and two trillion pounds pounds are going down to still Laura Laura money and when you talk to politicians about saving lower our money they say well that's in ten years fifteen years. I'm concerned about next week because people want to have smaller electricity bills. How do you argue with people like that? When they're saying we we won't it now? It's a challenge but I think part of the story that perhaps we haven't told so. Well this is actually the one you've put your finger on which is that. It's actually much more costly to us. to not act and it's more costly not just economically but it is more costly economically. But it's more costly socially in terms of health off and the environment and so it doesn't really depending on your values and what you're concerned about is a compelling argument that it makes a lot more sense sense for us to take action to slow the pace of climate change than it does to do nothing to trillion pounds huge amounts of money. We could say there are so many efficient things. I have been broadcast in any number of different schemes for improving things getting cheaper energy more Stable energy and on it goes to the question is turning it around the willingness to do it soon. Have you had arguments with decision makers on that yourself. Well alive count except for when directed which does happen. I've had a series of interesting conversations with a a number of Australian parliamentarians including Senator Malcolm Roberts for example. You may know and it's a it's an interesting experience France. What's clear is that people do use values and making decisions and their beliefs and there are those who are disinclined to act on climate change? Come from a number the different positions but many of them are ideological and they would prefer. It wasn't so and so they find arguments to support the idea that it isn't so it's tough to reconcile that point of view with science because none of the science points in that way and so the challenge is optimism is is important and we need to paint a future that is possible and achievable. It gets more difficult the longer we wait but the truth is that it's it's not too late. And if we act soon we can avoid committing ourselves to consequences that we can't undo and I think that's an important part of the story which is sometimes missed. It is the idea of commitment and Arctic. Ice Sheet for large parts of it to melt may take a century a couple of centuries but we may commit ourselves was to that happening within a couple of decades or decade because for some of the glaciers in Antarctica. Once they start to go. There's no way to turn it off. It's a self fulfilling self-reinforcing process and that's just one example. And so I think when I speak to people and they realized yeah well some people say well. It's hundred years from now. I don't care but if you say that the decisions you make in the next ten years to determine whether that happens in one hundred years we're not that changes how people think about it a little bit now some questions. I'm going to come down here and while I'm walking down. The steps are mentioned. Two things that encourage rage optimism. One of them is a book was published just over a year ago called drawdown by Paul Hawkins with two hundred different ways that you can do something constructive either an industry in work or whatever and they're all costed and you have an indication on each two pages of each the example of the state of whatever it is scheme so there are two hundred different suggestions. There's another film actually called twenty forty with a book matched and they're also examples there plenty of them of what we can do what we can do now. Who would like to ask? Question of Steve the Amana Carbon. That goes up into the atmosphere. There's a level of it when it leaves the water or lays the ground goes up. What dissipated to go up into the atmosphere like what level of breath carbon is omitted from the ground to what it gets up at the top and is there any way to actually dilute? What's coming up before it gets to the atmosphere? The the atmosphere is pretty well stirred mixed up the lower part of the atmosphere so as we omitted the surface it tends to get mixed up through the atmosphere and there are natural processes that remove not that we add but the lifetime of co two molecule. Once it's in the atmosphere is I think a one hundred years or more and so so. This is a gas that sticks around for a while once we put it in the atmosphere unless it's ends up in a plant or in the ocean for example in terms of trying to stop it before it gets in the atmosphere there are techniques of scrubbing. Co Two gas out of smokestacks for example before it reaches the atmosphere. None of that has been proven and yet at the scale that we needed to do. And the the intergovernmental panel on climate change recent did a report on the global warming by one and a half degrees which is the target that the countries of the world set for themselves to try to keep warming blow one and a half to two degrees above the pre industrial level. Most of the scenarios that make that possible require something that doesn't exist yet. which is something called negative emissions technologies? These are things that will actually remove co two from from the air. They depend though scenarios. Most of them depend on having that technology sometime. But we're not there yet so it's just one example of where sciences needed what and we might do is actually change policy on knocking down forests. Did you see the front cover of the Economist magazine. If you didn't look it up it shows all the stumps and and talks about the Brazilian death. Wish for the Amazon knocking. The trees down at such a rate to Manhattan's a week. And what we need is is one point two trillion trees which will make a huge difference to that equation question here in key mines to potter. I think we're a little bit blindsided. The federal election to see how few voters willing to actually prioritize climate in the voting. How do we change that and pot too? How do people in Gateway Kentucky Gateway Cities is potentially play a role in that? It's a good question in the election. As in many parts of many elections and other parts of our lives there are many factors that play away and people voted the way they did for many reasons. Sometimes people talk about the ozone hole in the response to banning CFC's as an example of the globe banding together other to achieve an outcome. That was good for the health of the planet which it is but it was much simpler problem and the debate in this country and many debate in quotes in this country and in many others tends to polarise it into your either for the economy and four jobs and that sort of thing or your for action on climate change and that divisive argument is what's slowing down. If any time. There should be a bipartisan. Issue this is the one because our future depends on on it. You know what's people ask me if I'm if I'm depressed or despondent. What is frustrating? Is the information exists to allow us is to make decisions that are based on good knowledge of what the climate system operates. We're not doing that. We don't make our policy decisions based on that science in the way that we need to do and so I'm not sure the answer to that. The academy is working hard to try to do that. People feel strongly about it they need to vote accordingly and a scientists. I guess our role is to try to provide the information as clearly as we can to people to then make the decisions about how they're going to vote but also oh how they're going to live their lives one of the people who agrees with you the Federal Minister for Science Karen Andrews. She said in my program she said in public that these matters actress should not be ideological. There should be a matter of evidence. It's there in the Cabinet sometime ago. Tim flannery had a great program. And it focused on the values of seaweed. How about the growing of wide-scale Seaweed Femme to actually help harvest the carbon? That was killed. Nick Nick Yeah. It's a good idea. And it's one part of the solution but the numbers get pretty frightening when you start thinking of how much area you need to grow. Plants plants on whether demaria plants land plants to lock up the amount of carbon that needs to be locked up to slow things down. So it's part of the solution but we absolutely have to also stop a meeting at the rate that we are. We're beyond the point where we can say we'll use these two options because they're the cheapest and third the least confronting we need to. It's time to open the toolbox and throw everything at it. Thank you Steve. This is perhaps related to an earlier question Geno extension. I was wondering if you have any examples on. I guess we were talking about the failure of Communication Gus Spa. Aw of the urgency and I was wondering if you had any examples of traditional ways of communicating that I'm thinking perhaps untraditional settings of communication communication or the arts or social other ways of disseminating that agency. I'm sure we could be doing a much better job of using other techniques than those were our scientists most familiar with the most comfortable with and so we all need to get together. And do it and we'd be open to suggestions that would allow us to do a better job of getting messages out. We've tried lots of things and some are more effective than others. The trick is that when it is reduced to ideology. How do you get around that that you know? It's one thing to get the message out to those who are open to hear it and to those who are not we need to appeal to something else and I think the economic argument argument is one that we've undone the fact that there are more jobs. There's more opportunity there's less cost and actually doing something about it than and there is in putting our head in the sand and pretending that it's not a problem so with Antarctic ice sheet melts Meshulam. That's going to increase the amount of freshwater WTA going into the ocean. What does that mean? What affects does that have if any yeah? That's a great question and one of the things working on one of the special things that happens happens around Antarctica as the water gets so cold in so salty that it can sink from the surface down to the bottom of the ocean. Four or five kilometers down to do that. It needs to get both it's cold and salty and it gets it salt when freezes the salt in the seawater is left behind in that increases the saltiness of the water below. Oh the Seattle so if we start adding huge amounts of fresh water from melting glaciers that disrupts that process and so that has the potential to change that whole network of Russian currents that I talked about this responsible for taking up eating carbon dioxide. We don't know yet. Just how sensitive it is it will depend on just how rapidly glaciers smelt but also we don't yet understand the ocean response well enough to be able to really forecast. This will for example change the efficiency of the ocean. Take up a co two by this amount. So it's it's a topic of active research right now but an important question. What responsibility do you think that scientists have off to step out of the scientific community and represent this issue publicly and more the challenges for you as scientists in doing doing bash? I think it is critical but it is challenging and it's challenging because to be effective. It has to be the right message for the right audience. You need to tailor the message in different ways different times but I think it's absolutely part of our job and it's something that we do more and more of were probably not as good at it as we need to be. I think there are alternative ways of communicating that we could probably use more widely. We are trying to do that. In terms of more information delivered a Social Media The academy has a series of short videos for example that try to capture the essence of a particular scientific topic in just a couple of minutes. It's in a way that can then inspire people to dig deeper. We've had a lot of success with his town hall. Meeting is where we take a small number of people and go to Tasmania. Go to the community hall in Bothwell or something just anybody that wants to come along and that's been really useful because it does tend to tap into an audience the institute's rural and regional might not meet a climate scientists in their daily life very often so that's been successful but it's it's tough to do that in in every community everywhere. So we're we're still fighting our way through how best to get the information out there. It seems like the message is getting out. Winner on a community level is lots of cancels cancels in Tasmania the climate emergency at a state level and federal level. The message doesn't seem to be going through. What can community members do to help? Get the message to those levels of government. It's a great point and even at the international level in the process Countries but also other groups make commitments. About how much they were going to decrease emissions and by far the biggest action is coming from some states or regions or businesses or groups of people rather than nation states. And so I think that's actually grounds for optimism. It means that were not limited to having federal governments. Take Action to be able to make some progress on this issue and in councils cities and individuals in the sense that automatically the vast majority of our missions are based on the choices that we make and collectively our choices do make a difference because they add up. You're you're absolutely right. That action is being taken at non federal levels which is significant and important an improbably one of the larger causes. I often assume that some changes possible I think and the man who is optimistic in nineteen forty six talking to students and young people is called Albert Einstein. It worked so thank you Steve. Thank you for everything. The duck the Stephen Tool from cro. At an event organized organized by the Australian Academy of Science part of the Beaker Street Festival in Hobart and they always finished with a lively brass band to lead folk to the next attraction attraction next week in the sign. Show Calls Zimmer on the scandal of the feeble minded production by David Fisher and Isabella. Throw piano. Robin Williams
Animal Week Morning Story (12-22-2019)
"Good morning it's time for Chompers your morning and night tooth brushing shell now today. We're going to tell you a story but first let's get brushing. Start on the top of your mouth off on one side make sure rushing reaches all the way to your back teeth three one and normally drake. The snake was an excellent pilot. Yeah that's right. A snake who flies planes but today drake was in a pickle got lost flying his plane and found himself in an unfamiliar cold and snowy replace so we set out to figure out where he was a switcher rushing to the other side of the top of your mouth. Make sure to brush the front the back and the chewing part of each tooth. Drake unbuckled his seat. Belt called jumped out of the cockpit of the plane. He slithered up a Snowy Hill and looked out as far as he could see but he could see any other snakes. What drake could see from the top of the hill was penguins penguin to his right more penguins but no snakes time to switch? You're brushing to the bottom of your mouth. Keep on brushing. Don't brush too hard then. Drake remembered he had heard of a very cold place. Like this before. No stinks thanks. Lots of penguins and Art Deco Drake was in Antarctica. Penguin waddled over to welcome drink. Drake felt relieved. Maybe the penguin could give him directions home. But the penguins response didn't make any sense to drink. Switzer rushing to the other side of the bottom of your mouth makes circles with your brush and be sure to cover cover every tooth. Drake needed a minute to think. So he slithered back to his plane as he did. He noticed something. He'd forgotten them out his map. Drake was excited but just as he pulled open the door of his plane. A cold blast of Antarctic wind swept through the cockpit picked up the map and blew it out site over that heads of the penguins. What was drake going to do? Now find out if drake's map makes it back to him when you come back for more chompers tonight it and don't forget to.