18 Episode results for "Andreas"
Over the River and through the Wood
"Over the river through the woods demand miles house we go. The horse knows the way to carry the slice. I it through why. Andreas did snow out over the re ever in through the would how the wind does blow Toes in bites. The nose is over the rail we go over the rip back. Let us blow Get a caller in helmet. Get something I mean you can get yourself a scheme I ask it over a dollar general like five bucks that he'll it'll be it man. You gotTa Take Care Yourself. No wonder people died when they're like fifteen when the songs written didn't have no chance Kim's ain't wrote this or somehow hidden bunker but I recommend going out on a slave without some sort of protection or something to keep you warm before we go sleigh this winter season please consult your doctor or the dollar general or something. Just just take care yourself. Don't be stupid.
Bitcoin Ecosystem with Andreas Antonopoulos
"Andreas antonoff lewis is the author of several books about cryptocurrency engineering including mastering bitcoin and mastering ethereal in these books <music> andrea lays out the systems of economics and computer science that underpin the two most mature decentralized monetary systems when andreas originally only discovered the bitcoin whitepaper he had witnessed the repeated mismanagement of government backed fiat currencies. Andreas has a greek background in the financial essential collapse of two thousand eight had led to an economic crisis in greece andreas his first-hand observation of the weaknesses of centrally planned government currencies. He's together with a degree in computer science and distributed systems have made him a dedicated evangelist for bitcoin andreas joins the show to discuss the bitcoin ecosystem uh-huh system in the relationship between decentralized crypto economic systems and centralized corporations facebook has recently announced a crypto currency project called libra and andrea suggests that lieber changes everything not necessarily because lebron will make it to production or because lieber itself will up into the world of finance but because it allows us to further call into question the very nature of what makes a modern currency valuable and valid after all if a government has the right tobacco currency. Why shouldn't a large corporation have that same privilege. Andrea is also a co host of one of my favourite bitcoin podcasts god casts. Let's talk bitcoin. The co host of that show adam levine has been previous guest on this show and if you're looking for more andreas content check out his podcasts when i'm building new product g two. I is the company that i call on to help me find a developer who can build the first version of my product eight g. two. I is a hiring platform run by engineers that matches you with react react native graph curiel and mobile engineers who you can trust whether you are a new company building your first product like me or an established company that wants additional engineering help g two. I has the talent that you need to accomplish your goals. Go to software engineering daily dot com slash g to i to learn more about what g two i has to offer. We've also done several shows with the people who run g to. I gave greenberg and the rest of his team. These these are engineers who know about the react ecosystem about the mobile ecosystem about graph react native they know their stuff and they run a great organization and in my personal experience g._t._i. Has linked me up with experienced engineers that can fit my budget and g. Two staff are friendly and easy to work with. They know how product-development works they can help you find the perfect engineer for your stack and you can go to software engineering daily dot com slash gee to i to learn more about g._t._i. Thank you to g two i for being a great supporter of software engineering daily both as listeners and also as people who have contributed code that have helped me out in my projects so if you want to get some additional help for your engineering gene projects go to software engineering daily dot com slash g two. I andrea into nautilus. Welcome back to software engineering daily. Thank you so much for having me. I really enjoyed our previous interview looking forward to this. Just one awesome next year. Bitcoin will undergo a having where the block reward will decrease by half. Why do bitcoin block awards decrease over time. Well bitcoin has a very unique monetary policy which is part of its d._n._a. If you like it's part of the rules that were set in the place when it was launched in two thousand nine and that are preserved by all of the participants in the bitcoin ecosystem and this monetary policy he is intended to be deflation to create digital scarcity meaning that bitcoin is intended to be rare and finite emulating in many ways the the model of mining for gold. It's even more strict digital form of scarcity that doesn't exist in nature where at some points no matter how much people want more bitcoin to be issued it simply won't so every four years or actually every two hundred ten thousand bitcoin blocks. The amount that is issued is divided in half. How how has this having historically affected bitcoin well interestingly enough even though it happens suddenly so in a single block the reward suddenly goes from whatever was to have that the market's really anticipates this having a long time in advance and so it's priced into the expectations the effect of this having is this is really from an economics perspective a supply and demand in fact if you think about it. It's almost like the federal reserve's monetary policy. Only only you know exactly what's going to happen at any point in the future because it's built into an algorithm so just like the markets react to the federal reserve observe announcements about interest rates the markets react to the having because affectively the issuance determines the interest rate on on bitcoin so the difference of course is the with the federal reserve. You don't know until they announce it whereas with bitcoin you know well in advance every time the having has happened. It's it's had an impact on the market basically reduction in supply if the demand remains the same a reduction in supplying a causes the price to go up because there's less aspect quaint available for the same amount of fires and this particular having is even more interesting because with this having having the insurance rates of bitcoin will correspond to a one point eight percent increase per year so it's almost like the interest interest rates goes down to one point eight percent now that is below the two percent target that central banks have as part of their mandate in most most countries so that means that the inflation rates if you like a bitcoin will now be below pretty much every currency in the world could you route described the difference between block reward and transaction fee yes so essentially the reward is made up of two parts parts which we call the block subsidy and the transaction fees the block subsidy is essentially new coins issued as part of the block reward and and the transaction fees are the sum of all of the fees of all of the transactions included in the block and the fees are paid by the person initiating initiating a transaction and they act as a mechanism a market pricing mechanism to determine the priority of each transaction for access assist to the block chain which is by definition a scarce resource meaning that there is a limited amount of space fit transactions and somehow are we need to decide which transactions more important than others <hes>. There's really only two ways to do that. One is to start to allow someone to make a decision as to who whether a transaction is important or not by classifying transactions and the other way as to allow marketplace to develop an essentially allow will eat person who issues a transaction to decide for themselves how important that transaction is to them in signal that choice using the price of a transaction fee so if i am in a hurry if my transaction is important to me and i'm i feel an urgency i include a higher higher fee so that might transaction is more competitive vis-a-vis all the other transactions and gets included sooner if i'm not in a hurry i include a low fee and my transsexual. We'll be included eventually. Maybe not if there's not enough capacity and that way we use a market based mechanism so those transaction fees are collected elected by minors so that the minor who produces a block elects all of the fees for all of the transactions that are in that block are there any ways in which the this the balance of transaction fees and block rewards could go haywire at some point in a sense just that the transaction fees might end up getting so high that nobody would actually want to transact with bitcoin well the transaction transaction. It's a self correcting mechanism because it's the transaction fees get so high that means the <hes>. There's a lot of demand for limited box base and hands. If that's the case people don't want to pay those transaction fees they stop issuing transactions and transaction fees drop because there's less competition for space until until people want to issue transactions again so the market kind of prices the transaction fee to accommodate all of the people's demand for transactions. It's it's almost like saying. You know that nobody goes to that restaurant because it's too busy right taking a step back. You are highly engaged with the community of people who pay attention to crypto currency around the globe and that community grew massively in the last bubble and then in the community shrunk a little bit at subsided a little bit now. Cryptocurrency is entering the mainstream once again it does have this ebb and flow and every time the audience audience seems to be slightly different. The mainstream elements used to be slightly different. Tell me about the audience in typical speaking event that you're putting on these days who who is interested in crypto currencies today. That's a great question. I mean it very very much depends on where i am doing this talk in the context of the talk so i noticed very big differences <hes> usually about a third to half the audience are people who are new to the cryptocurrency <hes> by new. I mean less than a year or just over a year of being involved in cryptocurrency and then there's of course the people who income again and again and again and being part of this for more than a hero to and are consistent now in some countries trees people are interested in bitcoin primarily as speculative investment in crypto currencies in general and that's not necessarily a bad thing it depends on what access assist to investments they have so for example when i'm in certain countries in south america where they have very high inflation and currency controls bitcoin represents represents an investments that people can access that the government can't stop them from investing their money in and which protects them from inflation so that's a store values speculative investments which is for capital protection in other countries <hes> countries where people for the most part have plenty flax lacks access to financial services and investment opportunities people more interested in the social and political implications of bitcoin so there's people who who have much more interest in the long term impact that this is going to have on the relationship between individuals in the state so empowering individuals often people who come to events our privacy activists or interested in various political movements and social movements movements and many many of the people come to events are also interested in the technology itself so they're software engineers or for web developers programmers etc who are interested primarily in the technology. What are the hardest engineering problems facing the bitcoin community today so there's many interesting on hard problems because this is a pioneering technology some of our balancing competing <hes> interests or trade offs design trade offs for example. There's an interesting design trade off which is called the trial emma in blockchain's which is a <hes> tradeoff between security skilling and decentralisation so looking at blockchain's in general they present a situation -tuation whereby you can optimize for two of the three of those design objectives you can have some things that is secure and scalable but it won't be decentralized you can make it secure decentralized but it won't scale very well and you can make it scalable decentralized and it won't be very secure so that's called the try lima and there's a lot of engineering challenges as well as trade offs as to how you optimize for each one of those or how you lesson is the degree of trade off. You might have between those oh three competing entrusts. It makes me think of the in this may be a bad mapping but makes me think of the cap theorem with you know you have the trial of consistency availability availability and partition tolerance and when i think about the cap theorem this is something that has not knowledge it's ever been you know fixed fixed completely but it has been ironed out by increasingly pragmatic systems over time and it has been the story of iteration ration- and incremental technology improvements and i don't know enough about the bitcoin community the engineering solutions that are being built there in but i can easily imagine imagine just minor incremental progresses accumulating over time that alleviate that trauma absolutely on so so the other aspect of this is that like like many of these laws if you like these traumas exists within a specific system or subsystem within the technology but don't necessarily exist within the kind of overall user experience the same thing that applies to the internet cnet for example within a single layer of the protocol. You may experience design trade offs which are than hidden or resolved by other layers within the protocol right right so if you're routing something over u._d._p. Versus t._c._p. On the internet you have to choose between reliability and low latency and gradually edgeley these trade offs have been smoothed out as you said by combining features a different layers reducing some of the harsh trade offs by various optimizations and improvements by pragmatic choices such as using non optimal heuristic but <hes> sheera six that are good good enough for each solution. We can solve them when we're looking at engineering decisions things that appear impossible in theoretical basis may be somewhat. It's possible on a practical basis to a degree that the end user doesn't doesn't really see the difference classic example of that is the traveling salesman the problem right the theoretical problem in computer science says that there is no way to find the combinatorial explosive solution even the perfect solution to routing between say ten different cities on the shortest possible path that doesn't return through one of those cities because the number of combinations explodes in your face as soon as you have even a small number of cities and yet we have google maps and so from user experience france. It kind of looks like we've solved it. But of course the difference is that you can't proven in fact <unk>. It's clearly theoretically impossible to to find the perfect path between two cities but can you find a hundred perfectly good paths that still are good enough for the person you guys who tried to get from a. to b. to c. Today that are not the optimal path but they're good enough and of course you can in blockchain's these these these problems are lots about what you want to achieve in the end with the blockchain so for example in bitcoin we very reverse strongly care about decentralisation because decentralisation is a means to an end in the end is to prevent anyone from taking taking over coopting controlling and ultimately concentrating power over the system to the detriment of the participants so decentralisation is in cherish property many other blockchain's kind of will solve the trauma by simply reducing the centralization because it's something that's both hard to measure asia and its impact is more long term. Same thing is we've seen on the internet right. You don't notice that decentralisation is going away until until your grandpa tells you that facebook is the internet's and you're like oh. We've gone way too far. It's that unnoticed creeping slippery slippery slope so i in bitcoin we really care about that so we do that to the cost of skill ability so bitcoin souls trial by emphasizing using decentralisation on security at the cost of being able to scale easily on layer one and sometimes you see that reflected in fees where it gets expensive transact on the first layer of the blockchain but then one of the interesting developments in the last year has been developing protocols as a second layer buff that the allow us to route payments in a way that they're not broadcast in fair fight by everyone but instead are truly peer to peer through a system this them routed payment channels. This technology called the lightning network and that allows us to get very very good scaling properties in layer to even if the <hes> the underlying layer one doesn't scale very well so we push some of the problem and solve it in a different way. It's very similar to to solving the fundamental routing problems in the i._p. Layer on the internet to not caring too much about reliability and end to end streaming screaming and then solving those at the t._c._p. Layer and not caring too much about application and encoding and solving those at the h._t._t._p. Layer that's a fundamental toll way of looking at engineering which is maybe you can't solve the problem and this layer but you can create a user experience where that problem is is slice noticeable. Sequel has been around for a very long time and the basics of sequel might not change very much from year to year but the underlying technology that implements those queries is undergoing constant innovation. The distributed sequel summit is a full day of talks about building and scaling distributed sequel systems in the cloud distributed sequel summit is september twentieth twenty nineteen in san jose california distributed sequel databases can globally w. distributed data and lastly scale while also delivering strong consistency and acid transactions the distributed sequel summit includes who'd speakers from google spanner amazon aurora facebook pivotal and yuga by db to find out about the latest innovations in large large scale distributed systems infrastructure mostly with a focus on distributed databases check out the disturbed sequel summit september twentieth twenty nineteen in san jose <music>. You alluded to the occasional. Well not so occasional confusion that some people leave that for example facebook is the internet i had. I had a kind of a disturbing conversation a couple of days ago with an engineer from india and we're just talking about what we do and he asked me what i do and i said i run a podcast. It's called software engineering daily any he said oh. How can i find it on youtube and i was like no. It's it's a podcast and he's like yes. So where's the how do i get it on. Youtube and youtube is podcast is like these joint. I mean not destroy but they're overlapping kind of things and you you know i have come really come to respect the ethos of decentralisation as it could potentially apply to a variety city of forms of communication including money and i wonder if there's clearly market demand for decentralized communications platforms and i wonder how your your current line of thinking is on on how the other platform like other communication mediums other than money. We'll develop like you know you could have policies that these things will all be built on top of bitcoin and then there's all kinds of gradations beyond that like maybe it's actually going to be a theory. 'em because the base programming language is more flexible or maybe it's like some other kind of protocol or something that are built on top of these systems are built entirely separate from these systems or have you start hard to get a belief set around how these other communications mediums like social media or video or the audio sharing how these things will manifest in decentralized fashions yeah. I think that's being one of the primary drivers drivers for the athenian blockchain and ethereal speak. That's called web three and web. Three is is intended to be kind of the next generation of the web. It's kind of a play on the web to dotto social media and interactive web generation nation that that happened a decade ago web three is supposed to be the decentralize web. I prefer to call it. The re decentralized web because when we started the web it was decentralized. You're on your own web server. If you want it's published contents and gradually it became more and more and more centralized than now. I think we're looking at three decentralizing the web that's one of the core principles within the extreme community and it's one of the driving goals of the three in blockchain gene is this concept of web. Three in the idea is to build applications where control low for many of the trusted components that today you are primarily run by trusted third parties or semi trusted third parties that provide institutional mechanisms of trust instead dead are replaced by smart contracts that provides a protocol mechanisms of trust so if you think about it you know if you want to publish content to you want to control who accesses it creates a network of of friends than you can't trust how you publish that unless you have some form of identity management or reputation management or access control and we trust companies like facebook google goal and an apple and others to provide us these access control mechanisms and identity and reputation mechanisms and they provide them as centralized institutions third parties so the idea with the theory him is if you can replace those with protocol so you have mechanisms for petitioned asian that based on protocols and smart contracts mechanisms for identity based on protocol smart contracts and methods for access control in governance that based based on a smart contracts than you don't need these centralized institutions. It's fairly easy today to decentralize data storage. We already have tons of protocols articles that do that bittorrent i s and many newfangled protocols that do that and yet a lot of our a personal content ends up being in these walled gardens and centralized platforms like facebook <unk> part of the reason is because we don't have protocols to do do the identity the reputation the access control of many of the other things we care about so i think that's a core part of the vision on the other hand however i i think in order for those types of platforms to be built we i need to get payments in money. Dun-rite we need robust is to open global systems of payments and money and part of the reason is because not only those provide a foundation for security and tross cross because people care enough to protect their keys when their keys a used for controlling money but they also provide the platform to fund all of these other activities and without that platform without that censorship resistant money it becomes very difficult to build the next layers which is why i think i think the all of the kind of rivalry in competition between platforms bitcoin. It's ms is mostly. Elsa just misguided because i think in fact they work very well together and need each other to do things that cannot be done ogle platform and should not be attempted in a single platform because the trade offs a different. Why is that i mean i i look bitcoin and yes obviously the the language is different but to me it just looks like a very basic turing machine and you can build all kinds of things on top of it like side chains is an lightning networks and you know things with like longer confirmation times where you could have different scripting languages and so on why why why couldn't you just import all the innovation into bitcoin. Why do you need these other languages and other platforms. I think primarily it's it's two reasons one is that bitcoin itself is is not turing complete. That's quite deliberate. It's actually a hard effect to achieve and difficult to maintain contain and it's deliberate because that provides a much more predictable platform for execution of much more. Let's let's call it mission critical security code <hes> if you're going to build a robust search nation state resistance censorship persistent denial of service resistance tsk global platform for money which is a very tricky proposition because governments are very serious about controlling money worldwide you you really need to focus on very conservative robust security developments and that restricts both both the range of activities. You can do on the platform as well as the the payson speed at which you can do. Developments things have to be very slow very conservative -servative very carefully reviewed before they deployed because you're talking about something that needs to be very robust now. Now that's not suitable for development of all of these other things we're talking about. They need a much more experimental much more fast paced style of development and that will necessarily happen at other layers and other chains now can those chains be connected to interact with bitcoin absolutely but the other other issue also is that the security of model of bitcoin the consensus mechanism involves verifying only the security primitives aww bitcoin itself which means that if you build the aside chain of or something else that links to it. It's very difficult gold to rely on the security guarantees bitcoin. If what you're doing is outside of that purview if it's not being validated pseudo verified by the same security mechanism so if you build the side chain that does you know fancy smart contracts etc those smart contracts are anchored or connected connected to bitcoin but they're not being verified by the bitcoin security mechanism then you have to provide that security mechanism in your side chain or in your whatever whatever else you're doing and if that's not robust then neither are your smart contracts. This is the fundamental dilemma the the calls or lead photonic turn to decide to launch. If you're innocent separate chain i see so i was imagining oh you can just engage in two hundred and fifty transactions on a side chain and then eventually compress that into something that fits into the core bitcoin blockchain but then then all two hundred and fifty of those transactions are not subject to this security constraints of bitcoins. You're going to have to figure out some totally the alternative security mechanism for securing them. If you you know unless you want to wait for the bitcoin confirmation like that that wouldn't work right. You wouldn't just wouldn't have security guarantees well it. It depends on what you're doing in the side chain. If what you're doing in this other chain or layer is payments when you can summarize the entire security states in a bitcoin script then yes you can basically take all of the security guarantees bitcoin and and essentially connected to this other states and therefore you can inherit all of those security guarantees and that's what the lightning network does because what the lightning the network is doing is summarizing the state of payments and so that's fine. The problem is if you want to do more complex things involving smart mark contracts than the state of those smart contracts cannot be expressed in bitcoin script and therefore you can't lovers security guarantees bitcoin you need to bootstrap a whole different security mechanisms that actually inspects the execution of the smart contract and the state transitions solve this mark contracts and it's exactly what does in doing so however it attacker prices in some of the robustness in order to be able to move faster turn and develop an experiment more and that means the sings that should be simpler or not and things that can be done very simply conversa- curly in bitcoin can't be done very soon simply in very securely in therapy. Here's a very good example. Multi multi sake is part of of the fundamental primitives of bitcoin script so you can implemented <hes> directly in bitcoin script and multi has existed almost so since the very beginning in its modern form since twenty twelve which is called pay descrip- tash and it is extremely robust because it's implemented at the core layer of the protocol validated by everyone and it's very very simple and simplicity insecurity are very closely related ride right the simpler you can make something the harder to find a way to you know introduce evolve or ability or fool the protocol or the validate jurors multi sagan bitcoin very very robust multi sega theorem has failed repeatedly because mulled signature is not that's part of the base protocol. It's implemented as smart contract. People have bean unfortunately rather verbose in their implementations rather than doing a very very simple multi sake. They've added features right. They've made it more flexible and some of those features resulted in bugs and those bugs exploited cause failures in multi. This has happened more than once and you know there's there's currently some moldy subcontracts in theorem that have been very carefully audited have been used for a while without motor ability. I i don't trust awesome. <hes> i wouldn't put my money in them and the reason even though other people hundreds of millions of dollars in the reason is simply because there's much more room for hours and that's exactly the kind of trade off the makes it difficult to implements the same level of security in theorem as you can in bitcoin with this is what kind of confuses me about the idea that we wouldn't want to or that. We couldn't build everything on top of the bitcoin. Ecosystem is if you're gonna need a reliable multi sig system regardless and and see if you can build again. I guess maybe what it comes down to is is the question of can you build abstractions on top off of bitcoin that are turing complete and have the sufficient guarantees that you need such that your bitcoin based system is equivalent yet superior in terms of its in terms of it's proven stability to therion cerium or is there something is there just something about if theory because it's a fundamental design trade off the flexibility you need to do expressive compose -able well and flexible smart contracts undermines your security robustness and that doesn't mean you can't do security simply means that <hes> security takes. There's a lot more than a lot of time to mature eventually once you have a smart contract has being you know polished to a level level where it's being relied on attacks at a toxin attacks. No one can find any problems with it then you can rely on that and then it's robust austin off but it takes a lot more. It's rations to get to that point because it's more complex more expressive by comparison. You can do that more easily with bitcoin because it's simpler simpler but the problem is you can't be very expressive so you can't develop the kinds of smart contracts and there's a gap between those two design trade offs and you so you don't really want to to try and close that gap. If you make bitcoin expressive enough to do smart contracts you lose some security and if you try to make your smart contract less expressive passive you gain a bit of security you lose the ability to develop interesting things beyond the basics i i would. I give you another example simple and i i should probably talk about this secrecy of bitcoin as inorganic chemistry in think of a theorem mm-hmm as organic chemistry right so bitcoin organic chemistry you can make steel out of it and it's probably robot's there are a number of chemical reactions that can happen but they're fairly limited you can in fact lists all of the chemical reactions that can happen to it because of a reaction accident very predictable way with a very specific set of elements and that set of elements is finite right so you can predict its properties from quantum level. You can predict its its properties his ex exactly what it's going to do even if you've never seen him a molecule like that before in inorganic chemistry even before it's discovered than before an atom is discovered covered a specific chemical element is discovered. We already know it's properties. You can derive its properties from you know it's composition right. You can predict its properties ladies even before it exists now compare that to organic chemistry organic chemistry fricking messy. You can have an infinite variation tune of elements that combine in different ways and it's not just what they're made of. It's also which way they're twisted and what shapes her in how they fit into another molecule has a different shape whether the left handed or right handed and you can never predict how they will respond to to interacting with another element and that makes them very unpredictable but it also makes life you know so that's the trade off and and when it comes to doing money and stuff like that i'd much rather stay firmly in the inorganic chemistry that is predictable and five nights in its implications implications but when it comes to doing more interesting things much rather stay in the organic side and there's a bit of overlap but they're two fundamentally different routes insta- bug is a feedback system that helps teams improve their app quality insta- bug allows your users to give feedback inside the app by shaking their phone users can take surveys and help. You understand their perspective about your app. If your users encounter bug that they want to report themselves they can just shake their phone and send feedback to you and your development team. This level of communication is great for beta testers or if you have a live app where you're are in close contact with your users you will also receive automated crash reports which means that every crash on a user device is going to be reported to you you and your development team go to insta- bug dot com slash s._a._v._e. Di and tri insta- bug for free for fourteen days insta- the bug lets you get feedback from your users inside your app when your app has an issue or a bug or a u._i. Glitch your users should be able to report boarded and they should be able to have a dialogue with you. Go to insta- bug dot com slash s. e. d. to try insta- book for free for fourteen days. Just thinking about it makes me wanna get insta- bug for the daily apps. We should probably check it out in more detail because companies like clift and pay pal and samsung all use insta- bug and they want to improve the quality of their apps well. I want to improve the quality of my apps to if you want to improve the quality of your apps you can check out insta- bug dot com slash s. e. d. I'd like to discuss mastering a theory him a little bit it. I read mastering bitcoin a couple years ago and i never programmed with bitcoin. I never spun up a note or anything but the the book was really useful to me because you can read the white paper and you can read crypto twitter but until so you like kind of code and you see just the engineering beauty and finesse that has gone into bitcoin. It's difficult local to really get an opp- i found i had so much more appreciation for what bitcoin is from reading that book and my sense was that in writing it you also your regard and how much you you were in all of the technology increased as you were writing it because it's it is so well put together and i'm wondering what that process was like for mastering athenian because i'm sure you you went very deep into technology and and probably probably had some insights about what made the technology beautiful so. I just love to know more about that that writing process any insights you had yeah. I mean for both both of these books. The purpose of writing them was learning for me. When i first entered the space in bitcoin i he craved a way to be able to get a very high level but detailed enough picture of whole thing so that i could grasp it but all of the information was scattered all over the place and it took forever to put it together and figure out if the information was up today to if it was relevance and and connect the dots between all of these different pieces and see them as a whole and how they work together on why they worked together are the why is very important because it gives you an insight into the how that wasn't such a resource so i set out to write it and of course when when i started that journey i didn't understand bitcoin. I mean i understood it not to the depth of the core developers who had always internalized all of this information the hard way but i didn't understand it to that level of depth and writing writing the book not only allowed me to collect all of the information and understand how fit together and why but also to learn learn and really understand bitcoin to a level looked outside never had before so i was fascinated with the theorem for the very beginning when i first saw the white paper the vitol taua <unk> december twenty thirteen and i wanted to learn more about it i was writing mastering quinn at the time so i wasn't involved in the early days keeping tabs on it and trying to learn and i found that i only understood it on. I'm very surface level and i had trouble understanding some some of the concepts on how they fit together and so. I decided to repeat the same process which is the best way to learn. This would be to write about it. I don't have have a book like mastering bitcoin to learn theorem. There isn't such a thing it was much harder to write part of the reason was much harder to rytas syria move us so much faster and they're so many. Let's say tendrils offshoots right. It's much bigger ecosystem. There's a lot happening happening at the edges size was writing it. It was changing at the same time so i tried to to capture sure what are the things that are essential and continuous or attornal about to him. You know what what's the real essence insolvent the d._n._a. Of its and walt's kind of on the surface in changing quickly the might not be relevant in a couple of years and and then again a lot of that involves focusing on why why are certain choices made. Why does it work this win. Not another way because that gives you an insight into you what's going on so again. It was a huge learning experience took me two years and at the end of it. I'm quite proud of the book because to me. It feels like the book. I wish i had when i first started learning about to him and i was my goal. It was almost immediately out of date just like with the first bitcoin book doc and the first edition is good but not great again just like the first edition of mastering bitcoin. The second one was much better and so. I expect expect some time i'm going to write. The second edition for mastering saruman is going to be much better than i am a learned to even more debt. I wanna talk. Uh little bit about libra with you. I watched a talk that you gave about libra lewis. You touched on libro very shortly. After lieber came out. Have you had had more time to to take a closer. Look at it or have you taken a closer look at it. I mean i read the white paper and i i did a talk at university. The anatomy <unk> about it mostly about the social political economic implications not so much about the paper and part of the reason for that is because <unk> i predicted at the time while the paper was written by people who strongly believe in decentralisation and a lot of the principles we talk about and cryptocurrency in fact that quote the internet of money is the title of two of my books in the first paragraph i believe were paragraph of the paper the vat vision i would never make it into production and the reason it would never make production is because it would come into contact i with facebook headquarters then then facebook lawyers finally government regulators. It didn't take more than two or three weeks from when i made that video for the full impact of that comes through i made a prediction that such a system would be unacceptable in countries that have currency crises in need <unk> strict central bank control. I use india. Here's an example india came out the next week and said this is not gonna be allowed here and many different governments immediately push-back hard against facebook the recent hearings. I think were an eye opener because it offered her a very strong chuck's. The position against i crypto real crypto like bitcoin and the concepts that i talk about to differentiate between the crypto that i care about the open blockchain's and and these other things that pretend to be but are not really talk about the five pillars the five questions you need to ask when someone says the word blockchain seen any task is an open is borderless is publicly verifiable isn't neutralises censorship persistence and the answer for all five of those us for for facebook's system is is no they could never make it be any of those things because they would immediately come under pressure to you. Start backpedaling from those positions and that's exactly what happened. You can't have a system that exhibits those properties on the five pillars that is owned by someone someone who can be coerced. It's it's impossible because they will be course immediately. Regardless of the viability of lieber it has been in a nice thrust of political and public discourse about the nature of crypto currencies. Oh yeah it changes the game completely. Why is that the the funny thing is that lebron changed the game just by writing a paper. They didn't even need to deploy anything a because they force people to start making comparisons so you know i think essentially was the second strike against the nation state money money i strike was bitcoin right and that suddenly forced people start asking questions about the nature of money and and can you have money. That's viable. That's valuable available. That's a usable without state backing the answer. After ten years is clearly yes lieber now creates other questions which are really important important which is what is the role of private corporations in the formation of money can private corporations create private money and if so what are the rules by which they operate since they're not controlled controlled by democratic institutions and that creates jocks that position it creates comparisons between both corporate money in state money but but also between corporate money and people money so now we have these three players you have state money traditional fiat you have people's money open public lick blockchain's crypto currencies bitcoin of course being the foremost example if that and corporate money and these three are going to who provide three very different perspectives the world and you know i i think people are beginning to realize that privately controlled money as dangerous and creepy and fascist than laden with surveillance once they realized that they realized that a lot of our state money he is also heading in that direction and maybe we shouldn't be eradicating cash so we're having a long needed conversation about the fact that cashless society is freedom less society in democracy less society. You can't have a cashless society. That's free the the idea of of eradicating cash in going to completely digital currency controlled by governments inexorably leads to governments that are less accountable and that's dangerous too so it's created some very interesting first thing conversations and the other conversation is creating which is really useful as the juxtaposition against the people's money because very very quickly people saw that governments are highly motivated to stop libra from happening right into to stop stop facebook from doing this and not only they motivated there are they are able and the moment they noticed that they immediately also noticed that they are unable to do the same for bitcoin and that chuck's position is really important this profound and what kinds of responses are you seeing to that kind of like or are they waking up like are they waking up to <hes> to know like oh. No this bitcoin thing like oh no so it's like actually this is actually more much more problematic than than libra like what are we gonna do or are they starting to have that actualization or as bitcoin still to nascent nascent and and kind of actualized in its effects on the real world for governments to to really start freaking out. I think it's on actualized and still to nascent and that's really really great because the problem here is that at some point governments will realize allies that this is no joke that this is not going away that this is not going to be stopped and that this is not something that they can control not even if they take extreme undiplomatic measures as some governments have already taken and still failed to control it you you know we're beginning to see what happens. When determined governments tried to ban it and then fail or as i like to say you can take your country out of bitcoin but you can't take bitcoin out of your country so when you ban it all you're saying is we will not have any legitimate or positive involvement with bitcoin and great so that goes away but then whether you're left with you still have all of the other contacts with bitcoin 'cause it doesn't go away. It doesn't leave your countries already. They're staying there. It's everywhere so if you ban legitimate user from using it you lose all of the benefits but it doesn't stop the illegitimate limits uses of it in fact it accelerates those and makes them even more profitable so pushing it under the rug pushing it into the shadows does doesn't really work. That's being demonstrated a number of times you know that that won't government's been trying to do that again and again again but for the time being they're underestimating the threat this will have <hes> essentially on sovereignty on their sovereignty and on their ability to control monetary policy would beginning to hear some some whispers. I mean pretty loud once we you know when the secretary of treasury in the united states says this is is a threat to the u._s. dollars supremacy. You're damn right it. Is you have no idea how big of a threat it is. But of course you know the narrative is still but we combat it anytime we want. You know which is the kind of narrative you can persist with long as you don't actually try to execute on it the end in fact it's it's dangerous for governments to try because the one thing that's worse than kind of vaguely tolerating it and spreading misinformation about the fact that it's like used by terrorists persson drug dealers is to actually try to ban it and then fail if you tried to ban it and then fail you provide an enormous boost the narrative that you can't ban it and that's even more damaging because then you show the impetus right but it's really funny when i talked to regulate hers and <music> government people and bankers when i say you can't regulate this the usual responses but we have the authority the laura. I wasn't questioning your authority. I was questioning your ability. There's two different things you have all of the authority in the world sure you have the authority not what you lack is the technical capability to exercise that authority and that's confusing to them because in all of the regulates it systems have seen so far mar legal authority translated into capability one to one. They've never seen a system where the legal authority does not translate into the capability so when you when you say you can't they think that your somehow questioning their legal authority i'm not i'm questioning our technical capability to who actually affect change and that's a huge difference that really hasn't been well understood and i'm glad i'd rather they continue to misunderstand to stand up for another decade and i'm i'm really glad for lebron because what it's done is distracted right is drawing all the attention attention and the ire of regulators and government officials as it should because it's far more dangerous and insidious but it's it's distracting from the thing that's really going to be a thorn in their side in a decade last question. You are the author of the internet of money. This is a book. That's if i read it a couple years. If i recall it's it's a collection of talks the highlights from talks. You've given you touch on a lot of visions and ideas around tiptoe currency some of which have come to fruition other of which are still probably presient if you were to update internet of money today. What concepts would you add. What the new areas you would focus on so first of all. There's two internet with money box. There's into not money volume one and volume two so we have updated its and volume three has been implant for this year. Oh okay so the the nice thing about these is they're not in any way continuous. You don't have to read them in order every talk in them. As standalone it was is given to a live audience. It's improvised than unique and it touches on some aspects of this technology and its social economic political impact the philosophy behind hind etc and they're structured so you can read them in a five five seven minutes setting a single chapter. It's a fun read that you don't have to start at the beginning inning and go to the end. You can just jump in at any point in read one short story and it's not technical. It's for broad audience just like my talk so internet of funny volume one volume two which now being translated in. I think more than a dozen languages are collections of mytalk sers twelve talks in each spoke eleven talks. I think in each book and we're doing more. How would i update them. I mean essentially these are almost like a continuous tenuous biography of my journey through crypto. Each volume contains newer talks than the previous volume so you can see kind of a historical. Oh progression from book to bulk has things change by continuing to do talks. I just did a european tour where i delivered nine different talks in seven in cities all of them unscripted improvised to live audiences and those are eventually going to end up in the next volume. One of them might be the leaker talk that i waited and then andrea. Thank you so much for coming back on. Thanks for being a great emissary of bitcoin. I continued to get a lot of value to your content. Oh thank you so so much. I really appreciate it. I'd like to add for your audience. All of the content type produces available on the free and open licenses a including all of my videos mastering bitcoin mastering theory invokes. You can find them online. You can follow them and read them for free. Watch videos on youtube and i'm not what's sponsored by any corporations or seeking corporates endorsement or anything like that because i'm funded directly by the community so through a the patriots won which provides me with a steady income stream for me and my staff i found my activities which allow me to take this message of education to as many people well as possible in as many languages as possible and you can find all of that undermine username which is a n. t. o. n. o. p. antonoff antonoff you can find me as aunt and up on twitter antonoff on youtube mypillow website antelope dot com and also if you wanna support me on patriot with a monthly subscription description patriarch dot com slash am beautiful. Thank you brian information. Andreas grow talk with you and best of luck in the continued talks so i'll be watching thank you so much. We'll talk soon. I hope when i was in college i was always looking for people to start side projects with. I couldn't find anybody so i ended up working on projects by myself and then when i started working in the software industry i started to look for people who i could start a business with and once again. I couldn't find anyone so i started a business myself and that's the podcast you're listening to but since then i've found people to work with on my hobbies season in my businesses and working with other people is much more rewarding than working alone. That's why i started find. Collapse collapse find collapses a place to find collaborators and build projects on find collapse dot com. You can create new projects org join projects that are already going. There are topic chat rooms where you can find people who are working in areas that you're curious about the crypto currencies as or react or coober netties or view jay s or whatever software topic you're curious about and we now have get hub integration so so it's easier than before to create a find collapsed project for your existing get hub projects. If you always wanted to work on side projects or you you wanna find collaborators for your side projects. Checkout find collapse. I'm on there every day and i'd love to see what you're building. I'd also love love if you check out what i'm building. Maybe you'd be interested in working on it with me. Thanks for listening and i hope you check out find collapse <music> <music> mm-hmm.
New Movement Along Garlock Fault Line In California Could Mean Bigger Earthquakes
"Bowl Djing of a fault line in California can be seen from outer space the garlic fault is moving in ways never seen before and as always in for California is does this raise the risk for the big one I moving back out to California soon so this is a question I am very personally invested in and here to help me certain situations that is enough time yeah absolutely Jake Margolis hosts the podcasts the big one your survival guide thanks so much Jacob Thank you analyze the movement and then it flags it for people hopefully hopefully before the shaking arrives that said if you're right on top of the fault Russian breaks you know they're going to experience it right on time and it's really important this earthquake early warning system because we could do things like stop surgeries opened fire guard lock impact movement on the San Andreas Fault yes theoretically if the garlic went it could change stresses on the San Andreas over near the coast I west right yes so the garlic by sex California and it connects to the San Andreas and it was right next to the ridgecrest quakes that happened so over for years now the US Geological Survey Caltech a bunch organizations have been building out this network of sensors and computers that basically up after big earthquakes at least for a short period of time and that over over time that probability kind of it goes down and settles into law all these earthquakes. I mean there's this huge San Andreas fault that I know a lot about basically runs parallel to the coastline but there's then this garlic fault that runs e we California announced the release of this APP called my shake to help prepare residents I'm gonNA download this APP soon can you just tell me how this is supposed to work this APP yes longterm probability and likelihood but I like I said would be more worried about the San Andreas on its own in terms of the garlic okay so also this movement of the Earth it's not like all that stress just disappears it gets put off onto other faults and so the likelihood of bigger quakes happening actually go about five hundred years ago was likely last time we saw big quake there but that two centimeters of creep was significant enough where scientists went. Oh that's interesting I that said the San Andreas is such a higher risk fault anyway the probability of a big earthquake happening where the garlic next to it all the way down to like Palm Springs L. stores slowdown trains or even just give people a minute to a couple of seconds to drop cover and hold on I love how you say tens of seconds as if that's all the time the world but in whereas I feel like I hear sometimes small movements actually are good that means lake stresses being released but that's not necessarily the case is what you're saying yeah we see the and you understand more is Jake Margolis he's a science reporter with KP in Pasadena. Hey Jacob future neighbor high come on out well I'm worried that doesn't necessarily mean a humongous eight point zero magnitude earthquake is imminent on the garlic but you know it caught people's attention well how could movement on the you're not really going to get a warning in Los Angeles when it comes to the San Andreas we could have seconds possibly tens of seconds on because we're far enough away for people in Palm Springs if that in July and so the big concern was in what people are Kinda zoning now is that after those ridgecrest quakes which were sizable six point four seven points Iraq movement from faults in California and so let's say a fault does slip it picks up those sensors pick up those initial waves and then send it over to computers computers things and it's pretty high so I'd be worried about the San Angeles anyway regardless of the Gar Locke so if there's movement along
The Wake-up Call
"When an earthquake strikes preppy has you covered at the core of every preppy kit is military grade three days supply of food and water from the ninety five dollar go box to their signature prep stir canvas bag be prepared? Get preppy P._R._I.. Dot C._O.. The Big One is supported by California Earthquake Authority. If you own or rent and don't have separate earthquake insurance policy you'll have to pay out of pocket to repair replace and live elsewhere get insurance to protect your home and belongings at earthquakeauthority dot com. If you're listening to the special episode of the Big One. You probably felt the earthquakes that happened over the fourth of July weekend. If not you at least heard about it powerful seven point one man into earthquake has hit southern California sending terrified residents out onto the streets that quake constant damage in ridgecrest home shifted foundations cracked there were multiple fires there some injuries world report of it. They many many aftershocks since then now a larger earthquake Dr Lucy's Jones saying this is not along the An earthquake struck in Ridgecrest California at ten thirty three in the morning. It was a six point four and then then the next day another one seven point one a major one and then a four point six a five point zero a five point four four point one another four point five four point zero four points and and since that first quake and you listening to this episode there have been thousands of quakes. It's the first time in twenty years an earthquake this big hit in southern California. All the bottles were weighing like the liquor in them and then and once the first bottle fell that's when I realized like it was actually a huge thing that was happening and fires broke out gaslines broke the feeling inside of our fellowship hall had caved in <hes> six thousand people lost power of approximately twenty five patients that need to be transferred to other facilities. We'll be doing that through helicopters or through ground ambulance. This is a special episode of the Big Wine Your survival guide. I'm me she yousef lead producer on the big one during the seven point one earthquake. I was in highland park in l._a.. At a bar in a brick building behind a restaurant restaurant I'm not sure if you've ever been in an earthquake so this is how it felt like the ground started to roll slowly for really longtime like I was on a boat people around me most list them just started running a hundred percent not the right thing to do. Not a single person in the restaurant got under the table. I tried to get under the Little Bar table like I told you all to do in this podcast but I couldn't because it so small and people started laughing. Two girls got in the doorway of the brick building do not get an a doorway. That's a myth people. I told him not to do that but they looked at me like I was in saying like who are you to tell us what to do. I realized I'd left my phone phone at home and my partners phone was at six percent so if something really bad happened we couldn't tell anybody I did have a full tank of gas in my car. Though here's the crazy thing I was one of thirty million people who felt something something thirty million our whole newsroom went into action and can really you said you live in Trona Trona and so tell me I guess when this when this experience began for you I would assume probably July fourth there in Trona. Yes July fourth bow. How ten fifteen in the morning <hes> my house just started shaking and we had a Grub our kids and find shelter for them and they were freaking out and it's just it was scared? I've never been in earthquake lake this and it just keeps going and going and we just wanted to stop so I grabbed her and run and I didn't even have time to get to the front door. Would you do instead ducker. Would you a little I didn't know the floor was coming up. WHO EXPECTS EXPECTS CONCRETE to move up? Deep Deep Romell keeps coming at you like a freight train from a distance away and it's coming at you and you can hear it standing there waiting for and then the big on hit and we all hit the ground. We all had to get down onto the ground because the vehicles the building everything was shaking so badly and we couldn't stand. I felt these quakes in L._A.. But they were centered in ridgecrest craft and Trona I never even heard of these towns before these quake's there about one hundred miles east of L._A.. Around twenty four thousand people live in ridgecrest and less than two thousand people live in Trona to give you a sense of what this place looks like this is where they found those Sifi scenes in films when they want you to think that they're on Mars. It's really close to death valley remote. All of this is to say if these earthquakes had happened right under me at the restaurant in Highland Park. There would have been a lot more damage and a lot more people hurt people had a lot of questions about these earthquakes and they asked us so of course I met up with hometown Hero Seismologists Seismologists Lucy Jones to get answers okay. So why are there so many quakes happening now after that seven point one ridgecrest earthquakes are on a false system called little lake fault system up on the way they going up to mammoth Lucy and other scientists kept telling us an even bigger quake might be coming after a big one. They don't understand that it's not going to be just one big shake but it's going to be thousands of shakes shakes for months or years and then it happened. It's one thing to hear a scientists say and another to feel it speaking of which why was the second earthquake so much bigger than the first one. Some people been surprised is that it's we've got the biggest. One isn't the first one in fact half of California sequences. The biggest earthquake isn't the first one there's something smaller that comes before the big one. Does this earthquake happening trigger more earthquakes kind of like a domino geno fact the most likely place for triggered earthquake is the same place the first one happened so this quake in ridgecrest isn't going to set off a quake up in Seattle. They're really at this point all confined to ride around <hes> the fault itself sometimes especially on the biggest ones. We've got another couple fault thinks that means another fifty miles so if you're more than seventy five miles away from the earthquake there is no impact so one fault can affect an earthquake on another fault but if you're more than two faults else away like fifty miles apart then it doesn't really cause an earthquake near you people wonder about it. Wait a minute wait am. I just heard that this earthquake in Australia. There's an earthquake in Seattle and there's an earthquake. Montana aren't those related when we've gone to look and put all the data together beyond threefold links is just looking random. Remember when Jacob told you in the very first episode of the Big One to picture a map of the state of California and throw a pile of Spaghetti at the map and that would give. You some idea of how many false there are here. Well there are also false. We don't even know about so three hundred of those pieces of Spaghetti or faults could generate a six point zero earthquake or higher earthquakes that can do real damage but they're not necessarily connected. It's more like sticks on the ground than branches of a tree some of them touch some of them don't so a quake happening will probably get our attention. Get US thinking about other earthquakes but we can't assume that they're all connected. It's something we notice how many Californians would have noticed a Washington magnitude four if we hadn't just had our big earthquake probably not very few of US okay okay but I can't help it. Ask about the San Andreas fault the big one. I know me and a lot of other people wondered is this it. Luckily it wasn't but is a San Andreas close enough piece of Spaghetti that it'll cause the big one the one we talked about in this podcast because this earthquake the ridgecrest earthquake is one hundred miles away from the San Andreas fault and that's four foot lengths away. We basically say no which is saying is that earthquakes usually happen within the same fault system. Sometimes they'll bounce one or two faults away but when you get to three or four faults out it's much less likely for example. The San Andreas fault is too far away from the Little Lake faults where the ridgecrest earthquakes happened. Where's the next earthquake in the be? The San Andreas is the single biggest source but with three hundred other faults the next earthquakes probably not on the San Andreas. She's talking about those false that could cause a six point zero or higher and and all I can think as well that's just great a reminder of what the big one will feel like when a heads and more questions answered after the break <music> <music>. If the big one were to hit today. Would you be ready. preppy wants everyone to be prepared for when the unexpected happens starting at ninety five dollars preppy provides you with emergency the essentials and ads the best tech gadgets water food even satellite phone communication all the best survival gear to fit in their California made campus and leather earthquake emergency bags. They really thought of everything go to preppy dot co to take Deluca all. They're awesome earthquake kids. That's P._R.. P._P._I. Dot C._O.. P. R. E. P. P. I. Dot C._O.. One of the things that people kept saying was that a big earthquake what happens when a lot of earthquakes are happening and a lot of earthquakes are happening right now. So does this season of earthquakes this really active time indicate that a really big one is coming. There might be thing that they're sort of a more active time in which you're big earthquakes more likely well the area become more active before the earthquake. Maybe major quakes are often preceded by four shock and they're followed by aftershocks. Earthquakes are rarely lone wolves become impacts okay but is there a pattern that we can decipher to predict these things so I can be ready. We hunt for patterns because it makes us feel better makes us feel in control when we tasked the patterns with statistics to see if they actually are predicting anything we just don't come up with much. We need to change our attitude about earthquakes and instead of saying is it can happen this year as I am. I going to have an automobile accident this year. If I'm. Not GonNa Automobile accident this year. I don't have to wear my seatbelt. Well no you don't you just wear your seatbelt. All the time right you gotta get your sense of control by controlling your environment. I got what Lucius saying. We don't know when the big one will happen happen but it will happen and when it hits it is gonNa feel a lot like what we felt on the fifth of July here in L. A.. It will start like that but then then it's GonNa get a lot more violent. There will be a queasy feeling a a slow rumble or role and then there will be intense shaking. The thing we know is the big one. The one on the San Andreas will last around one hundred seconds and all big earthquakes last a long time and even a small one in May not end one one earthquake stops. Remember thousands of earthquakes aftershocks can be bigger this leads us to the most common question we get asked one. Is it going to happen. We can't predict that exactly but here's something to pay attention to how often do so you have to southern California have six the long-term averages about once every three to five years and of course we went twenty years without one that is the longest gap we've had between magnitude sixes in the history of southern California if we haven't had a big one in a while it's an exception not the rule and big ones. Don't only come from the San Andreas Fault as I've said there are hundreds of faults in southern California that can have an earthquake magnitude six or bigger so here's what you can do today. Go Talk to somebody you care about or you know. Have you ever talked with your neighbor about it. Have you ever had a discussion at your church or your synagogue or your kids school so that you're doing some things together because it's the strength of our community. That's GonNa make the biggest difference and make sure you're fully stocked. I just went and got my supplies and I would really try to encourage people to to to focus on what they can do to prevent the losses so cold quake cold museum putty all of those things to hook down things you don't want broken. Don't have bookcases that can fall onto your kids. Bets don't have bookcases. They'RE GONNA fall in block doorways. If you're a landlord. If you own building getting expected ahead and figuring out what you can do to make it safer I think one of the most dangerous myths is we have good building codes so we must have good buildings <hes> and of course for two reasons one your buildings only as good as the building code in place when it was built and the fact that our current building code even is don't kill me instead of make sure I can use the building. We talked about this a lot in episode six the assumption that our buildings are safe. I know we have these A._B._C.. Ratings in a window for restaurants but we we don't do that for our buildings. We often don't know if the building we're living in or working in or eating in is up to code and finding out can be really hard even if it is if the quake hits the building will not kill you. The code requires that you can in crawl out of the wreckage alive but that's the best it's asked to do. It's not that the building will stay standing. I know a lot of you. Listen to the series thought about getting ready and then didn't don't feel bad. We all need a wakeup call sometimes I I waited until the ridgecrest earthquakes to get my walkie talkie and water filters and flashlights. It is not to lay go to K._A._B._C. Dot org slash the Big One and look at our lists that we put together for you and of course if you have questions you can write to me and Jacob you can reach us both at the big one at K._A._B._C. Dot org you can do this go by water. This episode was hosted and produced by me me she yousef it was found designed by Erwin next with helper me special thanks to make an Irwin Donald Pause. This episode was edited by Meghan Garvey. Our engineers are Valentina Rivera and Sean Gauri Campbell. Our executive producer is arlen NEX Aaron schrank Emily Garin.
25 Years After The Northridge Earthquake, Is LA Ready For The Big One?
"Support for this NPR podcast and the following message. Come from the UPS store, offering services from shredding to printing to mailbox ING and instead of closing this holiday. The UPS store is doing another ING altogether. Opening the UPS store every ING for small business. And of course, shipping twenty five years ago today here in Los Angeles at four thirty in the morning. The six point seven magnitude Northridge earthquake hit fifty seven people died as this area. Went dark freeways were destroyed buildings collapsed. It was one of the costliest disasters in US history causing over forty billion dollars in damages. Los Angeles was caught unprepared. And decades later there are still questions being asked about whether they are ready for the next one KPCC's. Jacob more goals has been looking into this for a new podcast called the big one your survival guide, which is supposed to do what it suggests it is to help people in southern California. Get ready for the. Big one and also show how people might not be as prepared as they think. Jacob welcome. Hey, thanks for having me. Let's just dig into this moment. Looking back twenty five years ago for people who are not familiar with L A M. And can you just put in context how big a deal north which was? Yes. So imagine you're laying in your bed. It's four thirty in the morning, presumably, you're sound asleep. And all of a sudden this random force of nature that no one had predicted just rips you from it you head outside. You see your neighbors milling about in kind of the dawn light as it starts to break. And they look like looks like a scenario from the Walking Dead. And as the sun comes up, you can actually start to survey the damage I talked to my dad about it. Because I was a young at the time and asked him what he saw that day, and he actually left me. No, I remember driving down one of the main streets, and there were broken gas lines as well as broken water lines. There were also flames coming out of the water, very surreal, you know, burning water. I mean, how often do you see that? Well, that's an image. Absolutely. It was chaos and the entire time. You're trying to recover from the quake. There's these aftershocks rolling through one after the other. So there's this really deep feeling some sort of like unknowable force just upsetting your life. Well, I mean, clearly that was so destructive. You know, I'm afraid to ask. But talk about exactly what scientists are predicting in terms of the next big quake air, there's an infinite number of scenarios. But one of the most studied is a possible. Seven point eight magnitude quake on the San Andreas fault. And I ask seismologist Lucy Jones who has the lead author for the shakeout report which studied specifically that about the quake, and how it compared to Northridge Northridge wasn't event that disrupted our community for a year or two the big San Andreas earthquake is going to disrupt the lives of everybody in southern California. And it could take decades to recover what we lose so seven point eight verses six. Point seven, which is what we saw Northridge. We're talking about forty four times stronger than back in one thousand nine hundred forty four times. I mean, a we she said disrupting the lives of people for years. I mean, we're talking about almost destroying much of Los Angeles. It's going to take a lot to recover any. We're looking at possibly eighteen hundred people could die thousands could be injured big buildings could collapse roads in and out of the area. Could be impassable. We could suffer losses in the hundreds of billions. And the most scary to me are the fires that are gonna be caused by electrical and gas problems, which could spread just across the cities. And it's going to take forty eight to seventy two hours to get outside help in. There will not be enough emergency responders to fight all those fires and to help all the people that need help. And so that period of time to me is one of the scariest. Well, I guess the real question Jacob is how ready is Los Angeles for something. Like that. Did did they learn a lot of good lessons from Northridge? They did. I mean, there's new building codes for Haas. Spitaels for freeways for certain apartment buildings as well as retrofit programs, and they're also working on improving really important things like our water system, which will crack in break when the big one rolls through most likely that said we have a long way to go and overall I think especially on the individual level people are very unprepared. KPCC's Jacob Margolis is hosted the new podcast the big one your survival guide. Jacob. Thanks. Thanks so much support for this podcast and the following message. Come from Comcast business having the nation's largest gig speed network was just the start. Now, they're providing gig fueled apps and solutions that exceed expectations and help businesses perform Comcast business beyond fast.
A Tattoo For The Living | With Zosia Mamet
"Modern love the podcast supported by xfinity now you can get enhanced security for your home wifi network with Xfinity X. Fi if it's connected it's protected now. That's simple easy awesome. Good XFINITY DOT COM call one eight hundred xfinity or visit a store today to learn more restrictions apply produced by the I lab at W._B.. You are Boston also a note before we start this episode deals with suicide and it may not be right for all listeners from the New York Times and W._B._Z.. Boston this is modern law stories of love loss and redemption. I'm your host Meghna. Chakrabarti people get tattoos for a lot of reasons but whatever they mean or were meant to me. They are a permanent mark commemorating rating a moment in time. Alana Dakin writes about two different tattoos in her essay. It's read this week by Sasha. Mamat Zoysia is best known for her work on H._B._O.'s girls and her new show is tales of the city on Net flicks <music> my boyfriend Andreas extended his forearm over his plate of half eaten Turkey and Yams uh-huh just clenched exposing the Greek letters tattooed and dark blue ink from inner elbow to wrist. I took a hesitant bite of salad still nauseated from the five hour our car ride from Manhattan to Lexington Massachusetts where Andrea says aunt and uncle were hosting the family's Thanksgiving meal it means nobody under his told his cousin <unk> who spotted the new tattoo his eyes were wet and alive. I already knew the story it was under his favourite part of the Odyssey but I leaned in any away as he narrated the tail when Odysseus and his men find themselves trapped in the Cave of Polyphemus a fearsome cyclops the story goes <music> but in a daring attempt at Freedom Odysseus tells the monster that his name is nobody and then plunges a wooden stake through polyphemus single eye blinding him the other giants on the island. Come running at the sound of polyphemus screams but they soon turn back when the cyclops explains that nobody had heard him. Andrea smiled he c- he said but you see a strict is tricked them. He escaped less than one week later. I was sitting with Andrea says parents and their tribeca apartment looking through my phone for a photo of the same tattoo we were drinking wine even though it was the middle of the afternoon by then Andreas had been missing for over forty eight hours a blank email address to the detective assigned to Andreas Sirius' missing person case was open in front of me the officer had asked us to send him a detailed physical description of Andreas including photographs of his tattoos. This was to help the police put together his missing. Person Flyer or if the time came to identify the body I had more or less moved in with Andrea says family since I found his suicide note on his bed two days before along with his debit card hard mailbox key and rent check for the month. His phone was found later that night in the living room has last text message sent to me just before leaving his apartment for the last time goodbye. You're stronger than you know I love you. These words ran wildly through my head as I sat in the back of a cab riding north on the F._d._r.. Drive fielding calls from nine one one agents and the Port Authority police police. I answered the same questions over and over six foot one white dark hair a birthmark on his nose. No I don't know what he's wearing. Maybe one hundred eighty pounds no when sixty exte- 175 no he doesn't have access to a vehicle when they asked me for his birthday I blanked and could remember only my former boyfriends but he's twenty five. I said cheeks fleshed didn't realize that the suicide note at a second page until I surrendered it one of the Port Authority officers at their station in Fort Lee New Jersey mm-hmm. I stopped reading after the first nine when I saw the words take my life written in his shaky scrawl at the top of the page. I'm sorry but we're going to have have to keep this. The officer said the bright light of copying machine creating spots in front of my eyes as he scanned the pages later that night I collapsed on the floor with Andreas his roommate and his roommate's girlfriend we were drinking tequila straight from the bottle too high on adrenaline to fully absorb the impact of the past few hours. Can you believe I remember saying to them that with. Just one phone call we got a helicopter into the sky seemed impossible that only five hours earlier. I have been deciding whether to order tie wider Sushi and now scuba divers. were searching the Hudson River in the dark for my boyfriend. The seizing of the suicide letter was the first in a series of small but accumulating losses that rippled outward from that first seismic event on his clothes off their musk. After a few days I took the bottle of Cologne from his dresser and moments of panic and I thought I was beginning to forget the tenor of his voice. I would listen to old voicemail messages especially the ones in which he said he loved me. The night of his disappearance I had stripped off my clothes and searched my body for evidence of him. I bruise or even a scratch but found nothing I also went through his trash collecting the macy's tags from the outfit he brought to where to Thanksgiving and older seats from the diner. He frequented on lazy Saturday afternoons. I kept these items tucked haphazardly in the pockets of my person jacket making sure that EH physical connection to him on me at all times in the beginning I would get drunk and post desperate pleased to him on twitter late at night in case he got online as time passed plus. I switched to writing emails which felt about as hopeless as flinging a bottle with a message into the sea. I sent him less of all the things we had planned to do together. Go Skydiving. Diving learn how to roast a whole chicken traveled to Greece so I could see his family's village even though I lost hope that he was reading my emails as the weeks passed writing to him before I fell asleep was one of the only things that calmed me and one of those emails I told Andreas that I started going to therapy he'd been pressuring need to find a therapist for months. After I'd gone through a bad experience at the end of the summer putting this incident in the past with something that I was both ready and able to do but my willingness to compartmentalize concerned him <music> Andrea said found his own therapist online and every week he would send me links to different doctors usually middle aged Jewish woman an urge me to follow up. He fixated on one in particular a woman named Carol who he had decided would be the perfect fit. Have you called Carol yet. He would ask at least once a day. I made excuses telling him that it didn't make sense because my insurance was about to run out or that working two jobs bob would make scheduling a regular appointment impossible one time I surrendered and played therapist with him sprawling on the couch while he asked me questions and a woman's falsetto when he finally got confess one of my deepest insecurities he became so upset by what I said that he jumped on top of me. I hope Carol doesn't do this. I said as he kissed my neck furiously and as it turned out he had been right. I did love therapy. I counted the days to my weekly appointments and I don't know that I could have survived that winter without them but there'd be hadn't changed the fact that I was wildly successful at acting normal while my world was unraveling. Everyone thinks I'm doing so well and I guess I A._M.. I wrote to Andrea and one of my last emails but I wanNA break things all the time I fantasize about smashing store windows or screaming at people. Sometimes I think about hitting you and pulling your hair but it always just turns into me kissing you anyway. Andrea says body was pulled from the East River two and a half months after he disappeared only a few days shy of what would have been our one year anniversary in his suicide note he had written that he wanted his ashes scattered in the Mediterranean Sea. When the time is right against both Greek and Jewish tradition his family cremated the body and the summer a traveled degrees as they do every year and released Andreas as ashes into the sea at sunrise the next day I went to a tattoo parlor with my sister in the East village only minutes from where Andreas used to live after a few painful minutes? It was complete. The word somebody written in Greek script dipped running vertically down my back my therapist a middle aged Jewish woman had been skeptical about my intention to get the Tattoo. Do you think you will want that reminder in bed with you when you're with another man one day she asked. I don't know I told her a few months later I would wake up with the sun next to a man. I barely knew somewhere in central Harlem. I lay still stave off the hangover and thought about how I felt completely unburdened for the first time in months as I. Got Up to use the bathroom. I caught my naked body and his full length Maher turned sideways so that I could see the tattoo but seem smaller than I remembered and I smiled <music> and that's Sasha Mamat beating Alana Dickens Essay a tattoo for the living catch up with Alana Lana after the break <music> modern love is supported by xfinity. Now you can get enhanced security for your home wifi network with Xfinity Xfinity Xfi if it's connected it's protected now. That's simple easy awesome. Good XFINITY DOT COM call one eight hundred xfinity or visit a store today to learn more restrictions apply. It's been about two and a half years since Alana. Deacons Essay was published and more than four years since Andreas died. She says her tattoo was the second half of a pair that Andreas wanted to get. I remember when I met him and he told me that one day when he was older that he intended to get a second tattoo on his left arm which would say somebody in Greek and my understanding was that it was a tattoo. He wanted to get when he felt that he in made something of himself. When he was more established in the world maybe after he had his first child and he was never able to get this tattoo and I decided that I wanted to get the tattoo as a remembrance for him and also as a way to signify how important he was to me and the impact that he would have on me for the rest of my life and Alana told us more about the last year of Andreas his life it was hard because I have been the main figure and his life for the months up until he died and and I saw a lot of the pain that he was going through and a lot of it? I didn't see because he really hit it. A lot and I tried to to explain as much that's his family <music> as I could and under his his family was incredibly supportive of me throughout this entire experience we really weren't that close actually until after he first went missing thing and I don't really know what I would have done if I didn't have them they welcomed me completely into their home and I fell deeply connected to them and still do Allama went with Andreas his family only to Greece after his death. The trip brought her some peace. She was also in the process of converting to Judaism when he died saying Kaddish the prayer said after the death of a loved one was an important part of her grieving process and another thing that helped Alana. He'll was New York City itself. It was a place she had I explored with Andreas who was a New York City native. He showed me everything and so much of this city. You felt like him to me and after he died sometimes it was difficult. It was sort of overwhelming because I really wanted to feel connected to him and so I used to go to the places that we used to go to and overtime things changed places disappeared. I remember one time probably at least year after he had passed away and I wanted to go to the coffee shop that we had always we'd always gone to and I was going to go there and I was just going and get a coffee and sit in the window and just feel however I wanted to feel and then I went there and it was gone and I was sad and also a little bit relieved because they think that it just shows you. The city doesn't let mourn you have to move on and I think that that's another thing in in Jewish tradition that I do very strongly is that they're set periods for morning. <hes> you say cottage for thirty days doesn't mean that you're not gonNA continue to mourn later but something has to shift you have to shift your relationship to that person's memory and to how you're going to deal with that shift took time but about two years ago Alana did meet someone new. I recently got engaged to a really wonderful person. I met about two years ago and almost maybe the first or second after we met he ended up finding the story online and read it. It's you know living part of WHO I am. I've always been very thankful that he's is very supportive and understanding of that. Alana and her fiance lived in Jerusalem for a year the just moved back to New York. She says that revisiting her essay and moving back to the city brought up a lot of old emotions about Andreas. I'm coming back in such a secure place and a much healthier place. It's been really nice to reflect on that time and I think one thing that has changed about my memory of him is that I am able to draw a lot more on the positives than I was before I think after he died it was really hard for me to not feel very overwhelmed by the negative parts of our relationship and the darkness that he had fallen into and I think that now I really am able to focus more on the good things and to think about out all of the beauty that he brought into the world. It's interesting. I think when someone's no longer here how do people keep them alive and how much you keep the part of you. And how much do you have to let go. I very much want to keep him alive because he was just this really just utterly unique really passionate really beautiful person mm-hmm. You know it's a tragedy that he's not here anymore and I want as many people's Ospel to continue to to feel his energy and feel inspired by him. That's Alana Dakin. She's a writer and Jewish educator <unk> based in New York more after the break <music> Hi modern love fans. Do you like how this podcast features talented actors performing universal stories about love in all its forms. Do you enjoy the beautiful music well. We have another podcast for you. Circle Round a storytelling podcast for all ages is releasing a special pop up series this summer recorded live with musicians from the grammy winning winning Boston's Symphony Orchestra the stories are modern versions of folktales from Australia the Antilles and Ghana and can teach you something whether you're for or ninety four subscribe to circle around wherever you get your podcasts. Here's Daniel Jones editor of the modern love column for The New York Times is intrigued by this poignancy of people trying to figure out how much to let go and how much to hold on it becomes a sort of calculus calculus of grief like how how much should you continue feeling connected to that person through things or through memories and how much is it healthier to let go and for me Alana's piece just sort of strikes this this almost perfect balance at the end where she decides upon this Tattoo running the middle down the middle of her back the message of it is so affirming and and universal to have this message somebody running down her back. I don't know that moment just really sword for me. That's the kind of thing that can take an essay. That's about so many different things and his wrestling so so much to so few words and just take it to this place where reaches another level and his sort of instructive to people who are wrestling with a similar thing and here's Zoysia management piece didn't feel as if she was writing something asking for sympathy felt like she just wrote from a place of book almost purging in her sadness into this piece but in such a vulnerable and brave way and then it's not overtly tied in a bow at the end at all but there is this uplifting uplifting moment where she decides to not let the experience to find her that she's going to move forward and just felt so simple and powerful at the same time you know because clearly clearly this horrific thing happened to her but somehow it doesn't feel like the overarching topic of peace once you get to the end which I feel like is a very hard thing you do as a writer and I was just so moved and so impressed by it and it just felt so unique and special. Thanks again to wash amendment for reading this week's peace. Her new show is tales of the city on Net flicks next week Jessica Walter Okay. I admit it I suffer from ages. I find myself buying into our cultural concept of age which says I'm ugly now a HAG. I'm a product of my culture and of the advertising that swirls around us presenting beauty is a nineteen even sixteen eighteen year old perhaps in Victoria secret lace or Calvin Klein String Thong with her bee stung lips and Sulky face and look she is beautiful. She is breathtaking. Why is it that a man can be desirable his whole life long and a woman modern love is a production of the New York Times and W._b.? You are Boston's N._p._R.. Station it's produced directed and edited by Caitlyn o'keith original scoring and sound design by Matt Reed Iris. Adler is our executive producer. Our Intern Shamila Logo Daniel Jones is the editor of modern law for the New York Times and adviser to the show special. Thanks to Julia Simon on Australian and Mealy at the New York Times. The idea for the modern love podcast was conceived by these Tobin additional music courtesy of A._p._M.. And if you love the podcast rate us on Apple podcasts casts or tell your friends about it. I'm Meghna Chakrabarti see you next week. Modern love is supported by.
Episode 344 - Earthquake Talk with Jacob Margolis
"This week's episode of science has brought to you by the greek courses plus a streaming service that offers thousands of lectures in hundreds of fields ranging from engineering to martial arts to photography and so much more through offering our listeners a free full month of unlimited access if you visit the great courses who says plus dot com slash probably while you're there we recommend checking out the course introduction to astrophysics again that's the great courses plus dot com slash probably for one free full month of unlimited access hello and welcome to probably science my name's andy would matt is currently abroad but i didn't want that to stop us from putting together ratio especially in light of what those of us in southern california just went through last week that was pretty sobering we've talked a lot of this podcast about our earthquake preparedness or lack thereof and i thought this is a great time to bring on science reporter for k._p._c._c. jacob margolis who also host the podcast the big one which takes a look at what would happen hypothetical situation where we do have a large scale earthquake centered in the los angeles area this episode provides a lot of useful information for those of us who live near earthquake prone areas or just curious about the subject so enjoy i am here with k._p._c._c.'s science reporter jacob margolis jacob thank you for joining me thanks for having me i wish that the occasion weren't what it was for our are crossing paths but it's a great time for us to get listeners up to speed on something that we all should be more prepared for which is of course the two pretty big earthquakes it up and within the last seven days here yeah it was it was surprising rising obviously we can't predict an earthquake is coming you do probability but you don't know exactly when it's gonna hit and it definitely pun intended shook things up for us at our house and no pun intended <hes> in terms of how aghanistan requests for some other people's lives because obviously it was very hard for them we have to recognize that as well right yeah it's easy here in l._a. when things just took a bit to forget that <hes> it was was the biggest of the two seven point one up in ridgecrest e._s._p._n. and people in people's lives have been upended up there i mean luckily for <hes> luckily for where the quake were lucky in in that where the quake hit it was not populated by it's clearly been a struggle for some of the folks that do live up there especially folks near the military base in there's a lot of military families over there and so i think they're still they're recovering in the state is bringing in resources federal resources as well to help them recover but his great yeah and it was not along the san andreas fault correct act no it was along the <hes> the little lake fault zone which is right at the end of the eastern california shear zone so it's not on the san andreas fault it's actually about one hundred fifty miles or so inland from their cassandra's kinda close to the coast in that area <hes> and it's in the middle of the mohave in the little lake fault zone which is is in eastern california shear zone which if you look at a fault map of that area it's actually really interesting it's not like one or two really log thoughts it's almost like tiny little pieces of spaghetti down on a map and <hes> that that that are kind of we don't understand very well and the cool thing about this and there have been geologists and seismologists geophysicist out there like jamming with all their equipment and avenue good time in russian around <hes> so so that they could better understand this place because really they haven't <hes> it hasn't my understanding of until backup a u._s. yes people that it's been quite a while since we've they've really taken the time to look in this spot it and that's because it's not necessarily the most active right i mean the san andreas super well-studied because it's very active it's a big risk for california but there are a lot of other faults in in california that are maybe less active that <hes> enriched don't know enough about because we haven't seen them go off yet so this one's activity is now has has died down after all the aftershocks from those two quakes last week yes so over time you get fewer when she were aftershocks after a major quake and what you're going to have is the probability is actually going to go down of another major kind of follow up so on the quake hit on july fourth the six point four and they thought that was the main shock doc and what happens after a quick like that is that u._s._g._s. puts out crop abilities using their algorithms that i'm sure they drawn a decades and decades researched to figure out and they had put something over a magnitude seven <hes> as of friday night at less than one percent and we were hit with less than that one percent we were hit with that magnitude seven so yeah it was really interesting and the what what is even more interesting is that fault actually re ruptured so the six point four was kind of a right it was like two faults on in this zone and that are at like a right angle to one another and the bottom autumn <hes> pro the bottom part of that right angle imagine l. <hes> the bottom part of that did not do anything <hes> in the biggest ours i know when be seven point one hit but the up and down north south south kind of facing one roughly <hes> did actually rupture and so it exploded from what was six point four before to all of a sudden it's like seven point one and then it turns out the point four with four shock <hes> to be made that richardson seven point one and i guess everything just referred to as a four-shot wants a bigger one follows it if a bigger one happens this week will those be considered i think i think i think they can say pre shock and four shock and i heard lucy jones talking the doctor seismologist lucy jar seismologist dr lucie jones talking about this a bit during the press conference about kind of the terminology between pre shock and four shock and stuff i'm i'm a little uncertain about that but i do know that they were immediately reclassified last five or six point four hundred four shock <hes> instead of instead of the main shock <hes> and then you know at the big one that was that happened even though it was less than one percent of a chance that that would happen yeah i thought i'd heard after the friday headache that there was still something like a twenty to thirty percent chance of something in the six to seven magnitude again is that not true or was that a short term probability so the probability is change the further away we get from the main event <hes> they go and so the likelihood of major quake happening on that same call was down that said there is always a possibility that's going to happen because it's not like gwen <hes> stresses released on a fault that never builds up again or that maybe we just don't know i don't i actually don't know that but in general i guess the thing that i have assumed to be the case and i'm in no way knowledgeable eligible in this field is that there are these sort of like potentials that build up along fault lines in the longer it's been in an area without one that suddenly becomes a higher risk area is that is there something to that kind of logic or not the probability increases over over time yeah <hes> but not for i you know i don't know what the tipping point for say like so there's less than one percent chance that this fall was going to slip and create a seven point one wet at what point does the probability of His fault now at a higher risk having had these quakes happen at a nearby fault. No as far as we know as far as I've heard as far as any scientists figured out so far <hes> just not at all influences dangerous. It's very far from the San Andreas that said if you WANNA play out of funds scenario <hes> when I say fun being shirts little caesars This was interesting about this series of quakes. They actually broke pretty close close. The garlic salt and the garlic fault is a fault that runs about a hundred and eighty miles and the garlic fault is is fairly long by sex California from about the mojave over to the San Andreas and it connects with the San Andreas and according to James Dolan over at U._S._C.. He said he told us on K._A._B._C. that <hes> that's injuries is sympathetic to the Gar Locke. The garlic hasn't gone off in a very very a long time and so we don't know if maybe the guard lock goes off if it'll influence San Andreas on the other end. There's been no indication yet that these earthquakes here in ridgecrest have at all influenced the garlic and so I think people are watching for that and I've seen it. I just read a paper like a quick kind of commentary that was written by some scientists and they were talking about this kind of idea like we're we're waiting kind of seeing like maybe the garlic will be influenced <hes> and if it is that'll be really super interesting that could theoretically increase the odds at a San Andreas quake although that has absolutely not been seen and I do not want anybody to take away <hes> good the idea that there's an increased risk who's quick so we're not living in a state of hyper vigilance right now except that we were just reminded that these things can happen at any time and we should all take stock of what preparation were doing could happen at any time I mean literally while we're recording this podcast and then you can have a major earthquake happen and yeah I mean you you just would not be able to predict that so if you feel like you can submit to your complacency <hes> when it comes to major quakes I say you were wrong and you need to go get you're quite kits ready and your supplies ready and make sure that they're ready. At all times. I know that we I and my co host have talked about this other podcasts the past that we should have done this long time ago and I have next to nothing and then also when the second can quake struck by only memory of what to do was stand in a doorway and then I was like wait. Is that also told lifestyle or is that what I should have been doing so it's good. I guess that we refresh our listeners. Also on what the immediate things to do <unk> are when you were inside and one of these hits yes or duct cover and hold on is the number one rule. If you can get under a desk you shield your head and your net chrome anything. <hes> people have been saved many times by covering themselves with some sort of sturdy instructor <hes> if you can't do that for instance when the quake hit on <hes> Friday night seven point one it was enough to really shake our house here in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles and my wife and I you know it's Kinda ended the day you're sitting on your bed. You're checking your phones and we were on our bed or kid was in his crib in the other bedroom and he started crying. Everything was shaking and my wife is like I think I should go get him and I was like well like Richard Good up Richard Ride. That's out like everything is sake around us and that's because we prepped our room we their kids room. <hes> strapped everything down. Make sure there's nothing hanging over anyone so that you know if the ground does shake and stuff kinda does go awry that will be able hunker down almost no matter where we are and we'd and we will be safe and so there's a way to kind of practice space around you to ensure that that you'll be okay or hopefully I mean we're steak scenario in house collapses. It's very rare with wood frame houses <hes> two story champion homes more common with like SOB story apartment buildings and stuff yeah I was wondering so the North Ridge quake which was twenty five years ago that was six point seven and it caused between thirteen fifty billion dollars a damage according to Wikipedia pedia and of course there which was seven point one. If we had that strength hitting someplace like northridge now have we done enough last twenty five years to retrofit that that damage would be significantly decreased or would it still be cataclysmic event from what I understand probably in terms of the freeways at least Lucie Jones told me that the freeways probably wouldn't collapse because we had a pretty robust program to retrofit those fix those up but other than a not we'd be pretty screwed in our pipe our our water system is in grave danger. <hes> we still haven't finished the retrofit program for the top story apartments which collapsed northridge assault story meaning meaning sorcerer those apartments that are like multi-storey <hes> buildings that then have I they're usually multi story then have a kind of like parking under the first story and they're held up by these flimsy metal poles and in northridge those polls just like gave out and they just Bush things and people died and News Ritz really scary. <hes> a lot of those buildings still exist in L._A.. There's a mandatory retrofit program in place but a lot of them still have not been fixed so if you live I've been one. I wouldn't recommend it. I wouldn't want to be in there. I mean it's like one of the most dangerous places to be an earthquake. <hes> can't guarantee collapse anywhere and it really depends on the the soil. It's on everything but I'd be very careful airfoil <hes> the other kinds of buildings. I wouldn't want to be in our brittle concrete buildings which we know very well could collapse swollen earthquake <hes> and those are not he. There's no huge retrofit program going on right now for those by the way it was forty billion in costs for the northbridge earthquake. I have the whole like press factsheet that we put the other before we did press for <hes>. The Big One is going to be forty four times stronger longer so let's talk about what people bench the big one what that means yes or the big. One would be a set in our scenario that we did. It's a seven point eight magnitude earthquake on a southern San Andreas fault. It's going to break from Bombay. Beach hit the salt and see all the way to Lake Hughes. which is you know? Pass Los Angeles like out in the desert area and it's a very compelling scenario because much of the San Andreas fault in this area is passed the average amount of time that we would expect there to be between major slips that does not mean it's overdue. We don't say overdue but we do say it's past the average amount of time so there is a chance that it could go it could also geologic time a couple of hundred years on high. Maybe a geologist would argue with me and I totally take that but <hes> geologic time a couple hundred years not that much time and so you know the risk is very much there and you need to be ready for it at any moment <hes> and I can break down for you. Kinda like what is going to happen <hes> in this scenario and where the scenario came from. Would you like having to do that. I would love to hear this scenario played out okay so the seven point eight magnitude quake on the southern. San Andreas of the scenario was laid out by the U._S.. Geological Survey <hes> in Doctor Lucy John's <unk> decides Malla just <hes> led this study. It's called the shakeout right and in the scenario when the false slips it's a two hundred mile long portion of the fault and the energy bursts northwards it from the Salton Sea towards Los Angeles and when the waves travel so imagine like if you're in palm springs or near the Salton Sea in the same slips. You're just getting violent terrible. Oh shaking merry way. Just everything's thrown around buildings. Maybe are collapsing if they hadn't been retrofitted. <hes> you know it's it's chaos. I mean you're not able to stand you definitely can't run and. Then the waves start to travel further north by the time it hits the mountains between the desert and Los Angeles it basically passes through the mountains because they're pretty hard it runs into the L._A.. Basin <hes> it which amplifies it like like which is amplified by the GEL like consistency of the actual L._A.. And San Gabriel patients because the it has to do with sediment in the area. Does I mean as as a quake would travel through mountains by contrast it would be dead and more than if it's travelling across that basin. That's amplifying it because of its shakiness. It's instability or my understanding. Is that specifically for these mountains. I'm not saying all mountains everywhere but specifically for these mountains between in Los Angeles and the desert and so I guess there'd be the same date from ounce the waves it'll shake but the waves will largely pass will pass through and it'll get kind of caught in the L._A.. Basin and it will they will basically reverberate great in the L.. A. Day sent entering the whole thing into a bullet Jello. Where are they gonna like the the shaking kind of bounces back and forth I can sort of picture of water analogy of standing waves kind of in that valley between those yeah so that's my understanding what's really interesting? Is that like in all the places along the faults <hes> we have all the we have a lot of roads that cross over the fall. I think the only roads that will not be impacted by it in a worst case scenario like like this. This is actually isn't worst case by the way <hes> the I did this very I did this. I think much more eloquently in our podcast and I also haven't thought about this in quite a long time in detail but <hes> we could link to that for our listeners by the way yeah that'd be great <hes> and so what are the implications of this and so when the shake by the ten the shaking stopped you have all these roads that cross over the San Andreas fault will those roads have experienced probably an offset of between six and twenty three feet in opposite directions and they're just severed well turns out we have a lot of lifelines and water and gas and stuff like that up in the mountains to crossover that fault and those will be separate as well <hes> down in Los Angeles so we won't be able to get trucks in and out port will probably be fine. We'll have trouble shipping things out of Los Angeles to the port. They'll probably <hes> defer shipments Los Angeles Port which might have a big economic impact. We have to kind of see what see how that shakes out. <hes> you're GONNA have collapsed buildings all over the place on the micro level. You'RE GONNA Fires Breaking Breaking Out. <hes> firefighters will not stop to help people at least initially unless it's very clear like life and death situation because what they're doing is they're serving the damage same thing with policemen and ambulance whatever ever ambulance or zooming around and they're serving the damage because there's going to be so overwhelmed by just how fucked up it is that West help from outside sources sources well. It's going to take while everyone like all these fire departments and whatnot will mobilize <hes> and try to get in as soon as fast as possible consider the size of the region. That's just been damaged. It's going to take between four probably between forty forty eight and seventy two hours and that's optimistic for outside resources to get in so people will largely be on their own in the first couple of days the people that you will need to rely on in that event are the people that are next to you or your neighbors or your friends and this is ready. We get ready so that we can help ourselves and we can help others because we're not going to be able to get to the hospital it we do it will likely be overwhelmed or a lot of hospitals in California that are not seismically comically safe but I have to go like northridge level and much less on -able and they won't buy twenty until twenty thirty if and that deadline by the way has been pushed back a bunch so the reason that in the reason for that is it's very very expensive especially for rural hospitals so people out in the middle of rural areas are really gonNA suffer. People in the cities will probably get help fairly quickly. I would would imagine <hes> because they're going to prioritize those areas you know within the first twenty four hours like Red Cross will probably set up like some tents and start handing out water and stuff but the real shipments of supplies to the region aren't GonNa come in for a little while for at least a few days <hes> again. This is all a scenario. It's all through your read. This is what the U._S._G._S. put together in their report. <hes> this was ten years ago. We went through and checked with. There's many people as we could to make sure that it was still accurate and for the most part in this is kind of kind of crappy the most part all that was still very accurate even a decade later afternoon very alarming report now right so having a couple of things here and there that that were different but you know not not anything substantial and so while all these fires are breaking out an entire neighborhoods are burning down and people are without water. They're without the ability to pay for food so crews probably being given away stores will be probably be free of food within the first couple of days not because people I don't like to say looting people need to survive in situations ends like stores have insurance <hes> California Grocers Association seems to be fairly encouraging people being like fed and taking care of and they're also gonNA try their hardest to like bring in supplies as quickly as possible and get supermarkets back online mind that said the you WanNa wait in line at a water ten were out I I don't I hate waiting in lines. That's why I have supply water that should last US two and a half weeks for my family not for other people it just for my family two and a half weeks which is how much water to gallon per person per day. We have three people in our family currently toddler so maybe a little he probably would drink a little less that includes cooking. It doesn't include bathing. We have a pool <hes>. We probably get away with it for cripple you know I don't know maybe a week. It's probably a good amount of chlorine in there. I don't know if you were an address that your skin <hes> but you know we can't drink that water but we could possibly I use it like rent saw <hes> you cannot drink cool water. Please don't drink water <hes> I hope our listeners know that if they don't yeah so take heed I mean someone asking about the Burki filters if they can filter pull water and I am unclear but I am not going to endorse any product because I don't really know it well enough and you can contact them independently so after immediately like I said the people around you are going to be the ones that are going to be helping you <hes>. There's GonNa be a lot people like half of the people that die in a scenario are killed by fire. <hes> there's going to be people trapped in buildings that no one's helping can't get to that will die in for twenty four to forty eight hours because dehydration on it's no one of the number of ways people die when they're trapped. I was looking at the FEMA checklists that you linked to one of your articles about preparedness and by the way we will link to your article about your preparedness Fema Kit a linked to your Amazon list of supplies you have at the ready but looking through the female one I was surprised if you're trapped under debris. It says shout only as a last resort because shouting can cause you didn't hail dangerous amounts of dust. I wouldn't have thought out of the TAP Piper Wall rescuers could find you. You also want to save your energy. I mean if you're going to be trapped. <hes> it's always good to keep water at your desk if you happen to be trapped in your desk if you are in that fortunate enough situation. Should I guess where you're like saved by your desk in a collapsing building like great <hes> I hope you you know. I hope you're okay. <hes> there is a chance and this is one of the most alarming things we learned was. Is that <hes> there are skyscrapers collapse so we could see there's a class of very tall buildings in Los Angeles and in San Francisco as well that we know are at risk of collapse in a major major event you could see several come down across the region and that would mean seeing a like fifty Tory story tall building possibly depending on which one it is come down and I mean I don't know what the psychological impact of that is awkward or the societal impact or the personal impact but it sounded absolutely <hes> but even scarier like within the fires. The fire is scarier than that but right now when new skyscrapers built downtown are they rated to withstand x. on the Richter scale like the is it sort of said that these can will stand up to seven point five or eight or something or is it just kind of like we do the best we can with our technology and and we'll see what happens the next time building codes are on your building codes are only as good as your last quake. A lot of these buildings haven't been updated or rebuild it back in the nineteen seventies eighties nineties especially especially in downtown L._A.. You know there's the new Wilshire Grand Building in downtown and that is you know the L._A.. Times to really good coverage on on how that thing was built in it. It seems fascinating but no structural engineer anywhere. We'll tell you that you build an earthquake <unk> building yeah. It seems impossible and if they do I have about five thousand structural engineers who I could point you to who will tell you that that's not the case given that the fact that you cover this are you more reluctant reluctant to spend time in tall buildings in southern California or is this just kind of like we take risks every day that sort of thing. I'm more likely to be killed riding my bicycle or driving my car. <hes> than I am an earthquake the good news about an earthquake earthquake is that you can prepare and you could put yourself in a favorable situation and if say you're at your office you can make sure that you have <hes> extra supplies. You can make sure that you guys have an evacuation plan. You could talk that the own the building which I've encouraged some people do because they found out they were in some of these welded steel big humongous buildings and they've done that. Hey Andy Guess where I am right now. Where are you but I condemn book which is a different different continent from where you are but we connected by the magic of the Internet? I never thought I'd see the day yeah. The Internet can do all sorts of things you know what else they can do. What could I do that? It could do learning learning the Internet yeah imagine that you know how on our podcast we go through science stories and then we go. We don't know that we don't understand this. We need the next butts. Wouldn't it be useful if they were experts on the Internet who could readily the access that would be nice. We do a bit of hand waving don't we we do but you know what the people from the great courses plus have reached out to us. Are you aware of the Greek Callsas plus Andy. I am now matt well. Why don't you tell me a bit of assets have been availing myself of the really interesting lectures that are available to you on the great courses plus? It's priceless source of knowledge just about any field they stream thousands of lectures on subjects ranging from engineering to martial arts arts to photography. I've been watching the introduction astrophysics which is great. It's taught at a college level okay but hotel Andy presumably an Internet thing these lecturers just like people giving it a go. They don't have any level of real expertise Geez you know these are actually very highly acclaimed experts in their fields. The WHO teach at top universities like yes a Princeton astrophysicists in particular who's teaching the class that I'm watching right right now. Astro physics and it's it's great obviously we've had guests on who have discussed that subject on the podcast and I've read their popular science books but none of that gets into the level of depth that these do which are taught at a college level they get people back up to speed on things like logarithms and vectors and coolidge law and stuff like that. You'll need to understand the lectures but it's still approachable very deep dive interest as so this sounds like the kind of thing that would be good for someone who just wants to know more about the subject or science science or anything anything academic or also somebody who is studying that and wants to brush up on some specific so maybe that teacher isn't that good or just someone who will sit dabble one calls at a time it an interesting topic. That's what I've been doing. A guy been jumping around. There are so many lectures choose from and you can listen to what you have to pay individually for each separate election there right you you don't. It's one watch the second this one subscription gives you access to all all these lectures from top professionals. WHO also I mean if they're experts in the field? They probably not that good at teaching as well as though they're chosen chosen for their teaching Accu men and for their accessibility it's really astoundingly doubting lead deep and wide amount of knowledge available to anybody for just one low monthly subscription and if you sign up today at the great courses plus dot com slash probably you'll get a free month to access anything in this great courses plus so any of these hang on a second ending so you to access this. You presumably have to go down to like a library or something or like look by by a special computer that you can use to access this. I could see why you'd think that yes but no in fact you can do this online. You can go to the great courses plus Dot Com and watch it on your laptop or computer you can do it via their mobile APP in which case you can switch back and forth forth between audio video and listen in the car that when you get homeless watch again on video or you can do as I did and get great courses plus APP going on your set top box. I'm using a fire TV some just watching it like watch TV but have access to these thousands of courses so you can listen to it like podcast and then get home and pick up exactly where you left off on your fight fire TV or Apple T._V. or Roku whatever that is true yep you can stream it pretty much anywhere you can stream things at all could could you have to be an idiot not to sign up to this for free month. This rid up our listeners. Elliott can't see why anybody wouldn't give it a shot and see this is like Piss piss taking aside. We're very happy and excited about this phone so this this is really cool. If you like it when we <hes> do deep dives and subjects this is perfect chance to just pick and choose and like I say anything academic or node academic they've all subjects like photography and things like that of all its but the introduction to astrophysics is the one that we've had a look at recently because we you know we love our astrophysics. We love when Nasser phys come on the show and this is taught by a Princeton lecturer who's really good yeah and it's great having the visual component to add to the what you've already heard and read because like the first episode does a great slow zoom in out from the molecular level to the universe level and gives you a great sense of the relative size gaps and all these different things that helps with an actual visual so that helps solidify some concepts that I was we're of but didn't quite have like a intuitive grasp over you know so how how do I listen to sign up to this day. They can go to the great courses plus dot com slash probably and get a free month of access to all of these courses listeners please. He's please do this. You will not regret it. That's great cool plus dot com slash. Probably you will get a free month as well. Check it out man you just gotTa Live Your Life at the same time. You don't have to live your life in ignorance because has not certainly not going to help you and I don't really want to have to take care of people who could have been prepared and could be helping others that are caught out in some strange way that need help. You know like if you can help yourself. You need to help yourself <hes>. It's very selfish if you don't that's a very good point yeah and also a good reason to be in touch with your neighbors know who lives around you so you guys can rely on each other when this happens yeah and their situations in like you know there's there's exceptions. Every rural right if there are people that are impaired in any way have disabilities or mobility issues <hes> you know you need to coordinate with them or they need to coordinate with you if their family members friends or neighbors to make sure that everyone gets checked on that everyone knows where all the supplies are especially. If you have certain needs that that need to be met <hes> yeah there's there's a they're. The only thing that's going to happen by not preparing pairing is not like earthquakes still going to happen. It's just GonNa put you in a crappy situation when something does happen so that other people are going to have to take care of you and in my opinion <hes> it like I said it's kind of selfish the the exceptions being if you do need help like I think that's totally reasonable and you need to coordinate with your neighbors and your loved ones and all that all that sort of stuff to make sure that everyone has kind of a game plan when something like this happens and again you have what what sort of container do you have this multi week water supply at your house <hes> she's sitting in my garage. I individual yeah so like I I always like freaking out about like how am I going to store it. In Plastic Blah Blah Blah all this kind of stuff and then I was like you know what this is so stupid if I don't have any water for two and a half weeks for my family. Do I give a crap. If plastic has reached into it. No I do not like it doesn't matter and it was. I was trying to figure out like all these like when I started in like glass and how do I keep the glass from breaking. It's like no eventually I just went to smartandfinal. I spent like fifty eight bucks and I got like two two and a half weeks worth of water and that was that and all of a sudden like I'm prepped for at least that aspect back there are other aspects. I'm not and I need to keep working on but and there are certain parts of it like you can take it to the nth degree right you could build you can build a structurally sound bunker in your backyard. We didn't do that. You can take it to you could buy Janet like realistically though you you could spend thousands on a generator which I would love to do. I just don't have that kind of money but at the most basic just water and food and make sure you have some extra medical supplies and if you don't think you're GonNa WanNa sleep in your house with aftershocks shaking it and all that kind of stuff have a tent and some sleeping bags you can pick them up under a hundred bucks at like big five or one of those or Walmart or something like that and <hes> you just need you need the basics to get you through a couple of weeks weeks so that everything can kind of start to settle and you mentioned that you bought all your things military surplus stores which were even cheaper than Amazon which is a great tip. Amazon was way overpriced Amazon at I bought some stuff off Amazon kind of added necessity Acidy <hes> just because I needed to get the project done for the podcast but the military surplus stores I kinda went bananas <hes> in one of them and came across some really really great stuff. I I mean I bought like wool blankets for seven dollars. I mean it's it's like you can't be that on Amazon bought about like <hes> bags for the car and bags for each closet in the house and like places to sash fire extinguishers in crowbars and like I have stuff sprinkled around our house now in these bags that about for ten bucks a piece at this military surplus store that it's just like tools to be able to get out of the room or get out of the house or kind of you know emergency supplies in case something bad does happen <hes> in the home <unk> acne earthquake like a fire or <hes> you know something collapses or something right right and as I mentioned will link in the show notes to the article you read about your preparing for this and to your your shopping list which is looking at it. I'm seeing yeah work. Gloves glow sticks particularly matter masks surprisingly similar to burning man packing list yeah I mean that's that's the other thing about this. Is that a lot of if you're a big backpacker camper something think you're going to have the majority of that stuff <hes> I if you're if you're going back backing all the time and you have a lot of backpacking meals. They're really expensive so I didn't go out and buy a whole lot of them for my house like then. You'RE GONNA use those my my ultimate setup that I'm I'm aiming for is a solar power generator which will cost us. Probably maybe two five thousand dollars depending on what the setup is in which we don't have to spend on that yet but I would love up to at some point <hes> and then with the generator will be able to run things like our instant pot and a hot plate and things so that we could cook like rice and beans and vegetables and I have a pretty robust garden that has always always growing stuff so like pull some stuff from the garden Kinda use that in attitude when we have like spices and all that you already having your cabinet <hes> yeah and also it would be good if we had and we do have extra pain are are still to a gas line but we have propane as like a backup in case obviously something what are the biggest misconceptions about earthquake preparedness. I think we've talked in the past on our podcast about this thing I believe is a myth like one of the safe areas to aim for being this mythical triangle of safety like if you were next to your bed but on the floor with the thinking that some kind of beam would fall inform formed the hypothesis of of the floor and your bed but that's sort of like firing at a target and then look me all the places where bullets didn't go and saying those are the safe places to be or something you know it's like after the fact looking at where something didn't fall then claiming that would have been the smart place to be. Is that a thing that's been debunked completely that sort of triangle theory of anything so yeah yeah I mean you you sound like you covered it. I mean don't cover and hold on and then also cover and hold on my thing that we got into an argument like with a friend on the podcast over is. I don't think people need guns. I liked guns personally. I don't know you know within context of hunting or sport shooting like I have no problem home with guns. I don't own one but I have no problem with them when it comes to owning one for an emergency situation I don't agree with that. I don't think that I think that your gun is going to <hes> I think when you play out the scenarios of what you might use it for the science. The social science shows that people are generally very good after disasters when a help each other that people are GonNa get the normal your neighbors normal folks on the shooter in be the ones. Does that help you and you help them like that's that's really great and eleven days in or so when people start getting comfortable. That's people start to get kind of edgy but you know as far as I know there haven't been any for for natural disasters. There have not been like major crime sprees or have not been major the major humongous issues that you need a weapon for her to stand on your roof in at shoot down and a lot of people say point out the riots. The riots were not a natural disaster. <hes> it's a different situation. It's very complicated and deep and we're talking about something completely different than earthquake <hes>. My friend thinks that you need you too gone because if you're not prepping for yourself you're prepping for your neighbor if you're not if you don't have a neighbor or whatever which is which is fine you know if that's the head space he wants to live in but I'm curious when you take it to a point of like okay eh point. Am I gonNA use this weapon. Someone comes up to me. They say give me your Pasta Cumulus <unk> and like at what point do you shoot them. Yeah I don't know I think you're much more likely to shoot some on who you probably didn't deserve to be shot and all of a sudden you're charged with murder and and have to live with no you killed somebody right yeah and you've ruined a many lives and all this kind of stuff that said there are people who will vehemently really disagree with me and I'm sure we'll absolutely <hes> say that guns for self defense in the event of a disaster necessary. I don't necessarily agree like I said no problem with guns. I just don't necessarily agree with that exact use case Yeah I. I think there have been enough studies that show when you have a gun you perceive guns elsewhere like you think that people are holding guns when you're holding a gun so it's just escalates everything and makes you think that everyone else's has an itchy trigger finger just because you were possession of one so if everyone follows that rule it's is going to be much more violent postquake world I think yeah and all those reports after like Katrina of guns for instance we're not real. Oh hadn't even heard what the reports where there was this there is this idea this post Katrina crimewave and it turns out that it wasn't true. That's good to hear I mean I want to believe that when everybody is pushed as to the limit that they'll choose to come together. I don't think it's a crazy thing to think could happen if you're worried about looting like in my opinion and the opinion of certain L._A._p._d.. And Fire folks that we talked to <hes> <hes> while no one will endorse like the idea of stealing stuff like if people need supplies after disaster <hes> initial there they should have access to supplies especially. If things are bad enough where systems <unk> an stations haven't been set up yet like people need to survive and I do not turn my nose up at anyone who decides that they need to go go and get diapers and food and stuff like that to make it through some days especially especially after the kids yeah the alternative would be. It'd be gross to endorse to say that you should go hungry because of this so I'm with you on that and I I'm with you on the your logic is airtight for why you should prepare because it's selfish. It's not too in someone else will take care of you if you don't in a bad way and hadn't thought of that logic. I guess I've also just been kind of lazy but like I don't WanNa be a burden on the rest of the city and my neighbors in this moment indeed you know I hope I emphasize enough. What's that asking for help and getting help you are not a burden but if you had an opportunity to prepare in any way at all and you actively chose not to in my opinion that selfish if you have monetary restraints <hes> if if you have like you know physical restraints and whatever anything like that I get that if you don't have space for any of this stuff I totally get that to and I no ill will towards anyone and I get there are exceptions but just as they're exceptions to that there there is many people out there who can go buy a week's worth of water supermarket who can go buy some canned food who can make sure they have extra medicine or have their papers in place who can make sure they have some like cats? You know it doesn't need to be he really expensive and e investing some of your money in those things will help you immensely after the earthquake. I'm not saying you need to build an entire shelter in the appropriate stuff talking like bare minimum. You need to help yourself so that you can also help others. There's great advice at the very least I have no excuse not to go just by a huge amount of water because that's I'm going to drink it eventually anyway. Why not just have it the other pieces of advice you want to give our listeners in this post post and pre-quake world living right now yeah they should listen to the podcast I mean if they're not really curious about how dark things could get an all the difficult decisions that they might face and if they're not curious how earthquakes tend to exacerbate masturbate racial disparities <hes> in society and especially in Los Angeles and if they're not interested in how skyscrapers could collapse <hes> in the store they'll like intense journalism? We get around that I'd say just listen the seven eight and nine and you'll get a pretty good idea. I would listen to one seven eight nine usually single thing but one seven eight nine if you just interested in prepping and want to get a taste of what things are like but in the other episodes we dive deep into the different decisions that you'd have to make we dive deep into with a history of these two tectonic plates <hes> and you know where these things how we can guarantee that these things are coming. These big earthquakes are coming <hes> and how we really only understood the San Andreas was a major your major threat since about the nineteen eighties like renew the Ra- major quakes on it at it was discovered in the early nineteen hundreds that said in Paleo Seismology radiocarbon dating the various layers they like trench faults. Excuse me they dig trenches across the faults and then they go down like Paleo seismologists actually go down into the faults and look at the layers almost like a layer cake inside the fault crosses the fault and they can actually see breaks in those layers and then they radiocarbon date those breaks like those areas and then they can tell <hes> when or big earthquakes happen that systems only been about since the seventies and eighties so people have heard the big one is coming for probably thirty years or so <hes> it is and you know you could be snooty about it or you can go get ready and realized that you know there is some stuff you could do about it especially. If you invest a little money and if you don't have that money there are resources out there for you and FEMA has a lot of suggestions and there are assistance program so go check those out that is great and I will link to all of that in the show this episode and also how many more minor quakes before my rent gets to go now. Finally is any of this helpful for the house waiting for the housing market to soften so I can finally afford to buy a house and I don't know that's going to happen anytime soon but if it does you know maybe P._c.. That I I know Oh man that would be the sole upside to this. I mean I guess the downside. Is that people yeah. It's not going to happen. I think even after a major quake I bet that the region will retain a lot of its value. I'm not an economist. I don't know anything totally out of school speaking about this. I cannot imagine there might be a little bit but I don't know I think people are gonNA keep living here. It is pretty crazy. how quickly everybody forgot and true? The epicenter was a hundred miles away but you know two days in a row significant shaking for more in a minute and a week later everyone's cup back to business as usual yeah I mean what else can you do though yeah what are you GonNa do. You're gonNA sit around and then be scared all day. You don't think that's necessarily healthy either you. You can be proactive. You know it's kind of like <hes> I find climate change to be a lot scarier Leonard Earthquakes <hes> because it is a very clear impending and disaster that we're currently dealing with <hes> <hes> and I don't I mean I just I don't think there is strong. Collective action at least with earthquakes. You don't really need humongous collective action. Although I wish it would happen that if you can you really need to prepare for yourself and your family and have some extra stuff you can help your neighbors and all that kind of stuff but <hes> I'm more optimistic about our preparation for quakes than I am for climate change so yeah. There's a chance we'll we'll get through our entire lives without without a big the big one heading but if we don't do something about climate change that's definitely coming our way in the next few decades so yeah you're you're already so I wish we could end in a non donor note but like is Dan you and I can I'll and on the non Downer note <hes> <hes> okay. This is the non Downer note from our entire podcasts. I think it is unbelievably. Inspiring that people's immediate reaction after a big disasters help one another you might not think that's the case and I doubted that and my producers brought it to me the producers that I worked with brought it to me and they I didn't believe that an like like all the social scientists and steps talked to said that's the case like reminded out a bunch of social scientists and and that's really cool like that's really freaking cool because in our daily lives we don't necessarily interact with people all the sometime in early positive way like strangers and the fact that people want to help each other and are there like digging each other out a rebel running around like distributing aid or sharing their water like that to me is a really beautiful part of humanity. <hes> I guess the bummer part got always have to end on a bummer note. I guess that we don't do that. More often in our daily lives Illinois on a Hokey note but I am I am optimistic that one disaster it's I I love it.
SAN ANDREAS w/ Dr. Men-Andrin Meier and Jeff Leach
"Look I know a lot of you are concerned about earthquake safety and yeah we cover all that stuff in the episode but you shouldn't be don't be concerned about. It's not a big deal. Earthquakes are very uncommon and most of the time nothing really happens. I used to be afraid of earthquakes but after talking with our expert today I feel much better coincidentally. I also stop being afraid when I started taking a bunch of pills prescription pills that a friend of mine has been giving me and so I I don't feel much of anything anymore. I don't feel scared. I don't feel happy I don't don't feel sad his name's Roger and view email us I can give you his email and he basically sends me Ziplock bags filled with Brown pills and I just take them by the handful and now I'm not afraid of anything so enjoy the podcast or as I do now when I intake any sort of heart just listened to it and stare off into the distance didn't without blinking until it's time to go to sleep and then go to sleep and don't have dreams and then wake up and take a bunch of Brown bills from Ziplock bag that Roger gave you insurgents. Did the movie get it right his will we have to fight hi. Everybody welcome to bad signs. I'm an Edinburgh and today we're talking about the latest and greatest earthquake film Twenty Seventeen Know Twenty fifteen. Does anybody know in this movie any fifteen San Andreas. You can already tell my guests are brilliant. They we know the year of the film. I'm going to introduce them right now. We have actor writer and stand up comedian from the savage snowflake podcast Geoff Leach. Hello how are you. I'm doing Great Jeff. How are you all right? I love your radio Voice. I love your voice a wonderful well yeah. I've got a lot of depth as well yeah going but but you have like a demeanor that soon as we start talking on the podcasts you're like and now I am an official man. It's his job as well. It's a very professional show. I would never say anything out of the ordinary. If you're the you're the most professional you two different types of beverage. That's right caffeinated and Akwa base. That's right. It depends what you want but I always provide two different liquids. I love to different colored liquid one type of plug copies of the same color no. It's not going to happen on do that no but if you want one clear and one brown you come to the right place wow again different type of focus I think let's try and focus on absolute tragedy disasters. You told me this was. PG rated different colors liquids. It's just another tally on my fucked up list. I've just fucked up so many the times and here's another you're going to be no should I do you leave the end. I do leave it in his enemies. Oh my goodness. I'll be out on this one beeping his phonier. anyways I feel like it but instead incentive beeping it yeah. Can you see me going this up and put probably where I'm just going. Oh yeah no no no. Let's actually let's just get a few reactions so that I can throw those in leat. Stop Eat. Oh that one was like majestic yourself out okay. Well talk about a fucking smart dude. I'll introduce our other guests here to introduce me thanks I this guy is an associate staff seismologists from Caltech. Which is the school? They're discussing and shooting shooting at in. I don't know if they're shooting at it. I guess we'll ask him in the film San Andreas. It's Dr Min adrain mayor. How's it going very good? Thanks for having me. Did I say your last last name right. I feel like I was GONNA say mire. Mare your myers good Meyer. Okay good means go a lot going on I four he's a fucking brainiac Ri- Yes we just so as a over yet yeah unlike secondly he was playing ukulele minute go so he's like a double threat clearly ridiculously handsome. That's what I was gonNA. Say is the triple threat because clearly he could play bond but then also play instruments and it also measured the earth and he's White Adam straight want these women saw in life. It looks like he just got down from a mountain mountain and came in here today. This guy goes into rows that not only do they not follow him around up and down the aisles. They give him stuff to take away for free. Whatever you want doctor he's killing? She probably say something well. Let's talk about the movie I Sandra I had never seen before this morning. Okay great so fresh stayed like took talk just not even twenty four hours a guard okay great. It's still fresh very fresh well. What was your muscles fresh well? My initial thought is this the signs of why this film was even made okay. That was my biggest. I usually try to find like production not airs but just like why did it. Why was it hard making this movie because there's usually a big story about how it didn't work out and how they had to switch the director but it just seemed like everyone agreed movie should get made and then the rock was like I'm in and then it got married yeah and don't get me wrong? There's some great performances in it. Oh yeah good elements about it yeah but it's the simplest film that's ever been made isn't it. I think it's just a copy paste disaster right one with the train that's running away with them. Denzel and healthy headline one car three or something like that it's about run away and then the younger younger he's divorced from his girl but then he wants back then he saves the trainees here yeah. It's like the same thing. There's always got to be a love story and then there's gotta be one just as soon as the film starts there's going to be something terrible and exciting and then just domino effect boom boom boom boom boom climax to sitting in second major scientific question I had before stray off the bat again to the actual earthquake section sure why is the rocks daughter so translucent y Ou like I'll let you take that one because she she she's. She's the actress that goes play is of English Irish Italian and Hungarian descent like she can be more right yeah and the Rock I mean he's rocking a little something any he's GonNa little culture going on. I mean I didn't question it while I was watching it but now it now that you say it. I can't get out of my head the whole movie. I was just going well. I can believe this tidal wave is taking all these buildings but the Pale Skin God signs the same. Everything else is completely realistic right yeah uh that my friend was saying that the most unrealistic thing of the movies that somebody divorced dwayne Johnson the good point sexy accent as well L. he does. He Still Switzerland believe he's from Switzerland from Switzerland changed accent depending on who I talked to Ooh talk to American person or to your Irish it's up. I think he's Irish because you're like Oh. I should told you should have been from oil and and then just studying earthquakes wchs now learn English and then when I came here everybody thought I was from South Africa and lived there for a while and then people started asking from Germany snap. That's it's a step back isn't it the actor who plays Jack Stella in sons of anarchy odds because he's got like three accents none of them now. He's he's just got through it access which is then then automatically switch depending on who you talked loving so is it a Swiss accent. Were hearing does that. I don't know you don't know tell me girlfriends oh friends in the room so she can watch me fly outrageous throughout this whole punk fall. I mean she should be jealous. We haven't for actually a homosexual. I'm just European so the movie yeah Yeah Okay so wait. Let's go to the doctor here. When did you first see it? And what did you think of the film. I actually watched it on the plane here. When I moved to California how funny that's why I knew it was in two thousand fifteen okay and I saw a time to watch it possibly on the plane I can't move to? La Without having seen the movie our okay so I watched it and then they start the thing with you know where they go and rescue the car accident right yes becky that was called Natalie but it close enough. I hear Middle Games probably Yeah No. He does the thing where you know. He tips the hat. Ask The too much in case you didn't see it is caused the car to full first of all is the road to blades wind helicopter Johnson yeah well beyond you just can't fly helicopter like that anyways. It was almost on do that no question about that tipping the hat question the hat I almost wish film it was almost too much and we'd like ours. Good is that because of the wrong words for the rest of his crewmen who by the way a meant to be seasoned Marines Marines and he's just just when you're down there and make sure you do this really simplistic thing. The shouli should know because you're a professional department. I mean he's like chill about that. Guy was like very cocky about going down there and he goes. Hey we only have five minutes and he's like everything and then they do the whole procedure it goes wrong long and then somehow they're all happy about. Don't isn't the helicopter about to break down your timeline here. I wish the guy lost his arm. At the beginning he should've lost his arm. That would have been so so if a car traps your arm on the side of amount and you're gonNA have some kind of lost and damaged at least bit nerve damage convenient. He's just rocking through any should've taken his arm off he will well-trained and well-trained whoa triggering really strong forum so you didn't appreciate the tip the hat but you kept watching and enjoyed the Phil I did no I think it's great and you know it's totally over the top. Many regards says a lot of good elements suggest watching it whilst on edibles of Legal Age and you're allowed to do that in that something you're into you have an edible beforehand. That's smart. That's how I did. It and I found it pretty hilarious realistic yeah. It was a great comedy movie Yeah Yeah. I think there were funny. I will say I didn't find the parts that they meant to be funny funny but I did for any time. A building was going down. I was loving it hilarious. I love of that sharing. I know I it's probably terrible because you know you're also thinking how many people are in this building. How many people are getting crushed by this building etcetera etcetera but for some reason just watching Ching buildings go down is awesome? We need more of that in films all right nine eleven i. I was watching the whole time just thinking that I was just going eleven nine eleven way. We're making this movie because you could call you even mentioned those two numbers you can literally just got. Hey what's going out to the car. I would probably going to get between some nine eleven. I WANNA go. I don't WANNA go out. How dare you ruined my night? You can't say those numbers. They just can't drop him KNBR notice lock it. Was You know al Qaeda in festival season yeah which is my favorite festival season and they tip over right. He's one of the nine eleven conspiracy theories right it collapsed within themselves which is actually apparently really difficult to do. If you want to demolish a building on purpose you WanNa do it without you know destroying the neighboring buildings but is it just imploded so year theorist. I'm not oh I would love that if you were but the the triple threat just became yeah. I think it's a difficult physical problem of how these buildings actually will go down because we've never seen it. There's never been a really big earthquake close to modern city since we had skyscraper. Oh a ankle billions can collapse well high-rises. Can it's used it hasn't happened yet. It hasn't happened yet. What about the waves the way that because there is a few like super for wide shots of the city and we could see the ground moving in these big waves so I wanted to know if that's realistic at those are totally exaggerated and in fact we we have simulations where we show for the early warning system that we're developing okay how the waves would propagate through California and then enter the L. A. Basin Yup and those are are exaggerated on purpose? They're like ten times stronger than whooping reality just for the sake of the visualization okay but they made it about it that exaggeration but there is some validity to it because it's like it doesn't move like that just not as drastic yeah the lower but the kept signing seven point one seven point one at the beginning it was important ones and we had a seven point one in California. Maybe a month ago ridgecrest there were two and I was always self romancing right and I barely felt the tremble oh and that was a seven point one and I was gripping a nine point one of the time so I was like and finding fill that how on earth did that caused the collapse all these gigantic buildings when the movie right that was nine point six how'd you don't be seven point number so clearly well. You should go to rich cranston visited. That's what I was gonNA. Ask ma'am like whoa geologic ma'am. If you want to say so yeah every time I mean you don't have to when you go out there with people dead kit in fortunately not many people got hurt in the magazine seven earthquake when you close is extremely violent but it's relatively local in its extent but then when you go up to five it was underneath above if it was run along the the the you know the riverbed of the Hoover Dam it would actually collapse it you could yeah if it's right there. A seven point one would probably could yeah junior but would the the Asian guy have survived the full student that stand in the tunnel where he was on a student yeah he was the one of the other doctors yeah but yeah I mean he gave his life for that kid or did he come. We agree that he served on John Piece of concrete all the way down the way I think he would be fine. Also how did his still. It'll be serving his foot become impaled 'cause. I don't think they showed that at all. They just like cut his foot with a big pipe. If you've worked sow if if you've ever watched the walking dead and you know the the handsome hero Asian guy always ends up in some kind of a sticky situation okay so it just doesn't matter it just yeah he just woke up like it's like how the Guy The reds outfit always dies on a landing party from Star Trek. Oh I didn't know that yet if the red jump Agai your star Trek like Landon Manning Party. Are you getting dead. Yeah I guess that makes sense color wise like red means danger in whatever blood or whatever okay so. Let's talk about the prediction system awesome because that is like what you're actually doing correct no okay great to see you know we're not predicting earthquakes. Okay Caltech earthquake prediction sort of the holy grail that of course if we could figure it out then it'd be amazing and it'd be the the solution to our problems but cannot you know we've tried and we're still looking into. It doesn't seem to be predictable. Just like after lunch breaks pretty lazy easy like we can't be bothered most of the time in these movies whenever you see the guys from the scientific department right and they were the most bright people there are always on lunch break but they're always like Yup Dina coffee coffee and doughnut just chill in around with fucking pens in their hands off. Oh you have to another that one. That's so so and then and then but then Chilin academics show quite a bit you need that for your so you know for inspirations academic brain flowing but then they get mad at the journalists because you only pay attention when there's an earthquake. Were you doing your job yeah. Earthquake prediction was a scientific topic in maybe seventies or eighties but then there's a lot of people you know who claimed they could predict there is going to make grand claims and it never turn out to actually what we started calling it the P. Word prediction because it just you know it was just it was just wasn't happening in so many people today on the Internet. There's still so many people claiming that the some method that I can't say what it is is it because you can't really get any kind of central probe or piece of apparatus this to the depths you would have to within the escort so that's so there's breaks because what movement and tectonic shift mostly happened between anywhere between five five and twenty kilometers here in California and so we don't have drill holes that go down that but even if we could make those measurements measure stress at depth. We don't have the theory we don't we don't understand the physics of the actual rupture propagation and part of it is because it's a it's a self reinforcing systems. It's like an avalanche or an epidemic where the bigger it gets the more likely it is to get even bigger so it can spin out of control and these systems are inherently difficult to predict. It's like snowing anyone who didn't hear what I was just lost in your eyes. I the listener is so lucky that they can't see him. I guess what I had the precious. Just think didn't explain. I've never cleaned the guy before but when when the stock market starts going really really down in two thousand eight I should help you look at my yeah not just think about Mario Crash and then other people see it's gone down so have to sell and that in turn makes to go down even more and it's self-reinforcing so that was one of the things in this in the film. There's a huge earthquake and then there's another another one and like I think two or three that just happened boom boom boom and so is that you're saying that that is probably like if one then you better look out. There's going to be more earthquakes cluster in space and time so there's always the trigger each other. That's pretty much the only prediction system we have. I guess it's like a big one happens okay we. I can probably predict there's going to be more. Yes and that's what we did so when when the six point four happened the first earthquake of the the first speaker ridgecrest sequence the journalists of course aswell. What does this mean for the big one? Is it or is there more to come and you know we have these empirical models where you can say well. There's about ten percent probability over the next few days. There's an even bigger one right and then sure enough it happened. You know it was nine yeah but it's plausible and it did happen okay who live secretly just when he got back in the office we got one. We go on you high fiving realize now they'll start listening now. They're going to start listening. You know we don't want anybody to get hurry. But of course we find an exciting yeah like yeah. Oh another one another. That's fine for us. This is we've we've installed after the big earthquake that we've had here in California in the ninety s we've installed this southern California seismic network and we've been waiting for big earthquakes. This quake happened ever since and nothing really big has happened in issue is the narrowest. Aren't you guys seriously enough about when you do have predictions necessarily right police in the movies ace one of the movies. Everyone who works in the Seismology Department is always frustrated by like we've been trying to tell you this stuff and you just listen a little bit like global warming right right but I mean we'll do differently like what what should we do to prepare that we're not doing. It's journalists journalists. I think the media are really interested in earthquake galway's and I think they did a really good job those ridgecrest earthquakes we very happy with how it was covered on TV the La Times and everywhere but you know no. It's the general public that you know it's just one of many things that you could be concerned about or interested in and so yeah it's difficult to keep the attention of the of the general public and you know have people being prepared the way they should be prepared a we in the hospital right now like I'll be honest if the if this happened right now a we done where we are right oh now I don't know about this building but it could be Los Angeles would sink into Johnson cows and split open water. Yeah a bunch of water could end up reading nasty really depends on what happens. You know there's all sizes of earthquakes. If the really big one happens down. What are we talking for? Debate like what kind of is sort of the what we think is going to be the big one here in southern California always from the very specific guests said pointing yeah but that's so if you if the earthquakes started in the near the Salton Sea we're rupture all the way up past. La for a few hundred miles that'd be standpoint. It sounds check. I mean it's not about size is about how long it sticks around for right yeah. That's what my girlfriend always told me. I think that's wrong. In this case guy knows everything gross that word I come to get off the country and it's GonNa be such a pain so that doesn't scare scare you. Are you a masochist type. Do do you live on the edge. You ride a motorcycle. We'll be bill Barham be like by the way pilot's license so we can by helicopter. I was GONNA ask has that too. She we all have little escape pods. You know one man pie of copters. It is just amazing cares in the edge. A little flames going up everywhere because the helicopters was crashing to most people can't afford yeah. They don't have. We're talking about class. Signs costs money exactly we get together every flight. Would you a fundraiser on razor bone. Only the bankers in the COMEDIANS will be able to afford that kind of war well that's going to be that is the one percent that's what makes up the one presents just bankers people that were INEX- at Bank of America six comedian comedian yeah you know I'm deadly serious. I've often thought about absolute would happen but if there was some huge quite hair and there was a lot of building down on people out in the streets terrorized ride a motorcycle so my plan is to have a decent cycle Michael with good suspension on it to be able to ride up towards Griffith Observatory Francis I Leonard Nimoy told me on the the big screen that if you've got a nice screening room the the Nimoy theater and then teach about the history of Griffith Observatory's about sixty years out Dayton easily obtained in that he says that the that cliff face he's actually one of the more I study all along ridges and that's why the Griffith Observatory's. Dan was chosen stable so I just wanted my dad with my buddy. Think is that Eddie. I think the motorcycles are good idea. I'm not sure about that particular location. I'm not a geologist hills generally a dangerous. The other thing is fire is really dangerous after the big earthquake so one of the big concern turn is that there will be huge fires after the earthquake and when you're on top of the hill then you're trapped mutual where you're going to go ahead and well that depends on what exactly actually happens and yeah. There's no easy answer but if there's a big movement out in the water and then all of a sudden Nami comes up so I wouldn't be so worried about Nami here in southern California. It's not impossible but it's not very likely so the the earthquakes mostly inland the big faults most of them are inland as good to yeah no yeah and mostly lateral motion the west coast to vertical motion and so there's not a whole big chance to phnom you could still you know he could trigger an underwater landslide that could trigger tsunami or even activate a secondary fault that is under the water but those are probably going to be smaller and so you wouldn't get you know a huge to Nami army like in an senator asphalt movie. That's what I was GONNA say like. Even if we did have NAMI wouldn't be like catastrophic the way that I feel like that was so absurd it just around the city yeah right yeah that's probably unrealistic level by about if they're gonna like Neil Yeah and he went above it. When I was going to be a COP cutler MOMS of boards about three quarters of a God zillah wave that's precise measurements measuring San Andreas? What are we how many attack Tian's was it about three times three of those yeah so yeah? You're not scared then because if you're not scared it makes me less scared. No actually it's quite the opposite and I think other size seismologists feel feel that way too that whenever we travel somewhere think man. Maybe it's GonNa Happen while I'm not sure what you're worried. It's going to not here though we want to be. You know we've been studying starting our lives and we're super passionate about it. Though it is dangerous that you are here. That's why I should be scared. Oh that's terrible man. I'm I mean you're a masochist. Yeah he's shared stuff yeah and so you know he could it could play out a lot of ways predict and damages really difficult. Sometimes we have these huge huge earthquakes that do surprisingly little damage and then there's other earthquakes are not that big but they do crazy damage garage for example the the Nepal earthquake in when was it two two thousand six. Maybe you're right definitely. Don't know if you've ever been to anybody who's ever been to commando would've thought if the big like one happens here. This place will be a pile. It will be a huge human catastrophe yeah and then it happened and surprisingly little I mean you know I mean there was no it was it only helps people yeah. No no it was of course there was there was there was some grave consequences but not never on the scale that we imagine I wasn't the kind of level where you got sent trump out there with a few toiletry. Take pictures with thumbs up thumbs babies people love me. We'll just I put down bits of bouncing everywhere. Just is that because of like the infrastructure is that because the building like the way we make buildings like why one thing is that every earthquakes a little different so for example different frequency content and Apollo was because there was not so much high frequency shaking more low frequency shaking. What's the difference so oh you know the the motion is if close to the earthquake then it has very rapid movements back and forth back and forth back and forth okay we'd like ten hurts means ten in times back and forth per second okay the really big earthquake to make low frequency grandma's and that's the kind of motion that brings high-rises down and so I want they food the way that we saw that lady she went down three floors is unjust was like Oh my hearings and Elbit for a second time for like a minute even though she was bleeding leading profusely outside of so many like little moments that made me very angry in that movie yeah everyone is really strong as hell? I mean I would the wrong door of a car like like it was nothing like it was nothing but then later couldn't rip out the stuff in the underwater thank you could I mean he could be. He was like Oh wait a minute. The roof has very selective muscle. Strength doesn't mean Do you think it was easier to snack he needed a snack constantly was maybe we didn't see it. They didn't show it but he just ate like an opposing takeoff way through and then he was like now kick the yeah yeah. He just thought it wasn't quite dramatic enough yet. Yeah I want to get a little higher wanted his daughter to really appreciate they wanted us to really have some mild mall. It's a brain drain the amount of time she was dead. How does she wake Oh? You mean like mom mom. No you'd wake up with me like you lose power speech yeah six six months rehabilitation dead for a bit still at hotline and she still works that guy was he gonna stick by even when she was like Oh we don't share as a vegetable I think he was in think he was locked in he was also also. It feels like it's going to get a job. Yeah you're going to set on boots the little brother as well. Oh yeah yeah got it appreciate he would've stood by. I think is that is that got a classic British thing to do. Yeah we love people in various states tore into all right. We're GONNA take a quick break and we'll be right back. Support for today's show comes from Mova Globes. I like to Mova Mova no but seriously Mova Globes turn all on their own with or without a base in any setting with ambient lighting no batteries are needed and no sloppy sloppy cords instead hidden magnets provide the movement. There's over forty different designs to choose from including World Maps Outer Space and famous artworks. There's something for everyone is is great as a gift or as a piece for your desk. I got one for my desk and it's unbelievable. Everybody comes over and they're like what is this. How does it work? Can I touch it. Can I move it. Tell tell me about this globe and I say leave me alone. I'm trying to work you punk. No I say please let me tell you about my Mova Globe and here's how to get your own you can go the globe dot com slash bad signs and use the code bad signs for ten percent off your purchase. That's MOVA GLOBES DOT com slash bad science and use the code bedsides ads for ten percent off. It's extremely pleasurable to look at an honestly makes me look smarter. I honestly believe people think that I am some sort of genius genius because I have this moving globe on my desk but I'm not so trick people into thinking you're smart with Mova Globes. That's not their tagline. I that's a a personal thing from me. The break is over here. We go back to the show about Stein's. I've really just WanNa keep departing on what happens when the big one hits. I guess but you know you've you WANNA be here when it happened so weirdly it does make me feel like okay. It's not going to be at-bat could be really bad or it could be less bad than we expected but to one of the really big concerns that I have is fire so when you have the earthquake you have ignitions everywhere you have gas lines burst a rupture you have lamps fall into sofas and so when the northridge earthquake happened happened in Nineteen Ninety-four there were I think in the one hundred fifty ignitions can fire units from all other counties rushed in to put them out and they managed so no really big fire developed but if the big one happens then is not just going to be in on one county but there's going to be ignitions everywhere and nobody's GonNa come and help you and so the a big the big worry is that it will be it can go all the way up to a super conflagration where you can you. Can you know San Francisco in one thousand nine six after the big one they had up there burnt down it was was heavily damaged from the earthquake but then it ended up burning down and that hasn't happened. I think in a in a modern city yet but that's not to say couldn't happen and it is is a valid that this could go all the way up California the way I mean they only showed in l. a. and San Francisco but senator as fool on do the whole thing with the way from one right now but it probably could signed in the in the middle probably good second. Where's the PhD there yeah that was so that between Pike Field and Hollister there's the creeping section of the senator asphalt where the creeping said yeah the not creepy but creeping creeping yeah and the fault moves a little bit? Almost you know little episodes okay and what that means is that there's not so much stress build up then the stress that build builds up is at least partially released over time okay whereas in other places like northern and in southern California this distressed the senators fully look to play moves unstoppably and default doesn't move at all until you build up a lot of stress so when you're saying this probably less stress on that section of the fault but these things are difficult to study because we have no observations and we have we have have model as some of the models say you can't rupture through that creeping segment and other models say well actually sometimes you can and is it frustrating to work on something where it's just like. We don't have any data very much up now. Just a lot of signs like that you know this is the like one hundred percent category defiantly one but probably will might necessarily not happen but it probably should in the next thirty years and possibly next week it can happen any time for sure for sure so improbable show improbable but actually really yeah okay but this this is not because has you have we have these warning systems right where we can't predict earthquakes will happen but we can pick them up as they unfold and then we can send laugh as you're watching Allie do right we had forty seconds of warning time in Pasadena from the rich I oh great enough time to finish pissing and then watch everyone you know die. You're right now with forty seconds. You could actually do a lot of for example if you're a search and you can take the scalpel at a that's true if you're good to know home depot you can move away from the twenty four racks the seismologist guys don't get in the door frame. Get under the table. That's true yeah. doorframes isn't it. It's actually a terrible place say and they say the best place to stand. Is it something like a big frigel something like that if you can push against the war and then under the against one no you won't have take time to push the fridge anywhere really table cricket best strategy is drop cover and hold on most people got hurt or even die from stuff falling on them from the roof. You know ties lamps table table and you hold the table and can you wait and try and write it out. What about these ads in the movie? Actually we were really happy to see that seems to have in your house is a metal strong metu table steel with tons of wheels on Clemson. You can lift clamor push the you can push the move move out the building or is it just out of the front door and just cow side. Don't that's that's exactly what you shouldn't do because heard stuff comes flying down from from the roof. No that's my fault on this one him he just went outside and natural fat blunt wrong right. Don't do that. Stay inside right. That's that's the thing stay inside. Get under the table. The dynamic of this podcast is being not just this episode but everyone that listen to me and you or your comedy guest yes trying to shoo home comedy in all the way and the scientific mind get more and more fries destroyed shook the trying to save your your life right now. We can't help ourselves shifts. It's in our blood anyway back to use on the ED table and we're GONNA have to get underneath it for cover. Get underneath him. It's got jacked up. They go afterwards. Let's do it so wait so gone to the table. Yeah that's the official recommendation drop cover and hold on I would and some people are going to hate me for saying that I would add a caveat to that because there is is something called soft story building or buildings eaten by termites like my own house. Has You know termite damage my own house to how and I don't trust you know usually if well built small house in Southern California is not gonna collapse you almost con- destroy these things if you have for example a big garage no shear walls in the in the or or shop win those or something like that are that changes the picture and so I think if you live in California you know learn about different housing costs yeah. Okay Damn Richard Fade really okay so the official recommendation get under a table. Your caveat is to find out about building your in yeah no if you live in that's a bit the little the problem you know there's no some cities now have Manda mandated retrofits. If you have story building for example you need to retrofit right your your neighbors house. It's going to gasoline landlord on so they don't kill these people that are going to sue me have that on my own just yeah yeah and so. What was I going to say? This is the point where you can. I'm really frustrating. Yeah we got there. I totally lost my train of thought. That's okay find out what kind of building your in and find out if it's retrofitted softer hard yeah I assume those are the two types No it's just you know stable and I think you know th there should be a rule for AH transparency in building there should be a system and at the entrance and the rain could be bring me cheap Tori dine but that's why house owners don't like intruders that now some houses they will go down in price. That's all you for having a faulty home. Yeah I think it would be good idea because this earthquake country after all and so it's it's important to know if you're in a tight building or in a d type. I WanNa know that me too. I WanNa get still you still have a bunker in the backyard. When I event you buy hi? I'm going to have a little bunker yup with a water filtration and you know F- tracing and yeah. I'm definitely going to have that because I'm pretty SAM WE'RE GONNA die to nuclear warfare. I'm can I ask a very specific question about the gentleman in the in the in the in the movie who was effectively representing you'll one of your colleagues Poggioli his character at one point when he's on the TV station where they hack into there was hacked someone wiser Aww Whitegate Code Chad he knows how to hack first of all secondly when they hack into the TV station they do the cross feed innovate. He says caught be with you and God be with you. I wanted to well first of all. I wanted to make the point surely not going to be with you because it's God's fool. If you believe in God is God's full dying online doing God's full line as the episode title there we go pissing him off so try and the signal was actually as a matt of science. Do you have room for gaunt in your mind when you look at the the the constructed this planet and changing things having to do you believe leaving God i I personally don't but I have a lot of colleagues that are religious and they don't see a contradiction. I think you can create. How do they marry anyway? I'm I'm quite interested how they all they all you probably there's few people you know for example. Take the Bible literally because the whole study of geology is all like you know how many million years this speech Iraq show so it's a bit difficult to reconcile that with the seven thousand years in the Bible but you know there's a lot of other the concept of greater being B Onze owns what we knew of the creation of this universe. That's the element they still believe in. Maybe I guess I don't know but honestly just weird for his characters and it goes away the study table be with you I that he should just have been yelling sturdy table gutters clearly like bill. Is Your own harp. Get around to Bill Buzz House right now. I'm sure that you'll worth more to him than he says by the comedian has yeah my Lord of the rings there is a little remember even where I found this because I was just in such a weird hole of San Andreas stuff today but there is a there's so many times where they say the word God in this movie is yelling. Oh My god Jesus the bit of the end with the flag-waving on the bridge. I mean this is our action. Movie is like every Hollywood movie that yeah that's true. Okay here's a real quick on and just off the top of my head. Would you rather be inside or outside if there's an earthquake outside out saw most you know kill people building skilled people fool the NRA of earthquakes. That's great okay problem member so spend more time outside. He's another good recommendation. Just in case something happens. You're going to be absolutely if you're you're outside and there's nothing that can fall on your head then. You're you know that's a safe as it gets okay. That's good to know so like why did he make a lineup alongside of the eighteen T- facebook thing down the pitch. I wrote that down. That was something it says to get up again something sturdy. That was his quote. Does that make sense if you're outside the triangle of life or something he called it yeah. I was just GonNa fold against the wolves. If you're low thirty Eddie yes. That's probably probably better than you know stand two meters away from the wall but if he can't go onto open ground than you should surely pick that okay so it's the rock Iraq. If we all got so jacked Arar Jan we could just like yeah okay take cells table steroids either rock get super jacked yeah yeah all right now a picture of the perfect way to survive to fly a helicopter yeah learn how to be the Rock Doodo have helicopter now. We're getting to your weaknesses and I love it. Maybe since this is on radio an important thing is just prepared be prepared. I'd have a bit of water have a bit of cash fire extinguisher kit. Would you say is integral for every California resident. The most important the thing is water that can support you and whoever you live with your family for a few days which is Kantian tablets. Yes those to add a bit of cash at a few tools I for example. I have a hatchet in my always wanted making of a murderer. Is this what we're doing right. You need the money an fire thing because the fire thing. It's the fire extinguisher if everybody puts out their own little fires that's going to reduce the risk. You have a really big fire substantially say every home should have a fire extinguisher in a mine doesn't mine doesn't either it should doesn't isn't that meant sorry. The wounding has one on but we live in an apartment complex but I don't have one in my in my palm. We need a little fire extinguisher expensive either. They're fifty bucks or so and they were really important to know. That's actually that's. I see wonderful advice. I don't think anyone's I've never heard anyone be given that I know and now I kind of want to buy two one for emergencies and one just because like I WANNA learn how to use it. It seems really pond spray my friend. That's cool and then when it's used out what you can do you can put paint into her own graffiti high up on the side of Walsall Sally do that. I didn't even think about that you do it you put paint liquid painting turn into a fire extinguisher and then spray it all the way out of the woods yet definitely GonNa be doing that for fifty bucks. That's a great deal. I love that farthest thing show medical care we ordered but I'd like a really high end you know I want to get like glit- a couple of them in the hall like Pulp Fiction. I want that stuff yeah. Yeah all adrenaline shots flashlights probably anti-venom thank you I. I have all my my box basically camping gear rearrange and ask the Antionette over it. That's great. We don't need that okay. Save five hundred bucks right that how `Bout Camouflage Pants Scam Oh yeah yeah no survival food packages yeah bring a lot of food but what is probably more important but food fresh rotated so that when you really need it you can still eat it yeah. Oh Oh the food like a rotisserie chicken once every twenty years eight the dry food packets and replace them with fresh from an unnecessary. You can do forty but forty years forty two years. You can keep that chip based on the movie. Maybe have some kind of scuba gear handy. Oh good call if it's an army gums and and learn how genetics arm someone right. If someone's putting a gun in your face you should learn how to smash their sculling that was actually like. Do you think this yeah I mean this is more open. I don't know if it's your your your your welded like he knows everything wow but first of all when they when it kicks off of course people started looting eighteen right Louis we expect to be right away because people are greedy selfish parasite aiming. Sometimes you see that sometimes for example in the recent Mexico quakes it it was the opposite of solidarity and everybody was going out seeing where they can help their organizations online suggesting the people in the country as the the president of America things right and less self-centered then why I country first world country middle class and upper class America Elettra Clinton anywhere. It's like a group dynamic in the anyplace. I think he could go either way. You know grow they could be outbursts of solidarity or maybe there's going to be anneke and option three options right. Look out for yourself. Try and grab some stuff but then you're gonNA die because you don't have any seeing if people see doing that then you're going to be on board and secondly learn how to be really good team. Build some kind of Jimmy out synonymous coming but we build a bar like this to quick though you can do it quick as many hands networks and then the final option is to join a string quartet and just play out yeah. Do you think people appreciate she ate more. When there's a tragedy going on in court people can just like kiss they can hold each other? They can have a little more with each. We're GONNA we're about to die if I'm going out. I want want to hear some bomb. Here's the thing that Right Donald E. That's the soundtrack of the movie. There's not Astra Matic so if you actually had that during the big one I wouldn't that be intense same you know own right yeah. That's what a cello sounds like yeah. I wanted to talk about a want to talk about mooncakes because I read that that's a real thing that is I know there's Mars quakes. I've talked to JPL PEOPLE W on Mars quakes but the Moon I didn't know has quakes put seismometers on the moon and the Polish. It's pretty cool records from there that we don't know about well. She's we don't no no but but it's some of his stuff out there because you know there's some flags we know there's little base now. Right is the land by let's take like secret stuff too big. The mini golf like wow that would be great. You know many Moon Golf Act that would be so cool just like a couple of Paul mags just just in case under a stars like just under a rock flight. I don't know I I I. It seems like they're related to tidal stresses assist. That's what I was reading which makes very little sense to me. I know there's like a relationship between the moon and through cycles and I heard said there's no place like tonic so there's no I guess you'd think there's no mooncakes but then the you know the the gravitational adaptations from the tides they talk at the Moon the moon just like the earth and so that that defamation can cause death right now bunny shaming the F. totally deforms like they've deformed the right. Yeah I urge you can leave the Earth Kyw the Desert Jeff. I don't bring your friends here Okay please tell them to leave. It's just rude. It's we're trying to have a podcast. that's incredibly really interesting to me and I felt like was going to be wrong for sure but the real is mind blowing and they they're they're a bit different because they I I think it's because the moon is very dry. There's almost no water in the rocks and so there is the the the seismic waves that propagate for much longer so if you look at the size of grim on the moon I mean you can bring to the areas but if you look at the moon quake seismic Graham then it's just GonNa ring a lot longer as opposed to green quakes occurring for a longer take time and it's just keep we need to do so strange. Send The rock up there. We're still tables and suit in a helicopter. Gamma Moon copped hoped you don't need the engine as much once up there right. Maybe some boosters yeah just take a fire extinguisher and just oh I've seen that in so many movies that would work right because he's the jet propulsion has to work. That's that's a guarantee the ring of fire. I feel feel like we kind of had to talk about for two reasons one. There's a rumor that there's going to be a San Andreas too and that is going to focus on the ring of Fire although I will say that was announced in two thousand sixteen and so far there's no release date or shoot dates for San Andreas too but anyways there's no roe for Kevin Hart and the movie so so call make Iraq Roxy. He's dying trying. There's finding a roll. We'll see what happens. it's been three years they it says there is ninety. percent of the earthquakes on earth occur at the ring of fire sounds about right okay why during a fire so special in that way and why don't you live there we do you do live in the ring. We live in the ring. It goes all the way you know she central America to Houston America and then Alaska Lucians Russia Japan. What so the ring can you describe around the East Coast specific it it? It's not really mainland. Okay simply say coastline around the Pacific okay all the countries that are virtually all the countries that have bed in the core core most active tonic boundaries that we have they're all tectonic plates that were and that's where the earthquakes and the fastest plate velocities is there and so that's why we wouldn't be cash was like a seismologist. Yes I think he was. I think that's where that came from. That was his first song song and it was a hit and he was like you know what I'm GonNa. Quit my profession. I'm GonNa Start Making Music Science and what about Alaska I had asked about Alaska to because it was another one where it was like. All the earthquakes are happening in Alaska. Alaska Alaska is one of the most active places in the world right in terms of earthquakes. the second because earthquakes ever ever recorded was the nineteen sixty four talking about in the movie in Anchorage which they say shook for five minutes and the energy release was equivalent to ten million atom bombs that sounds about right yeah okay ten million atom bomb. That's what off right now in science the all the time yeah this is crazy amounts of energy that are that are involved in play tonics these amazing huge plates moving unstoppably into these forces are just they're beyond anything that we could conjure up wow if we could get down there and haunted Stan some way but if we if we go deep enough into get down there would we he severely mess up the the the surface lightwave leasing visual something on that would that call because we won't be able to contain the pressure that power yeah but you know yeah get something down they would by just opening to SA- tiny crack Cadet Selva chain-reaction the whole of just implodes yes yes that's a big concern in geothermal energy in fracking that when you press in water or liquids yeah that you can actually promote failure and it's a bit like what do you call it aqua planning winning when you know you have two sides of the fall that are that are under stress and I wanNA move but they can't because they're held back by friction press water in between or some fluid press the two sides away from each other and that's how you can trigger the earthquake and so the ones wants to get skiing sucks we needed it. There's actually to be technically correct the wastewater disposal that they have to do after the fracking so the fresh produce a lot of ways writing rocks and then they have to dispose of the way to do that as they press it into formations under the reservoir the y Ou and then the trigger earthquakes triggered you know medium sized most of the time nothing happens but they have triggered managed six earthquakes and there's no real reason why the contributor bigger ones as as I was GONNA say as we've learned is if you call one you could very easily 'cause another one or bigger one yeah and yeah you can't control how big it's going to you know it can go out of control and breath or should I live in. This is a disaster. I mean he's on boring place like Florida. I'm from floor with meals. It was just flatlands. There's nothing yet flatlined. Tell US goes. I like that. He's going to women who hate the rain. Though I may where else I also was looking at the wholesale uh-huh Imploding Ryan thinking about what is the economic effect of an entire disappearance of the floor and satellite like would insurance assurance Pyeho for things like that. Would that would be the damage so what's yours doesn't pay for anything so we can have with the there's catastrophic insurances that are for exactly that really for like pieces we should just start but the question is after so if if la gets hit really eighty strongly the question is what people still WanNa live here in you know at all or is it just going you know people just GonNa move somewhere else and you see after Hurricane Katrina. They're still I think behind on GDP in in New Orleans and wouldn't windows area because they're still on fighting like the repercussions of that contest wouldn't wouldn't much biggest gave you had the big one here. That could be much worse than anything that we've seen so far. I feel like once it happens. I'd feel way more calm about living here because it's like it's probably going to happen again now. We have another. We've just been told is a terrorist well that was temporarily after the reach. Nothing ought to be ready could happen tonight. Probably definitely maybe hundred percent one but probably what happened. Yes those accurate and and scientifically accurate. Do you WanNa make a prediction. Do you WANNA go on the record and say here's what I think. It'll it'll go down. No Oh you should do it because you know it doesn't happen. No one's one's ever GONNA be your podcast back in two thousand nineteen and you'll be like oh no no one's GonNa the didn't have you could say well in my estimation. This could happen yeah now. If it does happen be like he said in two thousand nine hundred Poggioli yet exactly what I want to prevent you know there's there's these Internet crazies that you know they claim to have some sort of method to predict earthquakes and one of them is actually pretty popular. I don't want to mention his name because delegates pretty up flute and but has a million followers and and they love and absolutely love and beauty party one of the first things the ridgecrest sequence I went to his web page and all he had on his pages happy for Fourth of July America and so later he claimed that he predicted it but like yeah. If you really have been the message webpage so don't predict because there is no way to predict the truth yeah okay off the record it totally off in two years time the whole before you say it say according to my calculations according to my calculations we predict that we can't prettied anything. Sorry Greg that just wanted to make sure but will we can't decide what I'm personally working on the early early warning system where we monitor the size situation real time and as soon as the way start spreading we have computer algorithms that detect motion and then if we see that it's a big one and then you start sending out alerts. Can you tell us what the what the the stages are. The alert goes out. Do we get told about that immediately. We get ambrose offline on well in. La Is the only place actually where we're we're already operational and publicly available so this to shake la up shake yeah yeah I I downloaded after the ridgecrest wakes and was just on it all the time after that just seems to run background Susan that where I can see like Oh man stabbed another man twenty feet from your house and now I'm locked into the fear I feel about every street corner in. La He's going to be the same thing it's different. I know this it's just it hooks into our system that the United States Geological Survey together with Austin University partners is producing Caltech attack Berkeley University of Oregon University of Washington. EKG Zurich and their ages responsible for distributing the alerts and it's going to be a west coast wide system but at this point on the La is is on it but you can download it and we didn't send out alerts crest shake alert La Shakilla eh up. I'm going to get it and it's not you know it's not going to save you. It's just gives you a few seconds of warning and seconds could be what you need yeah outside and jump in the by what I'm just still got the water and still make sure your house is safe. Yeah and there's a lot of things things that you can do for preparation or preparedness for action. Meditations go on make European you can make sure that your house to the foundation. There's a lot of measures that are not so so not even that expensive if your house is not bolted to the founation us through oh absolutely yes. She's trying to get a message yeah. It's fearful this I really like locate because like you. I feel trying to save lives and I'm like okay. I feel like as as a scientist. You're used to just people cracking jokes while you're trying to explain something really complicated. Nobody ever listened to now. You've been side for an hour. People are listening. I promise you they all they all big listenership Aikman speaking of which nine point one listenership. It's dangerous listenership. We've got going now. You made a phase of like why'd I say okay. Shakila Alert L. A. APP so to culminate here. We're not any closer to predicting because we call it the P. Word. It's like a dangerous thing to go towards. The current update is we don't really have update. We don't know when we're GONNA. No we don't know now how so I yeah unfortunately that is correct and it's not even like a I see a bowl like people aren't no. Maybe somebody we'll figure out something at some point but it's I think the more likely cases that you know some things inherently unpredictable. Is it possible that we even we ju- Overdo the Big One that we we have one there is no moving. It's time well no not on human time scales okay so he's a few hundred million years maybe but not but it could be a few hundred million years before we ever have a big one and you know until you no longer have any earthquakes at all wind shaking itself the tiny plates they move and they're stuck at the play boundaries and that stress gotta go somewhere but more more than on builds up until it becomes too strong a minute glimmer November snaps so it's just a matter of when they've eventually they're all going to snap and we have one big mountain in the middle of world right what what happens if all the flights now the locally and then across the entire lance fear because it's not flat you sure about that yeah conspiracy conspiracy beat on the moon as well. I mean I took mushrooms once imagine they all the same time all over the world. All the places like what's it sounded to me. I believe it was all sure and then chose tails accurate does would could could just important claps could crumble what could happen to the world was the worst possible outcome that we can let people know who who have anxiety depression and will never forgive themselves will sleep every game based on this information. This is a really big earthquake and it's not going to change the face as off the planet by more than a few meters so it's not a big deal I other than that. It's not trump's twenty twenty big deal for us. Global warming doesn't exist and uh Yup. That was the big message. We've been trying to confirmed. We've got nothing to worry about. I the only thing that I was worried about what was that huge like. Burgum Lewis pit fault like how people win the Game Kong with the happen no that's that's one of these as unrealistic that you can't open a a big crevasse like that. Okay you can open small cracks but not nothing like that saying that so the guy in nights. There's this there's this this comes from something. Half of California's falls into the ocean you know about that. Yes I have heard. Is that from Spiderman. Oh Oh I don't know if he's talking about the whole bit cracks often yeah. Oh yeah sorry one of those movies Superhero movies that doesn't happen doesn't happen wouldn't just disappear down like space. It can't go anywhere like where do you go. The Earth is suggesting is that Moten moten like rock and and you know anything that's in a liquid form could if it could go in liquid liquid. There's there's almost no nothing liquid in in the central okay all the way down is liquid yet but we're kind of in terms of the diameter of the so the core is about two thousand three hundred kilometers imus in fifteen hundred miles in radius. That's only half of it is liquid the intercourse of course solid and the liquid but that's GonNa Affect you know the process. Does my love this because the feeling that I'm getting reading here and I don't know if it's accurate because I'm a grey day Schmuck but when I'm putting together from you is that this is not a big deal we're going to be fine more than likely unless we don't even need the raw really unlucky right put Kevin Hart and the next movie and just get rid of the rookie running around the little guys tend to be here yeah and by the fires right Oh oh yeah no. I didn't say you know nothing's going to happen. I think it could it could be a long time so it happens but it could also happen tonight and it could go really bad or you could go really well well. The question is do you want your mother and tell her you love just do it. You should do that anyways right now. I try to do that all the time. no questions yeah do you. You WanNa let the governor live just be prepared yeah and and and worry about okay. I'll try really care. It's going to be a big deal what part part of La should I not live in the flat. Pilots are dangerous because the sediments to amplify shaking. Oh come hillsides a dangerous because hillsides amplify the shaking so socially withdrawn nowhere hilly screwed either way. That's right that's right and the beach is pretty good the beach on the beach for closer to being because about San when you come home and then you could over there a to Mount Santa Monica is really difficult to say which one which plays better than the others but but truly solid rock solid rock which if you're not a geologist I guess difficult to find Griffith Observatory. Maybe I'm not sure about that. I'm mostly worried about the fire much more than about you know collapsing and buildings and stuff right right just my friends. There's only weighs a helicopter or motorbike motorcycle. Kill heal myself on a bus. Nobody nobody will be. I mean nobody very few people will be able to escape by car even without the earthquake. It's impossible to everyday they now isn't it. Yeah I was going to be to be locked up and you know there's going to be highway overpass that about Senator Okay lie yeah I think like a tricycle type scooter something balance like one mile and then run out of better yeah right a battery at a gas. That's it's another huge problem cycle and if I have too much gas it will explode. There's no way out and then you need instead of getting a girlfriend just just form a loving meaningful relationship with a giant gas canisters kind of stuff you strap that to the back of your cycles right honestly feel like I should navy pilot prevent anything of helicopter bio yeah yeah she can come pick me up. Then you go to pick the helicopter then you find out Rox nick because he's a thief. If San Francisco there's another problem and I'm surprised that they didn't bring that in the movie this liquefaction perfection liquid soil from the shaking just turns into a liquid ends December. San Francisco has a lot of filled in areas where you know landfills where it's built on fill material okay. There's something called the Bay mutt which is an extremely soft sediments the interior side of the bay okay. I'm in those places are a either they're gonNA shake eight real heavy because you know the soft sediments amplified shaking up or they just gonNA turn into liquid and that can that's so in the there was a big earthquake in Indonesia and pollux and their satellite imagery of just the place the ground turning into liquid there were houses that were found a kilometer away from where they were before that and you can see just houses flown away Wilde's absolutely insane and San Francisco or the the entire Bay area is at risk of that large fractions of am okay sorry everybody in San Francisco. I guess the move out of their closer to water guess not not on those who have high rises on Oh perfect my boss Komo Some people things that that could actually you know it doesn't matter how deep you anchor the high-rise step flow could just share off take you out. He's going to the roof of the building. The film is that that is a good idea. If you can get yourself up onto the roof of a tool skyscraper I feel he's here or is that terrible. If the rock has stolen all the helicopters maybe somebody will come rescue you yeah and you would probably be pretty all on you. Look like the way they made buildings as donate them strong enough to withstand incredibly you to believe powerful you'd think so but the building regulations aren't actually that strict because you know there's there's other incentives. You know you WANNA be able to. There's a lot of people say you shouldn't build high-rise that on the place like San Francisco. You're so close to the Senate asphalt. That's close if you get the kind of motions second actually bring down a high-rise so why do that in the first place but we all like high-rises. I don't know no you don't well okay. That's why you didn't build San Francisco against the skyline. Can you drink bloody buildings in the way or you're up there and you're like Oh let me check out my awesome view view and then there's like there's another skyscraper Chat Google. Yeah Sauce Democrats fault her building San Francisco so organised snapchat does. Where can we find you on snapchat? That's the people really want to know if he'll have we done. Did we did it yeah. We're GONNA fight because because fight in the intro song say was the movie right or doing fine I mean we've established to the movie putting a lot of not Ryan this. It was a long ride with this movie. It's a few years before outside afterwards. Yeah I mean you can't fight inside. Take it outside type deal notify end to answer notifies the fights you know rose. It's up to you guys to make up the rules. I am I cannot fight unfortunately and it's due to an L. meant and I have called weakness Okay and so you guys will that case. I WANNA go for this episodes to garner recode that line of the intro song and then when people try prime workout why that happens yeah. This is the ban the book they'll find out it will be the easternmost edited episode. We've ad I myself for. I'm doing it because no it's great to but you ask him where people can find yes where people can find you well Shamir at Jeff Leach J. L. The ach social media. I've also polk. Ask who the savage snowflake podcast trying to have conversations in fact you should I wanna get details because you should come on. Come on as a guest on that and you should come on the show. I love doing when we go out. You know a couple of weeks a couple of weeks on September the fifth I have the first storm of brand new sean producing codes the end of the a welsh. Oh Oh which is about is the only post apocalyptic comedy panel Sharif just because the world is end it doesn't mean good entertainment doesn't have to Oh has to love of it and the ideas each month is a different post booklets event and the people on the panel. We always have a brainy guests. we then have a wild because of this one we have a very famous adult film star Okay and then we have a panel of three comedians and they have to traverse this make adventure type story a live show with physical physical challenges and mental challenges and yeah and this is my story you can take different pasta survived some done yeah ultimate price survival but it's a good thing eh day costal a little bit yeah and harmon quest and dungeons and dragons because I'm in plan d again so I get into that girl as a thirty five year old Bankas Yeah I'm busy and and that's on September fifth psycho phases so if you're in Kelly and you're worried about the impending death that we're facing right now because the tectonic plates come down there and laugh one more time before you die and it's on the west side so it safe I on the west side says safer we can run to the beach and swim if we need to. That's right and yeah so. It's not like the show Jiffy. Thanks guys. Thank you Jeff Doc. I don't have my own show but you month. I'd love to thank you have a twitter account that I started not so long ago. It's at size mythologised. Oh you got at seismologist August at Scientology. That's awesome. That's that's hot real estate. I I'm not sure I think the handle is hot right yeah so the phone is if he's going to be partisan headshots in there yeah. Please don't see some leather patch. I don't know if you're studying but yeah at least like one every other one. You've got to put a picture yourself yourself right instagram up but like throwing the shutters pick every week always just out on site today it was so hot under that Baker California Sun Boom mm-hmm yeah shirtless pick hate to disappoint and it's mostly you know formerly about Manitou. No that's not true so what is it mazing twitter account. Go check it out. I'm I'm not very active but I I'm trying to get more into okay. It doesn't come natural to me. I'm glad you're not active on twitter because I feel like people who do academic things actually actually trying to do something with yeah shouldn't be looking at that. Shit took it for outreach to talk about earthquake preparedness talk about uh-huh myths like for example prediction crazies that try to you know cheat everybody debunking conspiracies. Yes that's good. That's smart so it's not you like commenting on the bachelor. It's like you say be prepared. Get some water and stuff like that okay so great so follow the US. This didn't move for the bachelor in his latest day. Oh there you go. Oh you know what maybe we can come up with tweets that are yeah for him and then you can put them out. You know what I'm saying like the stuff that size mythology puns absolutely right. No it's seismology about fucking Schmuck size mullen. I was with you a hundred invested and I didn't know that that was wrong. Either yeah is at seismologist. Oh okay so I didn't get it from nowhere Who's got seismology size? Oh you just went for the joke straight up. I love that nine Nice smart man sharpens of Tack Quick as a whip as epic as a nine point one six. Oh that's what happened in the Senate. Okay it would have been the biggest one ever have recorded and I wanted to the back of the calculation before I come here but that didn't but I think if you had a nine point six on the senators fall we'll go all the way to Alaska and probably probably be on woo so there should be San Andreas to where it's just following this thing up so that yeah maybe it goes all the way on a polar bear yeah moves into ah the gaps bigger bigger tank yeah and that's what he says at some point. We need a bigger. Thank you so much for joining me. I feel I could talk about these earthquakes in this movie with you forever but I'll see you next time. If there's a second one yeah you'RE GONNA come to mind. I Guess Yeah See on your show yeah okay great bye bye. Thank you bye-bye my mind that science has hosted and produced by me Ethan Edinburgh Associate Producers. Emily Feld our editor. Her is Lucas Bolinger and the executive prediction systems. Don't really exist which is unfortunate user is Brett Kushner follows on instagram at ad science show. That's at bedside show or feel free to send us an email bad signs it
MotherNature CSI preview & Earthquake Update
"<music> warning it does snap of the fingers it was steph whine and he hadn't seen the head in glass was breaking came out to ground so fast. I didn't even all graham it. Spinning metal was flying a word natural and man-made disasters. They impact our lives our planet. What what can we do to survive. That's the focus of mother nature c._s._i. Win seventy plus mile an hour winds tornado the winds going through you can see when you go out there and some of the neighborhoods you're seeing trees uprooted sticking up you see roofs ripped off houses. The fire didn't do that the wind welcome. I'm your host patty lane. I live in california and we are no stranger. Injure here to natural or man-made disasters. We are all well aware of the threat of an earthquake and plan for when the so called big one will hit. I'm also one of many any californians who got the call to evacuate wildfire spread through the county. My home was spared but last year many lost not only their homes but their lives we'll talked first responders and community members about what steps need to be taken so we can all survive and we'll look at the role climate change may play. Oh this podcast is not about fear. It's about becoming educated and informed on how to survive. During inactive disaster you'll hear from those on the front lines with the latest and information on how so you can take action. You have to be ready and that means. Make sure your car's got gas in it. Make sure you have medication. Make sure you have money or some. Uh hey what's going on. We're gonna continue surgeon because that's tells us one thing yeah they knew what to do and and they did it and then anything can do again and when the disaster is over we'll hear what worked what didn't and what changes need to be made to prepare for the next one crews flying over the crater noticed noticed <hes> somewhere on the order of fifty to one hundred feet of uplift in the crater floor. I realize oh my god. We're gonna die because it's coming so fast horse officials have decided excited to close the johnston ridge observatory and they are in the process of evacuating visitors at this time there was a really a an overpowering experience and and it just ahead. We'll bring you real life stories of survival and preparedness a woman who helped in the beach cleanup after the b._p. Oil spill a man who lives right light on california's largest fault the san andreas and we'll introduce you to someone who helps provide a lifeline to communities when a disaster disrupts internet or cell communication thirty after five o'clock in the afternoon really in the disaster area the the civil several million people on an island six hundred miles from our shores dying and suffering right now it shouldn't be my experience includes covering both natural and man-made disasters as a reporter producer and i also worked for a nonprofit providing disaster relief relief. I've seen all sides of disaster reporting on them being affected by them and helping out in the aftermath on mother nature c._s._i. Will get you the the information you need to take action now so you and your family survived any disaster on patty lane until next time stay safe while and under roof had collapsed on top of that so they had to find a pickaxe in order to break up the slab so that they could lift it and get out. You don't have to look for in california. The realized that fires in the last several years have traveled several miles in a given nine only on or you can feel the flames all right here roger his office services <music> <music> <music>.
Nigerias GDP Rose by 1.87% In Q1
"You're listening to the news at this time on Africa Business Radio. Andreas Gross Domestic Product grew by one point. Eight seven percent in real terms in the first quarter. Twenty twenty the National Bureau of this disclosed this in its non-jury as gross domestic product reports for the first quarter twenty twenty. Monday and the second quarter of nineteen jurors route. Gdp at basic prices grew by two point. One two percent a year on the basis growth rate set further ended third and fourth quarters by two point two eight percent and two point five percent respectively this steady increase in causally growth resulted in an annual growth rate of two point. Two seven percents for twenty nine thousand nine compared to one point nine percent in two thousand eighteen year on year basis for the course on quasi assessment through GDP growth was the legacy fourteen point. Two seven percents compared to five point five nine percent recorded in the preceding quarter and that was the news This time on Africa Business Radio. You can't continue so this in life online that's www dot. Africa Business Radio DOT COM or a mobile APP. Thank you for listening.
"Don't have an emergency kit in your car preppy has you covered. Use the code the big one to receive a free three day emergency kit with any purchase food water. First aid and emergency, essentials all included. Go to preppy dot co. That's P R E P P, I dot CO slash the big one. Before we start today. I want to say thank you tall. The KPCC members who've listened thank you for your time and your support. And if you aren't KPCC member, you can become on injustice, you seconds. Go to KPCC dot Oregon. Click that donate button. Give whatever you can. We appreciate it. Have you found yourself thinking that this earthquake isn't gonna happen? I get that. Yes. We invented our own dungeons and dragons kind of journey for the first two episodes. But every scenario we've put you through so far is completely possible. How do we know this a three hundred and eight page document called the shakeout report? It's full of fun estimates like this eighteen hundred people dead nearly fifty thousand injured two hundred and seventy thousand people out of their homes about twenty million people without power more than two hundred thousand people that experience new mental health disorder. Anxiety, depression PTSD. I did this from a feeling of a moral imperative. I could see people were going to die because they didn't know basic information. I had information that could help them, and we had to do it in a way that they could use. There are a lot of other people who did that too. I mean, I didn't do this alone by a long shot. Lucie. Jones and hundreds of other people worked on it for years. They published it back in two thousand eight from Thomas golden, director of the southern California earthquake center was this quote, the springs on the San Andreas system have been wearing very very tight and the southern Andreas fault in particular looks like it's locked loaded and ready to go frightening was and I want to be clear snotty crystal ball. This earthquake could be a whole lot better. Or a whole lot worse reports. Based on the best information we have available. It's as close to a crystal ball as we can get. How likely is it that none of this happens? This will happen. There's no likelihood of at not happening. We are not stopping tectonics the details may change. But the earthquake is a hundred percent inevitable. Just give it enough time. I'm gonna get to the story of this report. First, let's talk about how we know that big one is coming. Let's go back nineteen seven Greenland middle of the night. Dark freezing wind blowing over fields. Snow? Don't worry north quakes on about the hit explorer. Alfred Vagner is on an expedition with some other guys into sled dogs. He's on the eastern coast. And it's brutal. One of the coldest years Greenland's ever had after a long day veterans team stopped for the night to set up camp in the go to sleep. During the night. He heard a terrible commotion outside was that grabbed his gun. Just in time to see a polar bear charging the tent. He picked up the shotgun. And got it up and shot the bear right through the face. Just in time to keep it from killing him his notation in his diary for that day is a commotion in the night. The dog's got a good meal afterwards. This guy this dog loving bear killing ice terrain. Explore the total bad ass served in the first World War. And hated it saying wars, a waste of life and money. But this isn't why we know him it's because of his theory about how the continents we know came to be remember when you were in elementary school. And you learn about the supercontinent Panja. That's factor. He changed the way that we look at the along came outfit vaguer, and he reckoned Alford Vic nerve versus the world fraught all the different kinds of evidence together. Rare people that's just good at an interested in a lot of different things. His first love was doing science. His wife always said of him that family life, however, much he loved her and the children that family life was just background music for his scientific work. This is Mike Greene Matsu kinda guy who when you try to make small talk about the weather tells you about the air quality and then references Picasso's blue period, he's charming. He wrote the biography. Alfred Vagner science exploration in theory of continental drift. I don't think he was a Misanthrope, but he was an introvert and he liked being alone in his study. He never went out of his way to promote his own career. The way people normally would Vetter who has a PHD in atmospheric science. He decides is gonna take a break from exploring. He starts working at a university in the south of Germany. So winter of nineteen eleven his first day back in the office after the Christmas break he gets back to. His office before the spring semester begins and his office mate tells him come into my office. I got this fabulous world. Atlas for Christmas. He and his office mate spent a whole day looking through pictures in this atlas and when they opened it to the middle Vegas stop. And there was a picture of the two hemispheres of the earth one that has South America on it and one that has Africa on it. And he looked at it very closely. And he saw that the coast of South America and the coast of Africa fit together, like a jigsaw puzzle. But he saw something else. He saw that. If you look at the depth data that was plotted on this map for the Atlantic Ocean that the same outline for the continents are they are two hundred meters down and and four thousand meters down any mmediately thought. So this is not an accident of sea level. This isn't just some odd coincidence. There's something going on here. Fenner sees landmasses that were clearly connected. But somehow pulled apart the scientific community. See something totally different. They were convinced that the continents were moving couldn't move never moved that. At some point. They were connected by giant land bridges that sunk to the bottom of the sea the more he thought about it. The dumber at sounded Cording diviner, a continent could no more sink to the bottom of the ocean than on ice cube could sink to the bottom of a glass of water. So he decides I'm gonna tell the world how the continents came to be. There were one big piece. And then they drifted apart over the course of about three or four months puts together a coherent argument, which he calls, the origin of continents. And then he's out. Mike drops is crazy. New theory is like SIA I'm gonna go explore with my dogs. When he doesn't know is that as soon as it's published he is the laughing stock of the scientific community. He died at just fifty years old pot and blizzard doing what he loved hanging with his dogs sporran Greenland. It would be decades before he was vindicated, but he would be vindicated. The of nineteen scientists Tuesday. He. I'm Jacob Margolis. And this is the big one your survival guide. Episode three. The science is scientists who say. Crazy. If it is quick was to hit right now. How far away is your emergency kit. Preppy wants you to have your supplies within arm's reach when the big one hits not stash deep in the closet or the garage preps. Designed forward kits are attractive enough to be displayed writing this faces. You actually spend time in such as the living room their range of products. Have you covered at home the office or in the car made in Los Angeles. Preppy handsome, canvas and leather bags are so heavy duty come with a lifetime warranty. And for listeners of the big one they are actually giving away three kids for free with any purchase could preppy dot co. That's p r e p p I dot CO slash the big one for free preppy go box with any purchase. That's P R E P P, I dot CO slash the big one. I. Math night, the moon with a bright. If mel. And it wasn't the long when offering charming until my bed room. Actually here in Washington. Why if you use everyday fascist on a dozen time heavy notice? They ever night would prince takes me out for my walk. I always stop whenever each particular spot look over there that way you see the lighted window a neighbor. Mine lives. Yep. Right. Knee is in home a man with the most important job for apple a convenient way to left ground beef, Patty is the places sheet of paper. Likely logic. We want. Okay. So fast forward to the late nineteen fifties debates geologic community have been raging and teenager named Tanya atwater is in high school. She'd always wanted to be an artist and was going after that dream until she saw something that changed her life Sputnik. Or is this guy calls it, Nick? Commands for this fun tier radio signal transmitted by the Soviet splitting the first man-made satellite as fast over New York. Earlier today, one of the places where the progress of the atlas thought a science could do that. So impressively could put something in outer space size? Do anything famines wars could solve anything. And so we all changed whatever we were doing and went into science. So she looks for science school, and I went to Harvard, and they said, oh, we don't take women and she was like, well, that's super sexist. So she talked to guy from Caltech, and he said, well, we don't take women. They just waste their educations get married in waster -cations, so am I had been taking it just a smattering of women for a long time since the beginning. I guess she was one of only twenty women in a class of two thousand men I asked one of my. Professors that my I told him about Caltech, and I asked him, and he said, well, we know that you're gonna raise great children because you'll have a good education read sons. So we think it's worth educating because he'll he'll educate your children will. They were all clueless to be revolutionary. You have to know that you're right. And they're wrong. You have to know it right in your soul. If you doubt, then they can get to you. So I thought about that a lot of gift my parents really gave me let's just to know my own worth. And that. Arbitrary rules. Wouldn't let me do my own thing where arbitrary and stupid. What was the big deal at the time? Was that scientists just figured out that Vagner was actually kinda right? The continents are moving. The way that they do that is completely different than what he thought. Discovery was called plate tectonics enormous pieces of land that have somewhere to be shifting all over. But some of them are in each other's way. And they collide almost like geological bumper cars, the discovery of plate tectonics. Also, help us understand the why why earthquakes happen. At the time. What did they know about the Santa dream? Well, in one thousand nine hundred six huge earthquake in San Francisco, they saw the ground breaks. They could see a big line. Yeah. Move five meters. Activism wooden frame house with big blast windows. And it's it's path coming up to it in the path was offset from the porch way off set like sixteen feet, like suddenly your driveway is someone else's driveway. Then and the house was fine. So once the bigger picture coming into focus. They said, you know, if there's going to be a plate boundary on the land. Antedates? San Andreas is the biggest fault in California. Splitting it from bodice an Francisco insane. And before nineteen o six we didn't know it was there. So what you have to understand is that the continents are not the plates continents sit on top of the plates in facts to these plates me right underneath California, North American and the Pacific when the come together they form the Santa trace, and it was huge to identify this plate boundary. We could see it. We already knew there were a bunch of these things on the ocean floor. But now now we could see one this gave us a chance to figure out a whole bunch of other stuff. How old are these plates? How faster they moving and Tanya wanted to answer those questions specifically about the San Andreas? There's a guy at Stanford. Bill Dickinson who ran these meetings and had a meeting saying, you know, the Senator is we should have a meeting and talk about it so Dickinson, call this meeting, and he always included went of students, and the first thing Bill Dickinson said was be wild. They were looking for evidence at the earth was moving that after years and years of these two plates shifting what used to be over here. This now over there. No joke. LA used to be roughly where San Diego is today. It took like forever, but they did move. They need to evidence of this. So they could figure out how fast the plates are moving. It was when crew these students from Berkeley, and they're wild professors who sit up, and they showed an offset of these very distinct lavas that are in the northern Mojave and on the other side at the pinnacles, which is near Salinas, California, just on the other side of the fault the same rocks. They're they're very distinct rocks. Exactly same age twenty three million years and just it'd be really hard to convince anybody they weren't the same. And we we're sitting in the back. Oh, Tanya was blown away by how far the Roxette moved. How fast the fall was moving. The earthquake problem is a lot worse. If it's fast faster means more earthquakes over the next decade. She answered both questions. How fast is the sanitary? Moving and how old is she wrote about it for a book on the history of plate tectonics. It is wondrous thing to have the random facts in one's head. Suddenly fall into the slots of an orderly framework is like an explosion inside. And that is what I often felt happened to me and to others as we were working out and talking out the geometry of western US. I took my ideas to John cruel at UCSB. When thanks giving day, I crept in feeling very self conscious. And embarrassed that I was trying to tell him about land geology starting from oceans eulogy using paper and scissors. And he was the the God of the Andress at the time. He was very patient with my long bumbling, but near the end yacht terribly excited, and I could feel the explosion in his head. He suddenly stopped me and rest into the other room to show me a map of when and where he had evidence of activity on the Senator is system the predicted pattern was all right there. This woman who wasn't allowed to study science at Harvard or Caltech and was belittled at MIT. She figured out how the landscape of the western US came to be because of Tanya atwater. We know that the San Andreas is young that it's moving fast. What we didn't know was when the next big one would hit. I documented account of quake in southern California's from seventeen sixty nine by Spanish explorer, guests far day Portola he in a bunch of other guys run an expedition walking north through the state nearly a hundred years later in eighteen fifty seven that's when L A had its last big one since the city was so new only two people died then there was nineteen. Oh, six big one that hit San Francisco it lasted about a minute. But the fires that broke out went onto burn nearly five hundred city blocks killing more than three thousand people very well documented, if an earthquake hadn't been documented there was basically no way for us to know about it no way to figure out the pattern of how often they'd happened. Meaning we didn't know if a big one on the San Andreas fault was right around the corner. This is where Kerry C comes in. We are certainly within the window of when that quick is going to happen. I'd be very surprised didn't have with the lifetime of of children in primary school today. This guy figured out the powder. March nineteen seventy I was I was a junior at UC riverside that year that the the local regional meeting of the geological sign America was at UC riverside. And so me and all the other students were asked to be free volunteer labor to help register the fat. Register the professors who are coming Rockstars of the field were there like the guy that invented the Richter scale like the whole magnitude of an earthquake thing. Oh my God. I mean, I just about melted. When he walked up I thought God. Charlie. Rick. You kidding me? I'm signing him up for this meeting. And so so he signs in frumpy with his coat isn't doesn't fit him. And and and so on classic professor see sitting in on the talks, and some the researchers mentioned a problem they run into near San Francisco. The city of Fremont wanted to build a new Civic Center. The Hayward fault runs right through the place. And you really don't want to build a Civic Center right on top of a big fault because when an earthquake hits and the two sides of the fall going opposite directions. They can tear a building in half like the house in one thousand nine six that Tanya mentioned the problem was it couldn't tell exactly where the fault was. So he didn't know where to build the solution. They came up with was today. And they did they knew they'd found the fall when they came across these layers of dirt that had built up over thousands and thousands of years like imagine a layer cake but made a verse, but some of the layers were broken offset like someone interrupted the sheets of cake. Those interruptions worth quakes developers had their answer about where the fault was. But when Kerry hears about this, he takes it to the next level. And as I was sitting there in the audience, I thought, well, that's not all you could do with this. You know, you kidding. Just locate the fault, you could actually use the layers and radiocarbon dating to tell when the earthquakes happened. When he was only in his early twenties. Carrie, see invented the field of paleo seismology. What were you doing? When you were that young. Once you know, how often they happen on a fault. You can figure out how long you have until the next big one hits years later carry makes his way out to the San Andreas fault with the shovel and starts digging for answers. What was exciting was the gel just said that the layers there airbeds of of nice, you know, yellowish tan sans river sand and gravel 's with peat layers black beautiful p players. So it'd be it'd be like a layer cake. So I thought that's exciting. That's just what I'm looking for the peat layers can be dated with carbon. And if it's accumulating the right rate, I can get a slippery on the fault. So I drive down their first chance, I get take. My shovel. I see one of the peat layers. I start scraping it off to expose it all the way along and I make a scrape and it's broken and it's drops down about a half meter. So I collect a sample of Pete from the top family Pete from the ten meter deep gorge down below I send. Him off the radio carbon lab. And and suddenly I realized I've got a site where I can deed earthquakes individuals quakes. When you're when you're a performer musical group. It's often the case that when you do an excellent performance in front of a good crowd. You'd literally feel a chill going up your spine. I've only had that twice in my life as Jolla gist and one of them was when I took that Spade shovel and cut away some of the the sloth the Taylor's on the side. I saw that fault breaking the sediments. So I knew I'd found something extraordinary. So in the late nineteen eighties. We finally had our pattern. We knew how often the monster lashes out the answer is in pretty. It's been a hundred sixty one year since last big one Cording into seize research. They occur every forty five to two hundred thirty years. That means we're in the window. It could hit any second out disaster. Experts have a line they often use all disasters are terrible. It's why they call them disasters. But earthquakes are the least polite. They don't tell you when they're coming to town or just how catastrophic they're going to be. And that's mostly true. Except that we do know a big one is coming. There's just no time in date on the RSVP. So what is a region do when they find out there in the sweet spot for a big one that millions of people's lives could be changed forever by major quake. Pretty much nothing. But Lucie Jones is trying to change that. In your opinion, your expert opinion, we are a hundred and fifty years overdue for a big earthquake in southern California's at true, right? Just the San Andreas fault. Our guest. Joe mexico? We've talked to Dr Lucie Jones here at Caltech this morning. She says we're happy to have Dr Lucie Jones here to discuss this. Thank you so much. Join us again left to see you wonderful to be entering the. Yes. I do. I would like to see us Bill buildings to be used and not just to crawl out alive because we cry three hundred thousand buildings badly damaged. Okay. Good to have you here. Joy. No, I'm I actually think that the more we understand the better off will be. So what are the biggest misconception? Fast forward to two thousand two Lucy gets tapped to serve on California seismic safety commission. The group that's supposed to keep the state safe. When the big one hits it stacked with a bunch of important people for sure sponsors city leaders city officials engineers and Lucy's listening to them talk. And she realizes something that really scares her the her, it seems like many of them don't understand the basics of a big one on the San Andreas when the fault moves. It actually moves at the surface. We can map it is. Because it had comes to the surface in each of the bigger quakes, and therefore everything crossing the fault is broken to. That was not known. It was clear that that was not known. How could you tell it was not known? Well, I mean, they were surprised as I talk about it. And how do you know where the false going to what? Because that's what mapping it. It'll how do you know where where the pipelines going to break because this is where it crosses the fault. Well, so what? You know, and the idea that the fault is the demotion motion on the fault that offsets things that causes the shaking. They they didn't realize that. That was true. They didn't realize that power lines gaslines waterlines all of which run over the fault could break when the shifts. These are the people who are making the decisions at the government level about what should we be doing to get ready for this? And there is information that could be using that wasn't being understood. So there was part for me was just going. There's really basic stuff that we need to get through to them. And how do we do it? And clearly what we've been talking about. So far hadn't been doing. It not long after USGS comes to her NASCAR to write a proposal all about the impact of a big quake on southern California. So says, okay, she puts it together thinks it's going to take years for them to get any money, and then in two thousand five Katrina hits Katrina shouldn't Americans be concerned that their government is prepared to respond to another disaster, even a terrorist attack. Katrina exposed. Serious problems in our response capability at all levels of government. And to the extent that the federal government. Good fully do its job. Right. I take responsibility. I wanna know what went right and what went wrong. I wanna know how to better cooperate with state and local government to be able to answer that very question that you asked are we capable of dealing with a severe attack or another severe storms, and that's a very important question. And it's in our national interest that we find out exactly what went on. And and. So that we can better respond and suddenly Lucy gets her funding. That proposal got funded in the first year that it was put through which was a shock to absolutely everyone. And then I got asked to lead the project for southern California. Oh, so that's the beginning that led to the shakeout. So Lucius symbols a crack team of scientists the necsports over three hundred people to dig into what it could all mean for southern California. Are most important word was plausible. We are not saying this is the earthquake. We are saying this is a plausible or quake if this happens. Nobody will be surprised. Forty five thousand people need to be saved. People will be trapped in elevators. There could be a hundred thousand landslides fifty billion dollars lost in economic activity by the end of the first week when reality sets in. That's when people start seriously drinking. Yes, they counted for that to some of what they found out shocks, even the experts like the fires. We all know that the really big earthquakes urban areas have caused lots of fires. But we we hire this guy. Charlie Scott, who's a professor at the university of Kyoto at that point to do the modeling and say what how many fires will be set off. How will they spread? And his result. Was that the fires double the losses that we causes much economic damage and kill as many people through super conflagrations that form as the fires sweep through the city, and it was really terrifying. And in fact, was so terrifying. One. The lead. Scientists was like can't be true. I don't believe this. This has has ridiculous. Can't be that extreme. And by the time. We got done the fire. Chiefs were saying if anything this is an underestimate. So we the the model is the fires are horrific in the mall, and we got to specify the weather for the shakeup. And we made it a cool comb day, if we have Santa Anna's when the quake actually hits it will be much worse than we mall. So. Do you think that this work will save lives? Yes. I sear -serily believe that what we've done with shakeout is has already led to enough changes that there are people who will not die in the earthquake. Because what we've done. There are buildings that are four thousand buildings already retrofitted in LA. The laws are being passed. Another cities the water systems being repaired, there's a whole different level of planning going on about water and all of those are gonna be reducing lives lost. But also reducing the economic distress, which is owned pain. A lot of people. Ten years after the shakeout report, plenty of the problems highlighted are still major problems sewage for example, five ten million gallons are expected to flood city streets every hour when pipes break the rest of it. We'll probably get sent into creeks. It's going to create a huge biohazard gaslines at might explode. The huge crater that might result. The shakeout report recommended we replace a bunch of the pipes. We haven't the dishes emergency responders. We need to fight the sixteen hundred fires that could break out. We still don't have enough. Do you think we're ready? Oh, no. We're not ready. I'm going to be doing this. The earthquake happens hopefully, live to see that. It's a we are much more ready than we were. But there's a lot more that still needs to be done. There is good news. A lot of the places we talked to including state, federal and local governments have deep comprehensive plans on how to respond. We know. What to do? We've just decided what our priorities are. We're going to dive much deeper into that later on our next episode. We're going to switch back to you our hero. You're gonna wake up to a world. That's not nearly as strong as you were led to believe and you're going to need help. After the credits. Three things you need to notice five. now for my favorite part of the show credits. Michel Yousef is our lead producer are when champion Knicks. Our executive producer. Mary Naf is our assistant producer making garbs editor are music by Andy, Clawson, our engineers. We've got a toy with those levels all day are Shawn Corey Campbell. Valentine rivera. Our work is by Stephanie craft. This episode was written and reported by me, shake goalless as well as our necks. Alex Laughlin handles all things marketing and thank you to Chaim Kim for his stash of forks, thanks to Lynn Sykes. And to the amoeba people for letting us use their Alfred Vagner song go check them out on Spotify. They have a ton of cool scienc- music. I'm your host Jacob Margolis. Hey, big one listener. It's me Nisha. You know, what time it is? When you hear my voice, it's time for some tips. And I know we talked about history and science this episode, but we are not gonna let you get away without some practical tips. So here goes number one. We created this amazing tool and by we I mean, our senior reporter Dana ama- here. She created this tool to show you where you are in relation to known faults. So scientists don't know about all the faults, and like Northridge, there might be some that we won't know about until an earthquake happens on them, but you can find out which ones you're close to number to use that same data tool to find out if you're in a liquefaction zone. Liquefaction sounds really scary. But it's not a literal sinkhole forming beneath your house, it's when the pave streets crack open because of strong, shaking and water starts to. Come up because of the soil. That's underneath your house, it won't necessarily cause a sinkhole or quicksand what you need to know is what kind of soil your house is located on. So find out using this tool if you're in a liquefaction zone, and then confirm with your landlord or look at records of your house. If you own your home number three make a little kit for your car. We've talked a lot about having supplies at home like water and food, but you may be in your car when the earthquake hits or you may need to leave and not have much time to pack things up. So in that case having a flashlight a pair of shoes, some extra food water and a printed out map can be extremely helpful. That's food too. Cbs?
Byte Elizabeth Debeck i 1
"Hi Welcome to season two of bite. This is Tony Tiller. Parenting an apocalypse it's it's not the same way that. You you know how it works any views usually two to four minutes long but sometimes, they can be a little longer only when you when you live long enough all kinds of strange things happen. Very right in saying that the Greek heroes where the original superheroes. In part because of the hopeful nature of genes vision but also because of its message of diversity and inclusion. Elizabeth the BITTY is. intended. Cat Is. The wife of Ken Brannagh's character. Andreas Asia and they when we meet her at the beginning the film. Her marriage has become very estranged and so. Because of various circumstances within the marriage, I won't give away she is a woman who is very much. entrapped by. A number of circumstances and is quite emotionally. In a lot of turmoil, and so she finds herself really sort of pushed up. Against a wall and at the end of hotel in terms of how much longer she can cope with this marriage and with the way her life is at. The time when we made her and protagonist kind of enters her life right at the moment where she's at a breaking point. And she becomes involved with his mission albeit I would say relatively reluctantly because. Of, what's happened to her in her life I think trust is very difficult for her. And he also appears and is for so much of the film to her an anomaly, and so she sort of at this precipice where she thinks, how can I do I jump off this ledge into the abyss with this person and join this mission he seems to need me and it would appear that I have no choice but to need him. So there's a kind of reluctance to it but an understanding that whoever this person is he possesses. Information a kind of resilience and severe I. Think she sends us an I'm very quickly that he's has a kind of. A very deep intelligence that in in a funny way, not unlike her own which is. He's a negotiator and so shea so I think that they kind of made on this interesting psychological level. And so that sort of how she becomes involved with him. With, the mission and A lot of it I mean, we know the protagonists mission in this film is to do literally with. How can he? Save the fate of mankind. So that becomes in a way her mission as well. She talks about Christopher Nolan? I remain an enormous fan of Christopher, Nolan I. I would say definitely more after with him. He I think is somebody who if I worked on this phone for maybe nearly seven months and I think at the end he was as enigmatic has ever. Even though I worked. So closely with him I think that the thing about Chris. Human as director and his films is. He is a visionary and the way He. Chooses the subject material that his foams Explo- is really unlike any other direct working and they also heightened and they have this complexity and they really delve into an unravel extremely. Complicated concepts and yet there's something about Chris's foams that also a genre unto their own they're sort of action and. An espionage and they always have these extract is involved in these amazing performances. It's interesting because Chris's films who may have always been real comfort food as viewer and something I returned to all the time and then every time he makes something new I rushed to the cinema to see it as well. So as a huge fan and I, I never I genuinely never thought that I would work with him. And I was saying to him yesterday that. When at the beginning of working with him before I stepped onto his sat I felt such pressured sort of terror because I thought. How can I do this? How can I? Crossed that threshold and enter into Christopher sprain and bring it to life. But he also is an extraordinary director in his he puts you at ease very quickly. I think it's to do with his confidence and a sense of humor as well and he. He just I just trust him. So sort of infinitely as an ACTA. Janet is now playing at a theater near you. For Bite. This is Tony Taylor.
The 'Fighting on a Corner In Tulsa for Saying GSP isn't Top 5' Episode
"High. Highly wire listeners I'm Greg Olsen. I'm excited to partner with Blue Wire to bring you T. A podcast where I interviewed the tight end sweb revolutionized the position. This as I have raw in-depth conversations with the all time greats like Shannon. Sharpe. Tony Gonzalez Travis Kelsey and George biddle. We'll explore the tight end position has changed over the last sixty years and what it takes to be. The very best subscribe to t e one from blue wire studios today. So you're ready for the August premier. What up everybody. Welcome to another week of the Corner Pie cascal dance be here with the old man Andreas Hale and we are going back to back with boxing MMA coverage. So if you guys haven't checked out our Thursday episode, go and do that. It was fun. It was a great time and you can see where we went wrong or right with our predictions before you listen to this one, if you did listen to that one perfect you. Here right on time because we're recapping UFC two, fifty, two with St Bay and Daniel Cormier we're talking about packed day of boxing arm Saturday and I guess Friday to a ton happened there, and then of course, we're talking about the continued success of the old man Andres Hail on the last show he teased something for this weekend and then it has come to fruition so we can talk about it real quick. Let me give you a clap sir. congrats again, you produced a dope segment for disown that aired during broadcast from Tulsa was incredible. It was on. Well, let you explain it go ahead. It's not my baggage. So yeah man I I mean I. got the. I guess this. The zone has been. Interested in. Diversifying their coverage. Now Mind you. I'm one of the very, very, very, very few black people there. So we call. The wanting to get involved more in the broadcast and. Initially. They threw some ideas at me and I said, well, this fights in Tulsa right. Yeah and I was like how long you guys been talking about this? For weeks. So It never crossed your mind grew the biggest mass racial massacre in American history happened like. Listen a mile from where the boxing ring setup. No. Oh. So we're GONNA do something on Black Wall Street and it's also race master. And One of guys, Evan. Good guy he was like i. think that's exactly what we need to do. So I guess it was pushing pool on how to get this done I got a week to write my script do my voice over and. Turn it into a full fledged product that we ran on Saturday ahead of the main event. for those you saw it in you know in appreciate it good because it's important because they're the nobody's GonNa tell me to my face that. If it fail we're not going to do things like this again. But you know like no way if it doesn't work the go oh well, nobody cares. So we can't do stuff like this. So the more that watch it in the more people that share in the more people say we want to see more of this because it's me basically giving a two minute rundown of what happened in Tulsa Oklahoma one, hundred years ago. The one hundredth anniversary will be next June. One hundred years ago where for those who don't know? said it in my segment? Yeah a bunch white people ran up in Greenwood which was Black Wall Street where it was an influence African American neighborhood and remember this is like nineteen twenty one. So black people were just like fresh off being slaves but this community had their own money banks, lawyers, entrepreneurs, attorneys, everything, and like there was two airports in Oklahoma and six of the families that lived in Greenwood owned two six of the families owned airplanes. Own them outright. And then so what happened is a? A young man named Dick Rolling he was nineteen. He was a shoe shiner in the courthouse that was less than a block away from the boxing ring setup. He. went to an elevator and there was a seventeen year old. White girl named Sally. And they said, he slipped and fell in the elevator and the girl yelled and somebody said that he sexually assaulted her the girl never said this never never said this. And the newspaper Ran With the headline about nab the Negro, and the Lynch mob came out and tried to lynch him in the black people from Greenwood. We're like ewing do that shit win water bunch of guns met him at the courthouse standoff shots were fired fist flew. They didn't get their hands on Deck Rowland, but the white people that pissed off they had some clan members involve that they went in the burn down Greenwood thirty five city blocks murdered three hundred people. Injured hundreds more. Knocked out every business there. And the National Guard intervene for nineteen hours. So. That kind of history is important in the fact that I got the opportunity to tell that story. On our broadcast. With my voice, my words that I wrote meant world to me so. Yeah it was A. It was a lot I. Mean, obviously, you know I got this little book the often. Work as normal and if those you listen in like. A lot going on so that being able to see that come to life and I couldn't watch it man. I tell you guys this all the time. I can't listen to myself. I can't. I. Just can't. I gotTa Take People's wear for as good a bag because I ain't shit really hard but it seems like people enjoy it so. Again two minutes, twenty seconds I really couldn't go into great detail about what happened. So I hope that a lot of people that watched it go back and read about Black Wall Street and the Tulsa race massacre. Fortunately a lot of you that watched, the watchmen were made aware of this because the show did that. I'm just glad that we can put our stamp on it because for me the original script I put like you can't say that I was like, how dare we doing event in Tulsa and not acknowledge this incident from one hundred years ago. We can't say that we just didn't know I was like all right cool. I'll flip it I'll make it sound a little bit better because I just don't think you can go anywhere with is such racial history in this particular social climate and not addressing. You're responsible. So a lot of people don't know them even still in this social climbing isn't that like half the battle in the social climate? White, privilege into privilege by a lot of people there's. It's crazy to think about but there's people who are black who are privileged. have no clue about these things. They think slavery so far removed or segregation is so far removed and it's really not not at all not at. and. I, think that's the the important thing for me is that we keep doing this because that's all the meals I just have to always be about a city be about a fighter that could be about business. It could be about an event it can be about anything but there's so many things and I was like I gotTa do is ask me like where you going who's fighting. All right. I'll put something together because there's so much history of black and Brown people like. I'll tell you guys this. Guy's GONNA run off and steal it because you can't. Teach this idea to talk about cholera them with Camello because Condello is a red headed freckle-face fair skinned Mexican from Guadalajara. And I know he had to deal with color ISM because he didn't look like a Mexican. So I've always wanted to do this piece where he talks about growing up looking the way that he look at benefits them. Now he's super mainstream like his look is very commercial but back then. In Mexico. I guarantee you. He wasn't accepted by peers. So always wanted to do this to win and I told them I was like listen. It's important that we tell all these stories, the stories I don't care to tell our white ones and that's not because I don't like white people. This is because you get your stories all the fucking time. I'm not sure you'd be the Greatest Messenger for that. Anyway I would all stores like not all of them a Lotta them if they were historic are going to be bad. Things like Oh. Yeah. This is the place where the white people kill this guy or the guy. The good stories have already been told there. I don't think there's too many good straight white people stories that have not been told in America. No not like. shutout mark. Kriegel. Who did one hell of a story on Irish this we get. Yeah. He did like Northern Ireland with. with. Fighting and Frampton fighting. He did nicely to three mini piece on that. Yet I have those stories can still be told absolutely other countries other people other marginalized people who have dealt with poverty and race I. Think those great I just think the average white American story. Is told to death and I think. I know considering boxing is a vast majority of people of. Color. And now we have women involved as well on a high platform which we'll talk about the car later. I think this is pointing to sell those stories. The hurdles they had to go through like I really wanted to talk about Ruckus is story. Because a lot of people don't know the should the she went through to get to where she's at. Boxing was banned in Norway Beijing. That was also a good piece. They ran a good piece on her this weekend. Doing some good shit though. I like the setups for the cards I think the match placement has been spot on highlighting the women. The production value. Is Impeccable I think I h you up like when the fight started I was having this ring on the street is just phenomenal. The I'll be honest when when when we first got the message that Eddie was on stays in of fighting on the intersection in downtown Tulsa I was like that sounds terrible initially that's what I thought like this is horrible. I think will work but then after I saw what his backyard. The backyard is just incredible to. Hold the Wrestlemainia there and I'd be like, Shit. All right. I was grand that ought not but that street venues. Amazing. But. Not for. Nothing. If you can't have fans at Shit. It'd be real. Don't like. That and like you can have the NFL draft Vegas. Yeah, you just shut down the Strip player out test people and you go right out to the street and and you're good. Rest thinkable that there's no reason why wwe can't have a full-fledged mattress the middle of Strip but the Balaj fountains in the back it'd be so. Expensive fuck, it. You you don't think Vegas is hurting for money. It might be cheap right now in the grand scheme of what they would usually chart. You probably get a discount. So I mean, you know other places like I'm sure Tulsa was like, yes. Sure. Bringing some money to our economy. please. Not Every day get fights and Tulsa or people paying to close down the street right. So now I thought that was great thing and I'll send her boxed. There's a lot of good stuff going on there So I'm not mad at each out to Eddie hearn doing his thing with that and it's funny that you mentioned you didn't watch it. Your piece specifically, you obviously watch a fight. Because you were getting a lot of praise I thought he gained a lot of traction. A lot of good words from people. You know you did it know it kind of filtered through like okay. People you know commented when he posted it and then it took on a life of its own. Where random people like I had no clue this APP. Oh my God. This is so great or just Oh, this is important to tell these stories and I was like Damn. Okay. The reach on this is getting pretty good and then I looked at the views that the peace got for straight up like historical piece connected to boxing it did great in terms of. The. So they were happy. They were happy I mean, let's should be i. don't listen listen. We're we're family. We can talk I never am sure what the whites are thinking. Right they. I'm just never sure I'm always in the room and I'm looking and I say some smiles she like, yeah. Yeah. But then like when it doesn't happen, I was like, okay who's the one? WHO said? No Who was like I'm so glad you said, no 'cause I'm jumping on that bandwagon to take. As I i. know it happened so. The way that this guy pushed through was it happened there was some pushback I know it was like production and it was like some technical stuff as well. But man every like in St brave man who used to work at ESPN was just like, no, we gotta make this happening Andreas is right here. He's the one, the doing eight. He'll write it and I know I'm sure they thought about somebody else voicing and they'll say no. He's only one that can do this so. Hopefully you know you'll see some more of these pieces with our fights. In Still. Some more cool shit coming some that was supposed to get advertised last night didn't. So now I've got another surprise coming for you guys for Saturday. In I don't know when we're GONNA air the spot, but there's something else coming damn kind of not really gave it away but there's something coming this Saturday. So you have to be on lookout for that as well. Listen I am intrigued can't wait and before we get to the rest of the stuff damage boxing I, bring all this up to ask you and to tell. And it's much deeper conversation I thought about this yesterday when someone was talking me. But then I was like you I got to tell you. You, Sir have to change your mind set. You're usually the old man. You're the wise one on the show and flying off with high tastes but I gotTa tell you. On Wax you gotTa Change Your Mindset. Because this was one of those situations where I look back and every like cool like. You. Specifically because we're friends each other for. A long time now, this town. Log But. You. Have Doing Great Shit for longer than you even knew me. The stories you told this podcast, the fact that you're in their church group in Vegas at fourteen and do a you know got a concert planning. Jay Z. was the headliner of this concert one came. But she's still got Jay z like you've been doing shit that are as been out of the box and outside of the realm of possibility for a long time. So it was causing yeah. People were giving addresses flowers while he can still seal marshmallow more whatever shit is whatever the saying is so cool given. Andrey flour. And then you. Still being you are like, oh, man thank you. Cou now I appreciate the. And then. Just in the background still chilling. Oath okay, I'm like, Yo you better saw downplaying shit, but it takes these flowers. So user Sir to start taking praise as much as you take criticism. 'cause when you told us about this project immediately said okay. Here give me your thoughts. Honest opinions like tell me what's wrong and. That's the mindset you always have your you're trying to fix stuff. You want that honesty you want. You have no problem taking criticism you welcome that. But you fade away from taking praise. We're changing that today. GotTa Start Accepting this praise and you've gotta listen to you gotTa Watch your stuff but we'll get there sometime later. At least take the praise it's give it to you because you you are extremely humble but there's these moments that Baba. Words like Joe Oh man start on them a little bit. Like yeah. This is my ship fire like okay. It's either you don't to boast about it's dope. So that was like. This guy needs to just. Let the humility goal. Sometimes we like you know what yet fucking this is really dope. and. Not, oh I, hope they're gonNA. Let me do his like no, this is dull. Dare they know it's dope and you're going to be seen a lot more. This case closed because that's what's GonNa Happen Anyway. Like it wasn't bad like they. You news going to be good. And you do they're going allow you do more and they will. So it's one of those things where it's like you know what to say okay we'll say it for you until men. Just. Say like it's it's hard in the bigger conversation is. Is. Since, we talked so much about the black community and know just how. By people are in journalism. Especially, you know just in our field specifically and in other fields where. So. Few of stand out if we're just being honest. So few of us are allowed to stand out of that. And allowed to showcase our greatness and when we do, it is looked at as deonte wildest too loud. Right you can express that people have. Started to dislike Lebron. Because he's too great. Because he you know he's talking about black ish like the louder in bigger voices more greatness nation showcase the more people try to hinder that. So I think it's an overall problem like in our community where it's like, yeah, we could show humility and we should. But at certain points, we gotta stand up and be like, no where the ship where the taste makers, we are the controlling the narrative and why I you can't do what I can do. and. This is one of your moments and I think that's a larger problem in our community. So I start with you because we're on this podcast and you're my co host but I think that's something as black men black women for future black generations is. Okay, we're now telling the stories are goal most started. This show when we started wrestling with stereotypes is to tell our stories as black Brown minority transgender LGBTQ whatever may be to tell those stories dollars our goal. Now. It's time to tell this shit with confidence. Not We want to tell these it's we're going to tell these. We are. This is our platform we deserve to be here. And walking around like it. Just got reprimanded. In a good way, the way. Possible but you know that's real. That's something that I noticed a lot of times You talk about like Eva a lot as well. You guys have had conversation all and she does is amazing. But I see a lot of interviews and it's still that like humility behind it. where it's like yeah. I really liked this project is near and dear to my heart I'm glad I was able to put these actors in those roles. No one? No white director explains why white kids with no acting major acting you know films are shows on the resume got lead roles. No one. Ever has to explain why this person was booked for this role in everything in every interview icy. And then talked him out on how good they are. What? They should speak for themselves. We deserve to do that, and if their trash we deserve to put trash people and trash to it doesn't matter. We deserve these things and that's one thing I've noticed as a community we have to start being my no fuck this we deserve to do this and we're good at it. So if it makes me uncomfortable. So be it. Well did advocate. For, the job you want to be. Home. So I'll say this because you know the reason why I'm the way that I am is brain and Nothing too deep into it but I always felt like things could get taken away from you at any second you know and if you feel like you've won the what are you fighting for? So I never feel like I want and it's really kind of I've noticed tragic mindset to have because sometimes you don't stop in appreciate the things that you've accomplished. And I don't a lot I. Feel. Like there's more work to do no matter what I've done. So. When these opportunities come up and do something like this I'm kind of always looking ahead like you mentioned Kriegel look wriggles pieces like, yeah. I, need to get to that point and if I ever get to craigslist point I'm GonNa look at somebody else and be like. You get to that point. So it's always going to be something for me. To do when I'm never satisfied. I know a lot of people who was like man you do so much but. I'm not done in his Harper meave feel like I've accomplished a lot because. The the most difficult part for me. Is. Finding something to compare myself to. What I mean by that is. Like when I started. In Journalism. I didn't go to college for. degree. I went to Morehouse for business management and I fell into us. Right? And everything that took off from there was I like I met a bunch of people Like my writers at a time when I was a dax in hip hop side and even bt had college degrees house like wow. Okay. And for a while I was embarrassed people didn't have a college degree. But then I was somebody was like we should wait I feel like a badge of honor right? There's a you jumped out of college before kind. Yeah you know like, yeah. Well, it's a different set of circumstances but yeah. I get it. So. But I never really had a template to go on and that's why I always told like wrappers in artists or journalists like you can't follow somebody else's path because they got a lot of breaks that you won't get. Because like no. Pat To pass the same ever like I've met people like I'm going to college travel. That path that that street is closed is never going to real. So. For me I never had something to to look up to necessarily or pattern myself after. So what I did was I always looked at it like well story. At Dax we used to have these conferences just an ivy whose inaugural ed now works at the Ex. Ante, springer? Aj. Worked under meaning was one of my he was a news news. Time they know about these and there was one of these conferences where. The owner was at the time. His goal was to kill all hip hop like that. We'd have meetings it was like murder all him. Out of here and I was like, this is a dumb mindset. And he's like why? because. I. Never patted myself another outlet never. Don't look at another hip hop outlets like I want to be like them. I was you know what I wanNA. Do I WANNA BE THE ESPN? Of Hip hop? I want to cover all facets of it and will we great production value because once you be all hip hop fenway. Because it may not be up to you beating all hip hop maybe hip beating themselves, and then now you the defacto number one. But what motivates events that's always been my mindset is I always look at things I'm like. Like doing this for Tulsa piece in boxing meant a lot to me because nobody really does this shit and I've noticed which I've come to find out really many black people in the space to even tell these stories. That aren't fighters they and I appreciate Andre Ward Tim Bradley. Roy Jones George Foreman Lennox Lewis everybody manual Stewart everybody who's done commentary. But how many times with the exception of Brian custer off the top of my head? How many black people have we seen in commentary positions? That were in the sport. That's an think about it. Yes tough because you have Max Kellerman Jim Lampley? You have Larry Merchant, like you you run down the list of Malraux you gonNA listen. This is not saying that they don't deserve to be where they are at is the fact that the only black people I used to always see fought and I was like is that the only way he? Had to get in the ring and fights could talk about fighting or can I be? Feel or it could just be like, Keith, Ida who? Is Great Guy from boxing I love those guys, Donovan all those guys are great. I WANNA be accommodating but I don't necessarily have get the ring because they fucking didn't. They didn't have to doesn't make him any less knowledgeable about the sport I. Love What Max does. I've always talked highly of Max. I like what Max but he's never stepped into a boxing ring, a basketball court baseball none of that she. But why do we always have to play the sport? What are the talk about it? So. That's always my end game. My game is I don't look at inspiration because the ain't none when it comes to my peers this dope people. In hip hop, it was Elliott Wilson for me I men man. I used to love the editorials in front of thousand talk. Yo. Shit. That's That was the original hip hop blog Y- but then I one day I said I don't WanNa be noticed respect to Elliott. Still think he's doing great work. I just didn't want to be stuck in hop that's not who I am. A big part of who I am but I needed spread the seed elsewhere. So it's really hard for me to brings back full circle does look at my work. And say, I, did it because it ain't done. by I still got so many more things I wanna do man I still want to I talked about this with my wife for years I still want to mentor young journalists young black journalists, not even journalists, storytellers, creatives like the youth group that I have meant the world to me I want to do that I need to find time to do that and every time I don't do that every day that passes literally in my mind manifield. I gotta find time to do this. There's always time to help people. So in a way I put way too much pressure on myself. Is. True I mean I will tell you this from what you just said. In Our this highlights importance what I told you to start this. In which the humility is great saying. With confidence saying it with Bravado carries a lot of weight and that's where we have to get to and you pointed out like you'll. No one really had this path that I was looking for. But and you're searching for inspiration, right? But something you don't know or maybe do whatever you. Said like I don't have a college degree. You got to that point where you tell people you. You've said that humility that Oh maybe I shouldn't tell people he just same issue with confidence like no I'm so good I don't have a college degree. So what I still deserve to be here and you you said this opening for years. And you don't understand how you say it openly and with confidence then affected me because I had someone I could point to say he didn't have one because I don't. But I wasn't searching for someone like you were searching for someone. I, knew someone. I knew someone who got to where I wanted to go and was still climbing. Without one and I said boom I can do it easy. This step is this step so I never stopped writing I could've stopped to be a so I could have just been whatever he said he's blogger I could have just been happy getting events in and sitting in media row. But no I kept writing. I kept fighting new outlets right for. You know I thought and I knew I could work for eight outlets once because you do. So I knew I could work for BSO and champions, and then the newspaper and champions and then Ronda Rousey dot com and to this show and do wrestling with Stereo type thing. So I can have six dollars at once and no one ever told me no because of degree and I never expected him to because no one. Told you know. and. That's because you said it what your chest if you would have never said like you have a degree and it hasn't stopped, I would have known maybe I would have been mosser inspiration. And that's where the confidence comes in. And expecting to be somewhere I expected to be where I am. Now, because you expected to do the stuff you too and set it like fucking I don't have a degrading stopping. So if we do that in all aspects. You don't know who you're affecting. You. Don't know who you're mentoring without mentoring. and. That's the point we have to get. So. Thank you. Everyone thank you for listening to. Ted Talk. We will be back after this break. We'll actually dive into the actual boxing and the UFC we're gonNA drink to you old man during the break you guys stay tuned. We'll be right back. All right. We'll get back to the show in a second, but first from tight muscles, tough workouts, signs of aging to simply making it through each busy day. Everyone understands what it feels like to be tense and sore. So everyone can benefit from thera- ones CBD products. Started by Dr Jason Worsened, Third Body exists to provide you with the best scientifically validated natural solutions to help soothe your body and relax your mind. It started with a revolutionary Thera- Gun Perkasa therapy device when Dr Jason saw the benefits of using CD in his treatments. He created there one to bring you CB products done. Right. A lot of CBD products claim organic, but still contain thirty percent filler and these villas are potentially toxic. 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Just that quick we are back, and now that we got all that heavy super emotional stuff out of the way in the first segment, it's time to talk about the actual boxing that occurred this past weekend and dive straight into the fights I one up. Carl, Frampton guest the Tko in his fight. And sets up the Djamil herring title fight at. One thirty. I thought. Frampton. Could've looked better. He ended it with a sleek body, Ko Tko to second in a row. So He's really been crushing into the body and you'll have to do that if he wants to defeat. Jamal herring was super tough but I still wasn't wowed but I don't know how much I can judge. And we'll talk about some fights from this weekend. During this corona vires process I don't know if it's the lack of training places to train training base means not having the proper nutrition and just being out of your rhythm to blame for looking rusty or if. Some of these guys just. Aren't I'M NOT GONNA say he's not as good but it it just didn't allow me like he's going to really. Be a super super player at one thirty. I just didn't see. Yeah I mean first and foremost the buddy show when you hit somebody so hard they don't say our and they go fuck this like that's how hard trainer guy. Hit. It off and he just looked he looked he didn't even really. grimace. Bang. He looked at the revenues like I'm out. Thank you. It's been great. Say Hi to the kids for me I'm going home. I've never really seen that because the first body shoddy guy hit with a drop on you heard him other legal on he hit the canvas face I I don't know how he got up that was impressive and I was like well, he's a tough do. Frampton was I. almost stick to this body, hit him in their body. So hard. My Man said I'm going home. That was impressive but to that point. Until the body worked paid off later in the fight. I didn't think Frampton. Looked all that great and I kind of I think we talked about that last week I was like he's good. Not, great now, I will say this though I think the same way about hearing. I don't think he's he hasn't shown me that he's great I think this is actually a really good fight. because. Yeah. I. Know Frampton didn't look like the greatest fighter I think tearing still going to be the favourite in that fight and rightfully so but I think it's a little bit more evenly matched and people are are letting onto. It's a really good fight but frampton wasn't terribly impressive. He just wasn't Yeah I'm looking at it it. It's weird. I don't know how to judge people in their out. WanNa say age bracket. or in their experience of fighting to me, they got these one hundred, thirty pound titles at the right time. So by that I mean Frampton Lille Santa Cruz. Jamal Harry and airings. Great Fun. Guy Owes but skill level. Wise. None of them are as good as the young guys about to catch them. I don't I don't think Leo. Santa Cruz is as good as devante. Davis He has the chance to prove this. But I I don't see the skills sets matching. Well, you know what I will say this also that when it comes to Leo Santa Cruz, I will say, I, feel like kind of cash at the right time. It's not the Real Santa Cruz at one hundred and twenty two pounds. It was throwing one hundred pints around this Santa Cruz a little bit more measured. You know he had his wars with Avenue Maar is like. He's not the same guy. And he's fighting a guy who's going to be bigger than him. So I can't. On the flipside of there's a lot of young talent is coming up but they haven't really tested either they've just looked good against whoever the only person I've seen that I keep saying a female he's only got like fight richer call me is a big deal yet everybody else Haney Garcia and even Ryan to a degree. Like, he's far like Fonseca and drowsy Fonseca, in Toronto what. With her unnecessarily. So. It's it'll be interesting to see these guys get paired up in how the fights actually play out because it's weird that Frampton Leo. Abner if he ever comes back. Oh. They like the older guard now. Any of the new guard and it hasn't been that long ago like box it turns over quick. So I'd like to see I wanna see these fights happen sooner than later. So we can figure out who the classes these divisions are because it's it's getting complicated because there's a lot of talent out there but again, Frampton look good night great herring is a perfect opponent when he's the champion. So he's he's the perfect guy so that you get off the pot because the French if you can't be. Jamal Harry Dot. No disrespect to Harry but Sarah for you whereas of Jamal Jamal Wins you look at the situation you go well maybe is better than we think and a lot of people think he's really good. I'm just not on that. I think he's he's he's good. He's a good champion I just put them with the elite yet not I I don't see anyone at one hundred and thirty pounds. Giving Sh Stevenson, an ounce of problems. Hit I don't think he will but I I'm not sure if they hit him. So I WANNA, seem to I. Don't think any of those guys hit him. No not hard enough to make a difference. Yeah. Mean you're probably right which occurred because defense is one of those things that you can't. You don't really lose it right? Like guys like go to war and the reason why I say technique hit in the mouth is because his office is Defense tank is that way Devon's pretty good defense. Ryan. He's rang Garcia's never really showed me a great deal different. So I need to see him get hit in the mouth like how do you react he the body and got hurt real bad in earlier fight but I need to see you get rocked and how do you recover from that? So she chicago is probably. One of the best when it comes to that under twenty five but he's showing like you can look at him. He passes the Test Yup. The only problem we should core them curious about is when we start talking about guys like. Later on the show is, do you keep the momentum? And do you keep the punch output or do you start relying on certain things and then when somebody neutralizes, you can't figure out how to get away from that? See I think his best quality is his ring Q. So Lake. Floyd like. Man I mean. There's there's been several people I think maybe and it's early right but he has a lot of experience already. So so you look at it and. He has that ability to adjust and he has the ability now because we haven't seen him make too many adjustments right he hasn't been tested that much, but he has the ability to dominate in whatever way he wants. and to me that shows then later on, you have the ability to adjust much like floyd. Floyd wasn't tested for a great deal of his early career. But he could pick how he wanted to fight certain people. John Jones. I want to beat this guy I want to beat him this way. And you can go out there and do it. So. When you gotTA pull multiple tricks out of your bag, you've done this all live competition because we've chosen to. You know what? I'm not going to do a high punch out. I'm a setback defense counterpunch. Floyd and Shaker do that. Or you know what I feel like turning it up and being aggressive and I'm GONNA walk. Him Down. While still not getting hit born they both do that. They can use movement, they can sit against the ropes they can corner their cut their opponent off they want. Just so many tools in the toolbox. Now, you look at tank how many tools guy? That at home Oh. Yes power. Yes power into me as heart. Outside of that, I don't know. See I don't even know if he has heart because he hasn't really had an opportunity show. He probably does he I mean I hate to yes rounds. How about that? Sometimes guys don't have rounds rank are really doesn't round I can't tell you if he has heart. If you don't you're GonNa do later on the frank where about to talk about Magic Ma. Stuff wasn't going his way. I count it. Is Him having heart 'cause I've seen him in rounds. Oh. Like your day, he's a special case the guys like him those guys from late eastern Europeans, they're wired different. Untrue. Is the way they fight is just different. The way they figure it out has just different. It's also because they have like this significant amount of an amateur experience and success. Is The reason why people? Even how's it going to tell us is like five or no? Because she like him Machiko like they all spend a Lotta time with amateurs translates quick like they're like what I'm not here to wasting time. Let's get it. Whereas got somebody like Devante like does anybody ever talking about Jamal ten amateur cores we talk about because we saw him in the Olympics. And we've seen how good he is. Valentine we don't. We're not really sure about von say. He could be amazing. I just need to see that man testing yet. Don't know when you get into a chess match. How do you respond? So I don't know about him. Hate me I'm okay with. What impressed me about Haney is is. Seventeen he said, I'm not getting a fights hearing went down to Mexico and piled up like what thirteen fights in a year and a half in a hostile environment. But. He just went to. Mexico like chilling down here for like a year and compiled fights. So I like that about that shows me something about his character. You. Know. I think some that Devon Haney has other fighters don't. Is. Dead. They. A lot of people have a fathers in the corner. Bill Haney Devon's dad don't fuck around. Like. He like he's the one who took his son to Mexico it was right there and I've known bill for a while and I've watched him how he works with the son Like I've been to the gym sessions numerous times and like him in Kenny Porter. Treat their kids like you're my son but I don't give a fuck right now and I really love that about both of them. And it helps. Where Adrian owner and I hate putting devante category but it's really because outside of the ring antics different does it get himself in any trouble? We don't see it. Right now Just like Sean Mikey just keep themselves. Sean doesn't get any trouble and you know full disclaimer like I've known for a while we don't live too far from each other in Vegas like we've met each other's kids all that ship. But Sean is very like low key. Don't catch them out doing shit, but it's because his dad his dad really has kept him. Like Real Dan. But when you look at somebody like Asian brokerage, Vantera Davis. and not necessarily doesn't have just be a father or has to be a father figure. WHO's there to say that he knew Because nobody told Adrian Brodie no and I look at them. Yeah. I, I worry about that just a little bit. We should core but because Andrea Ward is there he's Andre Hope sometime. During play bullshit. But I have concerns when it comes to buy some guys like Devante because they you know you yolk in up a girl in on everybody sees at boxing I mean the basketball gym everybody sees it. It's like Oh man what are you? GonNa do as your profile continues to grow. You're going to ruin your career not another fighter you. You. Any need someone around him. That that's the biggest role that those dads play that you mentioned is. They're not yes-men. They will shoot it straight. And That there's something to that Feels that WHO's a? Louder. The better for him. He's of the most prominent in terms of trash talking fathers in the corners. What deal feels incredibly well adjusted considering. Listen there's one fight. That I would love to see. Just for the DADS Oh God you know what I'm saying say right deal female versus Danny. Yes. Fight each other they. On the UNDERCARD. Other card they'll throw on the close. There's no is so weird because angel and Danny. Angel was fatter today. Don't really say Shit Nah chill just call deal feel same way chill a deal feels like you'll leave me alone. Let me be my wife. Let us. Do none of flashy shit. If you put the camera on me, all talk shit but. I had no trouble I. Just wanted to be my wife, hang out travel and train. But his data pop shit all the time of I got my favorite quote and I'll run it back when he's about to fight Loma on the pages like his dad's talking about like how he was going to win the title at. His fourteenth fight and beat Loman is fifteen fight. Then the interview cuts like quick cuts to deal female until females just like rubbing his he's like. Fuck. That's my dad he talk shape and I, back him up. Those it's like Oh. That's so real. He's like date. I know who he is and he's GonNa pop this shit. It's my job to make sure that he's right. I felt that is a different type of motivation profiler, but it's it's still the same thing where like Danny, to a point is also well adjusted considering his nuts. Oh, Angel Angel has one of the best instagram's. If you guys don't follow age realize to grab you are missing out. He is wild I love so not celerion. Larry's boxing. Dad's is incredible and shutouts. Rating baby was doing like a boxing mom show. before the road, and hopefully she brings that back but the families just surrounding these boxers or incredible. Spend some time with BUDD. Crawford. Mom. Oh. You want you want to talk about confidence. Like terrorist calling for Shit talk but but talk, he's confident. He hates losing that anything. That's what makes bud great because he's not like going to help athlete someone. But his willpower is incredible. That's how we got. Where is his mom takes that to level ten like I never got. I wonder like get these crazy drive from his mom. You put him in there tomorrow with Kellen. MOM's like so. My baby can knock him out like she on wavering confidence. which is crazy. So yeah, we dance but. The parents of boxing are amazing. Talking about another fighter since we're on that track. Rowley. From. Mayweather. camp. Gets his first title shot. This past week on the showtime card. Competitive Fight. Watching this fight like you I I think he's losing he put. They put a lot of promo behind him this week. Leonard Talk. Floyd did a whole rollout on his social media pages. Open them. Up. And I like to see some work in the gym. We've both been around Mayweather Jim seen him in the gym puts in good work fast hands. I'm watching this fight and I see. A guy around one two and three where you're like, Oh, I can see he's been working with Floyd. Why can see he's been working with this person in the gym always technique is getting a little better. Than four or five, six something like. Some not the same. I think he might be like gassed out. No, he looks energetic sums different and then the second half fire like you I think he's getting his ass what. He lost all fundamentals. From round one through I'd say like, Ni-. You could just see the fundamentals draining like there was a meter on top. His fundamental. Just went completely way he was just slugging it and getting countered and to piece entire fight. and. Then someone gave him a one eighteen, one card. That scorecard like I was there was so many. So I was like in and out on that fight and I remember watching the began the fighting going well listen he's pretty good I'm gonNA come back to it. Now. We got like six around. House I know it's not this is not a good fight what the hell? He's not doing this while he's not even setting his feet. He's just throwing punches. And then I looked back again and I was like, oh like the Chevy around. And I was like. Yeah he lost and I kind of tuned out. It wasn't until it because I had the mute on that particular screen, I went back to my other screens. Screens editing to blogs. And I looked on my twitter account and I was like fucking one. Who? Obviously. How did this happen? He's going to lose bad soon. But they're going to be very careful matching them up moving forward because they know what they saw. And that they know exactly what they saw there like Oh shit. WHAT WBA wants to run it back. Mariners can get the rematch. That's that's tough. I mean when Mayweather Promotions Peep when you're volunteers on twitter laughing. I think his exact tweet was this fucker release wack. Everyone everyone thought he's stolley. Shows, Time Vivo. Inter matter where they were assigned to their like naive fuck out here Oscar de la Hoya. It was so big a robbery that it made delahoya Orion Garcia taught teach on twitter. And agree friends cravenly, it meant it their relationship. That's how big of a robbery it was. Yo and listen I'm not trying to shit on the kid it's his first title. He. has how that wasn't it. Learn more from the loss. This is an excuse to continue doing bad habits man yes. Exactly. When you win a gift decision, there's two things happened either your ego gets in the way you fucking I don't care what they say or you go. Yeah. Guys behind closed doors I fucking loss F I. We need to fix them shake. And WHO REALLY IS I? Don't know that I've seen them in the south I don't know which side he's GonNa take on this well. I will tell you this quote right after fight this what he said I don't think. I. Had a bad performance I thought I won the fight regardless of everything I'm the world champion now I'm happy. He came out a little bit tougher and sleeker than what I thought but all he did was move around the entire fight he even tried to engage now if you go to Getty And Look Up, Rolando Romero. Every other pictures him getting his face hate or next not back. A what point did his man not engage I don't think he understands exactly what happened rooms, right? Pointed it out. He was like or it might have been Ryan Garcia. One of the two they were like, Joe, his corner's been lying to him this entire fight. They did him no eve they told him or you're doing great the guys ninety touch. And he believed it when that wasn't what was averaging. The judge side that way. But I I don't know how I don't know that that was. I don't even know what scarlet man it was so bad I like how Robert Man I mean they should run back. But if I was him if I was his team I'd be like. No and anything we can do to get away from that rematch cause he ain't ready. Ready. At old and at that division. When when you step in at one thirty, five video there's no easy ones. If you go up, there's no easy wants. 'cause you if I rang Garcia. Head on. Rick. Yeah like Devon puts beaten on. You really can't go devante theme. Oh, like I don't know where he goes he's in a weird sandwich. where he might not be good enough to beat the people under. So it's tough to protect. Now we got the bill. Every fight is twelve rounds. There's no hiding with eight rounders. Not Good luck to you. Now you're learn on the job so that that's going to be tough that was pretty much showtime. The main event there though was Ben Evita's comes out wins late you saw the usual combinations letting the hands go. To me. We talked about this last week because he missed wait the next day. I wait to this fight. So he loses his belt on the scales. which we'll see if they allow him to immediately fight to regain it. Like. We saw wage avant not too long ago. Or? If they try to punish them put to other people in there to get. Be Some Shit. Of. Caleb wages snake. Suck. I mean not forgivable. Coming unified champion. Easy easy way and make Bellavia be the B. Side and take ship money. Yeah, I mean look man. I speak highly David skills it. Yet I think the kid is remarkable talent. Wise. Some people think fifty five years I do like I I don't think you guys understand like you watch. Anyway, watch the fight last night watch they've been vs just tee off on the guy for the entirety of the fight. And then as as good to him, he really just started letting his hands going there. No use up because he doesn't throw combinations the same way ever they come from all different angles and he's got an amazing. Jin. Stuff fighter was going to be David Been Evita's is the shit outside the rain. Just always going to be a problem in is GonNa Linger and I don't know how much longer is going to linger until he fixes it him missing wait could be He blamed it on training blended all those things but other guys make weightman every. Other guys have the same problem yet they'd need wait you can't like that can't be your excuse. It can especially when you got you were booted for cocaine, you've got to figure this shit out because the talent is there but you can't play no games especially like right now you WanNa play some games you want to beat up on Jalen love coup that's not a threat you want to beat up and Gula last night and have his corners like fuck this. Punishment cool. This makes sense but you can't play this game. We came the plan. You can't. You can't play this game with any of these guys at sixty eight. You can't any many champions at sixty eight and he damn sure can't be lazy or each yourself out at sixty eight could you go up to seventy five? That's a whole different world. Yeah. Don't you're not beating better be EVID 175 master. So you got he's got to take care of business before he gets in the boxing ring and that's going to be my concern with him for a while because when I talked to him in the past, he seemed like you know got my life together Blah Blah Blah. He obviously wanted to do better when his brother got shot before Tan's Crawford fight lobue forget about those of US 'cause Jose used to be the guy to. They've got a Lotta Shit going on in their lives and they need to figure it out because. Yes the talent is there. Yeah. This guy could be a bad due to sixty eight and if you ever seventy five which is obvious, he's going to get there at some point. But you gotta you gotta stay off the bullshit. You can't miss wait as a champion losing it like I can't remember another fighter who's lost the same titled Twice on the scale. On scale in out of the ring she suspicion. By twenty three. To twenty five and it's happened to me twice already. This guy could potentially be the first undefeated three-time champion. How does that happen? He will be if they allow him to fight for he will be. undefeated three time champion like we make jokes like John Rick Flair. Six Times. Winning seventeen. This don't is that. beat in a boxing match as about three time champion other same belt. It's ridiculous. Cable plant needs to sneak that built. This like if you're his team got a big APP. Man, something. I don't know who's the number one contender, but get him on the phone ASEP. He say, Y'all fight him tomorrow. For the vacant bill. And in all all the chips are in your court and not just with then Evita's with vision at that point. Because now you hold to and everyone wants to unify or be undisputed. So it's good. To have, we'll see you know Ben Evita's and plant. You Know League meets probably happening next many. Thought it well. In the coming years give a plan was hilarious just trolling on. Social media with that Shit. You had the fake tears. He was fun. So he was laying better vitas have. Other. Moving over to the zone which we touched on a bit earlier Maximov tested to me. He came out slow. Sluggish I don't know if that's due to the opponent again due to. How stuff very different training wise and everything during. The coronavirus in cove and you know having to quarantine and James Close. which for fighter like that doesn't matter. He's regimented. So. When that gets thrown off that that does matter but I say around six seventh round a different gear cake day. Because we're sick and I thought he was hurt Mike the Fifth. Round. Off He looked he looked tired. You look like Gig asked out it was weird. But they both gas at a point. And then what's his face hit like a second. I'll go with the. Metropolitan trouble and then a right hand from his boots. Or excuse, me left hand from boots that connect Oh shit the fight is over. I'm here I got three TV's going I, throw the remotes by mistake during the air chip I'm going crazy. I see the group chat, line of looking. And Sense Mine I fire sticks everywhere and smart. TV's. Behind. So I look in your question is because not a knock down? What the fuck is happening. And I was like Yo, they ruled it a slip war push. You gotta be kidding me. That was right on the job I don't know how you miss that. Man This was out to out there. So many things that happen here. So when Eric Walker was guy was on the contender series, he spent some time in prison locked up to the Bernard Hopkins came out. It looked sharp in this filing. A good opponent, right like he's good opponent from. And Magic, didn't do his and like he did the footwork like all that Shit was notified he was walking wasn't biting on the faints like he was any fight. Fight progress measurement be those adjustments. When he uncorked live hand, the fight was over. The referee said he pushed him down with his shoulder shoulder. Came Contact Walker. and. He was dead to the world, right? Like he didn't know where he was at now here's my issue. The bigger issue happier. Yes. Should have absolutely been a knockout right absolutely should at least looked at a replay I don't I don't know if the Tulsa commissions rules were there. I'm not entirely sure but they should have figured out something because there was no shoulder involved. That was a straight punch that put him down the game five minutes. Walker was done right We've just spent the last year morning. Three fighters who died in the box array. Specifically we think about Patrick Day. And but there's so many others recently. When Walker gets up and goes his corner he's holding himself by the ropes. Because he's he's cooked all this time is passing people always get in time to recover and I'm like Yo stop the fight. There's no way this may continue fighting. Because all you're doing now is sending him to his demise. Because was matching was supposed to do not hit him. He was done. He got all that time to recover clearly was concussed clearly because the way he hit the canvas after that left that left from the Goddamn Moon. He was done I can't believe they let I go on and I don't blame the corner due to the corner gets no break for me from this. But as the referee, the fuck are you doing you're watching this man because they always just getting beat up for another one four or five rounds? Yeah. I mean it was one way traffic out to so why? Why in the world would nobody stopped this fight Walgreen? No shot of winning after this after that knocked down he was done his goose was cooked his corner kept trying back out there. And the referee would say, yes, you a lot of punishment. We'll do something about it. I can't. We can't have another boxer dying in the boxer we just can't have it. That was good weekend a good weekend for rest. Oh no see or yet this that was, but that was bad magic. I think he's the good somebody who is not good Illinois I'm sorry he's the goods you still the good. Oh Yeah. Now this like when Teo Fema went and he had like turmoil in the family and then he faced a super kid suits cal Cantonese Yoko. But gave me hell but I I was like. Oh Shit, and then people are like, oh, deal females of fraud and like chill. Chill these things happen. It was a bad style match for t of humor. To every everything was was going to be tough about that fight. Sometimes, you are matched up with tough opponents Eric Walker was a tough slip opponent who wasn't going for the bullshit magic off his white people out in under six rounds because the by faint he used that footwork get around throw manatt angle the punch they never saw coming walk wasn't deal with none of that shit when he'd like they needed to save that massive to fight another day that was a travesty. Yeah. Man I don't even know how he continued after that punch now I know he was in prison This. He's been through some Shit I'm pretty sure. I'm pretty sure. He doesn't remember anything after around. Oh I don't know how he could know that should almost put them through the ropes. Spat you almost went down the block around the corner and got some. Barbecue. That's crazy that punch was. Crazy and then the main event justice good. We Have Cecilia breakfast versus Jessica Casco. Love that women are headlining great to put. A spotlight on them. This is a big fight, and then you look at it and it's going along you like yo the they both really good. and. To me, this right was so good that it didn't make me want three minute rounds made me want to remain arouse I mean I would've loved would've loved extra time but I think they've they've packed a lot into a little. I would've loved this twelve three mini route. It would have been even better. I think maybe CECILLIA would've had a better chance she would have. I mean listen. So a couple things happen one. Justin. mccaskill beat Cecilia breakers becomes now a two division unified champion. Undisputed now as a welterweight. And she's small. She's a small welterweight undisputed champion. But here's here's all the things that happened and then we'll get to the fight or so. mccaskill just turned over that card because the idea here was who have. Breakthroughs either Katie Taylor will Kennydale was the fight to make. Or Amanda Serano Mess Renault Can Negotiate get money then going with. A lot of people thought you pursue became the first time. We're we're almost to the point where everything's GonNa get fucked up because now mccaskill good for her undisputed. I. Needed Texter I, interviewed her, and I told her I was like if you win, I'm texting you on Sunday to see if you're going to work on Monday this he told me that he was going to do I don't believe. I do not believe I have to I'm to text her after we'd done with the show but now mccaskill faces the winner per soon in Kane Taylor and if pursued in the castle like what the fuck is happen like everything got messed up, right Here's the other thing that happens break. WHO's a woman's thirty eight years old was thirty six to no had never lost around on a single scorecard in thirty six fights. Didn't win a single scorecard against mccaskill for the record I had break us win in the fight six, four, six, thousand, four. I that's how I had it but you the rows were so close that I was like dude anybody can win this rows a sprint every rouses spread I don't know. But the other problem now is. Closer, she looking this fighting going fuck there was another opponent. because. Even I still taking a big fight. Dune. mccaskill is not coming up to fight punisher shiels. Pushy is huge. Courses Finding that. But that goes to say mccaskill. Now, if Taylor wins, which isn't a given though table loses than. Eddie's fucking being head against the wall. This what the exact opposite of how he wants. But if Taylor wins, then we get them to run it back. And Table One. The first one pretty handily it was close like the scores were wide. I watched that fight the scores were white it was closer than that but yet as one F-. Yes. So now I mean. Katie Taylor with all the belts now becomes very interesting. Just. WHO's five folklorist but no, she will never find Clarisa Kasur. Fight. Serano asked that obviously still Serrato will fight chorus. Position yet, there's nobody for a fight. Burgos was the one that she needed to fight in race was really against going above forty seven. And LAURISTON Z's. Easily sixty. Right. She say get to forty seven I don't know the old now get fifty four was that's she's twenty four years old. So she NOCCO twenty I'm not even sure if she turned twenty four yet. So. She's young she's young but man, the older you get the hardest drop that way. Yeah, forty-seven is ask and to keep. The power. She has the skills she has dropped out is tough I mean she might have to be forced to do it but man. mccaskill all the credit in the world. To win up, she's a two division champion Alley. If power for power women's days was something that was more mainstream like nobody really talks about this, that should is a mess right now. For who's the best fighter in the world I if she does is what a lot of people think a lot of people who've been following women's bicycles like no breakthroughs like she's she's thirty six. You got gotta give her a credit, but now she just lost. So, like it's mccaskill above breakers. Yeah. Castle lost to Katie Taylor though. Man. There's a lot going on and then he got a mistrial hanging around seven division champion six division champion. Yes, some crazy women's boxing a good spot I just I feel Chris Season they're going. Like I, need to call the allow leash and. ME. Yes Michaela. Mayor wants. Wants in on that. At thirty five now not all cash No but she's at thirty five. She's looking like Yo. She was watching a fight last night and she was like Y'all could beat mccaskill easy. Okay She was like I'll jump up tomorrow to. 'cause I GUESS MECHANICAL SMALL FOR FORTY S. Like look and. So you look at that and I mean Michaela mayors good to there's so much talent. A what was? The chick who just landed the sickest Ko but they had her in there against like somebody's mall. Oh Sinisi. ASTRADA but she's She's one hundred, twelve pounds. So Twenty Five, right? No, she's twelve she's. Twelve, fifteen, eighteen. That's where she can fight it. She's again. He's tiny and she has eat to get there. She got dynamite in the hands twelve me she's fighting a can but. Regardless the way she threw that Combo. That from the from the knees, then that Shit's crazy is boxing is just great right now. So definitely have to shine a light on that. I will say stay tuned. China make something that happened. Something's Bruin. So I'm very excited about that and was boxing and the whole weekend I thought it was a great weekend for boxing. We're GONNA take a quick break and talk. UFC. because. There's plenty to talk there with what just happened. At UC two fifty to a night of fights I would like to say it might have great fights that might be an air. You guys stay tuned. We'll be right back. All right. We'll get back to the show in a second but first Sunday Sunday Sundays are coming back in the NFL with NFL Sunday ticket DOT TV you can stream every live out of market NFL game, every Sunday afternoon on your favorite devices plus Red Zone and direct TV fantasies. Own Channels never miss your favorite teams favorite players. No matter where you live Hannah fell Sunday ticket. Dot. TV is your key to the most glorious Sundays ever use the Promo Code Blue Wire. At checkout to get fifteen percent off your subscription visit nfl Sunday ticket DOT TV, and use Promo Code Blue I. All right. We are back and as the home stretch and we are talking and may more specifically talking about the UFC and UFC two, fifty two which just happened over this past weekend. dray looked it looked good on paper for the main card right. And I was like, okay, we got a nice little main card. Overall. I really thought it. disappointed. A. Wasn't. It wasn't it was some weird circumstance. Is Not, the fighters falls yes. It's not like they all wanted or tried to go to decisions or anything, but some sheet happened that made it kind of weak. So I will talk about John Dodson. Showing up in doing nothing. Mood he's gun shy told you these headed someone's wrong sums? Are you gotTa drop the weight? You know it's not it's admit this is mental. This is a one hundred percent mental Dj Rodham, his soul Shang soon them he probably I think. So something happened because remember when Dawson arrived on the scene like he knocked out Tj dillashaw the magic man, but he was everywhere. Hands hit bricks for hands fast as hell you couldn't take them down. Like he was easily the number one number two, the fastest fighter in division. Easy. Maybe the entire UFC. But now it's like he's completely gunshot. And visibility. Didn't he just? Fuck this, he had so much fun beating up on John Dasa just like tossing him around. I don't know who John Dyson it's over this drop the weight it won't matter if you don't let your hands go. Yeah. Morale was having a blast Murrah was in his quarter just like that's easy lay. This is mile in after the fight through the headdress back on he just didn't care and do we both picked us and I can't remember I definitely did. White I feel terrible and morale is going to be a problem at bantamweight. He's. If. He continues fighting like this. The way he's you know just out wrestling guys like he's on a nice little fight he streaked. Yeah and he was able to out strike Dotson granted Dotson tried too much to to throw hands I. Don't I don't know what the game plan is for Dotson Eurofighter anymore like why watch them fight I go to the Jimmy Rivera finally what's what's cleaning I? Don't think there is one. Rob. is on a firefight winning streak last lost. What's to Ricky Simon Smoke. Yeah. Okay. That makes sense. Okay I. Remember there was a submission. So young has buzzer. By the way you might have won that fight yet move rob has been dominant these past few fights but this the dots performance impressive. I. Think he could be a problem but I put more of the blame on John Dasa because something mental is going on with this man is not up to his capability. Yet Very Weird I. Can't call it he needs a sports psychologist. He's recapture some late when you don't even try to let the hands go. That's when you got a problem. So next fight, Herbert, Burns versus Daniel. Pineda this is where you are right and I was wrong. A feeling this and like this. I I don't know another weird fight because I think burns was just dominated from the jump. Eight just he didn't seem to have it this night. No. Cash wait forty, five, I don't. I can't. Blame it on but. The elbows came down and it was a rap so. Whichever I mean yeah I mean. Significant strikes. Ten. For burned. Fifty, seven for opinion. Yeah. I mean like it'll be like this but I kind. Win this fight, but that's wild and that was in dominant fashion. Then we go to the next night jd s versus Rosen struck. and. Bump you know super buff. Different, body. Mustached. GPS. Didn't help him because he got rocked. And slumped on cage. So the thing about Rosen's struck is what I've noticed now is yeah. Okay. Everybody's GonNa lose the Francis in God like if you rush Francis and got gotTa, you're going to lose that's what's going to happen. So this fight, he was a little bit more patient picked spots really didn't do a lot in the first round. Waiting for eighty s kind of open up getting a little bit more comfortable like ease up on the guard and he's just let it has put away. But this division. I don't want to say that there's like a huge gap is not a valid Musa Tanko gap. That's we're going to call that gap that's shift that's it is absurd. Touching her, but it's a pretty significant gap in skill after steeping. DC's probably gone. I don't know skill wise because. Roy, as he is. With all the raw power, he's still a role as an enemy fighter. Roses stroke is a raw power like the striking's there but. What happens with Steve puts him on his back. And clearly debate Baker Take Punch. So I don't I don't know who's who's going to be a problem for steep A. At this juncture, we'll talk about it in a little bit because even though I think in God who's going to be better if they have another fight. I can't. Skill wise. It's different levels of this shit. It's just completely different levels in roses stroke and J yes. Yeah. Good. Fight on paper rose knocked him out but. Jd hasn't really been the same since the Kane fights to be honest. A low run after that, I mean he added to lose to desert had a cool run. But remember when he came into the fight with Kane and then came turned himself in got hurt and DDS became champion. Then came mugged him for four rounds and Fucking Mall. Then you talk about Canada minute to what level kate. Just Cain just was he beat the fight, Outta Judy's Julius. Still very good fighter but I don't stocked putting rose struck winning. Could stop it though. Listen I'm I'm here for a possible matchup of big men bumping meet. And struck black beast down here for. Katie if he can't get his hands on Greg. Hardy. Gets okay. Yeah Great Heart He's options over warning, but if you can't do that then yeah, I, think those who got a date. They just want a week apart. This do it. in the CO main the sugar show Sean o'malley. With the. The hair which may or may not have been a poke and Marlin barrel or he could have been looking like Takashi we painting so I don't know the inspiration. But sugar show came in, they gave him a co main. Like. Okay. Showcase fight. and. I'd say two minutes into the fight his ankle went. And it was not the same after that very took advantage quick 'cause. This is the second time we've seen a lower body injury o'malley alley, and the last time his opponent was dom and didn't make them stand back up to the ground and o'malley was able to you know leading out and win. This time it was not having any of other. No and if you actually went back and watch the fight again. The more lavera Kathy something to do with this you think it was A. Lot of people I saw that and they said the kick could hit the nerve give dental. I think it has something to do. So at first, it was like a freak injury, but maybe not maybe Marlin Veira. Maybe. There's something going on with molly injury with his health and that late that maybe we'll never be right. And now it's going to be a target. Doesn't matter when he comes back. You're looking at like I'm taking Lego that's my job. So. Yeah. You gotTA. Do you gotta attack his leg because? It seems both light he maybe he needs to build strength down there I don't know but least fluidity and everything listen sometimes people just got brittle bones in my joints late sometimes ain't cheek you can do. It sucks because o'malley is going to be on the shelf again and how how's Twenty one. Twenty, five, twenty, twenty, five, year old and you're twenty five. You've already lost a what eighteen months from the lettuce injury. And suspension and this suspension. Now you come back and you get injured again you in a coma van, which means you. She really wants to push you the moon Nagin injured again now the now. You Damaged Because the same injury is not like innocent in different places to same injury. I don't know what happens know Malley now. I. Think Again, it's twenty five. He has plenty of time to still because what he wants to become. win-loss is don't kill you in this porno is not going to lose a personality you run three off in a row. You're right You're good like look at game bread here but here's the problem. Jane Is Different Right, game bread his loss Thomas with. Decisions. Right the problem molly that I'm concerned with. Mentally when you start stepping in that cage, and now you're thinking about this leg when you're fighting. That's tough. You know what I'm saying it's like it's like the phantom injuries and it's just like I. Think. You remember when Paul George broke his leg rows like shit eating again but he came back stronger than ever but the problem is imagined. Breaks the same laid the same way again. Now. For the rest of your career you think about every time it's just the basketball court. There's a probability I'm gonNA injured this shit again I don't know that's not even that's not even a contact sport. Now, you're fighting guys especially being o'malley with all this praise nobody's GonNa. Want you what fight a bunch of cans everybody's GonNa want you top fifteen guys in the first fifteen guys you fight all targeted league? Can he get past that part mentally to become a complete fighter I don't think Derek Gross Yeah. Like, when when the knees just kept giving up on? It's in your head in certain point even if it. Doesn't matter your head says they told me this last time I was good. So I don't know man, I hate this. Kid a ton of promise he get. It's going to slow him down. We'll see we'll see. The I mean it. It could be a setback for major comeback. I I love when the Osos especially for these young fighters. Take it away quick. Max Holloway. Losing the cardinals on best things for. English, it away go become. He ran off a ton of fights after I just hopefully, he can recover from the same damn injury. The injury is the key, not the loss to injury hurts. main event we are here Stephen Coaches residential cormie. So. Obviously now people know steeping mio cheats is still USC heavyweight champion he won by into the nitty gritty of the fight. I thought core me on the first round. Thing. The only one judge gave it to. Vile. Maybe. Yeah. Crazy. So, call me against the first round steep. May the second thought we? We're cruising the end of the second really made a difference because What fifty seconds left at coordinates. Scaling the cage back against the cage which dump for him. And both hands down trying to Shimmy across the state cage, and that's when he catches them and almost turns off the light and coordinates survives barely. And that changed the complexion of the fight and then you go on. And call me then is trying to survive in the third row. She does a great job of and then ended up thirty takes I and he's blind for the rest of the fight. But that was a bigger problem. I would say, Oh, I. Don't. Because he tried wrestling in the I, it worked and never went back to it. And he said, well, Steve Bay stopped overreaching and he didn't overextend himself. So it wasn't open. You know what? She's always open for a beep. It's always for Cormie. You can't tell me when he was fighting Dan Henderson an age bomb was always on deck. That he was like, oh maybe I can't wrestling he wrestled. For period time he just stopped doing. So I don't. It was a bad game plan by him after the first round and I don't know why changed up maybe Father Times undefeated and he doesn't have the energy to wrestle against it. I think. So. Yes. One the officiating. Got The I poke sucks. So nothing really got it to do about it. I mean it's hard to see something like that that angle whatever we'll talk about that book in a second. that. Yes. Did that affect the fight? But. The knockdown in the second round changed everything goes cornea was cruising in that round. His hands go a little bit more and I said this on twitter and people that are interested in few understand what I was saying like Corey is an excellent hand fighter like what he does is he moves his hand and tries to grab you by the wrist and then he pops off like he's really good at dash like either you're going to clinch which you will. He moves his hands enough to try to show you that something's going to happen if you don't try to stop my hands from moving and. He did it and that's where like even earlier meal just fights. We poked him in the should happens when you move your fingers around like that. But then he got clipped. And all that Shit went out the window like. that he thought about doing now he was on the defensive he was no longer on the offensive for any part of this fight. Everything that was done from this point on was too steep as game plan which was. Land strikes from the outside. Don't they call with that right hand you know it's coming, and if you get in a clinch press him against the cage close to us, we can tell you what to do. and. That's exactly what steeping. Perfect Game Plan DC was just completely neutralized the I poke it sucks but. I thought DC landed a couple of those right hand but he stupider and fight but there was nothing nothing left not even that statement new they're coming this punches that you don't see the are the ones that kill you and when we got knocked out in the first fight, he didn't see that punch coming. He had no idea that punch was coming out of the clinch true this fight in the last fight he knew what was coming and if you prepare yourself for that right here because to be honest these, he doesn't really have much aside from that right hand put power on. So that's all steep ahead to really look for because if DC wasn't going to deploy his his wrestling. which is bizarre because it got him victories over Derek Lewis Kathy Johnson. Josh. Barnett that wrestling is what got him to the dance. But St had nothing to worry about. No. So and I don't I don't know why that's the game. I don't know either right like I. Just I'm truly baffled. As to why there wasn't a lot more of DC leaning on steep aid to wear him down to open up the strikes a little bit more. If you're not, if you can't get a takedown coaches is a really good wrestler. If for some reason, you can't get to take down. But if you use your wait to see bay was very svelte, Mama was slim in this fight. Oh Slim Stevie. If you're DC lean on them like you wrestler you lean on, you try to wear this guy down even if you're not doing anything in the guard after you take him down, you just put your body on this man because heavyweight fights for the fifth round. All Yours. But if you don't set that Shit Up, you're GONNA lose so. It's what's debate didn't gone. Just lean on dude got to show while I'm here just lean I'm not gonNa let you do what you WanNa do right like I'm not going to give you space debris. I'm just going to take all the fight out of you and frustrate the shit out, and that's what did gray fight for him. It wasn't gonNA. Fight. Steve as the champ remains a champ DC goes into retirement. It's over anybody at this. This is coming back. He's not. I think this yeah this is this is. This was the chance maybe I think he was stuck around if you want. that second round was huge like you said. I think he was winning that route absolutes. So he got dropped. So And that was just lasting twenty more seconds. So yeah, it went through away from. He still won the fourth in my mind. Was I agree And it's probably to going into the fifth and then St base mother. So I thought it was a good fight St Bay? Great showing. Now comes the nitty gritty. What is next DC bone VR sh you're going into retirement steeper though John, Jones was talking a lot during that fight. And I've always thought steep was the heavyweight John Jones would be comfortable fighting especially if you get skinny steeping. I think John Jones feels real comfortable in their own. But Francis and Garner who is run to everyone else. So you can't even justify giving him a busy flight because he's knocked out everyone two through seven problem. Yeah. This is Talk I. Think I think Francis Shown enough improvement since. And again, knocking out. Great Wrestler. On his way there. He knows. So he's fought different styles, different fighters, heavy hitters, wrestler. He's done at all I think you had to give in gone with the fight. And John, Jones either stay away or come back in. And maybe running back at light heavyweight for his title and be more impressive because his last fight he wasn't impressive survived. Yeah, So raise might be up against Donald Trump just wait but I think in Ghana gets an extra. I agree this is I think the while the John Jones Ebay meal just fight sounds very, very intriguing. I think John Jones unfinished business with Dominic Reyes no matter what he thinks you know he won that fight a lot of people didn't think John, win that fight we're not alive I. Say a good amount to the point where you feel like the Taylor defeating personal thing you won fight with. Enough people that make you think that you lost that you feel like. I need to do better. This is division that you still the champion over. And you have a defendant championship in quite some time. So defended against Dominic Reyes let Stephen Gang Five because if Steve Beats and gone weekend. That's done, and now steeping fighting a guy who's become like a human highlight reel on social media in gardening and beating him again and beating DC now makes that fight with John A. Lot bigger. Own. Much more significant. Now, Francis Stops steeping and John runs over Dominic Reyes then you make do. Then you pay them the money to do this fight John Versus in Ghana. Right, which is crazy. But I don't think there's any path to me that makes sense to put Johnny us right now, I think John Nieces heavily title because if he doesn't, we're GONNA. Go almost a year we're GONNA have to have insurance title fight and nobody really wants this visit still kinda. WACK. Yeah no I mean. It'd be a fight between one guy lost John Jones in. In. In dummy Tommy, creates nobody wants to see that she. Not at all. So that's a consolation prize. Loser's bracket no-one no-one cares about that. So that is true. What comes up now is with this win Esteem Bay one, the greatest heavyweight of all time and to where does he rank on the pound for pound list of all time? Ma Fighter. So I've conceded. That now since I've watched more fate or I, get the Hi, I'm still not watching it in the moment, right? So my phantom is in your Phantom is in our boy Justin Ivy's fan isn't. I stretched to say eighty five percent of as vandal. I didn't watch in the time I wasn't watching. It may like that no I mean what the fuck I'm not gonNA apologize for was doing other shit playing college football. But now that I've gone back and watched it. I can say I get the height that Ron was impeccable. And by the way by prizefights fucking brutal by the way. Oh. Yeah. Soccer kids now. Oh. My God like. I almost said Belfort but not Belfort someone which is a fucking monster over there it'll come to me. Who just beat low knock of Shogun Sharon Saddam. Oh my God I watched shogun pride fines and I. I'm not squeamish. We do this shit all time like I'd be media Rome black blood ca splatter my wave like Oh shit. That's cool. Shogo pride was just filthy. That's a whole different beast Oh God. But no just thinking about fate or. His run at heavyweight he wasn't the biggest know. What really changed my mindset. And when I was watching his pride things because I also wasn't around because it was before my time before I was born for my mother was born. Is Watching all arlene. Like old Ali fights, right. So whether he won or lost, but you look at how different he moves from other heavyweight. How he was thin and smaller than other heavyweights of it's time and how he was still able to impose his will manipulate them. and. That window. Of Ali is so great that people can consider him. Of course, with outside of the ring stuff. One of the greatest boxer of all time it didn't matter that he lost in between them and then lost towards the end. Because that window of greatness was so great that doesn't fucking matter. I, feel like that's probably the case for failure and I get. That window was so great. That year he lost lot towards them. All right whatever he lost once during his. Yeah I mean he lost by a Dr Stoppage due to copy in a fight he winning Yeah, he lost once during his his real big one. I only lost. You know the first time guest. Cool. But that doesn't diminish how great they were during that time. So, case AF eight or is the best heavyweight ever even with steep as run. Even corny little one. I Okay I get it. I can still get fatal. Steve as making a case for number two. Oh that all agreed. which is tough because I also, a lot of Cro cop in that Oh God another fuck who was the fourteen. Watching the but is kind of a one trick pony. High Kit. Is What you knew. It was coming, but it was like the when was coming and how fast you who? Raised though. That's the ultimate deathblow. I talk about Congress right hand. The kick didn't have to lane clean grazing people upon the top of the head I saw him K I forgot who was he kicked them the foot went over the head. He hit him with the he'll like with the Achilles on the top of the NOGGIN. Dead Center in the front of his head and knocked them out. Clean. House like that's not possible. You gotta kick someone in the chain on the temple note kicked them back of the foot top of the noggin gone. You develop a lot cro cop was a school my God on the Grays and I still don't understand that how do people not see that coming it's just the way he delivered it because he didn't wind wish I was around fema at that time just fucking baffled by that. Still I'm watching that at the Crib Lake Yo show to fight pass. But I'm just watching the shape because like I told you last time we had this I've seen most of the WC, almost all of it and I've seen a lot of strikeforce. Told y'all I'm GonNa Watch pride and watching this Shane I'm like, yeah. This is beyond belief in it's the best ever if he was like the Cooler Day. Yes. It was. So different when you have seen when pop. Mainstream it was very much the wwe getting out of the. In. The WF WWF and then kind of bringing on this talent from WCW and elsewhere that was of over the hill and they they were no longer who they were. That's kind of what pride was to the UFC like pride was in I'll be honest with you as well because I didn't have have to access I got on the pride like, super late. It was it was toward the end. Proud when I started watching it because I went to like I wouldn't really just went to the video store in rented all the prize and all the US's and I just watch them. Like I think when I because like the dark period ruined, you'll see for me so I didn't get back into it's like around UC eighty seventy nine or something like that. So I went back and watch all the other ones all them. And I did the same thing with pride. And I was like, you know it's like W. These soccer kicks to exactly what? Legal. But these are the by two meals I'm looking at your. Well. You guys these are the best fighters in the world like this is the best heavyweights meanwhile before Mandalay showed up i. like Yo families a fucking murderer. Eventually, looks like a murderer and vandalism delay rampage I mean they sent chuckle over there to fight rampage like Hendel Pride was crate. Dude you go down a list and those tiny dude. Yes alsir overeen. Rona like there's so many guys win pride like what What's the black dues name who covered that was? Random. Random. Don't. I think so I don't think cameraman was blonde in pride was. Yeah. Okay I. Think I. saw a fight. We him in pride betsy ramified stuff. I wasn't sure if that was him in pride dude like again I binge all in the day. So excuse me people listening who are like MMA purists. was like a week but. If I'm forgetting like, okay. No they're going to yell at me ran away wasn't a pride he was like Oh oh, he was was random. Yes. Yup. Crooked. Yeah. So Yup, that's where I saw it'd be. Yup I saw random in pride. He was way better and pride in the UFC. Most skies were like when cro cop showed up in the AFC air by was dumb excited. This is towards the end of CRO COP guy hit. Then he loses by his very kit to Gabriel Gonzaga I'll never forget why it was like Whoa. What is going on delay? Not Same Guy. You I mean a lot of these guys weren't saying fade or was like the steam fate or was steam. showed up. And when he did. Finally showed up, it was over. So like a lot of people never got a chance to really seen appreciate with fate or did and what I like people would tournament social. He was like, no Steve as they listen fate or beat a murderer's row fighters in pride as a heavyweight for a decade. That should as untouchable to me. I need like steep is still here and just recently lost fate oranges molly waft everybody. Everybody, they couldn't take them down that sambo style was ridiculous. No way could get with it. He had a chin of steel and a right hand nobody could fuck with. Jesse was on point like it wasn't until later went to strikeforce in loss to breezy over doom, and then people like I was never that good dog look at his record before. Greatest heavyweight ever but Steve is making very good case because the number just the turnover in the AFC heavyweight title picture has been ridiculous. Like he's finally been able to defend the title. Few. Times. The OC headway divisions always been super week. Want to be honest. He's better than Cain memory already cain was the greatest. Heavyweight time. Yeah. I mean at that point we. Can't wait. You gotTA give guys time to fail right and see how the. Top. Five heavyweights such a weird place but Cormie to me, it's still top five heavyweight among Agri that man was winning the tournament What he didn't strike for I. I thought that was great winning the UFC title heavyweight title after being championed light heavy I I think that. What else is I see me fight went in and won the title. To Be Champ, champion so. Cormier as top five cain might be in their cro cop I think deserves a see. Steve I mean Cormie was a heavyweight when he arrived. Like he fought Roy Nelson Nelson Frontier Yeah. You're right and then you drop down because Cain was champion he was in his way. But. Yeah, you're right. so. Looking at that, it's like it's just I. Don't know if Cain is top five heavyweights anymore. It's tough. It's tough because weight is how good is Broccoli? Right like really yeah, and how good is Randy tour like people love ready tour I get it but ready tour got fucked up offering. A promise. Yay Got fucked up by anyone in this top fatal I think we tour. It was great even though it was record was mediocre to a lot of, but he fought everybody buffet toward it which just on another level. So steep a if he beats him right and if he were to beat John Jones, now we can really have a conversation. John Jones. He's putting himself in the greatest of all time category. He's he's got a win you but that Deborah next conversation the greatest of all time and that's that's very tough. Right? So I put it into the top five pound for pound fighters and Emmy Ister. This is what cars and we'll end our show on. This is what caused an uproar in our group check. It really did. I'm not sure if George saint-pierre, my top five of all these. That's ridiculous. That means absent. Sure. How was he not? So if I could see that fate or is the greatest heavyweight of all time. Give Me John Jones. Give me Dimitrius Johnson. Give Me Amanda noon. Yes. Give me fate or give me Anderson Silva. That's my five. I will take DSP over Dimitrius Johnson, any day of the week. Did his way WHO Djba. Everybody'll. robbed. By triple seeing. The will see who who cleared out the division obscene I. Guess which doesn't Look Great in retrospect. And this only, I'm not saying he beat everyone in front of him except at one, thirty, five where lost. Who did you use? PB? Everyone in front of Matt Hughes. bj Penn when bj on tear we really hold him matt use to that how Are you nuts like Hughes changed the game. Like Mattis Fair. Okay. Okay. Like Hughes the whole dynamic a first name you throw all you have to give you because Matt. Hughes at the time the greatest welterweight ever. And when gop I fought him and got in gets lost to teach again lost year and then peace, and then he came back and ran roughshod over Matt Hughes, an armed the shit out of him. But this is what Matt Hughes like the game? Change. Because Matt Hughes was Dominant Way Champion everybody that watches remembers a Carlos Nuno Slam. You remember all the things he did you remember the trig fight and then you beach. Young Hotshot and you're like, Oh, well, he was ready right. But still you've got to remember when Mackie's choice Gracie, which was a huge deal of time because Gracie was considered the best. Matt Houston dominated him and that's when the mix part MIS mixed martial arts became a thing because Houston wrestle, but he could also strike. Now every fighter that came after him had to learn how to do everything and GSP. He got a second opportunity and never looked back just ran his ass over. And from that point. P rarely lost on age judges scorecards. So we have. Matt Serra who that that loss hurts should I am a main shit has lost That stuff happen. Yeah. I'll give you that. So the McHugh. lost. That's okay. That's legit. Boss the Sarah loss was kind of out of blue. On the BJ Penn fight was really good. The first one? Second one. All right. That looked like it was going to distance it get stop. So. I would say after beating Matt Serra avenging the loss winning the title. Or unified maybe he was He become interim before them. Cool After that, Sarah? Win. Is when I think. I was introduced to nothing but boring GSA. Seattle call. Them. Boring. And again, this may be the same case. Why said Frank Yeager didn't do it for me six years ago and my hot take. and. That's because maybe he was that much better than the competition for that period of time but even then how he dominated them. It. The fights weren't great big overrun down the list and you stop me when you say like Oh fuck that fight was crazy. Right so after the Sarah Win. He Goes Jon Fitch. Unanimous decision. Now. Right. That's not great bj Penn.. Stoppage that would have went to. My first of all, beat the shit out beat I like when we talk about jellyfish, we've got to remember John. Fitch. was heading into their fight. undefeated, for, like. Four years. Vite just mugging people because John is strength was never striking. It was scrapped. No, and what did you speed do? beat him at his own fucking game wrestled the shit. Out. Again. And that's maybe why I call barb okay, you beat them in his own game bj. Diogo Alvis. Killer. Heading into that fight. And what DSP did what he had to do to win I mean he neutralized him. He did or you saying wildly excited I mean I don't know what you want. Okay no he Thought they were Dan Hartwick Macri. Dimitrios Johnson. Pfizer. Exciting. Dj was people to Fuck Up. Are Boring I would argue to say some were more excited that mouse trap pledge right bullhorn bars. That was great. It's fucking Krono that like the mouse then killing triple seat to the body was incredible like look it has some great. But saying that division was so shallow and the losses decreasing giving up hurts DJ where GSP was not only the greatest welterweight of all time. Then he he leaves a sport for four years comes back and wins the middleweight title. Getting, domestic credit. My Mom's could be Michael. Grotto. Well we see what happened rock. Rock cold I don't remember what to. The champion. GSP. Pick a spot came won the title but prior to that no old man of handle. Beep. I saw Mathu is he dropped him three times in the first two rounds and biscuits bisbee barely held on and I still think you on that fight Israel's new age scoring. He would lost that by million points because it would be ten seven and ten eight rounds to start that fight bisbee would have had no chance to win that fight keep that bill. So yes, my mom's could've beat missing. He came back and was rocked in that. What end of the first early second came back peeping up good night. So it was an even fight with him and a pretty Shitty biffing of that look. Point is. Nobody had changed the game and brought so much appeal to sport like GSP's. Give him that for evilness. But who he all the top guys at a time we're Carlos condit was a fucking murderer. Eighth Calls Conde wasn't murder Jake Shields was on a toward run coming from strikeforce, nobody could beat them. Right Dan Hardy was hot at the TIME WHEN ESP I, tell you this. I've been I told you. I've been watching this anime, my hero academia. There's the teacher. and His power. Is that he can remove anyone's powers. That's his power. So. Is Our looks at people their powers are gone. Now it's just a Mano, a Mano fight as DSP. His greatest strength. Is being able to take away someone else's strength and a Lotta Times that doesn't make the most exciting. Dominant though. So he's he is great is dominant. He's great I feel justified with leaving him outside of my tie. That's because now we're splitting hairs between greatness I. Think I will take mighty mouse above hill. Ray. Thomson, his problem with Dj and it's not even DJ's fault. It's just it's the Roy. Jones is who fought in when you fought them. Ray Board wasn't uninsured run nobody the DJ defended his title against was on like these runs where people were like, oh, he's going to be December triple triple. She looks great on their resume. Yeah now. But then it was like, oh, whatever. But other than like everybody that fought GSP was coming off like three and four years streaks of winning like everybody the. Triple C. was on I. Guess You. Again. And again. And during the moment when I got into enemy I caught the horrible run. I caught DSP winning the belt back and then what I thought were some less-than-exciting fighting. So. Maybe I just wasn't there for like the you know where in the fucking tie around my head. Coming out and again like I wasn't fan blowing over that when I first got. So maybe there's a little bit of got to be in the moment I get that I mean the other looking back I could put him at. Location crazy because like if you put fe over to espn, this is where we split hairs fatal on his back got knocked out by a bunch of people along the way. Not. Just be out with the greatest curtain call and may history. One that titled Left by DC not be out by the you might. You might have one more I don't know. I. Don't think. So he looks he looks like he's taking something because the male looks shredded right now. Yeah but I mean I think. Habib is really serious about. GSPC respect shit. I can be I'm like yeah okay you. But. That's another thing about gop. One thing I did know I showed up right in time to know that man was about his paper he got pay Washington the traction sky. No, he should. He should. So they offer him enough paper. He might be right back maybe There's there's no way in hell he's sure he wanted to retire again shelves to do after this being and he was late I just Dana wasn't gonNA pony up to counter saying there's no way in hell he's out of the top five is impossible. DSP. Okay at not putting him at thirteen, but people act like in a chat like. I don't think. I think it's crazy to DJ over. Lunacy. I there's nobody else. Like okay John is still here. That's going to be my own. I think John's Mick Grace, martial, arts I've ever seen, but his career has an Indian so but that run is almost it's incredible absolutely like judge is GonNa to fall fun cliff. TANABE. The number one of all time but I said the same thing about Anderson Silva and there's this kind of fell off a cliff. So. I can. PUT GSP. Above Anderson Silva. Before I couldn't. Because, is a civil wasn't just winning. He was running rush out over fools. But between the tail, Sunday fight the first one. And the how he's closed out his career. In the I look at GSP, whose only lost two fights. and. It made good on both of those fights in dominant fashion. I. Gop Do again and I like to flippy Shit because I'm putting silver over him. I mean it's just 'cause the excitement of the fighting excitement. Get caught up in the look I love like but again. What we splitting hairs here. Display does the shortest well here here's here's my argument against Anderson Civil. In combination of the other things I said. It's just knocked out forrest griffin come on man. Come on Forest Forest Griffin. Like DSP is be lot of I don't think. I'm not saying forrest griffin was bad. But just wasn't a Level of competition they really should have fought and settled this. We would have been like other fights man the Damian firefight France Utah by stinker. Yes. Like when you when you really start slicing it up with Anderson Civil. You run into an issue. It's like well. Yeah I mean. He's amazing. Obviously, he's one of the greatest of all time and he was so dumb and other guy who I thought be as being by the way. So you take that loss of what it was not designed. So you have like was run like runs down like he's yes he be Dan Henderson that was huge and you see eighty two, he big rich Franklin. We Rich Vancouver was the greatest middleweight all time and and this is silver shows up it was like, fuck all that destroy your face. These veto Belfour with a front kick from Hill. But that fucking craft he. Okay well, you should know Commie. Stephan born okay. Now like I thought he looked enough. Is Not good. That's my point. No but he looked but of course, Anderson Silva is that good. He was like the Roy Jones mate. But then but then you look at who he fought in comparison to WHO GSP fought and you're like I think GSP over that because the other part of it is industry over losing to Wiedeman this being cormet Sonya Jerry Cannon Near. I'll take you through that. So this being not as ass out I saw it with my two eyes but short count the have you want the chance? sonnen. Near loss, it's still just that a nearest. Than you lose to Daniel, cormier, who could have easily win this past night been on this list. So. He loses the core me when he took that fight in two days. Bright Listener bounces like I. got you whatever he showed up to watch the fight you. Jumped into that. All right let's odd Asana, new business being in there with this guy at his age you know what looked pretty damn good. And Kennedy who is I believe one fight away from a toddler show. But the Derek Russian win is a fight that a lot of people didn't think one either. So. So again, the Nate Diaz win wasn't nick now most excited but. When we're talking about greatness. Some of those losses aren't that bad I. Just have to say GSP's only lost twice and that has to mean something because he made good on both of those by running over the opponent. So it does have. So he's a little he's legitimately defeated everybody put in front of him. Now that's very does it does have to count for so I. Guess I mean, listen on paper Foxy you might be right. On paper. The guy is tough. I be personally. I still am not going to say like man I gotta go back and watch GOP wrong. But okay, I'll give it to you DSP over mighty mouse and Anderson Silva have to give it. So what DSP is Three. Four four I mean, who's to? Men News to. Now. CARE. When She she's arguably want. Shoes but I. Just have this high level respect for John Jones right now but she is being every champion. At one, thirty, five ever every champion at one, twenty, five ever the. Multiple Promotion, this is every champion at one forty five atmosphere. That's ridiculous. Fair. Yes. I. Think Nunu. She could be right now put Nunez at three. Okay. WHO's two? And Wanted Sean, Jones. Until John Jones falls off a cliff I he's the greatest mixed martial artist. That has to happen. And then I have to go look out. Johnny and his career with seven straight lost. All right. We'll DSP. New But the case you just made for DSP Nunez blows out of a Walmart if you want to if you put level of competition she the greatest. Arguably. Ever and CYBORG. They should beat the hottest ever on a run, which is Ronda Rousey like she she's beaten. The woman who be round or she's white everything. I am the most dominant champion at a different weight class. Again, it's a light arguments news. It's not it's not a heavy argument 'cause her place in top threes secure for me. The argument is. Ronda Rousey was done when she fought Rhonda done. Okay you done. Oh. She she beat me say about side no absolutely not I give all the credit I I mean I can't take anything away from any of these victor at higher division she went off. That's that's DSP going up and fighting and slow in their primes in their prime. She went up to fight the indestructible and isn't Silva of the top division at fucked her up in round. No nothing wrong. They're like that's true I. Wonder if Amanda Nunes would have always been feather way but we'll never know, oh, that's that's. The division didn't exist still doesn't exist. Yes. The title for it visit doesn't exist now outside of that. Because if you take the home victory okay. Let these are good victories but can we agree that women's MMA has evolved into free deal because if women's MMA was like men's ever make because Matt Hughes in a way or Bj? Penn. in a way is like Amanda new leaders. And then the game changed and people figured this thing out because Ronda Rousey. Was the I guess you could call it the host Gracie. Of. Women's imminent because I mean you couldn't stop. It was one disciplined went in there, and then you just couldn't stop. But then the game evolved and changed and now is like we gotta learn more shit than fucking hip toss an arm bar even though it was really creative really good. But some of these women have figured it out. So I kind of take just a hair of Amanda because. The sidewalk and you just can't. You can't take anything away from that. But the Rhonda, winners this like, yeah she was kind of washed. Mr Tate. Okay Good. I mean. These are really good victories. Don't get me wrong, but we stay holly. Shevchenko twice the only problem with. That was it. That's all. beat her to me the first time. ME. Too. I. Gave that one to. Shevchenko. But it was a toss up one round fight. Like it was one one, it was only a three round fight. Excuse me but it was one won the Toss Brown. I believe with the Seguro. So I was like, okay. At that time, you'll still want Amanda guest all this this this is my point. GOP has been dominant his entire career. A man in is found a second win and a second life in career. The seems pretty average all with the yes. Yes. She was the one who started evolve so. I need to see how a man is career ends before I can place her above GSP. Accolades are ready suld heavy that she could lose here on out and you can't take away any. I can't. Is Women's enemies still relatively in when evolving which? Yes Pete evolved the sport himself. He was the main who came in there just shut it all down so abandoned. Its. all-time I think that's also my my mindset when it comes to fighting, it's really opposite of my mindset when it comes to hip hop, which is weird. But. In fighting and do some boxing all the time I judged my greatest list my greatest of all time list off of how dominant they were in space. Right, so I pick a space and I say you. Man I'm splitting hairs I picked that space and say who was more dominant. And I roll with that person. That's why lease Ohio? Law Stars Koumba in this space in the vacuum splitting hair on greatness. I, say in this base, he was better than anyone ever seen. I mean sugar Ray Robinson in myspace is biggest. And the Space Sugar Ray Leonard is on the red. In the space I've never seen anyone like him. So, he can be three for me. Four, three, four hours I put Leonard above him it's. GonNa in this space was on Fox. So. That's that's how I split. You're going their career accolades will be my deciding splitting hairs. So, under that I give I mean. I'm also going like when we get 'cause dominance in space is very important. Then when we get to the tippy top this argument, then you gotta go well, Shit was your overall record. I can. How long have you been dominant? All right because it's not just a space GSP just. A COUPLE HICCUPS And that's it. That's DASU. Fights to fight. So I can't it also it it shows me that we are who we are and we've been this way since the beginning 'cause we had a Jordan versus Lebron argument six years ago, and that's the same we still carry. The same viewpoint is that no one can ever take away joining six rings and the career accolate no one ever touch that. But in a space, could you argue a braun could be better not and he ended up not doing anything into space to dominate but if he would rattled off four in a row with Miami in a space, our said, okay he ends his career with five is not joining sakes a bunch of losses in the finals. But yeah, I consider him better enjoyed. And people would've looked at me crazy in that space I said he was more dominant than others. But no one. That's hypotheticals. But from own space, that's my splitting. Always Lebron and we can let this go is that he had to go to d. ways to become Lebron. Never, going to let them know. When it comes to the joint session join was. The number two. Never, and even though a lot of people say, well, almost number one that was de Waste T. D. Way that that was his squad. He didn't get to come to Cleveland to win. He had to go join D. Wade to win. Very different no one wants to go to Cleveland doesn't matter the Yolk leave Miami. Not. was the hot city Jordan showed UP CHICAGO'S TRASH George change that entire dynamic while it means something. That's fair. How will give it to you? So we've had this conversations of goats from long enough. We appreciate you guys for listening I thought this is going to be short show and ends up being another to our show. So thanks for sticking with. US. Hopefully you guys enjoyed. It will bring you wrestling this week on Thursday instead of earlier in the week on Monday. So hopefully, you guys enjoy that as well. We have a preview coming up the pay per view this. Summer. Slam. Oh Shit really y'all this month is flying by. So we got a preview annex T, W. As well, because they're doing their show out on television breaking into two nights you. So we will have that to preview tons to go on and pro wrestling. So thank you for listening. Shoutout to the sponsors. Shout out to blue wire the network white claw we still need the sponsorship. We got four, but we'll take five sponsors is not a problem. Make sure you guys follow us on social media at Corner podcast underscore. And it's Corner Club. Four life on Instagram MIA caldeans be him at Andreas Hale. We appreciate you guys. They wrote a free stay safe until next time row piece. Sports are coming back and so are your chances to bet on your favorite teams and Events Major League. Baseball is finally kicked off this week and there's no better place to start wagering than our exclusive partners that online tech all the odds futures in props to bet on all available twenty, four seven. With a return, a sports but online sat down with former pro players. Any George Harold Reynolds in seven time NBA Champ Robert Ory see what they had to say on what it'll be like playing without fans in a series they're calling fan democ visit bet online dot ag for all your eyes and up-to-date sports news. Remember to use Promo Code Blue Wire to receive your new welcome bonus. That's Promo Code Blue Wire Ben Online online wagering experts.
Craziest Cold Case EVER!
"Who Murdered six people in hint or Kaifi Germany in nineteen twenty two for almost one hundred years? No one has been able to answer that question for sure but I can tell you this. If you stick with this recap through every incestuous twist. Yep she said incestuous and a few turns like was someone living in their attic. I promise you will be randomly vacuuming and all of a sudden. You'll be thinking about the long list of suspects and the weird stuff happened in the months before these murders and you will find yourself trying to solve this crime because this case it's just that unforgettable hope by April fourth neighbor started to realize no one had seen the group or family for almost a week at first. It wasn't too surprising. They lived on a remote farm known as hint or Kaif back but then they're closest neighbor. Heard a very strange story and decided to investigate. It seems earlier that day a mechanic was out the gruber farm to repair an engine but even though he was expected it looked like no one was home. There was no smoke from the chimney. The barn doors were locked and the dog could be heard barking inside but no one came to the door. It was definitely out of the ordinary but since the lock was broken on the tool shed he was able to get in and start working on the broken equipment anyway when he finished almost five hours later. It looks like the family had returned. The barn was open and the dog was tied up outside but still no one had come out to say anything to him now. That was very not normal in fact it was so not normal that the owner of the neighboring farm Lorenzo Schlitz Bauer with two of his sons decided to investigate and when they broke into the barn they found the head of the house. Andreas Gruber his wife Kazillion. Their daughter Victoria Gabriel and her daughter seven-year-old Kazillion hacked to death. Victoria and her mother had also been strangled. All four of their bodies were stacked on top of each other and covered with. Hey inside the house. They found the body of Victoria's two year old son. Joseph hacked to death in his crib and in her room was the body of the unluckiest made in the World Maria. Baumgartner whose first day working for the Gruber's had ended in her murder. She was covered with a sheet and the baby was found with one of Victoria's dresses draped over his body. The murder weapon was nowhere to be seen but the wounds appear to be from a farm tool called a matic. Something like a pickaxe and police believed that the four people found in the barn were lured out one by one starting with Victoria then her mother than her father and then last her daughter tests were done to prove that sounds from the bar like even screaming could be heard in the house so that would explain why the murder was able to kill all of them so violently without anyone running for help but what drew them out to the barn in the first place. That's still a mystery. The entire household had been dead since March thirty first but the house hadn't been empty. Someone had made themselves at home. There were signs of cooking in the kitchen. The cows had been fed in milked. The dog was alive and well your member. The mechanic had seen for himself that the dog had been in and out of the house and someone had locked and unlocked the barn and the mailman remembered seeing smoke from the chimney and uncollected mail in the four days before the bodies had been found to run additional tests for evidence. The victims heads were removed and taken back to Munich with the police is back then. They thought the heads contain the most evidence. They shockingly did not reveal much in the way of clues and then has got completely lost during World War Two. The family was buried together on April eighth but at their funeral. Someone wrote the words incest and judgment from in the funeral programs which could mean they'd been murdered as punishment or it could have been a clue that their neighbors were kind of astles at. I mean it. Police thought the motive for the murders must've been money. A robbery gone wrong but large sums of money were found in the house untouched. Then neighbors remember seeing Victoria crying on the side of the road only a few days before the murders saying she needed to run away. She told people. The family was being watched by a man in an army coat. And that's not the only strange thing Andrea said. He'd found in Munich newspaper in the House that he didn't vie and he'd seen a set of footsteps in the snow coming toward the house from the woods but none walking away six months before their death. A maid had quit because she thought the house was haunted. She said she heard footsteps and voices in the Attic. And three days before the murders a set of house keys went missing and they were never found but long before those unexplainable occurrences the gruber family had been at the center of some very explainable drama. Lake Jerry Springer level drama for starters no one was quite sure who little Joseph's actual father was Victoria was a widow. Her husband. Carl had been killed in the military around the time their daughter was born although his body was never found but only six months after her daughter was born a made walked in on. Her Father Raping Victoria his daughter the father and when she reported they were both charged with incest. Andreas was imprisoned for a year in Victoria was behind bars for a month. Great System Right talk about punishing the victim but because of that very public scandal. When Victoria gave birth to Joseph five years later there was some disagreement over whether Joseph's father was Andrea or their neighbor. Lorenzo like she claimed yes. Lorenz the man who found their bodies very convenient Or tragic depending on your theory if you asked him before the murders he would tell you that Joseph was not his child but Andreas and Viktoria said he was. They were even attempting to sue him for more child support while at the same time. Lorenzo was filing charges against them for incest and trying to stop paying child support but at the murder scene when he saw the bodies stacked in the barn witnesses say he started on stacking them saying he was looking for his son Joseph but even though the police suspected him Lorentz was never charged and always insisted he innocent but he was only one of more than one hundred suspects to be questioned over the years dozens of theories claiming to solve the case have been floated but none have ever been proven from the beginning. Police didn't have a lot of evidence to work with when Lorenzo and his sons found the bodies they had moved them touch them. Change the crime scene. There were people in and out of the house long before the police got there. So since robbery wasn't the motive they weren't sure what direction to take. I mean why murder everyone in the household so brutally and then live there for the next few days or was the murderer already. They're leaving in secret in the attic but in that case why murder the family. That's keeping you fed and housed. It wasn't until the house was torn down a year. After the murders that the murder weapon was found the blood-stained matic had been hidden in a secret compartment under the floorboards in the attic over the years. Some of the more promising suspects were two guys known as the GUMP brothers. Adolph and Anton. On her deathbed their sister said they were the ones who committed the murders because Adolf was in a relationship with Victoria but her father refused to let her marry and that apparently upset him enough to murder. The whole family eight had already died by then and police could never prove that he and Victoria were ever together or that. Anton had anything to do with it at all. A few former employees were also suspected for different reasons. Either because they were familiar with the farm and the animals and maybe they had a grudge or because they knew the family had money and wanted to rob them but again the money wasn't taken one last very interesting theory for you has to do with a guy named Paul Mueller known as the train man. He was a serial killer in America with a very similar AMMO. Check out this book written about him for a lot more information. It said he was a German immigrant. Who may have returned to his home country and picked up where he left off. The murder files were closed in nineteen fifty five but in two thousand seven. A police academy in Germany examined the case again using today's technology. So yes while. They admitted they had minimal evidence to work with. They did agree on one name as the primary suspect but they wouldn't say who it was since that person was long since dead and the family was still living in the area. They did say that without a doubt the motive was personal called it a crime of passion so I assume we agree that not sharing. The name of their primary suspect is complete. Bs I mean. Tell us the name I don't know. Is there some kind of petition? We can start maybe a march. We need answers. Do you have any. I mean who do you think is responsible while you think on that checkout one of these other recommended videos so we can keep hanging out but if you have to take off. I'll say bye for now. The police don't click off before you subscribe like share so we can make this a weekly thing and keep growing our group of Friends. Because you can't have too many friends unless those kind of kill you but that's for another episode day. Save and Dogo into a barn alone by.
BS 170 Numbers in the Brain with Andreas Nieder
"Brain science the podcast where we explore. How recent discoveries in neuroscience are unraveling the mystery of? How'RE BRAIN MAKES US human? I'm your host Dr Ginger Campbell. And this episode one hundred and seventy which is scheduled to be released on. March twenty seven two thousand twenty. Since I started this show in two thousand six I've always strove to create evergreen content but given the current corona virus pandemic. I have decided to mentioned the date to provide context for future listeners. I have created a Pre roll announcement encouraging you to listen to the podcast. This weekend variety. If you're looking for accurate information from scientists who actually work in the field otherwise unless necessary I intend to make this podcast a virus free zone since I assume many of you are listening to get a break from the band. Democ brain science has independently produced and relies on listeners. Like you for financial support. You can find complete episode show notes and transcripts at brain size. Podcast DOT COM. You can send me email at brain science podcasts. At gmail.com submit voicemail at speak by DOT COM for slash doc artists or post to the brain science podcast fan page on facebook. Today's guest is Andrea S- neater author of a fascinating book called a brain for numbers. The biology of the number instinct be back after the interview to review the key ideas and to share a few brief announcements including an update on my upcoming book. Release and an announcement about the schedule for the rest of twenty twenty. Andreas thanks so much for coming on rain science today. Thanks so much for inviting me ginger. It's a great pleasure to be before we talk about your fascinating book a brain for numbers. We you tell us a little bit about yourself and focus on how you got interested in neuroscience so I studied biology with a major in zoology so neuroscience wasn't that far away and I knew that pretty quickly that I wanted to become a neurobiologist and initially I worked with birds so my undergraduate and graduate studies was about the brain and behavior of birds so I I studied the neuronal hearing mechanisms in European starlings and then did my PhD About Visual Neuroscience and behaving barn. That was a great time and I enjoyed it very much. But at the end of my PhD. I had the urge to leave sensory neuroscience behind and do more cognitive neuroscience and also wanted to switch to a species that was closer to humans. And obviously that's non human primates or monkeys at the end of my PhD. I came across this very fascinating for me anyway. Topic of numerical competence means the question. How how we were animals. Our brains are representing the number of objects in the set that so often caused numeracy and the reason for this choice. Where two major influences. One was the fascinating work. By the Socialist Auto cursor two was a German ethnologist who mainly worked with birds and I had a bird socialization so I came across his studies and he was actually the first who showed in the thirties and forties of the last century. That animals could discriminate. The number of objects or the number of events and unfortunately because he wrote exclusively in trauma his work is largely inaccessible and forgotten nowadays. But that wasn't a problem for me and then at about this time. There was a seminal I think. A seminal behavioral study by Elizabeth's Brennan and Herbert Terrace at Columbia University in the renowned strength of science in Nineteen Ninety eight and this paper showed in a uniquely controlled way that rhesus monkeys understood the concept of numeric quantity and I thought if monkeys can crunch numbers and can think about ponder about numbers. The only way they can do it is to the brains in those with the skill and I found out that hard anything was known about how the brain would represent numbers so this seemed to me a true scientific frontier worth investigating and spending my career so at the end of my PhD. I approached Earl Miller in his laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. And ask him whether he would be interested to explore how the brain does monkeys to process. Numbers at the time was already a rising star in the field of climate cognitive neuroscience had brilliant students around him had modern and very efficient scientific equipment and I was very lucky. That url invited me to join his laboratory order to study neurons and how they may respond to numeric so from two thousand to two thousand three spent my postal worker else lap which was probably my most intense and most productive time. And it's definitely determined my scientific career because since then I made myself a living by exploring how neurons in different brains could rise to our number and certainly this book would not exist without my fruitful time abroad it. After the postal time in in two thousand three I returned to Germany. I was awarded a junior research group at the University of Tuebingen. Where I I worked in the medical department where the head of the cognitive neurology department generously shared his monkey research intrastructure. So that I could start my own lab and finally in two thousand eight was appointed Professor Animal Physiology Director of the Institute of Neurobiology in the Science Faculty of the University. So I returned. If you like to my home faculty as a biologist and since then I've been containing the work with rhesus monkeys but also complimented this line of research later with Corbett songbirds with Cros and most recently. I'm very excited about collaboration. With an epilogue tallest from the University of one which is Florian woman. This collaboration allows us now to study. How neurons in the human brain represent Numba? That's a very rare great opportunity so together. My career is basically based on understanding how electrical signals of single neurons and Assam of neurons give rise to America competence both in humans but from comparative point of view also in primates and Etienne brains and as you have given us an overview of your field the information. That's in your book isn't very widely known. Even though I'm a big fan of Stanislas to hone I haven't actually read the number sense. I've read all of his other books. Yeah in fact. I just interviewed him for his new book. But that means that when I read your book it was full of stuff. I didn't know which I really enjoyed. Where thank you very much. Can you tell us a little bit more? About the history of studying the neuroscience of numbers I think like many other fields in neuroscience it started with patient studies early in the last century the exploration or investigation of patients that had brain damage and then selective losses of certain functions kicked off this entire field of neuroscience and also in terms of the American information. There were very influential early studies by Salomon -Hension for instance a Swedish neurologist who studied several patients who based on brain-damaged in certain areas of the brain all of a sudden when no longer able to process numbers or to calculate and he coined this term. Ako Kula which means the inability to do calculations of course at that time beginning of last century. There was no imaging opportunity available. So many of the patients have not been studied that brains or only post mortem so where exactly these functions are represented in. The brain was not very well understood but it became clear that processing numbers is an independent faculty. And that's I think one of the messages author of the book. Many people think that language in thousands with the capability to process numbers and to do mathematics but it turns out that this number sense and mathematical capabilities is really a separate system in the brain and it has separate locations and UCLA. Locations are damaged in any way then. People may selectively lose the ability to process numbers but language maybe spared and later on with the advent of functional imaging methods in the ninety s basically of the last century more and more studies tried to map out the brain and find out where in the brain this inflammation is represented and many of these studies are pointing towards the Posterior Parietal. Cortex and parts of the prefrontal cortex which really became a reoccurring theme. So I guess these two errors in our brain a terribly important and other core areas for processing numbers later then So in around the turn of the Millennium a few single-cell studies started to explore. How single neurons? Based on the electrical activity would represent numerical inflammation in animals and is was happy enough to be one of these people. And that's why also this inflammation is heavily conveyed in the book. I'm GONNA SORTA give a spoiler here and mentioned that in the book you explain that in essence we have two number systems the one that we share with other animals than the symbolic number system. And we'll go into more detail in a minute but in studying animals. I remember the story of cover songs. Yeah Yeah could you take us through that briefly just to use it as an example of the kind of challenges you face? If you're studying animals right yes what has to be very careful when studying animals because they may peak Matz of information and not all of this information is actually the wanted kind of information that the researcher wants to investigate so the story of Clever. Hans is very illuminating. Because it shows all of these problems so clever. Hans was a horse stallion owned by a former soldier. German villain. From Austin and Austin was convinced. That clever was able to count them to medics and he had even some shows around one thousand nine hundred Berlin where he will try to convince the audience that the Horse was able to count so for instance he would write down on a truck board Like two plus three and two horse would tap executive times with its hoof and then stop very reliably and also for much more complex mathematical calculations. And for Awhile I mean and scientists of the time. We're really convinced that the horse was able to do mathematics until another psychologist. Oskar focused re investigated the entire case. Because he couldn't believe it and he found out that the horse paid attention to subtle an unconscious body movements of anyone in the audience. Who knew the results of this calculation so it may have been from Austin himself for Hyun someone in the audience because as soon as these people who knew the result of the calculation aware removed from the horse the horse failed to find out what exactly the horse paid attention to? It might have been some muscle tension. Or of the breathing. Risen does also no evidence that from Austin tried to trick the audience into something. He seemed to be convinced. But it turns out that the horse was smart. But in a very different way and this was one of the yes like catastrophes in cognitive science and this effect the clever Hans effect is now in any psychologist textbook and he tells us how important it is to remove anyone who could know something about the outcome of an experiment from animals and of course also from humans because all of these subjects may pay attention to social cues that we are unaware of. And then when you're designing an experiment there's other kinds of confounds that you have to worry about. Yeah particularly when working with numbers. One of the prime stimulus to address the number sense is to show a raise of thoughts. And the problem is if you increase the number of thoughts or the number of objects also other factors non-american factors change so for instance. If you have two dots of certain size and you go from two dollars to four dollars you also increase the area of blackness. For instance if you have to two black dots and any most may detect this change in the area rather than the change in the number and this would of course be a confounding factor and other things could change such understood density of the thoughts of the arrangement and so on and so forth and the all of these aspects have to be taken care of and has to be controlled. That's very important for the presentation of sequential numerous so adding one after the other. If you like a one object of the other time is a is usually confounding factor because for instance it may take twice as long to present four objects competitor to objects and here again. Animals may become sensitive to time rather than to the number of objects right in. I appreciate it in your book that there's a lot of attention paid to this and you explain in great detail how these various things are are dealt with. I just wanted to emphasize the importance of this. So as we move forward. I'd like to discuss the difference between several different terms that US in the book. Use The word numeracy and also arithmetic and mathematics. And I think in particular. The difference between Arithmetic and mathematics might be important. Mathematics is of course the big overarching charm. And I'm hesitant to say my book is about. Mathematics never saw the title. Mathematics would be arithmetic and geometry together. Basically that's kind of a textbook understanding and would be dealing with numbers and calculating with numbers so it is on the arithmetic sides but it is a very very basic kind of arithmetic. Because it deals with the question how are numerical quantities or cardinals? Omarosa tease I'm using all of these synonyms represented in the brain. And then I tried to say a few words about very basic calculation procedures. Such as additional subtraction so it is a very humble type of mathematics or is it takes you like the point. I tried to make in the book as a biologist is that there is more than doing the symbolic counting and calculation that we humans are so used to in our technologically and scientifically inspired society. But that there is reason to believe that this symbolic system this counting system that we have to learn painfully builds. On an ancient estimation system a system that allows us and animals and infants and newborns evening to represent the number of objects in an approximate way estimate the number of objects but still understanding. What a quantity numerical quantity means and there is a lot of evidence but also dispute about this basic non symbolic system is a blueprint or a starting point for later emerges into a symbolic mathematical system. That's one of the aspects. I tried to work out in this book. This connection between this primordial non symbolic system and the later Symbolic System. That only humans adult. Humans are endowed with. So let's take some examples of animals that have this. This non symbolic approximate system. But you talk a minute about honeybees. If he's fascinating guys you may wonder why honeybees newbies are only very remotely related to US humans. They don't even have a backbone. So they are not even vertebrates and the lowest common ancestor between beasts as insects and US vertebrates in primates and humans. Lift about six hundred billion years ago. And since then these two groups of animals one leading to the bees and the other to the vertebrates and burns and mammals and primates evolved completely independent so be very different brain organization with few but very complex neurons but recent studies show that they too can discriminate. The number of objects for instance in this place but maybe more relevant for the beast. They are enumerating. The number of landmarks. When foraging when navigating so bees have this habit of flying out from the highest looking for sources of nectar and they fly several kilometers to find these flowers nectar and then they have to return and of course they have to. Orient in some way and it seems that these can orient by enumerating landmarks. At least that was shown in one study and in another study. Bees were trained to discriminate. The number of black spots on a card and even here they succeeded and they could even succeed could be trained or actually not trade. They inferred the rule smaller than even for the empty set so far no object. Numerous zero which was a big thing two years ago and those published in. Can discriminate journal Science. Today's sponsor is text expand her which is an APP. I literally use every day text expand or allows you to create snippets of any length which can then be inserted to any APP without any special plug ins you can find tutorials and Webinars at text expanded. Dot Com text expand. Her is available for Mac. Os Windows Chrome iphone and IPAD. Please visit text expanded dot com slash podcast to get twenty percent off your first year. That's text expanded dot com forward slash podcast and. Don't forget to tell them that. You heard about text expanded on brain science. We don't have time to go into examples of all the different animals. But I do WANNA spend a minute talking about the the corvettes. You've been studying some with crows and they're really pretty smart right. They are incredibly smart. They surprise me almost on a daily basis. They're incredibly fast learners but also understand concepts and here again. They are vertebrates but they are only remotely related to us on the genetic tree so the last common ancestor between us and the and the birds lift about three hundred twenty million years ago that that's an eternity novel times the fascinating aspect about them is they are extremely intelligent like many primates but they have a very different brain design and instead of a cerebral cortex layered cortex that is the intelligence center in our brain where we also find numerical representations they have more nuclear organized and brains but many of the areas are equivalent in terms of function and the functionality and one of the areas that is particularly interesting for as needlepoint William Collateral which is thought to be the equivalent of our prefrontal cortex in the prefrontal cortex in primates sought to be operating the apex of this entire Cortisol Hierarchy. That's what's also as humans is determining the personality of US humans. And what's making a smart intelligent and birds have a very similar area that evolved completely independently and is also sitting at the back of the head and not at the front as our prefrontal. Cortex and for us is biologist. This is now an ideal case to ask the question of the precise anatomically of the realizations of the brain. What are the general mechanisms? That make any vertebrate smart and in this case or make any vertebrate able to process and crunch numbers. That's one of the reasons why we have started to work with Cros many years ago I can't resist bringing up the issue of reptiles this number since has been demonstrated in everything except reptiles. I have the feeling it's just lack of effort but do you have any comments on that. Yes so I think I expressed my opinion writing. The book finalized as in Cafiero two years ago and at that time there were two studies available in both studies failed to show this numerical competence in reptiles in the meantime. There's a study another study new study that finally found that also reptiles turtles in this case. Can discriminate the number of objects so full satisfaction for the reptile. They belong to the other members of the vertebrates that manage numbers and can discriminate numbers at least in a very rudimentary way. So what are the key features of the approximate number system the key features There have to start probably with Mentioning that many people think. There are two different representations systems work so cognitive systems that allow us to represent numbers without symbols. One is called the object tracking system. This object tracking system only works for a very limited small number of items so it is said that it can represent one two at most for items it's very limited but maybe in a relatively precise way I personally do not find the system realized in any animal that I've been working with so I'm a little uncertain what to make of this idea. The other system is called the approximate number system. And I'm a huge fan of this system because I've seen the realized in all animals and humans of ESPN investigating so far so here. This is ancient estimation system issue like it is representing all numeracy's an infinite range of Rossi's but in a relatively imprecise in an approximate way. That's means that we can discriminate very small numbers precisely or animals so maybe animals can discriminate to from three easily. But they con- discriminate nine dots from ten dots. If you have referenced. The morality of ten dollars then the numerical distance between these numerous has to be increased systematically in has to be increased more and more the higher than American values become so there is proportional relationship of discriminate ability that follows the so-called the below that means that the higher than American values become the lodge of the distance is has to becoming proportioned for animals or us to discriminate them despicable signature defining signature of the system and when explorer neurons has to say about American American inflammation. We also find this kind of approximate representation in animals at the very least that also follows. These feeble law chose exactly the same signature so I think there is a close intimate relationship between these two systems at work in animals. The other law. I'm not sure how you would pronounce the logarithmic relationship. Would you talk about that? Yes that is captured with saying the law. Saying there's another German psycho physicist and he discovered that this presentation off numerical magnitude is so the subjective sensation of number is proportionate to their logo arithmetic of the objective stimulus magnitudes so relative to a given reference number animals. Find it easier to discriminate small numbers but more difficult to discriminate larger numbers. And maybe I can give an example so if an animal should just be able to discriminate the smaller number eight from ten it would not be able to discriminate twelve from ten but it would only be able to discriminate thirteenth from ten as an instance even though in both cases Americans distances tool so there is this. A symmetry or non linear not. I think that's better way. The non linear in how animals and we without symbols re present numero city. There is a slug heuristic number line at work the reason I wanted to emphasize this is it keys into the idea that this approximate number system is in some way. Perceptual like because the way we detect sound follows the same rule right exactly right so originally the slow the VA benefits in the law. They have been established for sensory intensities very basic perceptual intensities and the surprising aspect here is that defined exactly the same laws represented also for these very abstract magnitude. Such as numeracy's we can even see this in children before they start to learn in school to represent numbers on a linear number scale that they are representing numbers on. I love rhythmically. Compressed Skate so this seems to be the ancient way of how we subjectively represent numbers and then only later with education we get used to this LINEAR NUMBER LINE. That used for coordinate systems and so on. Yeah you have a great figure in the book that shows the young child and then as they get older it gets linear goes from being logarithmic being linear I think it's a fantastic demonstration of this principle because it is perceptual light. It's also very intuitive. And that's also by many animals. Heavens the brains are spontaneously able to represent at least approximately these new American attitudes and I would even go so far as to say that is probably an innate capability both of our brain and of many animals brain of course always difficult to say that something is in. They'd before you have done all the possible controls. But based on the literature that we have for instance that newborns at the age of fifty hours that have contested writing the hospitals where they have been born even. They can already discriminate. The number of events even across modalities. The newly hatched. Chicks can immediately discriminate moralities. We have been doing experiments that showed that we don't have to train monkeys and even in the untrained American naive monkeys we find neurons that are responding to the miracle information so I think there is lots of evidence that strongly suggests that there is this capability somehow innately wired into our brain and then it sits there and waits with education can transcend to a much higher system different than quality as soon as we learned numbers symbols. And before we talk about that I wanNA to spend a little bit more time talking about the difference between doing experiments in humans and in non humans including the reason why you need both at the end of the day. We're all interested in how brain and how you stewards but there are many methods and approaches that are not possible in humans. And that's why we have animal models as we sometimes say to investigate these capabilities. I think this is one of the reasons. And the second reason. Also particularly from a biological point of view if we transcend our entra percentage few point for a moment. We want to understand why the marital competence is so widespread in the animal kingdom. And the reason why it is so widespread has to be that. It has a so called adaptive value it is good or it's beneficial for survival of the individual and for reproducing. These are the core ideas of the theory of evolution. And why we think that certain traits and here including cognitive traits such as America. Competence are present in the first place. So I think these are the two main reasons why investigating any most is helpful and beneficial. When I was telling somebody that I was going to interview you. I didn't find it difficult to explain this because I was just like you know if you were an animal within which of other animals you'd want to know whether you outnumered. Yes so there are many situations in the everyday life of an animal in its so called ecological environments so outside of space when American information is beneficial. One for instance is finding food. It's obvious that more food items are more nutritious. So animals should go for more food items. And that's what they usually doing. I previously mentioned. The example of the beast are navigating by landmarks. Here again it is beneficial to be able to trace the number of landmarks. There are many other situations such as in predation situations. Animals tried to avoid the risk of becoming prey by hiding on large groups of con specifics. So fish through this for instance all the time so here again. It is beneficial to discriminate. The larger fish cool from the smaller one or for predators. Many of the predators have to team up into groups to be able to overpower their prey and For worst for instance it is known that they have optimal pack sizes for hunting. Praise of different dangerousness. They have about six moves in the group when the elks but they need eight for Moose and for the most formidable and dangerous prey that could kick them to death. They need between ten and thirteen moves in such a pack so there are lots of situations in the wild where it is known or release. Suspected that numerical competence. The ability to deal with with numbers pays off and is of advantage for the animal. I really found this approximate number system fascinating partly because I'd never even heard of it before but I want to move on to the How do we get to the symbolic math? And I thought you might start by defining the difference between icons indices in symbols. Okay Yeah I can indices and symbols are all what people call signs so at some point in human history and in our development came the needs to have a permanent record of numbers. There are different ways with increasing complexity to have such signs for numbers. And the icons they would be characterized by sensory relatedness. With what has to be represented. An example. Nice example. Would be tally sticks so in. Telematics we have these tallies. And every tally every notch correlates with exactly one element of a set that has to be represented so there is the perfect one to one correspondence and therefore this the sensory relationship between the sign. And what has to be represented for an index? It's a little more complex because here we have temporal or spatial correlation between the sign and it has represent an alarm signal for instance. Is something that Ba? Learn is correlated with with danger. Or if you see clouds then we learn that clouds mean rain. Even though there is no sensory relationship between the rain and and the word cloud site of clouds and then the third and most complex clause of signs would be symbol and symbols are assigns to the part of a combinatorial system which means that they don't only have their own individual meaning but the meaning is acquired by how these symbols are positioned in entire expressions in language for instance. It's a huge difference where we say the catch chased the dog or the dog chased a cat even though all three expressions catch dog and and the chasing have exactly the same meaning but the way. We're structuring it. Gives expression sentence an entirely different meaning and in this very similar in Arithmetic and mathematics? Whether we say to minus five or five miners tool the result is completely different even though the individual symbols the numbers symbols here bear the same meaning and that's a defining characteristic of true symbol system. That's why I try to emphasize that this is something really there especially in humans and I I don't think an icon see based on the data that around animals would be able to represent true symbols. They can learn for sure signs icons and India's but I don't think they have the power to use them in the true symbol system. Right and you. You'd discuss this in great detail in the book including several famous examples that have been used to claim the ability in particular Alex. The parrot which we don't have time to talk about but just to mention to listeners. That if you're interested in in this issue it's well discussed in the book. Brain Science is independently produced by me. So I wanNA take a moment to thank those of you who support the show financially. Your support remains critical especially since up cutback my hours at the Va. So that I can devote more time boat creating great content and working on my new book why neuroscience matters if you are new to the show or have just started wondering what you can do to help. I will remind you that there are three main options. A premium subscription Patriot fan and direct donations including Ben Mo. The premium subscription gives you access to every episode created since two thousand six as well as new episode transcripts. Patriarch allows you to choose whatever monthly amount that fits your budget my username on both pay. John and Ben Nimmo is doc. Artemis D. O. C. A. R. T. E. M. I. S. to learn more about these choices. Please visit brain science podcast dot com forward slash donations. I understand symbol in terms of numbers would be would include both the symbol for the number and this system and an icon would be something like cross hatches for individual numbers. Could you give me an example of something that would be an index relative to numbers maybe the ancient place holders that were used in place value systems to indicate an empty column? Something that later turned into the number zero but most of the examples. Where people have claimed that animals can do symbols. They're probably really just doing indices at the most. That's what I think. Yes in the reason. Is that these. Representations are isolated from one another. They are not changed as a function of how they are being combined and that in my world is a defining characteristic of symbol a symbol system. And I think we have to symbol systems. When is the language system and the other one is to is is number theory mathematics so that gives us a good entry into the question of the relationship between numbers and language as I said previously the intuitive thought I guess from everyone is that mathematics or counting is part of the language system? And probably the reason for this. Is that we all. I learned to token life before we learned to count but as these studies in patients. For instance in healthy subjects indicate there are really two different brain systems involved in representing linguistic properties or mathematical or number properties so for instance patients that have specific lesions in certain areas in the parietal lobe usually develop or sometimes develop a specific deficit in dealing with numbers or specific deficits in calculating while the language function is totally spared. I remember one patient and Italian patients who had brain damage an infarct and all of a sudden she was no longer able to represent numbers beyond four which was very very weird but still the language functions were preserved in this patient and there are many studies like this. It's not always. And depending on the brain function that is affected that the language and the number system are totally segregates sometimes both are affected depending on the brain areas but the fact that they can be this double dissociation strongly argues that this is an independent system in the brain at least in the other brain may be different in a brain of children juvenile brains but at least in the other brain. There is a clear association. So we know that reading changes our brain so what happens when we learn mathematics. And I'm talking here now when we learned the symbolic math. Not the kind that we're born with. I think that is still the one million dollar question. It is really not understood. What exactly is happening here. We have a lot of behavioral signatures. So all of a sudden bi or able to represent numerical quantity very precisely and very exactly and we can use these representations to do mathematics. We understand things like the success of functions success a function that numbers are an infinite succession of values. But what exactly is happening in? The brain is really not well understood. I think many people including me would think that the basis the fundament of this development comes with this approximate number system that is in place spontaneously has said earlier but then something miraculous is happening that provided us with this precise and symbolic representation of the medical quantity. I think this is also one of the big questions for the future and one that's hopefully might address at at least partly with with being able to investigate human patients and what's going on in their brain so could you take us through just kind of the general timing of of what happens in a child. The general timing would be that we all start out with his approximate estimation system the approximate number system as I called it. And this is in place as I said earlier right after birth. It helps us to discriminate. The number of objects or the number of events this seems to become a little more precise with h but it will never become as precise as number symbols and then around age three definitely before age. Four we start to become the subjects of training protocol usually done by parents that tried to teach us how to count. So for instance. Counting the number of candies on the table. And if it's correct and one gets to candies and not not and what children than usually I to still learn a sequence of words like one two three four if you ask them again okay? How many candies? They start all over again. One two three four the will always recite the list of words which strongly indicates that point they have not yet understood that the the number words are labels for cardiology because they could just say four. That's what we will do but they seem to use the number words at that point more like as we said before the Kea one to one correspondence so every word corresponds to one object. One candy in this set of candies and at the age of four than the two counting capabilities appear and this is the stage with the Children. Understand that they can simply go on with the secrets. They understand the successor function that they are new words for every new instance and they arrive at the point that they say okay. This is the cardinals with Set size for without counting it all over again constantly and then of course they also learned the rules of arithmetics and basic Calculation was much later lives for the round the age six. Oh seven the very demanding number zero which is a late comer both in human history in our on genetic development and then the system is a new quality of representation of numbers or the sudden case. Oh besides those things. If if a child is going to be able to do more math. Is there any other big steps that they have to make? What does the other transitions? That is quite well known as what we've been talking about earlier. That this transition from a logarithmic number line to a LINEAR NUMBER LINE. That's certainly very important for all sorts of geometry and for representing the systems on in coordinate systems because he'll always use a linear systems and of course some of US become mathematically wizards which of course a lot of training that can happen later in school and during our education. Maybe I should also mention the fascinating case of indigenous groups that have not been taught to use numbers symbols. Absolutely I was going to ask you about which is also very revealing because it tells us again. This is your life primordial stage of the marital competence that we are in if we are living in a culture where numbers have not been invented and no one is teaching us to count. We tend to forget that we have to be told. We tend to think that this is going to give him but it is not painful process early in life so there are many fascinating studies by now from indigenous groups for instance in the Amazon Region in Brazil where anthropologists went into the jungle and investigated. It's people that have not developed in their culture number symbolism number words for whatever reason but these people are of course totally healthy totally fine they trust. Sono use to develop numbers symbols some of them have what is called a one too many system like the PIRA which is one of these indigenous tribes one word for one and another word for two and these two words even sound almost identical and then the have towards for many. That's all they have in their. If you'd like to call it counting system. When they are tested by anthropologists they can discriminate one from two to four three. They already make errors. And these eras continue and become more obvious for higher numbers which is very characteristic of this approximate number system that we've been talking before in infants and in animals and is again emphasizing that this system is there in our brain probably innately. And if there's no one around to teach us anything better if you like then this is what we have. And that's what we have to get along with and obviously these people do get along with. It's very well. If they never saw the need to develop anything more precise I want to backtrack to the subject of the single neurons recordings which right now you can mostly only do in animals. Would you tell us the main discovery about this retarding? Two numbers is right. So the question is how would sing the based on the electrical activity and based on the firing of the neurons number of action potentials per time. How would they represent cardinal? Tio numeracy that was to be questioned. And of course in order to find out and to correlate what the neurons have to say. You need the animal in very determined and control behavioral situation. That's why we are always controlling our animals like monkeys for instance rhesus monkeys in a computer controlled task to lurk within the morality's one of our standard task. That almost all of the animals learn is a so called delayed match to numerous task version of delayed match to sabotage which simply means that the animals are presented with a specific number of items that they can see on the screen and they have to memorize over a brief period and then the second displays show and the second is play in fifty percent of the cases shows the same number of thoughts and the animals are trained to respond by for instance releasing a lever together reward and then the other fifty percent. The second display shows a smaller or logic morality a different neuro city and then the animals have learned that they must not release lever and they have to wait for a certain amount to later than the reward and with this behavioral protocol. We can really determine that the animals are in a can discriminate. Numerous not and that they are in a very controlled situation and while the animals are performing the task we are recording from single units in specific areas of their brains and listen to what they have to say and the big finding was that there are certain proportions in the posterior PARIETAL CORTEX and in the prefrontal Cortex of these monkeys. That are specifically reacting to specific numeracy's so for instance there are certain neurons that have the highest firing rate the highest response whenever three dots appear irrespective of how the dots are arranged and even irrespective of whether we show them simultaneously or one after the other so they are in coding. The numerous eighty three and the adjacent numeracy's like two and four in this example are less responded to and the neuron almost doesn't respond at all to numeracy's one and fashion districts so what these neurons show is what we call a cuning function. They are tuned to specific preferred numeracy and such neurons. Then of course not only tune to number three but different neurons attuned to and one and five and six and so on and all of these neurons together based on their tuning can represent the entire numeric space or the number line if you like and thus informing the monkey about which number is has been shown and has to be memorized to solve the TUSK. What do you do to prove that this is really a relationship between what these neurons are doing? And what the Monkey does right? That's an excellent question because the recording alone can only give us a correlation and correlations not causal relationship but there are ways around so one one way that I personally like. A lot is to investigate. What is happening in the monkeys are making an error? The assumption is that the monkeys make errors because the neurons behave differently or weren't able to encode their beloved were preferred numerous and this is in fact what we see when the animals make arison. These tasks are not as much to their preferred numerous tea but show a lower activity and this is the reason then. I think why the animals mare's or become prone to errors a more direct way would be to use other methods to change the properties of the neurons and see whether this has predicted effects on the monkees behavior. In one very nice study from a Japanese group temporarily inactivated neurons in a spot in the parietal lobe where number neurons have been found. And so if you inactivate these neurons you would assume that this should have consequences for the monkey in enumerating the number of objects or in this case it was the number of hand movements and sure enough. This is exactly what happens. And they also controlled for other types of movements to be sure that this is not generally disturbing all sorts of movements but it was really specific to the number of movements and that's very reassuring evidence that these neurons are really cautiously related to the capability to crunch numbers on. This has been a fascinating conversation and a we could keep on talking for a long time. But we're just about out of time. You mentioned one of the unanswered questions. Which is exactly what happens in our brain when we learn mathematics. Are there in your other big questions. You're working on so one of the big questions for me. Is What is happening in. The human brain for the non symbolic number representations versus symbolic number presentation. This is something we can address in the future by continuing to working with patients. And that's why I'm very excited about this collaboration with the clinic in Bonn at the University of funds for us now we kind of understand how this abstract categories numeracy are represented in the brain but now the big question is what is happening with this inflammation in the brain because it is not an advantage to simply know what categories there it is usually processed animals processes to make intelligent decisions about their everyday life. We process numbers when we calculate into mathematics so we are now using these categories numbers as an access point to understand what is happening when we keep these numbers in our working memory now mental sketchpads when we process this inflammation online in our mind when we follow numerical rules when we make decisions. Based on America's inflammation so these are these functions capabilities are usually summarized as cognitive control functions or executive functions. In a thing numbers here are an ideal access point to understand these functions precisely because numbers have to use all of these high level cognitive functions. And they have to be processed in the brain. So I think this will be the next. Maybe twenty years for doing you know lab. Yeah you won't run out of stuff to do before you retire. Chick probably not. So what's the most important idea that you would like my listeners? To take away from our conversation I think the most important idea conveyed in the book is that there is something present in our brain that helps us to the present numerical information even before we learn to count properly and that is worthwhile to understand the system because it is the first building block of everything that comes later even up to mathematics. And I'm very convinced that the properties and features of this nonsense pollick number sense influence very much also our symbolic mathematical capabilities. If we knew more we would be able to predict. Who's going to have trouble learning math exactly and who better understand what goes wrong when something happens in the brain and even to the point and some people are actively working about this to help people who have problems with mathematics because learning deficits to deal with numbers and to better be able to calculate because it turns out. That's not being able to process. Numbers is at least as detrimental for everyday life as not being able to read or write. So there's a huge need in terms of educational devices or strategy to help people or students or pupils in schools that suffer from such deficits to better deal with them so or anything else. You'd like to share before we close. I guess we covered a lot of ground. Do you have any advice for students that might be interested in getting into this field? That's a tough question. I think if someone wants to study neurosciences that I would recommend. Some biologically oriented signs were disciplined to study such biology or medicine or maybe by physics. And what is very obvious at least for this kind of systems neuroscience that I stand for is strong quantitative backgrounds so here we are again with numbers and mathematics is extremely important and is unavoidable in general would recommend to start out. Broadly maybe have an open mind and find the topic that truly inspires one which I find is often a problem for students so often speak to students and they can't make up the mind. What is really the topic that they are most interested in? I think this is very important. I would not study too long probably and move on into the next respective career stages because it turns out that the greatest and most valuable contributions made by junior scientist particularly neuroscience particularly when working with behaving subjects animals in particular. It pays off to have tenacity and endurance. And being ready to stay for maybe a few years somewhere to get something done in the very productively. When you reached out to Dr Miller to work in his lab. You knew his work because you were keeping up with the literature. The reason I ask is because I get a lot of emails from people asking me how they can find somebody to study under. It seems to me like that would be the first step. Yes I think reading and getting to know the fetal is extremely important. Yes so to answer your question. I knew the brilliant work of Miller in this real move executive functions and prefrontal functions. That's executive I addressed him and I was very happy to work under his supervision. So I think to get this kind of inflammation to make one's mind is very very important. How else should you know what is really the topic that you WanNa spend your life on and I think it was never as easy as today to go into the Internet and find the sort of information I also do think besides being ready to go the extra mile and being ready to be productive is important to go somewhere where the environment can be instrumental in fostering the development? In other words I would look around two executive find the laboratory that provides the best opportunity for someone to really become educated in a specific field. Area you can be as smart as you want if the environment is not okay and you're in the wrong laboratory. That is not very helpful so takes at least these two aspects the subject itself has to be able to contribute but you also need the appropriate inputs. I appreciate you taking time to discuss that. Besides your book where can my listeners? Learn more about your work visiting my page that you will find all the literature that we've been published and I can definitely linked to your webpage in my show outs or if it's very specific of course people would find my email and could drop me a line. Good Yeah I like for people to take the time to go to someone's website. I never give out emails because I feel like if a person is too lazy to go to the researchers website themselves. You know. That's kind of a a screen in my mind so then I would really recommend by page because there's really all the literature we have been publishing from original research to reviews. You will find different sorts of papers. Yeah that's what most people are doing now is they're putting that stuff up on their website so that students and others can find it. So that's why I get annoyed when somebody writes to me as if I should do their research for them. Yeah you're that's a fine line. Yes not a good really. Yeah okay. Well I really appreciate you taking the time to talk with me. It was really privilege for having me really enjoyed. I WANNA thank. Andreas neater for taking the time to talk with me about his fascinating book. A brain for numbers. The biology of the number instinct. This book provides an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence for numeracy across many species. It's intended for students and scientists but will reward anyone who reads it. I personally enjoyed learning that. Humans appear to share an approximate number system with the rest of the Animal Kingdom. What does this mean? It does not mean that animals can count. Counting is a hard earned symbolic skill that human children acquire around the age of four but only if they are caught but Dr neater emphasize the most important idea in his book is that even before we learned to count. Our brain has the ability to represent numerical information. Even honeybees can tell the difference between different numbers of objects. We didn't talk about this in great detail but the approximate number system has two key features that guide scientists when they're testing new species. It falls to laws which I'm going to spill out to allow for different pronunciations. I is Weber's law that's spelled W. E. B. E. R. This is the so-called distance effect. Which says that. The higher the numerical values are the larger. The distance between them has to be to detect the difference. So it's easy to tell the difference between one and two but not so easy to tell the difference between ninety nine and one hundred for example and then there's fetch nurse law F. E. C. H. N. E. R. This is the lawless. Says that the subjective sensation of number is proportional to log rhythm of the objective stimulus magnitude. This law also applies to sound. That's the reason why southbound is measured in decibels. That's a logarithmic thing. So without getting too technical. I want to emphasize a few points. Both of these laws were originally established for sensory intensities such as sound these are both non linear phenomenon. Compared to the linear number line that we learn when we learned to count we talked quite a bit about how this kind of numerology is present in many diverse species but one key idea is that the tests have been done in newborn animals and humans which demonstrates that this really is a cognitive instinct. Rather than learn I refer you back to episode one sixty eight where Cecilia heyes explained the difference between cognitive instincts and cognitive gadgets which are learn one thing we didn't talk about was the fact that numeracy is an example of convergent evolution. Because it's actually emerged several times no doubt because it provides a huge survival advantage. I'M NOT GONNA go back through the examples that Dr near shared but I do want to review the distinction between icons indices and symbols because this distinction is important for understanding the difference between the non symbolic approximate number system which appears to be almost universal and symbolic mathematics which appears to be unique to humans. Neater noted that indices and symbols are both signs as opposed to icons which are characterized by a sensory relatedness to what is being represented so an example of icon would be a tally stick. Were every notch represents one of something. An index is a little bit more complex. It usually involves a temporal relationship to whatever's being representative so for example a certain kind of warning cry might represent a particular kind of danger another example. A cloud is an index of possible. Rain symbols are more complex and generally are part of a combinatorial system so that they lack intrinsic meaning on their own. For example letters had to be combined into words and in most languages changing the word order changes the meaning thus mathematics is symbolic because five minus two is different from two minus five. We discussed meters opinion. That animal abilities do not extend into this symbolic round. Even though there are several examples of indices such as the famous vervet monkeys alarm cries near said the reason is that these representations are isolated from one another. They are not change as a function of how they are being combined. He called this. A defining characteristic of a symbol and a symbol system. Now remember that language and counting are different systems in the brain. We learn to talk before we learned to count symbolically but remember. We are born with that approximate number system near commented that we have not yet learned. Exactly what's going on in the brain? When we learn mathematics we start out with the same basic numeracy of other animals and then when we learned to it seems to emerge rather suddenly when the child grasp that idea of succession or n plus one and this usually occurs around the age of four this idea of n plus one is a concept that animals never seem to grasp after we learned to count. We gradually learn other rules. Like addition and subtraction and he pointed out that zero which came very late in human history is also a demanding concept that people learn later on now. Another interesting part of this discussion was about single neuron recordings because they use are usually done in animals and the example we talked about was the ones that have been done in monkeys that showed that single neurons are tuned to specific numeracy's the way they're tuned resembles the way they respond other sensory stimuli and that includes following. Weber's and Fitch Moore's laws interestingly when the monkeys make errors the neurons. Don't fire as expected. This implies a causal relationship between these neurons and numerical behavior or competence. I WanNa end this brief review by returning to what Dr Near said near the end of the interview. The key idea in a brain for numbers is that before we learned to count. Our brain has the ability to represent miracle information. It is important to understand how this system works because it's the first building block of everything that comes layer. Even upped mathematics neither is convinced that the properties and features of this non symbolic number scents also influence our symbolic mathematical capabilities. So we can understand what's going on the brain. We might be able to help those. That are having trouble learning math because actually not being able to do. Math is as detrimental to everyday life as not being able to read or write. I'd love to hear your feedback on this episode. As always you can find the complete show notes episode transcript at Brain Science PODCAST DOT com. You can send me email at brain science podcast at g mail DOT COM or submit voice feedback via speak pipe dot com forward slash doc. Arduous can also post to the brain science podcast fan page on facebook. And I'd really like to encourage you to join and post to our good reads group which you can get to via the shortcut brain science forum dot com the most important announcement that I need to share before I close is that starting in April. Twenty twenty brain science will be going back to once a month. The main reason for this change so that I can continue to create high quality content. While I'm writing my book why neuroscience matters which I hope to release by the end of the year. I also continued to work as a physician at the. Va Hospital in Birmingham Alabama so. I'm trying to be realistic about my time management. Meanwhile I am hoping to release the expanded edition of. Are you sure the unconscious origins of certainty in early May? It doesn't look like I'm GonNa meet my original target date of April twenty eighth but given the current uncertainty. I highly recommend signing up for the free bring science newsletter. Saw Be able to get you updated information in between episodes. You get the newsletter. Just go to brain science podcast DOT COM and look for the newsletter linked. I don't expect to make much money from. Are you sure but I am hoping to generate sufficient sales in the first couple of weeks to make the top of the neuroscience list on Amazon. Anyone who buys the book in the first two weeks after release will be invited to a special webinar later this spring. I'll share more details about this next month until next month. I hope you will check out my other podcasts books and ideas and grain rainbows. Thanks again for listening. I look forward to talking with you again very soon. Brain Science is copyright. Twenty eight twenty two Virginia Campbell. Md You can share this audio with others but for any other uses or derivatives. Please email me at brain science. Podcast G MAIL DOT COM the theme music for brain. Science is mind fire written and performed by Tony Cottrell Chea. You can find his work at syncopation. Now Dot Com.
'Lingering Fields Of Yellow' As California's Super Bloom Begins To Fade
"Support for this podcast and the following message. Come from Fidelity Investments, taking a personalized approach to helping you grow and protect your wealth. Learn more at fidelity dot com slash wealth. Fidelity brokerage is services LLC in southern California. This year's super bloom has transformed the desserts in prairies into stunning mosaics of yellows oranges reds and blues. It's also drawn massive crowds. Toting selfie sticks. Trying to capture this quick bursts of beauty for their social media feeds NPR's Kirk siegler sent this postcard from the tail end of the bloom at the remote Correo plane national monument. Just two and a half hours north west of Los Angeles. I'm in another world bouncing along an old Jeep road in the remote temblor range with my pal. Michael Jackson, no relation. He is a professional photographer and amateur explorer, the rainbow that these hills were for the last month is pretty much gone still find them beautiful, even when they're stark. It's Michael seventh trip to the Korea so plane since mid-march when the bloom first started he loves documenting the changes other than the shapes of the hills. It doesn't look like the same place at all. It's like it's between paint jobs. There are still some purples the lupins the hillside daisies in on the floor of the plane itself. A huge carpet of yellow hundreds of acres. Down here. The plane is massive daunting, even forty miles long fifteen wide and ringed by mountains with the San Andreas fault, cutting through it all you go up on that ridge line of that mountain Malaya's, right? It looks incredible same from from up in these mountains Korea. So plane has been protected federal lands since two thousand one but there are few amenities even signs or marked trails. So in this little field of fading purple. You can see the Instagram masses made their own trampled trails people find their own way. But it's a shame to see it. So cut up, and I think it takes the flowers awhile to recover as you can see they're just gone from some of these areas as if crowds have mostly thinned out now to along with the bloom, so Michael is back to training his lens on the old decaying ranch houses with their collapsed roofs that Depression-era pickups and plows just Bandon in the fields. I think life out here, and in these places as always been really hard elements are. Also, extreme you know, that from all your time in North Dakota and Montana people have this this idyllic image of of what it's like up there to have a little house on the prairie. The answer is brutal. Unifil but out here the afternoon. Sun is already brutal in a few weeks. Attempts will be in the hundreds and all the flowers scorched fuel for summer range. Fires. I didn't look at them at a trail head hikers are-, applying sunscreen and topping off water bottles notice a family in a mini van that looks a little unprepared. Michael seems to be the expert out here. Everyone is asking him for tips. And if you do go for that walk bring a lot of water, it's hotter than you think. Okay. Oh. And by the way, we've seen to Rattlers today be careful of the rattlesnakes. You got your kids with you. And it's it's hot enough. They're out. Now. The woman asks where the best place is still see the super bloom. There's really no good answer. People want a quick panacea for finding the most beautiful stuff, but a place like this is different every day driven up to the rim of a steep canyon. This is where I took my favorite photographs this year. There is still a few fields of yellow across. From and beneath us was here before it bloomed hereafter, and and I can tell a bigger story about this place. Now that bigger stories about nature's and permanency says, it's artwork constantly evolving. Even though most people won't see it out here. Once the super bloom Baid's to Brown. Kirk siegler, NPR news the Korea plane national monument.
"Earlier this month southern California was rocked by two of the largest earthquakes. The region has experienced in twenty years for one man Jacob Margolis. All is the aftermath of the six point four and seven point. One magnitude tremors was a rare opportunity. It was a chance to remind fellow. Los Angeles residents about seismic seismic safety because few Californians a prepaid for a much bigger catastrophic quake which seismologists say is on the way his North America correspondent James Glen Day out in the middle of the desert one hundred and sixty miles away from where you're standing. There are two enormous tectonic plates that have been trying to slide past ask each other for millions of years but they're stuck today. They slept. That's Jacob Margolis describing a moment many in Los Angeles have buried somewhere way deep in the back of their minds the start of a massive earthquake. That's long being dubbed the big war. There's a huge quake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Every hundred years or so we haven't had one for about one hundred sixty early the see the journalists did K._p._C._C. Radio released this podcast on how to survive the coming catastrophe and right now he's in high demand interest in the big one has spiked following recent strong tremors that rattled the region in GonNa take probably nobly I think forty eight seventy two hours is good asking it probably closer to seventy two for outside help to get in and so you'll see roads severed train lines will be severed heard about eighteen hundred people will also die some from the inevitable building collapses some will burn you have a number of both electrical and gas fires that break <music> out and when those fires break out spread very very fast and we do not have enough emergency responders to respond to all the problems that will break out all those fires and the even the mayor of Los Angeles says that's one of his greatest fears and if it hit in like September or October when it's hot and it's like when he <hes> you know just like our hills like neighborhoods. Neighborhoods are going to burn and the water pipes will probably be cracked. Some roads will be impossible and so putting the FIS out could be tough but for the vast majority of people the biggest challenges will come in the weeks afterwards. I mean there's certain things like people won't have like people don't have access to <hes> hospitals. Possibles will be overrun. There's many hospitals in the state eight that are actually not seismically okay <hes> and in addition to that like you won't have access to emergency services for a period of time after the quake they're going to have to be self sufficient and and that's really scary to getting a badly crippled southern. California through such a challenging period requires preparation like bookcases screwed to wolves glass objects removed from key walkways in buildings a few weeks of water and food per household not to mention basic medical supplies so nowhere near enough people already. I I think people struggle and my this is myself included. I lived through the nineteen ninety-four Earthquakes Northridge Earthquake here in Los Angeles. That was supremely destructive. People died. I was out of my home with the kids and. And I still didn't have any of my resources ready. When I started this podcast and breezy it because you don't know and that's coming and so people kind of push it off shirow pressured off the problem with this it can literally happen at any time it can happen while we're recording this right now. It didn't obviously and it might not for decades but on the fourth of July ally when the earth started to shake into magnitude seven point one tremor struck Mr Montgelas felt calm and prepaid. He knew he'd be okay and in this fleeting period of heightened fear in the region. He's urging everyone to get ready now. It cost me fifty bucks to go out and buy enough water for two and a half weeks for a family of three and like if you don't have that kind of money I think it might be worth saving and making that best friend because it's your him so much better off if you have those basic things and that report from a North America correspondent James Glendale.
Upcoming Halloween Livestream Show
"Hey folks and I'm Bill Levine here I wanted to give you a quick update that there will be no episode this week. But next week on Halloween, we will be doing a live broadcast Andreas Indianapolis is Youtube. Talking about horror stories within sort of their crypto currency space will be going back and talking about a lot of the in some cases super early, just disastrous that have happened as well as telling personal anecdotes like I said, this'll be available as a livestream, and if you'd like to ask questions, there'll be an opportunity to do that over at. Andreas. Antonoff is Youtube. You have any stories that you'd like to share or that you'd like us to potentially talk about on the Halloween episode. You can send me an email at Adam L. TB show dot com or you can go to L. TB show dot com, which is the anchor page link. And there is at least for people who are on mobile devices, the option to leave a voice message you can feel free to leave that and you can either believe it with the idea that you're communicating to us and in the audio format, or you can also actually tell a story and potentially depending on how good the quality is We actually play at during the livestream I don't have an. Exact time for this yet but stay tuned for another update later this week once all of the final details get worked out and we'll be back with a new episode, the following week on fees on both the theory and bitcoin chains covering it in a couple of different ways and It was pretty interesting episode. So I've everybody has a good weekend and we'll see some of you at least on Halloween.