35 Burst results for "Alzheimer's Disease"
Using AI Created Digital Twins to Accelerate Clinical Trials
"Nature scientific reports peer reviewed Publication that now. It must have come out outlive well over a year ago and but we peer review takes very long time so that was written two years ago right even though it only got one year ago. Well basically what we do there is. We will take eighty percent of the train data. We have will train. The model will leave twenty percent of the data how to make predictions about these other. Twenty percents at the patients in making sure that all of the predictions that we make are really good. So that's one that's very early We've done much much more along those directions We've presented about our model presented data to fda on the office of neurosciences. We have a. We have done a number of retrospective studies where we can go back and look at previously completed clinical trials in reanalysed them. And make sure that when we're getting a better results out of those files Than than how they were originally run And then we also are working in ongoing prospective trials now In working with different pharmaceutical partners. Both in ways that are where our customers these collaborators. I getting value from the use of these models. But also that provide more validation off for our platform in the discussions with the fda. What kind of validation have been seeking with the fda. It's this is a really interesting area to to dig into I think that what we what we basically did with the fda's we showed them some data looking at we would take patients who were in cbo control arms of trials and then we would create digital twins of those patients that So now you have. The real patients receiving placebo in have the model predicting what would happen if they received placebo. So now you have a direct way to measure how well is the model doing it. Actually capturing for cbo behavior or these alzheimer's In so those are the kinds of data that we presented to the fda at a meeting in march of this year looking again at at leaving because we see so many things about these patients We have to really comprehensive Evaluation protocols evaluating all of the different things that were predicting But then the other thing of course is when you actually go to use these digital twins in clinical trials. You know that actually gets into another aspect of just the context of use because there are different ways that you can take these digital twins in incorporate them into the final analysis of the treatments affected in each one of those really discussed with regulators on a case by case basis because again adapting the use of the digital twins to the particular problem that the pharmaceutical facing the try year focusing on complex neurological diseases in particular alzheimer's disease. Why complex neurological diseases in general alzheimer's disease specifically why. I think the first thing comes down to an unmet need these are areas where clinical trials are very long in the very expensive. They included enormous numbers of patient. Volunteers it. We're not really having any success in developing new treatments so anything that we can do to make those trials more efficient to make them more ethical and better for the patients volunteer and to speed up drug development in those areas so that we can finally get affected therapies. The patients something that we really need. So that's that's the first thing. Is that the this large unmet. Need the second thing is there's availability of data as a machine learning company. We really relied. Not only on there being a lot of data but on those data being very high quality and because there's this long history of many many companies trying to develop drugs for these areas in many of those drugs failing there's an enormous amount of data that we can draw on to learn about how the disease progresses But we are are eventually looking to expand across disease area so even though our initial focus has been in these more complex longitudinal
First blood test to help diagnose Alzheimer's hits market
"Diagnostic revolution linked to Alzheimer's disease. It's a brand new blood test, and it's supposed to tell people if they've got it. While there's a lot of demand for a test, you can take it the doctor's office there's also concerned about its accuracy and the emotional impact of a positive diagnosis. Independent experts are also a little leery because key trial results have not been published, and the FDA has not approved it. But the company does plan to pursue FDA approval. It's for
First blood test to help diagnose Alzheimer's goes on sale
"The company has started selling the first blood test to help diagnose Alzheimer's disease the blood test from C. two N. diagnostics of St Louis represents a long sought leap for the field and could make it easier for people to learn whether they have dementia but independent experts are leery raising concern about the test's accuracy as well as the impact of such life altering news results to support accuracy claims have not been published nor has the test been approved by the food and drug administration the test costs more than a thousand dollars and is not covered by insurance currently brain scans of the gold standard for helping diagnose the disease those cost roughly five thousand dollars I'm Ben Thomas
FDA panel reviews 1st new Alzheimer's drug in 2 decades
"An FDA advisory panel says says Biogen's Biogen's bid bid for for the the first first drug drug to to treat treat Alzheimer's Alzheimer's disease disease and and decades decades may may not not be be ready ready for for prime prime time time after after a a review review panel panel spoke spoke glowingly glowingly about about the the treatment. treatment. That That panel is skeptical, and the move could spell doom for what was expected to be a blockbuster medication for Biogen. The committee's recommendation is not binding when the full FDA considers the drug for approval. But these opinions often are a final determination is expected from the full FDA sometime early next year.
How We Study Alzheimer's and Potential Treatments
"We have two guests today. the first is alan pal quits. He is the senior research professor of medicine and president and ceo of the indiana biosciences research institute. Also joining us is bruce lamb. He is director of stark neuroscience institute. Welcome both of you. Thank you so we usually like to start off by asking people how they got to the position that they're in like how does one become a senior research professor of medicine allen and what is president and ceo of the indiana biosciences research institute. So if you could tell us a bit about what you do and how you got here so thank you very much earned so I think my experience has been somewhat atypical. In terms of coming into academia. I spent twenty eight years at the leeann. Company started off as a bench level. Scientists of medicinal chemist and eventually in my last eleven years woods the vice president discovery chemistry research and technologies where oversaw small molecule drug discovery across all the areas of therapeutic interests that lily so this was a very rich experience and and after being there for quite some time. I had the opportunity to make an early retirement at the end of two thousand seventeen. And i was thinking about my next steps and i had developed long relationship with a not shaker. Who the rhinos. The key leader here at a school of medicine and asked me to come over and help with the position. Health initiative than any perspective that i could provide in and input in you know things kind of transpired in i came over as a professor of medicine and eventually met bruce and you know a lot about our work together here in the past year and really create some great synergies and then as i spent some time that you another opportunity came up in in the community and this lousy indiana bioscience research institute which is an organization that really had a ton of blossomed out of a vision to really create additional note of innovative research and capabilities. That would draw the community together and diorite been around for about five or six years. And now i'm there to really help create additional bridges and create new scientific directions that really elevate The the sciences here in the mid west. And hopefully beyond great and bruce sort of what what has been your experience. How did you get to hear. Thanks a lot erin. So i'm a phd level basic scientist by training. I was at johns hopkins At case western. Reserve university. In cleveland clinic in doing science research into alzheimer's disease actually for my entire career and then I saw this unity to come to indiana in early. Two thousand sixteen to lead out this translational neuroscience research institute Stark neurosciences research institute. And it's a really unique Place that brings together. Clinicians basic scientists translational People now drug discovery as well sort of brings everybody together into one location to really do innovative and interdisciplinary research. So we wanted to talk today about alzheimer's disease. So i'd really like to start by just for our listeners. What is alzheimer's disease. Yeah so alzheimer's. Disease is obviously a brain disease And it was first described. And i think the history is important because it sort of still sort of how we've sort of you. The disease was described by a bavarian neuropathologist us alzheimer in early nineteen hundreds And he had a patient who had dementia sort of loss of memory She had paranoia clinical features that she had and then when she died Being a neuro pathologist he looked in her brain did standard stains at the time and described this unique brain pathology which still even today sort of defines the disease and that was primarily that there were two primary major neuro-pathological hallmarks that he observed in the brain tissue one where these amyloid Sort of the sticky substances which were aggregating in the brain and the other words what we currently today called neurofibrillary tangles which is another Brain pathology and even today it still sort of those two primary brain pathologies that are pathan demonic for alzheimer's disease. However i will say that as we've gotten into the modern age and in our began to understand the complexities reprieve that alzheimer's disease is a is a complex set of probably multiple disorders which are very related to one. Another but actually. There's probably not one set of alzheimer's disease out there. So is it. Is it just sort of like a neuro degenerative. Cognitive decline is we just believe is because of a few specific reasons so there's clearly a lot of neurodegenerative cognitive decline syndromes but alzheimer's is just a group where we think we know where the pathologies right sort of defines. You know one particular type and again. There's there's many different types that this is probably the most common one and it's also very much age related so you really see sort of a doubling after about the age seventy seventy five doubling every five years of of the incident so with sort if the baby boomers reaching the age of sixty five at ten thousand. A day right. Now that's why there's the big increase in number of cases is there a typical course. Does it usually hit a certain age. And last a certain amount of time. It's pretty variable You know there is a sort of a prototypical alzheimer's disease. But if you talked to the clinicians. And i'm not a clinician. But if you talked conditions they say if you've seen one case of alzheimer's disease you've seen one case of alzheimer's disease You know that really. There's so much variation in how how people present their how it progresses within those people So it's it's pretty variable. Obviously the common underlying features certainly memory loss at least at a general level but within that you have other changes sometimes with personality disorders of all variety of other things that can come along with alzheimer's
Why is it so Hard to Lose Weight?
"It is hard to believe, but this begins our seventeenth year of broadcasting, dishing up nutrition. For seventeen years every Saturday or most Saturdays I guess I should say. We have shared up to date nutritional information. Designed specifically to make a difference in the lives of our listeners and their health. So, each week our message has been about eating real food like that's the term. Now I think that we can kind of put our stamp on his eating real. So, that our listeners our clients can have more energy. Less, than for inflammation, better health and everything in between. So it isn't a message about the latest fad diet. It's about eating a healing plan of real food. This is just kind of an interesting observation and Clint Brittany. Maybe you've noticed this in clinic here in there but I've noticed with some of my clients at it seems that many people seem to like blame or really attribute many of their health problems to their genetics. Yes. I, agree with that Yup. And they haven't quite made that connection yet that food the food that they're eating is the cause of their health problems. So as Dietitians we work one on one with clients, and so we'll hear things like my father had diabetes. So I know sooner or later I will probably have that to or maybe it's my mom had arthritis so I will have it eventually also. one. They heard I think recently in the last week or two My grandmother had Alzheimer's disease. So I really worry that I also get Alzheimer's disease. And it is important to know our family history. What is in our family history? I mean, we even have this in our health questionnaire, an area where people can kind of talk through or list out what's in their family. But, it's also an important an important concept I think to say, the family history does not have to become our destiny. And we can be like, maybe we have some predispositions in the background or tendencies one way or another, but it does not have to be our destiny. So true and I think that what oftentimes people don't think about is you know maybe your dad had something your mom had something. And now you do what? About your lifestyle? No, you probably have a similar lifestyle. You know a lot of our habits come from childhood, and so I think often times it is more lifestyle and your food choices driving. Those conditions than than genetics yup absolutely I'll say that to my clients do it's like you know we probably especially as younger children ate a lot of the same things growing up as our parents did. So how much of an impact did the foods that we were all eating together then have on the development of some of these conditions it's kind of food for thought. That A lot. and so for you listeners out there maybe you've also said to yourself, you know I must come from a family there must be an obesity gene there because my dad was overweight his mom was overweight all of my brothers and sisters are overweight and now I'm starting to gain weight so it just must be baked into our destiny must be in our jeans. Though the question, we are going to address this morning on the show is, why is it so hard for many people to lose weight they're going to go through a couple of things per pretty much two main points that will address throughout this show. And maybe maybe you is a listener of this is something that you've wondered yourself and maybe you've said yourself, well, why can all my friends lose weight just by drinking less wine or less soda or less XYZ while I can't lose weight and I never even drink wine to begin with it's just not fair. Yeah we hear that time Yup. So. So this is these are the kinds of things we want to explore in today's show, and before we dive deeper into our topic, I want to introduce myself and my co host WHO's here in studio with me. My name is Leah Klein showed I'm registered and licensed Dietitian, and here with me this morning is Brittany Vincent who is also a registered and licensed Dietitian. And today, our goal is to share some new information but also some old information about weight loss and our hope is that you will really think about the information we're going to share with you about weight loss and perhaps then be able to take some that information and start. feeling out in applying in your own life where it makes sense for you and applying this to your own body. As we all know, it's one thing to know the information, which is what our show is about a lot of times you want to give that information out and make it as widespread as possible. But then it is a whole other thing to actually apply it and to do it and. Teaching choices are hard especially like you said of these are things that have come from our childhood. These are habits that have been deeply in green, and oftentimes this is the hardest part for people.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Broken Brain with Dhru Purohit
"In this mini episode, , I speak with Dr David Perimeter Dr, , Lisa, , Mosconi Dr Dale, Br , Edison about why Alzheimer's is a preventable disease and the lifestyle factors that can set the stage for Alzheimer's years from. Now, . , we also talk about this disticts of Alzheimer's disease and its impact on women, , and what you can do today today to prevent cognitive decline in the future. . Let's listen in starting with interview with Dr. . David Pearl Mutter, , a board certified neurologist and four-time New York. . Times bestselling author, , we do know that a for the most part Alzheimer's is a preventable disease. . This is a disease costing Americans two hundred and thirty billion dollars affecting five point four million of us. . That is dramatically exploding in terms of its incidence and prevalence globally, , and yet you know the notion that our lifestyle choices are not relevant is it does take my breath away. . You know it's all about living a life that is less inflammatory and that certainly transcends are narrative as it relates to Alzheimer's but. . Involves Parkinson's and involves coronary artery disease diabetes and cancer, , and all of the chronic degenerative conditions, , and you know what really is so very important and I think sort of stands in our way of getting this information to really have traction is the time table that this is effective over for example, , you tell somebody wear your seatbelt that'll be good for you. . They get in a car accident they're wearing their seat belt and they say, , Hey, , I get it that worked yesterday I was in that accident worked. . But the inflammation issues that are relevant in terms of causing the brain to degenerate or narrowing the coronary arteries. . These are issues that are beginning to take shape ten, , twenty, , thirty years prior to actual disease manifestation, , and therefore it makes it very challenging for the consumer to connect those dots. . Let me give you an example. . <hes>. . In the journal Neurology, , which is arguably one of our most well respected neurology journals on the planet period viewed. . There was an interesting study that was published and it measured in a group of several thousand individuals who were in their forties and fifties. . At the time it measured markers in their blood of inflammation and the study then came back and looked at the same group of individuals twenty four years later, , the study again was just. . And what it found was really quite remarkable. . There was very direct relationship between risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and having had higher measurement of blood inflammatory markers twenty four years ago. . So what does it say? ? It says that if you? ? Elevated Markers of inflammation in your blood today, , you are setting the stage for Alzheimer's years from now and so that your lifestyle choices today whether you choose to eat low carb high carb high fat low-fat whether you choose said integrity vs physical activity the amount of sleep that you get. . Hopefully that is restorative the amount of stress in your life, , etc. . these are all extremely important variables. . Which you have control that clearly are connected to your brains Dini. . This is not live your life come what may and we have a pill for you. . If you're suddenly cognitively impaired is the other story. . The story is that you make lifestyle choices today that will dramatically impact how your brain works to three decades from now
Protecting Your Brain from Alzheimers Disease and Cognitive Decline
"In this mini episode, I speak with Dr David Perimeter Dr, Lisa, Mosconi Dr Dale, Br Edison about why Alzheimer's is a preventable disease and the lifestyle factors that can set the stage for Alzheimer's years from. Now, we also talk about this disticts of Alzheimer's disease and its impact on women, and what you can do today today to prevent cognitive decline in the future. Let's listen in starting with interview with Dr. David Pearl Mutter, a board certified neurologist and four-time New York. Times bestselling author, we do know that a for the most part Alzheimer's is a preventable disease. This is a disease costing Americans two hundred and thirty billion dollars affecting five point four million of us. That is dramatically exploding in terms of its incidence and prevalence globally, and yet you know the notion that our lifestyle choices are not relevant is it does take my breath away. You know it's all about living a life that is less inflammatory and that certainly transcends are narrative as it relates to Alzheimer's but. Involves Parkinson's and involves coronary artery disease diabetes and cancer, and all of the chronic degenerative conditions, and you know what really is so very important and I think sort of stands in our way of getting this information to really have traction is the time table that this is effective over for example, you tell somebody wear your seatbelt that'll be good for you. They get in a car accident they're wearing their seat belt and they say, Hey, I get it that worked yesterday I was in that accident worked. But the inflammation issues that are relevant in terms of causing the brain to degenerate or narrowing the coronary arteries. These are issues that are beginning to take shape ten, twenty, thirty years prior to actual disease manifestation, and therefore it makes it very challenging for the consumer to connect those dots. Let me give you an example. In the journal Neurology, which is arguably one of our most well respected neurology journals on the planet period viewed. There was an interesting study that was published and it measured in a group of several thousand individuals who were in their forties and fifties. At the time it measured markers in their blood of inflammation and the study then came back and looked at the same group of individuals twenty four years later, the study again was just. And what it found was really quite remarkable. There was very direct relationship between risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and having had higher measurement of blood inflammatory markers twenty four years ago. So what does it say? It says that if you? Elevated Markers of inflammation in your blood today, you are setting the stage for Alzheimer's years from now and so that your lifestyle choices today whether you choose to eat low carb high carb high fat low-fat whether you choose said integrity vs physical activity the amount of sleep that you get. Hopefully that is restorative the amount of stress in your life, etc. these are all extremely important variables. Which you have control that clearly are connected to your brains Dini. This is not live your life come what may and we have a pill for you. If you're suddenly cognitively impaired is the other story. The story is that you make lifestyle choices today that will dramatically impact how your brain works to three decades from now
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Broken Brain with Dhru Purohit
"Dale, Br Edison about why Alzheimer's is a preventable disease and the lifestyle factors that can set the stage for Alzheimer's years from. Now, we also talk about this disticts of Alzheimer's disease and its impact on women, and what you can do today today to prevent cognitive decline in the future. Let's listen in starting with interview with Dr. David Pearl Mutter, a board certified neurologist and four-time New York. Times bestselling author, we do know that a for the most part Alzheimer's is a preventable disease. This is a disease costing Americans two hundred and thirty billion dollars affecting five point four million of us. That is dramatically exploding in terms of its incidence and prevalence globally, and yet you know the notion that our lifestyle choices are not relevant is it does take my breath away. You know it's all about living a life that is less inflammatory and that certainly transcends are narrative as it relates to Alzheimer's but. Involves Parkinson's and involves coronary artery disease diabetes and cancer, and all of the chronic degenerative conditions, and you know what really is so very important and I think sort of stands in our way of getting this information to really have traction is the time table that this is effective over for example, you tell somebody wear your seatbelt that'll be good for you. They get in a car accident they're wearing their seat belt and they say, Hey, I get it that worked yesterday I was in that accident worked. But the inflammation issues that are relevant in terms of causing the brain to degenerate or narrowing the coronary arteries. These are issues that are beginning to take shape ten, twenty, thirty years prior to actual disease manifestation, and therefore it makes it very challenging for the consumer to connect those dots. Let me give you an example. In the journal Neurology, which is arguably one of our most well respected neurology journals on the planet period viewed. There was an interesting study that was published and it measured in a group of several thousand individuals who were in their forties and fifties. At the time it measured markers in their blood of inflammation and the study then came back and looked at the same group of individuals twenty four years later, the study again was just..
The Secret to Better Sleep
"Is so let's talk about nighttime breathing during sleep and what the differences of breathing through your nose versus breathing your mouth. And what that has to do with our our oral health. Right. Yeah it ends. The same of this talk we've been having his. Teacher important will take taught me something very important about what we need, how fade our bodies and that the crucial nutrients your body will tell you when you're missing the critical factors. Bottom and nutrient needs the thirst in the mail and the first nutrient that your body needs. You can only go minute without it is oxygen and so. In mouth, we can see when not breeding with delivering enough oxygen to our our body and how this translate to add dental health is that as we mentioned before when agile is done developed promptly when we have been narrow up gloomy have risen, tasted done fit that's the back of the magazine and mandible the upper low joel the done developed that is by definition airway space, and so what that does is it pushes us into. What I like to call survival braiding, and what happens is that we are designed to break through the nose and there's some very deep. Raisins for that. In that in the nose, we released nitric oxide which mixes with the air goes into our lung and increases blood flow and pushes auction right throughout the body. Now, when we have crooked up-to-date and the hi pal, we have nasal sinuses that have a low of volume and we don't breath around knows as well as we would when we have nice and central wide jaws. Lovely Watch faces. So what happens is that we learned to break through Mao and this is delivering coal unfiltered there. That's alert air immune system gives us things, Swanson's and Adenoids but what happens is we don't deliver so oxygen and the most crucial part of this is that the mice hungry that the patio body requires auction is the brain and so when you're a breathing correctly, you're starving your brain of oxygen. And so this can happen through the day. You'll bring me through the mail seventy, five percent of the time. Your brain isn't getting enough oxygen. But when you go to sleep, there's one thing you have to do, and that's brief and deliver your brain oxygen and the reason for this is that when you go into deep levels of sweep, your brain is depending on your breathing pattern to take your nervous system into his. Level sleep that then allows himself to clean now and so oxygen and braving patents or what control that. So if you have the small crowded mouth with and you not comfortable with Nicer braiding, you'll then pushing your brain into survival mode during during slate and so as you mentioned, sleep apnea sleep apnea is the most the most severe form of this condition of airway and oxygen deprivation, and that's when we posed. During slave to ten to twenty seconds, the You Count Ten to twenty seconds in you on your hand. That's what people are doing up to thirty or forty times the not, and that's your brain in deep distress, and so this is how we increase the risk of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and mental decline because we're not giving us a brain opportunity to regenerate and to replenish itself with the the crucial nutrient on. And where I was sharing earlier in the interview is that we typically think of like the you know if anybody has a family member or know somebody diagnosed with sleep apnea we typically think of somebody as. Being usually quite overweight. The one of the things you started noticing and hearing about from some of your colleagues is that there's a whole group of younger. Men But especially women that were coming in. With sort of these symptoms of anxiety like waking up in the morning with anxiety and Tell us how that also relates to this breathing through the nose versus breathing through the mouth. Absolutely. So when we started to talk about the spectrum sleep disorders, now we see obstructive sleep apnea is at the very very severe and but what they found in the nineties at Stanford, a Research Co. Christian. Gilmer found that there was a group who've is patients that's showed positive results for a mandibular advancement splint, which is a dental sleep device. That didn't that were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and what he did was he called it. New. Syndrome called Airway Resistance Syndrome and it's not a recognized medical term yet. But there are many many studies and lots of research out there showing that people with upper airway resistance, syndrome, which is exactly what it sounds like. It's an airway that has more resistance. So Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome is characterized by an increased pressure in the airways and. How this happens in the body is that when we sleep your muscles relax and that increased pressure is detected by the Brian is receptive at the back you threatening the Airways the tell the brain what the pressure is. Now we have a small bone structure and the muscles relax. What happens is the brain is constantly being sick these precious signals and it relates to a choking response. So the brain has been sent into fight of what? Response, and so this is a survivor when these wackle survivals sleep, and so what happens is that your brain will respond by pushing the Joel Ford and so the most common sign of Airway resistance in Jeremy Teeth grinding and we say this in the Dental practice busy look. But what happens is that people may not even notice that they have the syndrome. You know they slave they wake that I feel that rested. It's because your body doesn't get to reach date levels
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Medical Mysteries
"Tubular bells. However, in people with Alzheimer's Disease The proteins are MIS folded causing the two bills to collapse. With, the aggregation of MIS folded proteins the collapsed micro tubular become tangled at neurons are unable to build and recycled proteins. This eventually leads to cell death. This is what caused the neurofibrillary tangles that a lowest Alzheimer's saw in nineteen Oh six. If only doctors could figure out why these structures and their underlying proteins were abnormal in the first place. Then maybe they could stop Alzheimer's from happening but I there was another missing piece of the Alzheimer Puzzle that needed solving. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four, a biochemist named Dr George Gleaner and his colleague Dr Cain Wong identified the main protein component of the plaques that Lowest Alzheimer wants discovered for the first time doctors understood the material that was keeping the cells from communicating. It's something called Beta, amyloid Proteins Glenn, and his team wanted to know where these Beta amyloid came from. After weeks of investigation, they discovered that Beta amyloid were once part of the bodies larger protein strand called amyloid precursor protein. We'll call them. For Short, AP's are. Trans Membrane proteins that happened to be present in the neuron cells near the synapse where all of the neurotransmitters or the brain's messengers are sent back and forth to communicate think of it like a cargo ship full of supplies traveling across the ocean from New York London New York is the first neuron. The ship is their neuro transmitter and the ocean is the synapse. Each neurotransmitter needs to make across the synapse or in this case, the Ocean to get a message or signal to its destination. Scientists are still unclear what function APP serves but some theorize it helps informing these synapses or at least maintaining them. In a normal brain, the APP gets cut very specifically into three chunks by small enzymes. This process helps the protein dissolve into the Inter cellular fluid of the body. However, in someone with Alzheimer's, there's a problem. One of the sections of the AP is chopped off in the wrong spot meaning you have one normal size piece, one abnormally large section and a smaller segment that middle section. Now, slightly longer than it should be becomes the Beta amyloid and as gleaners team continued their research, they discovered that it was highly toxic. That's because Beta amyloid are configured in such a way that it becomes easy for them to clump together. Think of them like, Legos, they have the perfect bill to easily snap in place after enough time has passed and more of these Beta amyloid bungee up. There are classified as Beta, amyloid plaques, and sure enough these proteins, Gung Cup, the synapses making it impossible for neurotransmitters to communicate. It's kind of like the ocean or the synapse is being polluted with a whole bunch of oil or trash or in this case, the Beta amyloid it then makes it harder for the boats or the neurotransmitters to travel across the ocean and when the neurotransmitters are in working the neurons or say New York and London can't get their critical messages. This discovery by Glenn and his team at UC San Diego lead to something called the amyloid cascade hypothesis. In this theory researchers believed that at a certain point, another Beta amyloid accumulates in the synapses to reach a devastating tipping point kind of like an unstoppable oil spill when the triggers the onset of Alzheimer's symptoms however, researchers have found that blacks don't just derive all at once they build up for decades starting sometimes as early as age thirty or forty. This means that. While gene wilder and Glen Campbell reliving perfectly normal lives, their brains might have been slowly leaking this toxic substance into their synapses. It made it more and more impossible for ships or neurotransmitters to get across the ocean, and instead they sink and die. Now the neurons are left without any information they start dying as well, and the cognitive ability of patient gradually dies with them in the cases of Glen Campbell, gene. Wilder this win their first serious symptoms started to show up. In Campbell, it could have been undisputedly when he forgot the lyrics to some of his famous songs that he performed hundreds of times for wilder it was getting the name of a movie he was in or his outburst likely caused by his confusion unfortunately many doctors of thought that once this process starts, there's no way to stop the decline no way to plug the devastating oil spill but researchers like Glenn are searching for ways to halt and potentially reverse the build up of these Beta amyloid 's before they gone cup the minds ocean. Fortunately, there are a few hopeful signs on the horizon just where the lead though is anyone's guess. Coming we'll discuss current Alzheimer's treatments. This episode is brought to you by hub spot. You have a lot of great ideas ideas to reach new audiences, create better content and improve your systems, and you understand that you need to move quickly on these ideas to create the best possible experience for your customers and grow your business. So it's time to leave that clunky complex and time consuming cms in the past where it belongs an upgrade to. CMS Hub no more waiting days for an update feeling like you're site is outdated or worrying about security cms hub from hub spot has all the features you need built right in. So developers and marketers can work in harmony. So if you're next great idea involves an engaging dynamic and secure website. Let's cms hub take the pain out of managing your software. So you can get back to what you do best. Customers learn more about cms hub at hub spot, dot com slash spotify. Now back to the story..
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Medical Mysteries
"Ability even sugary treats can become a thing of the past in the end. It's our memories that stand the test of time precious minutes spent with loved ones, birthdays, weddings, and babies being born high and low moments that shaped who we are deep down inside. But there's one neurological condition able to rob people of all. These treasures Alzheimer's disease psychiatrist and neuropathologist a Lowest Alzheimer I documented the disease in one thousand, nine, hundred, six, today five, million Americans suffer from the onus and over one hundred thousand of these patients die every year disease related complications aside from the emotional toll the financial cost of Alzheimer's can be devastating to families according to the Centers for Disease Control total costs in the US related to. The care of someone with Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia equalled around two hundred and seventy seven, billion dollars in two thousand eighteen to hear that a loved one has Alzheimer's is something no one wants to experience, but it's relatively common an estimated five hundred thousand Americans will be diagnosed with the disease this year and the road to that diagnosis can be one of the hardest parts. It certainly was Glen Campbell and accomplished country singer with plenty of music left to give the whole world recognized Campbell is one of the best selling country crooners to come out of the Sixties and seventies his infallible guitar skills had taken him all over the globe where he performed for thousands each night. But by his late sixties, Campbell's family noticed he was no longer his sharp witted self. One afternoon his teenage daughter Ashley, had a few friends over. They were watching the Lord of the rings in the Campbell's Home Theater. When Campbell popped in to check on them, he made some friendly Chit Chat and asked what movie they were watching. Ashley told him in Campbell nodded satisfied. Then he laughed just a few minutes later Campbell came back to ask the same question Ashley likely chalked it up to her father's eccentricities. But this time he was serious and confused it happened one more time before the end of the night. Ashley was bewildered by her father's behavior but she figured he was just having a bad day. He was getting older after all these things could happen from time to time but months later Campbell's wife Kim experienced something more frightening Campbell was looking for a tool kit and Kim mentioned it was in the garage Kim's husband just stared at her blankly the garage. Campbell didn't know what let alone wear. That was Kim was rattled. How could he have forgotten something as simple as that and fortunately it wasn't the last time. Doctors. Say One of the first signs of Alzheimer's disease is a general sense of forgetfulness and that's not something simple like forgetting where you left your keys or an appointment slipping your mind that kind of forgetfulness works a bit different from Alzheimer's thoughts are first encoded in our brains is something called working memories. Think of this stage as a sketch pad. It's temporary only necessary for quick functions like where did I leave my cell phone when our brain deems the memory important enough and when the memory is attended too often enough the brain will then encoded into a long term memory. So it goes from a sketch to a final painting hanging in the new normal moments of forgetfulness are caused by something frequently referred to as a memory lapse which. Happens when we're not paying good enough attention to something or when we haven't access to certain memory in a very long time. Say you walk in the door of your apartment did night you turn on the lights, put your things down and focus your attention on dinner. You aren't recording the sketch of where you said everything down because your brain was focused on another task like what temperature to set the oven at researchers say that early signs of Alzheimer's are far more troubling than an ordinary memory lapse instead they're a lot like the ones we saw in Campbell's case when a patient with Alzheimer's loses their keys. Typically turn up on a dresser or table instead they appear in unexplained locations like the refrigerator and when they're found a patient might immediately forget the next step like what those keys Goto essentially that painting that once hung in the Louvre. The one that says keys don't belong in. Now seems to be missing it's a big problem, but ultimately, it all comes down to tiny neurons. Neurons are the Messenger cells of the human body when memories are created in a healthy mind, they form unique pathways between certain neurons and when we go back to access these memories, these neurons off in very similar patterns when compared to the patterns observed during the memories initial recording these pathways and firing patterns becomes stronger. The more we access that memory they're also stronger if the moment was significant to. US? That's why we find ourselves reliving many of these same memories especially things that were special or tragic in our past. One of the first things to go in Alzheimer's patients are their short term memories and that's because those neuron pathways are still patchy dirt roads. They're not as frequently traveled as long term memories which are more like highways. It's for this same reason that patients also experience mood swings. These changes in behavior are typically brought on by the frustration and confusion of disappearing memories as well as by the general difficulty that many patients have in making sense of their surroundings. This was the case with acclaimed actor gene wilder wilder was a comic genius known for his Quick Timing and Quirky screen presence in films like Willie Wonka and the chocolate factory offscreen people knew him as a sweet mild mannered guy but around the time.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Medical Mysteries
"Glen Campbell had a storied musical career beginning with his heyday in the late nineteen sixties and Seventies. He'd won six grammy awards by two thousand seventeen and had sold over fifty million country music records worldwide in two thousand four, he was entering the twilight years of his life the eight year old was ready to slow down and spend more time with his. Family but he wasn't quite ready to stop making new music however, something about the artist seemed off for one. He was becoming increasingly dependent on his wife Kim and his train of thought often derailed stopping mid conversation to recall something. He just said then one day out of the blue cameras. Kim what a garage was after being told to look for something there. At first, she thought her husband was kidding. They had lived in the house for almost a decade, but then Kim realized he was serious. It was slip-ups like these the terrified Campbell's family in two thousand eleven. Kim finally took her husband to see a doctor from the world renowned Mayo Clinic in Rochester Minnesota to diagnose the problem. The Campbell's met with neurologist Dr Ronald Petersen a few tests later, Peterson gave them some of the worst news imaginable Glenn was suffering from Alzheimer's disease. What's more he was deteriorating fast all of his music his memories moments spent with his family would soon slip away and modern medicine was still struggling to find a cure that could stop it. When.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Medical Mysteries
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Medical Mysteries
"When our bodies fail, we trust doctors diagnose the problem but medicine isn't always an exact science. Sometimes, it's a guessing game with life or death stakes. This is medical mysteries a podcast original I'm Ali and I'm Richard every Tuesday will look at the strangest real life medical cases in history and the experts who raced against the clock to solve them. As we follow these high intensity stories will explore medical research that might solve the puzzle. Next week in partout will analyze all the evidence and try to find an answer. You can find episodes of medical mysteries and all other park cast originals for free. On spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream medical mysteries for free on spotify, just open the APP and type medical mysteries in the search bar. This is the first of two episodes on Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative neurological condition responsible for about one hundred and twenty thousand American deaths in two, thousand, seventeen, it symptoms include memory, loss, agitation, and changes in personality. This week, we'll explore the history of the disease and meet the man who discovered it next week we'll examine doctors efforts to cure or treat the condition. We'll also explore the state of Alzheimer's disease, today and speculate on what the future holds. We have all that and more coming up stay with. US. In nineteen o one Doctor Lois, Alzheimer was the director of the psychiatric wing for the Institution for the mentally ill and epileptic patients in Frankfurt Germany. He worked as a neuropathologist meaning he studied diseases of the nervous system a lois was one of the. Advocates for a change in how mental health conditions were treated. In the late eighteen hundreds, most patients in western psychiatric facilities faced appalling conditions unlike today most doctors didn't try to diagnose mental health conditions, they treated all their patients, the same way, and they didn't take the time to identify and distinguish between the different conditions involving the brain such as bipolar disorder and dementia. All patients live together in the same wards few God better because they didn't receive specialized treatment they spend hours in restraints even if they weren't violent overworked staff beat their patients, psychiatrists experimented on them without consent asylums were brutal but many doctors didn't see any point in improving their conditions. They couldn't even agree on whether neurologic or mental health conditions could be treated. there. Were two prevailing schools of thought regarding the origins of Mental Disorders Sigmund Freud thought mental illnesses were purely psychological meaning. They were all in the patient's head. He treated his clients with psychotherapy. A form of therapy were patients discussed their problems to understand the underlying emotional issues but lois had a keen interest in anatomy. He believed there must be a biological cause for psychiatric ailments. If he could find what caused the condition, he might be able to treat it with medicine or surgery. In eighteen fifty seven German surgeon Friedrich. Von S Mark and his partner Peter Villers Yesen found a biological cause for neurologic condition called general theres's. Peres. Caused wild mood swings, forgetfulness and difficulty speaking. Some doctors called it general paralysis of the insane s mark and villers looked at their patients. Clinical histories they discovered that many were diagnosed with syphilis us before their parisa symptoms appeared syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. It initially causes a non painful sores or ulcers on a patient's genitals. Later, symptoms can include fatigue weight loss and muscle pain among other elements after a few weeks. These symptoms usually clear up on their own some patients assumed the syphilis had cured itself, but the bacteria still lingered in their bodies as patients got older, some might have suffered from memory loss confusion and aggression for years. Doctors had assumed that people with paralysis were faking it or weak willed but s mark. Yes and demonstrated otherwise Paribas patients suffered from a real disease with a physical cause. And if physicians could find a cure for syphilis, they thought they could also prevent Aparicio's inspired by such recent discoveries. A Lowest Alzheimer wanted to find biological causes for other cognitive or mental health conditions. But he needed a place to do his work in peace and safety. He wouldn't get very far in his research if his colleagues were torturing or beating their patients. Ordinary asylums were likely to make their residence even sicker and complicate a Lewis's research. The facility in Frankfurt where the lowest worked was different. When a lowest was hired, it was run by a man named email sealy who pushed the boundaries of psychiatric patient care. Believed in a progressive form of therapy based on the teachings of psychiatrist John. Connolly like Lois Connolly believe that mental health conditions were an illness and just as doctor would treat of bodily disease with medicine connolly believed psychiatrists could remedy apparent emotional disorders with compassion and care. Furthermore he believed different symptoms should receive different treatments with the right support. People could overcome their conditions. Pra Connolly's recommendations, the Frankfurt facility had gardens and communal spaces. AIDS hosted activities to keep residents engaged and entertained while restraints and sedatives were used on patients. They were a last resort only for people who posed a danger to themselves or others c-o-l-l-i-e-r and his staff talked with patients while walking through the facility or gave them relaxing massages to calm them down. They believed a positive environment was more beneficial than a hostile one while the conditions were in perfect Augusta deter couldn't have ended up in a better hospital at the time she was checked into the Frankfurt for. Months of declining mental health at first. She forgot small things like where she left cooking ingredients or a book. But her condition got worse with each passing month. She had trouble sleeping and grew paranoid once she accused her husband Carl of cheating on her but her claims were unfounded. The accusation left Carl Shaken. They always loved and trusted one another Augusta would never let suspicion get the better of her it felt like his wife was slipping away in front of him at times she forgot where she was or who he was. It got so bad that Carl feared to leave her home alone he couldn't take care.
Hope for Herpes Cure
"Nearly two thirds of us are infected with herpes simplex virus. So viruses, this week isn't an herpes causes cold sores causes genital disease, and it can also even occasionally caused Brian Infections. The virus is real headache to treat because the infection is lifelong. This is because it hides existing just as a piece of DNA inside nerve cells, it periodically reawakens to produce painful infectious skin blisters, nola drugs that can. Control these flare ups when they happen they can't remove the viral DNA. So the problem keeps on coming back now researchers in the US developed a pair of selective molecular scissors the contract down the rogue viral. DNA inside nerve cells and chop it up destroying the virus. So at least in experimental mice, it doesn't come back. Keith Jerem herpes is really sneaky that it actually established as a form of itself. That essentially goes into cells and then falls asleep and that virus lives in the neurons nerve cells in your body, and they can come once a year once a month once a week and cause lesions ulcers than anything else and all those strikes. We him don't do anything about that sleeping form of the virus. So effectively under the immune Radovan all the time it's dormant inside cells like that the immune system can't see it. So it just gets ignored. That's exactly right. The immune system controls at once it wakes up and starts making more copies of itself and they take care of those new copies but they even the noon system doesn't do anything about that long-term sleeping form of the virus said, what can you do about it? Well we've been using this really cool technology that's been around for over a decade. Now called gene editing despite has made a DNA just like our body is and that sleeping form is actually a little tiny circle of this DNA that lives in the nerve cells and what gene editing allows us to do is basically use I think of molecular scissors that can go into a cell and they can look through all. The DNA. In that cell and look for a very specific little stretch of the letters, and if they find those letters, they make a little cut and so what we do is designed very special scissors that ignore all of our own DNA, all the human DNA but they look really hard for herpes and if they find it, then it to little cuts and so it basically falls apart and makes it go away. And this works does it you can actually demonstrate that serve you chop up the virus then canola comeback yeah, exactly. So the study that we did was in mice mice get this sleeping form of the herpes just like we do and then we can go in and we use a a something. We call a vector, a different virus that carries these scissors to those same neurons and when it does that it starts cutting up the virus and then we can measure after. Our therapy how much of that sleeping form is actually left in the mice treated and what we saw as we eliminated well over ninety percent of that virus, and if we could translate that into human beings is likely to prevent lesions in Alzheimer's disease transmission to other people and all the things that we actually worry about how did you get the virus that was the Trojan horse that carried in the molecular scissors? How did you get that into the nerve cells in these animals? Well. That was a really important part of our study is understanding the best way to get the scissors where they need to be. We used another virus added. Associated Virus. Almost, all have it never causes any disease. We basically changed that to carry these scissors for us just injected into the bloodstream, and once it's in the blood, it actually goes in and actually find those nerve cells and introduces the scissors. It sounds like the woman who swallowed a fly and then swallowed spider to eat the flying, and we all know how that story ends because you're basically giving someone a virus to treat viruses this safe. This particular virus specter that was used called ADN. Associated Virus is probably the leading factor that's being used for many many types of gene therapy now, and there's several approved products out there in the EU and the United States that use adn associated virus or av to deliver different types of gene therapy, and so we're taking something that's quite proven to be safe modifying it slightly for our needs and then using it to try to cure an infection where we've simply not had any hope for cure in the past. You've been looking at herpes simplex virus. This causes cold sores and it also causes genital disease. But this is one member of a big family viruses that'll will work in a similar sort of way things like visa, the Vars, chickenpox and shingles in people unlucky enough to have that. Do you think you could prevent a person from succumbing to shingles by the same technique? The shingles virus actually goes into very similar nerve cells and acts a lot like herpes simplex, and so we can actually think about using the same therapy for that viruses. Well, we're also very actively looking at viruses that are similar but not herpes viruses in particular hepatitis B., and we have some really exciting results there where we can do very similar things. We're likely to see success there and maybe another viruses as well.
The state of Alzheimer Disease in America
"Is sixty five and her daughter just moved in to help care for her Jan is forgetful emotional. She can't concentrate. She's lost her sense of direction and she can no longer be independent. There are several causes of dementia but the most common is Alzheimer's disease which affects six, million Americans sixty, five and older and a significant group of people under the age of sixty five. And as our population ages, the number of people with Alzheimer's dementia is growing larger each year there is a high likelihood that Jan has Alzheimer's type dementia because her sister and her mother also have it. Doctors do have some tools to diagnose Alzheimer's disease, the most commonly used or brief oral cognitive tests to test memory and logic. These are the sorts of tests. President trump probably took where one of the items ask people to remember five objects at fifteen minutes. These tests do a pretty good job of separating those with frank dementia from those with normal thinking but they. Don't help separate out people with mild cognitive impairment from those with normal cognition. Doctors can also use imaging studies like pet scans, spinal taps, or emery scans with more accurate but are expensive invasive, and not always available will report this week published in Jama suggests a new simple blood test may be accurate inexpensive and may soon be widely available according to the study the. New Test promises to be able to detect the disease decades before memory problems begin but the problem is that testing for disease for which there is no or only very poor treatments raise some important ethical issues. It would be one thing if patients could start treatment early or even take a medicine to prevent the disease, but this is not the case yet we have. Several prescription drugs and some over the counter supplements. But the very best they can offer is a slight slowing disease progression and even that is of questionable significance to patients. So the value of a test that identifies a condition early, that is before the onset of symptoms comes in allowing patients who wished to know whether they will develop this disease to plan their lives accordingly. They might make very different life choices. If they know, their final years will be impacted by Alzheimer's disease. The test also has the potential of helping doctors differentiate dementia caused by Alzheimer's from other types of dementia and medical conditions, which may be more amenable to effective treatments. and New drugs do come along which are promising. The test will also help researchers identify those people likely to develop the disease so that the drugs intended to prevent or treat the disease can be studied early in the course of the illness this new test is unlikely to make any difference to Jan but her daughter's already thinking about whether she wants a blood test that can tell her what may be in her
Flu, Pneumonia Vaccinations Tied to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Dementia
"To To know know study study suggests suggests an an even even stronger stronger reason reason to to get get an an annual annual flu flu shot. shot. And And it's it's probably probably not not the the reason reason you you think think Yes, Yes, it it is is really really important important to to get get a a flu flu shot, shot, especially especially this this year, year, where the pandemic raging alongside the yearly fall flu season, But new studies say there is evidence getting flu shots and also pneumonia. Vaccines may protect against Alzheimer's disease and especially multiple that over time, Dr Heather Snyder with the Alzheimer's Association that is really Individuals that had vaccination in individuals that were over the age of 65 were in a 10 year period between the age of 65 75. No one has yet knows why. There seems to be an association between flu and pneumonia, vaccines and a reduction in risk for Alzheimer's.
Scientists get closer to blood test for Alzheimer's disease
"To a blood test for Alzheimer's disease. A blood test study was led by Dr Oscar Hanson of Lund University in Sweden. This test actually shows all some seas early on, so also when you only have very minor memory problems, it's very accurate, but the test is on ly for patients showing signs of the disease. I don't think this blood test should be used for screening off healthy individuals. In recent years that we don't have any therapy today that stops slows down by disease in healthy individual. The testing identified people with Alzheimer's versus no dementia or other types of fit with accuracy ranging from 89 to 98%. I'm Shelly Adler,
Blood test could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's, scientists say
"Scientists are getting closer to a blood test for Alzheimer's disease. The blood test study was led by Dr Oscar Hanson of Lund University in Sweden. Test actually shows all some seas early on. So also when you only have very minor memory problems, it's their accurate But the test is on ly for patients showing signs of the disease. I don't think this blood test abuse for screening off healthy individuals and recently is that we don't have any therapy today. That stops slows down the disease in healthy individual. The testing identified people with Alzheimer's versus no dementia or other types of fit with accuracy ranging from 89 to
Scientists Get Closer to Blood Test for Alzheimer's Disease
"May be a simple, reliable way to help family doctors diagnosed Most common form of dementia. Researchers say an experimental blood test was able to distinguish people with Alzheimer's disease from those without it In several studies. The accuracy range from 89 to 98% although the test still needs more validation. Several companies air developing these tests, which measure a protein that damages the brains of people with the disease back with sports, coming up in two minutes on
Wife takes dishwashing job at nursing home to visit husband with Alzheimer's
"In Jacksonville, unable to visit her husband in his nursing home, took a job there so she could visit with him. Mary Daniel told news Channel eight in Tampa that she had gone almost four months without seeing her husband, Steve, who has early onset Alzheimer's disease, and his health had taken a bad turn. She now works as a dishwasher and gets to spend a couple of hours a day with her husband
Actinium Pharma's Transformative Radiation Treatment
"So today. We're GONNA talk about a couple of things. COUPLE UPDATES we've seen in the last couple of weeks related to Jin Amarin, as well as Kerio farm that we heard today and I'm recording this on the twenty second of June. And, then the main story today we're GONNA, talk about actinium pharmaceuticals, and I think if everything goes well with them. They could be a big play now. This weird stuff around the stocks or we're GONNA touch a little bit on that, but I think that if the data continues to look as good as it has so far, they could really make a big change in the targeted radiation space, so we'll touch a little bit on that as well. But. Yeah, for me on a personal note. It's it's been busy. Things are kind of getting back to normal here. In San Diego, a lot of businesses have been opening up. So I've noticed that actually have a bit more of a social life now, so that's definitely been entertaining. Take me away from the market's a little bit, but you know I'm here today to talk about some awesome biotech company so with that. Let's get into it. And the first piece of news I wanted to touch on is biogenic and what we heard. Is that biogen's Tech Videira pen? Five one four was ruled invalid us. District, judge, and they closed Friday at two seventy one, and they did see a little bit more of a dip this week. As we've dealt with this already with Amarin we're hearing that Bison does plan on filing an appeal, but that appeal process can. Can take up to a year, but what's different here is that we're actually expecting at risk launch, so mylan has made it clear. Myelin the company sued by John. Over this patent made it clear that they're aiming for a November sixteenth approval day for Generic Tech. FIDORA, and they have already filed an da with the FDA which is the normal process by which a generic company has to get their medicine approved. By, June did kind of expect this to some capacity because they did launch a competing drug to tech Videira, called vulgarity and a little bit of a better safety profile, and they launched this just in case, the tech texture patent battle did go south because I believe there's other lawsuits coming up against this patent, but biogen launched Romerike parity in the hopes that they'll be able to shift the revenue. They've been getting from. Tech Fidora onto American and then maintain this juggernaut status since tech for their is their biggest selling medication, and it's about four billion dollars. Dollars per year they generate in this medicine, so they're going to hope to replace that with something and the loss of this patent protection means the generics are gonNA. Come on the market pretty soon and when I did mine. Alice's using a model that I had created. If I have the tech revenue, their stock price would go down to run to thirty, so I think what's going on here is investors are pricing in the potential of America to take a lot of that revenue from Tech Videira, which would help Jin, either that or the odds of winning? Winning an appeal are there so the stock is pricing in some upside? Despite the loss they suffered, and the other thing that's going on with biogen is they are planning to file the advocating B-. Be La in two three, twenty twenty and advocate the indication being Alzheimer's disease, which is a very very big patient population, so I think there is also some support for the stock given that biding could potentially get an Alzheimer's drug approved. If not late issue than early next year and I know there's a lot of controversy over the added Keenum data I think. Think personally. It's a coin flip whether or not the FDA is going to approve it. I think the the date is very shady and it shouldn't be approved, but strange things happened with the FDA before, so it is possible that they could lobby the FDA enough to get it approved the next company, and wanted to touch on is Amarin and just a little piece of news that we heard. Is that Amarin settled with the generic company called appetites, Apex Appetites, and this settlement would keep them from launching a CPA generic until August ninth of twenty twenty nine. And I saw a lot of excitement around this just because the logic being that if apex fought that ammon was going to lose the appeal, they wouldn't bother going through the motion to do the Selman agreement keeping Aptex from going to the mark until twenty, twenty nine. But, if I were to think about it logically, I assume that the lawyers between Amarin and APP attacks have been in discussions for months by now and that the failure of Amer to defend its patents just happened to go against Amarin APTEX was not expecting that, so they ended up filing the settlement agreement anyway, but I think that if Amazon is not successful in their appeal process I imagine appetites, April tax is going to be able to file a generic before this twenty twenty nine days, so to me this neither a positive thing, negative thing, but you know I'm still holding all my shares and will look forward to that appeal decision coming up later this year.
COVID-19 and Immune Symptoms in Kids
"This healthcare podcast is sponsored by Indiana University School of Medicine whose mission is to advance health in the state of Indiana and beyond by promoting innovation and excellence in education, research and patient CARE I. I School of Medicine is leading Indiana University's burst grand challenge, the precision health initiative with bold goals to cure multiple myeloma, triple, negative breast, cancer and charts coma, and prevent type, two diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease Jim Welcome. Thanks for for having me.
Study: More Berries, Apples, Tea May Have Protective Benefits Against Alzheimer's
"By the way another study just came out drinking great actually point according to more berries apples and he may have protective benefits against Alzheimer's really interesting study this from a Jean Mayer human nutrition research center on aging that's up at Tufts University it's a great place to read research for they looked at almost thirty thousand action they looked at almost three thousand people age fifty or older on the phone for twenty years and if they had a lot of apples each month a lot of berries like blueberries and blackberries strawberries and if they had a lot of T. I cut their risk strongly about charmers disease and other related dimensions like late dementia and Lewy body dementia now here's the thing they said she specifically green tea in the study this is according to Dr as raw she store shoe store Dr as rishi star read the study he's up at tufts in open borders he said T. specifically green tea and berries are good sources of the slab in which so there really is brain protection here if you drink green tea what she you cut your risk of Alzheimer's let me see if I could find if you drank tea you cut way back on your risk of Alzheimer's people who didn't drink green tea or eat berries have twice the risk or eat apples had twice the risk of Alzheimer's disease so when you do not agree to you're also
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on The Bio Report
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"alzheimer disease" Discussed on The Bio Report
"Thank you it's a pleasure to be here. I am telling you more about what we're doing. Well we're GONNA talk about Indian Duro inflammation and your efforts to target this as a way to slow or halt the progression of Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Let's start with Alzheimer's disease itself though I'm sure most listeners have some familiarity with the condition. But perhaps you can begin with how. The disease manifests itself in progresses. And what's the prognosis for patients today? So thank you the Alzheimer's Disease. Everyone is very familiar with the problems with cognitive decline. That is that people begin to get a little forgetful again to Do things like get lost. When they go out to the grocery store or as the disease progresses they may not remember Loved ones when they need them. This is you know the popular view of of dimension and cognitive decline. And then you know it's mild at first and everybody thinks it's amusing. But as the disease progresses it actually can become so severe that the person becomes a Husk of their from self little interaction with the outside world or people around them. But there's another side outside them people forget about and that is the neuropsychiatric symptoms that is to say see Often the first manifestations of the disease before the cognitive decline becomes difficult to manage our problems such as sleep disorders. Depression hallucinations apathy. An aggression or aggressiveness. And in fact the most common reason someone takes a loved one to the two physician. Where the diagnosis or the suspicion about Alzheimer's was entertained. Is for one of these neuropsychiatric syndromes. Because they can really Complicate the the patient's interaction with those around him and the bottom line is patients with Alzheimer's. He's asked the down the slippery slope require. You know help. They require care. They require caregiver to really give much of their time to Take care of the Karen feeding and safety of a loved one. So it's a difficult thing for everybody Unfortunately it's often difficult diagnosed early. We'll put it this way since. There's no effective therapies. There is little incentive diagnosis early. That will change. We believe in the future and it's also impossible to know how quickly someone's GonNa slide from mild to moderate to severe. There's I guarantee you the everyone goes through these phases that some people may take ten years makes people making five years. Some people may take twenty years. So it's a downhill slope but everyone slides down the hill at a different rate. How big a problem does Alzheimer's represent so. There's ways of three ways to look at it as far as the actual number of patients the number that the Alzheimer's Association figures. There's five point eight million people with Alzheimer's disease in the United States. And if you had dementia which is basically the same kind of cognitive decline but navy for reasons other than For reasons other than they don't have the amyloid pathology. There's probably about another two million or so so you're talking you know million patients or so which may not sound to be a lot. But the impact of those eight million patients on their families and caregivers dramatic so for every person with Alzheimer's and there's at least one other patient that affected that as the caregiver and there's a whole set of associated care giver and the economic impact and the economic costs of caring for patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Far outstrips any other disease in the country. That is we pay more for caring for Alzheimer's Disease Patients than we do for cancer patients. Then we do for patients with cardiovascular the psychiatric disease it is a huge problem and remember. It's an age related problem. That is the biggest. Risk factor for developing Alzheimer's Disease Is Progressive Age. And as you know the Nami of key. Baby boomers is rapidly approaching the age of risk. That is once you know. You're north of Seventy. The risk goes up demonstrably and one in three patients. Older than ninety has some form of dementia. So you know the more of us that get into that those you know the eighties and nineties the more patient or the more of us are going to have evidence of dementia and we need to prop. We need a solution to the problem. Not only are we going to need? Effective medicines to help potentially slow the problem. We're GONNA need the infrastructure in place. Physicians and clinic systems to help care for the patient. And we're going to need places for these people.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Caregiving Challenges and Solutions
"Onto the caregiving challenges and solutions. podcast your source for expert advice on caring for our elders. I'm your host Maria we see Today's Marie getting a new series on Alzheimer's disease and slightly that you know someone living with Alzheimer's or someone who is caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease you're are abused insists from the Alzheimer's Association in two thousand Thirteen fifteen point five million valley members of friends provided seventeen point seven billion hours of unsafe care those with Alzheimer's and other dimensions care valued at over two hundred and twenty billion dollars nearly sixteen percent of Alzheimer's and dementia caregivers rate emotional stress of caregiving as I berry is more than one third reports symptoms of depression because Alzheimer's affects so many people and it's not just the person living with the disease but also their family members and caregivers I wanted to devote a few episodes to this important topic I guess today is him you worked in the Field Jerry College as a lecturer at professional for thirty years she holds a masters degree in Gerontology and a bachelors and says geology cal state fullerton. She is a program in education specialist with Alzheimer's Orange County or she is responsible for developing and present nineteen programs in education or families and professionals throughout the community additionally she.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"You're not active you're rescues increase if you're active see if you'll you'll whiskies more normal say keeping busy active you wait till cholesterol blood pressure things keeping sexually integrated as well it's waiting boston will you're doing here and roadrunner on the right is hype hopefully with differing are risk of alzheimer's disease cages jumps from from alzheimer's research uk thanks very much for joining us now to finish at times the question of the week on healed yard has been searching for an answer to this vital question from mark is it possible how so many blood transfusions you'll your blood type change is an interesting question we put it to a foreign policy he didn't think was possible christian evan said you need a bone marrow transplant change of blood type so we asked to subject give up from the university of cambridge a blood cells divide eating to read some white sell tickets photo bledsoe's carrying identity coddle itself is made up of different proteins or sugar colby's look groups the most important and one in blood groups into one carried by the red cells and he can you'll be combine to give someone a blood transfusion they tried to much the blue group of the red cells in the new blood with the red cells in the patient split so it gets tight aimed to someone who has taipei built in that body this is simple on otherwise a new blood cells will be destroyed very quickly by the patient's immune system and calls a really serious reaction but unimagined see you might not have a big fat put a hand in hospital emergency powers and surgical theaters will have access to emergency look backs that can be accessed very quickly for people who are bleeding any blood urgency and this is over blobs do open up group it's the most common booth cells can be given to both nations are headed they should who was group eight and a very big bleed after delivering her baby she had to have seventy six packs of blow over period of eight hours most of those were group each fact replenishes about hopefully to real blows and another there's a lot of rich five inches of love these patient basically led the whole blood volume seven times of by the time the bleed was under control she had led all a student aid cells and she only had a trump yourselves so we basically changed public rick but that changed only temporary over the phone rings three to four weeks the trump cheese osas gradually dissipated and replaced by a run nudie produced eight so that situation is very different from people who have regular and the slow transfusion for example when they had leukemia that we see jewish free packs of reptiles every two to three weeks into his cases we might do blobs i do not replace the whole blood for him several times over so to answer your question and can we change their blood group is trump fusion yes we can but only in a very rare emergency situation thanks that cedric is always tend to be positive about these things next time will be answering a question from alex i have several friends with huskies he claim that the fix the dough protects them not only from the cold but also from a hot summers dies well could this possibly be true well well if you think you know they say you could email chris at the naked scientists dot com find it on facebook's tweet and they could scientists oh you come joined the debate on our foreign naked scientists dot com slash form and that's it for this week thanks very much the other murphy who put the program together and to be sure to join us next time we'll be exploring the question of whether we're all living in the matrix weightlifting late that is on computer simulation somehow we predict the weather tomorrow and climate change nick century models of house cells and tissues work and even
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on The Peter Attia Drive
"You if they don't know what they clinical picture was they won't be able to say that this was what they referred to as a probable Alzheimer's disease. So when they see this act of the same pathology, and there's no heavy, and so did that did ration- they just they acknowledged that brain as possible Alzheimer's disease. So these created a circular definition to be cleared to close the loop on that analogy with heart disease. You would have to know that there are cases where patients have significant dementia that by all other metrics is consistent with Alzheimer's dementia. Not Lewy body or something else. And there is an absence of amyloid beta deposition, and what percentage approximately I know it's hard to know these things because we don't always get top-seed's. But in in your experience, what percentage of patients who die with? Or from Alzheimer's disease that his late onset? Do not have the distal pathologic features of Emily beta, they might iota the of patients that are the acknowledged as Alzheimer's disease. Pro Bowl timers sees when they die have the same level is not that they don't have because he's saying age related their position the same levels of all the patients are compatible age, and the only reason that they are label of Alzheimer's is because they had the dementia. The pathology cannot really tell them about of you gave these two pathologies blind to the medical diagnosis clinical examination. They won't be able to tell apar- which are the ones are actually demented them, which are not if you do it in a match there is a large the job better realty in pathologies are not quantitative. But the only is. An approximation you look at only a few sections through the court fix, and they gave us Orden proportion of the findings are found that you see as categories, but even when I have done this personally in two thousand one we baligian the journal narrow signs on his study where we use brains from people die from Alzheimer's, the main difference from my stall from what's been done before is that we were able to thing brains. We only have few hours after they individuals had thought I would gold very small plus Morton interval, and I was able to do these by collaborating with the institute in Arizona is a CD goals sunseed, the Aries ONA, and they have a sunset the health center, which actually ascribes to these amyloid than their dangle ideas. But what? With the would them was we were we traveled why bitches student we collected brains, controlled brains and brain so people have that diabled Simon's some of them we were able to collect them fresh right there, and were you and your team also blinded to the circumstances of the death prior to the autopsies being performed. No, what we did is weak elected all the brains, and they were is section then into pieces and these were frozen, and then one sample would remain there. I see I see everything in parallel. Yeah. Would be she appeared Walston and once the samples were cheap they were coded. But when we were there. No, we knew when somebody die because I had up all would be what certify they were dead. So that we could immediately. But when the pair wise results were evaluated the. Valuate tour was blind to the clinical circumstances of the patient's death. Yes. While we did in that study was we were not only interesting just looking at amyloid Blake's and narrow favourite tangles been Deng. We were interested in seeing is there any biochemical change that could account for these so-called Hypo metabolism this decrease in energy metabolism that is seeing early in. At sei, is it generally, well, regarded bring it back to some of your earlier work in pet. I assume it is generally agreed upon the patients who are in the stages of cognitive decline. Have Hypo functioning metabolism? So their pet scans show less glucose uptake in the brain that Jenrette acknowledged and not only if the pet.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on FoundMyFitness
"But typically their first symptoms are currying in the forties and fifties. They are often women. They are often April four, negative, although not always there, certainly people are able before positive who have this as you mentioned, they often have the low zinc, and then they typically present in a non amnesic way. Interestingly, unless they are homos Aus for e four in which case they do. The present typically with an amnesty presentation, but the ones who are for negative, typically present with problems as I mentioned earlier executive dysfunction. So I always ask people, are you having trouble organizing things? We had one person, for example, who was known for her tremendous organizing capability in as she started to to get the problem. She's just lost that she could not organize things that she could do before. It's a very common complaint, or as I said, people will say, oh, I can't calculate a tip anymore, or I can't pay the bills anymore. Anything that is math related or visual perception or word finding things like that. I, you mentioned April four times. Can you talk a little bit about just for for people listening and watching? You know what? April before is and it's it's, it's a gene right? And and so why, why? It plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease. So April Leipold protein is a really fascinating story. And of course, a professor Robert Bailey discovered this decades ago and it has turned out to be the most important should network risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, seventy. Five million Americans have a single copy of April four. And when I say that what I mean by that is everybody has two copies of either two, three or four and the most common one is three so common for people to be three, three as an example, however, about a quarter of the population. So about seventy five million Americans are have one copy of Abeille four and. That's actually the primordial one. It's the one that was present for about ninety six percent of hominids evolution. If you look at a chimp for example, it does not have a four, but the hominids do and still about twenty five percent of population today then about seven million Americans have two copies, so they're homos Avis for April four. Now if you have zero copy..
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on FoundMyFitness
"In addition, there are people we call type four who have more of a vascular component and then type five, which is more of a traumatic component, but they're really both related to these other ones. It's really about, do you have inflammation? Are you fighting something off? Do you have trophy support? And are you exposed to. Specific toxins. Well, and so. All of these different types of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease. They all sort of have some of the same thing machine pathological features like amyloid beta plaques, tau tangles, right between all of them all have amyloid plaques. They all have by definition tau tangles blood, the presentation can be different. Now, there are some overlaps the type ones and the type two's are typically amnesic presentations, more common with abo four, and that's true for the type one point fives as well. The type threes. The toxic ones are quite different. They often present with anonyme nesic presentation. It's executive dysfunction problems with calculation problem with visual perception, problems with word, finding so-called primary progressive, a Faiza, all of these things. They are really by parietal presentations as opposed to buy temporal presentations essentially. So these are. Have often been called cortisol presentations which have been noted for years by people like professor Mario Mendez to be typical in younger presentations of Alzheimer's and often in April four negative individuals. I think also read one in your paper where you did this metabolic profiling. There was very prominent zinc deficiency in that. Yes. So for reasons that we don't entirely understand yet many of the people with type three, the toxic subtype have low serum, zinc high copper, zinc ratios and low triglycerides to low triglycerides may turn out to be related to Malibu option. We don't know for sure yet, but we don't really understand why the people often have these low copper zinc ratios. What does that mean? The coppers. What? By copper's in Gratiot. Low zinc. Yeah. So as you know, copper and zinc actually are competitive. For example, in there. Absorption. And so too much of one actually is often associated with two little of another untypically in our society. As you know, most of us are deficient in zinc there actually about a billion people on earth is the estimate for zinc deficiency. It's a very common problem because if you have poor gastric acidity, which is common as we age, if you're taking is for for GERD, if you're taking something for for reflux, you won't absorb the zinc very well. If you have copper piping, which most of us do the copper will often compete with zinc. And so many people have a little too much copper and a little bit too little zinc. And in fact, it was noted over thirty years ago that people with high copper, zinc ratios tended to have dementia more than those with normal copper, zinc ratios. Wow. Says this, had this have something to do with it. I know there's like. Over what three hundred, five hundred different enzymes in the body that requires zinc, right? So this copper then bind to those enzymes and then sort of mess up the function or is that like the theory? So no, the the theory is that copper is, you know, a copper is a generator of free radicals. It is copper is can act like iron. In that sense. It has a free electron in the orbital, which does not occur with zinc. So in general, as you indicated in these various enzymes in its hundreds, just as you said, it is an important structural component and it has a very specific architecture with the enzymes that it served. So it is a is a structural thing in general in copper to my knowledge doesn't actually replace that. But for example, zinc is important in many things that are related to cognitive decline. It's important in diabetes. It's important in functioning of insulin. It's important, of course, in the trophy activity of insult. On and on and on. It's important in immune responses, so actually has many effects that are related to cognition. So may even just be a biomarker for something underlying going on right in this Pat in toxic insult type of Alzheimer's disease. You're talking about. It's something to keep in mind when you see that, especially if the person presents these people tend to be very distinctive. The people who have type three. So they tend to be young and we see them in their late forties mid-fifties very commonly. We've seen him as late as starting their first symptoms in the mid sixties..
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on FoundMyFitness
"Treat mild cognitive dementia and Alzheimer's disease. So thank you so much Dale having me here at your place. Thanks very much Rhonda. So maybe we can start a little bit by just talking about some of the. Characteristics and pathological distinguishing features of Alzheimer's disease, and maybe what you were thoughts are what can cause Alzheimer's disease leads to it. Right. So. It's a good point because cognitive decline, very common and Alzheimer's is the most common cause of cognitive decline ultimately dementia. And by definition, this means that you have amyloid plaques in the brain and FOSS four elated tau tangles. So those those are the two main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's. But as you can see, that doesn't tell you why you've got it. It just is something you look at the rain, and of course you can get something that looks virtually identical without the Loyd and you can get amyloid without the cognitive decline. So it's a marker, but it's an imperfect one. Yeah, that's a really good point. You brought up and do you have any thoughts on why? There are some people that do have amyloid plaques in their brain that aren't really demented and some others that just don't seem to handle it? Yeah, it's a great point. So here's the thing that the. The whole world is turning upside down. Now when it comes to our understanding of Alzheimer's, it's been over one hundred years. Of course going back to Ellis Alzheimer's publications back in one thousand nine hundred sixty one thousand nine hundred seven, and there hasn't been a good understanding of this disease. And of course amyloid has been for years vilified and there's no question it. It is a neuro toxin. It does have toxic effects. The surprise has been that this is also a protectant. It's actually something that is made by your brain when you have specific insults. And for example, professor Rudy Tanzi and professor Robert Moyer at Harvard too few years ago show that it is an anti microbial. It also is professor Ashley Bush showed a number of years ago. It's actually quite a good binder of dive Valent metals like copper, zinc and things like that iron. And we showed a number of years ago. It is also. Response to a reduction in traffic support. So you actually get a change in signaling. So there are multiple different insults and metabolic changes that lead the brain to produce this stuff. And so I think there's been confusion because it's clear that when you produce it, you're at this increased risk for having a degenerative process. But as you indicated, there are many people that produce it and they successfully are protecting themselves. They don't actually have. The downsizing was often been stated, is those who then have inflammation on top of that seemed to be the ones that do worse. And that's a very general idea. But really it is a, it is a set of things, and we identified in published a number of years ago, thirty six different factors all contribute this, but they actually break down into just a couple of categories. So any sort of pathogens anything that's giving you inflammation, whether you have it because you have a leaky gut or because you have PG. Vallis in your brain or because you have beryllium of Lyme disease or you've been exposed to specific fungi, things like that. All of these things can engender that response. And in fact, we think more and more of amyloid as being like, napalm, you got the bad guys coming across the border. So you're now going to put down stuff that kills the bad guys the napalm. But in so doing, you're now going to reduce your air soil, you're now living in a smaller country, and that's exactly what's going on in the brain. You are downsizing the overall network. So that's what we call type one or inflammatory or hot Alzheimer's, and I should mention I, it turns out IRA Veda physicians from thousands of years ago, recognized dementia that was related to something that was hot, that was abnormally ultimately inflammatory as well as that that was related to dry us, which is what we call type two. Where you have decreased trophy support. It can be nerve growth factor. Brain derived neurotrophic factor, Estra dial.
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Healthcare Triage Podcast
"Otherwise, if one wants to Dell deeper there for our longest moments there are multiple instruments that can be built into a battery to do to go very very sensitive and nitty gritty and the memory tests. For instance, could be either a story read out loud a story packed with details. And then later tell me as much as you remember, and it's not easy. No, an or giving an individual ten or fifteen words exposure to these words several times. So they can learn them and then sometime later. Can you remember any of the words, I gave you, and that's that's why we find memory loss. What is your research focused on specifically high focus on imaging and genetic biomarkers? I've always done that over the last fifteen years, but even more recently now, I have focused on early onset Alzheimer's, the ones that affects the varying that affects patients that are younger than sixty five. I lead a national study called longitudinal early onset, Alzheimer's disease study or leads. We have seventeen institutions are dissipating fifteen sites across the country and wear enrolling individuals who are either cognitively impaired or conch deli normal ages forty to sixty four and we are collecting a host of information really clinical cognitive MRI amyloid tau pets, they imaging modalities. I was talking about we do blood. We do DNA so genetics. We do. Lumbar punctures and we follow along to be able to determine the rate of progression. And and other things about this unique cohort that is affected so early and will, of course, thirty four unknown genes and tap into novel biomarkers that can help us define this part of the disease better. But also potentially will be applicable to all of else Heimer disease in general, no funds kind of work the national suits in AJ. Okay. And so I mean, all of that is interesting from the sense. And it's you thinking about this will be more useful to help diagnose or do. You think that this will help drive treatment a lot of the work that you do. So both. We would like I where starting with an observational study. The study will run for twenty four months that means three visits baseline month money twenty four we will determine the rate of progression of those various I told you there are some variants that are more often associated with Earl. Early onset soul will be able to really define the disease variants better. And then we will have all these individuals plus more that are being referred to us ready for a trial. And if an individual is this young, you can imagine that they really don't have other pathology going on. So there is not much vascular disease. There are no not many other diseases affecting the body or the brain. They're pretty healthy the old they have is Alzheimer's. So that makes makes this cohort ideal for clinical trials. There is no noise from anything else that's going on. And the other kind of sad fact why they're a really great candidates for trials has that indecent visuals the diseases, really aggressive and progresses fast. And actually, that's what I wanted to ask next. So a typical course of Alzheimer's from diagnosis. How does it progress and how quickly so first individual center a memo? Sorry, only affected stage or memory, plus some other domains, we call it where there though functionally intact they can drive a car pay their bills, and that state is called mild cognitive impairment it can last few years. Those Ota unfortunate to develop dementia will progress you a stage where they can no longer drive or pay their bills or assemble tax records, all of these kind of things, and that is when we diagnose dementia and from the diagnosis of dementia to death, usually it's a to twelve years. That's seems like a pretty long time still. So how do people usually live at that stage today? Stay at home with help today to facilities. The might be able to better care for them. Is there or what else happens, I suppose on depends on the case and the family many individual stay at home in are taken care by family members..
"alzheimer disease" Discussed on Healthcare Triage Podcast
"Is to advance health in the state of Indiana and beyond by promoting innovation and excellence in education research in. Patient care today. We're gonna be talking about Alzheimer's disease in our guest is Liana Apostol ova who is in a row gised at school of medicine, and she's got some fancy titles, which I'm going to let her describe because she can do it much better than me. So please tell us a little bit about yourself. And my name is leeann Apostol ova in. I'm a professor at of neurology Indiana University and the Barbara in peer bag guard professor of Alzheimer's disease, research, great, I wanna start almost at the beginning. Because I I think that there's a general curiosity about Alzheimer's disease. And everybody sort of knows what it is. But people don't really know what it is. So if you had to explain to just someone off the street what what is Alzheimer's disease? How would you put it Alzheimer's disease is the most common disorder affecting cognition among the elderly? Okay. It's a common disease among those who are seventy and eighty year old although there are variants of it that affect people much much younger. It starts typically with memory loss at s-. Usually forgetfulness about recent events or information that was already presented so that the individual repeats asking the same questions repeats, this retails the same stories that kind of forgetful nece, rather than why where did I leave my keys, or what do they come in this room for which happens to all of us? Also, we often have people complaining about forgetting people's names that also is not exactly the same thing. It's more information that has been provided and it's completely lost. But not something like a personal name rather where we going or when is this event going to occur or the event already happened. But I have no recollection who was there in that even Islas there. So what causes it? Well, it's still under research the exact precise mechanism that Alzheimer's comes about. But it's wildly. Believed that a protein cold amyloid builds up in the brain beyond the levels that the body can officiant -ly take care of. And once this protein becomes elevated either overproduced or not clear dispatced has started depositing in the brain. And it's very toxic to the brain cells the areas that are affected I in. Most vulnerable are really those areas that take care of memory, but as the disease progresses, eventually many other cognitive aspects and and aspects of daily life become affected such as attention concentration ability for somebody to find their way or to express their thoughts and really operate independently in day to day living. So that seems like a pretty specific thing amyloid protein being deposited. So can other things mimic this or make cognition or the way that we think are the way. The remember look the same in. The elderly or anyone else or is it really just amyloid protein deposits in Alzheimer's. I mean can other prostes mimic that absolutely many other processes can mimic that which is why it's important for people with memory loss to come to the neurologist to us for an expert opinion, evaluation and advice and the workup will constitute of clinical and cognitive testing. And also brain scans and laboratory markers that are important to distinguish Alzheimer's from other diseases that can mimic the Stipe of condition. So there are ways that we can detect that there's amyloid protein being deposited in larger amounts at that through scans through lab tests. Yes, most certainly there are we do have both. We do we've always had a lumbar puncture, which is taking away some of the fluid that Bates the brain through the procedure conducted a lower back in sending that to announce side laboratory that can determine the levels of amyloid and the second. Alzheimer's protein, coal tau. The other more modern way is to image the brain inject, the radio ligon or a contrast. I that can label or bind to amyloid protein in the brain. And we can visualize it, and that has been already FDA approved the food and Drug administration has reviewed and determined it safe for clinical use the problem is that we still don't have insurance coverage. So is that how most cases of Alzheimer's are diagnosed today, or or is a lot of it's instilled on clinically where we give tests of condition intestine memory. And then assume that it's most likely to be Alzheimer's. How did they are most people getting laboratory tests or other tests like that so old people who come to us, especially Austin Rajasthan?.