19 Burst results for "Alexander Fleming"
The Medical World Of The Flu Epidemic of 1918
"We start though we should talk a little bit about what the world of medicine and what public health were like in nineteen eighteen. So in many parts of the world nations hadn't really standardized or regulated what was required for persons who call themselves a doctor so people practice medicine with all kinds of different credentials or with no credentials and patent medicines. Which really didn't have any medical value and were mostly alcohol and laudanum. Most of the time. We're still pretty prevalent. There was a lot of stuff floating around that was just not legitimate for treating anything and at this point. Alexander Fleming had not yet discovered penicillin. That was still a decade away in its use as a drug was even further out than land so penicillin wouldn't have helped the flu since influenza is a virus and penicillin kills bacteria but it might have helped some of the people who wound up with bacterial pneumonia after contracting the flu. And this is more just to sort of point out a milestone of where we were in medicine when this flu epidemic was happening. Yep So in spite of some of these things that we think of as basics today like requiring people to be trained to call themselves doctors and antibiotics and things like that things had really advanced a lot in the world of medicine over the past century before the epidemic started most parts of the industrialized world at this point had understood and accepted the germ theory of disease. So at this point pretty much everyone was on the same page in most places that germs cause disease and doctors had also figured out exactly which germs caused a number of diseases including Turkey losses. Malaria and cholera the idea of a reportable disease or one. So dangerous that all cases of it needed to be reported to government authorities also existed but even though there had been another serious flu epidemic a couple of decades before influenza wasn't really reportable in most places until this particular epidemic had gotten dyer and at that point it was too late for warning the government to do really any good. Yeah what they already knew. There was a big problem by the time people were able to start saying. Hey there is a big problem. Vaccines also existed. There was a vaccine for smallpox. There is a vaccine for rabies vaccines. Were also in the works and people really thought as the as the epidemic going a vaccine for the flu was just around the corner as we talked about in the encephalitis lethargic episode. Though figuring out how to make a vaccine for a disease when you don't know what's causing the disease is really hard and not only. The doctors not know what was causing the flu. They also had it pinned on a completely different germ. They thought it had a totally different. 'cause than it really did. Have so at the start of the epidemic the purported culprit for the flu was a bacterium that had been named Pfeiffer SPEC syllabus after its discoverer who was a German scientist named Robert Friedrich Pfeiffer and he made the connection between his back Sylla's and the flu but he hadn't really proved this connection and as the epidemic wore on it became abundantly clear that pfeiffer was wrong the back Sylla's he discovered was not present insect patient's and deliberately exposing people to it didn't give them the flu so even though an international team was dedicated to trying to create a vaccine none of their work proved effective and it I They were after the wrong germ and then they didn't have a good starting point. So all of this together combines to mean that when the flu turn really deadly in nineteen eighteen. There was not much that legitimate doctors could do for their patients besides to keep them in bed and keep them as sped hydrated and comfortable as possible the most most of the things that have any efficacy at all where about prevention which basically involved keeping the sick people quarantined and trying to educate people about how to keep themselves from being exposed and doctors knew that the flu has spread by coughing and sneezing so they gave the common sense advice about covering your nose and mouth and staying away from people who were coughing and sneezing. Oh and also telling people not to spit on the ground. So don't spit on the ground. Please you know their debates over whether that's a civil way to behave in general but Sick people don't know spitting it's gross and spreads illness so they're also a lot of public health campaigns that we're trying to get people who were sick to stay at home which probably sounds kind of familiar to win. There's a big flu outbreak today. They especially. We're trying to educate people who were sick to get them to stay away from crowds and businesses. Got It on the deal to try and to warn people who were ill to go home so assigned at one theater in Chicago. Red Influenza frequently complicated with pneumonia is prevalent at this time throughout America. This theater is cooperating with the Department of Health. You must do the same if you have a cold and are coughing and sneezing. Do not enter this theater and then in all capital letters go home and go to bed until you are well. That seems wise. Not all of the advice on prevention with sound though many people in public health recommended that people wear masks and some places even required that mask be worn by law. But this was in fact not effective. Your masks are kind of effective when there's bacteria involved but when it's a virus the viruses are just too
A Brief History of Staphylococcus Aureus
"Years ago. I acquired an infection in my left eye socket caused by the bacteria. Staphylococcus Aureus my vision clouded and then. My eye socket swelled shut and I ended up hospitalized for over a week how I experienced the same infection anytime in history before nineteen forty. I would've likely lost. Not just my I but my life then again I wouldn't have ever lived to acquire orbital so you lights because I would have died of the staph infections I had in childhood. Stella Aureus is not a normal part of the human microbiome but many people perhaps around a third are like me. Nonetheless hosts two colonies of it on our skin or in our nasal passages or in our digestive systems. These colonies are usually harmless but while anyone can get sick with staff those of us who live omitted. Every day are more likely to suffer infections. When I was in the hospital the infectious disease. Doctors made me feel very special. One told me you are colonized by some fascinating Lee. Aggressive Staff He told me I wouldn't believe the petri dishes if I saw them and went on to call my continued existence. A real testament to modern medicine. Which I suppose it is for. People like myself colonized by fascinating. The aggressive bacteria there can be no harkening back wistfully to pass Golden Ages. Because in all those pasts I would be dead in. Nineteen forty one. Boston city hospital reported in eighty two percent fatality rate. For staph infections. I remember as a child hearing phrases like only the strong survive and survival of the fittest and feeling terrified by them. Because I knew I was not fit or strong. I didn't yet know that when humanity protects the frail among us and works to ensure their survival the human project as a whole get stronger failing to understand that has held our species back for Millennia and in fact still does because staff often infects open wounds. It has been especially deadly during war near the beginning of world. War One. The English poet Rupert Brooke Famously wrote if I should die. Think only this of me that there's some corner of a foreign field that is forever. England Brookwood indeed die in the war in the winter of nineteen fifteen but not in some corner of a foreign field but instead on a hospital ship of a bacterial infection by then there were of course. Thousands of doctors treating the war's wounded and ill among them was a seventy one year old. Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogden who decades earlier had discovered and named Staphylococcus Ogden who sported a magnificent moustache throughout his adult. Life was a huge fan of Joseph. Lister WHO's observations about post surgical infection led to the use of carbolic acid and other sterilization techniques these dramatically increased surgical survival rates. In fact after visiting lister and learning from Him Ogden returned to his hospital in Aberdeen and tore down the sign above the operating room that read prepare to meet the God. No would surgery. Be a desperate last ditch effort. It could be safe and clean and survivable. Ogden was so obsessed with listers carbolic acid spray that his students wrote a poem about it. The spray the spray the antiseptic spray. A would shower it morning night and day for every sort of scratch where others would attach a sticking plaster patch. He gave the spray. It's all right but it's no Rupert Brooke. At any rate Ogden had good reason to give the spray. His first wife Mary. Jane had died after childbirth a few years earlier at the age of twenty five. There's no record her cause death but most maternal deaths at the time were caused by postpartum infection often due to staphylococcus aureus and dogs had hundreds of his patients die of post surgical infection so no wonder he was obsessed with antiseptic protocols. Still he wanted to understand not just how to prevent infection but also what precisely was causing it by the late. Eighteen seventies many discoveries were being made by surgeons and researchers about various bacteria and their role in infection but staphylococcus was not identified until Austin lanced a pus filled abscessed leg wound belonging to one James Davidson. Under the microscope. Davidson's abscess was brimming with life. Ogden wrote my delight may be conceived when there were revealed to me beautiful tangles tufts and chains of round organisms in great numbers. Ogden named these tufts and chains staphylococcus from the Greek word for bunches of grapes and they do often look like grape bunches plump and just a little bit oblong and also quite yellowish green. A few years later a German scientist noted that there were in fact several species of staphylococcus and named the one Ogden had found Staphylococcus Aureus or the golden staff but Ogden wasn't content with just seeing the bacteria. Obviously he wrote the first step to be taken was to make sure the organisms found. In Mr Davidson's pus were not there by chance. So he set up a laboratory in the shed behind his house and began trying to grow colonies of staff eventually succeeding by growing them. In the medium of a chicken egg he then injected the bacteria into guinea pigs and wild mice which became violently ill. Ogden also noted that staphylococcus seemed to be quote harmless on the surface despite being quote so deleterious when injected I have also observed this in so far as I am not much bothered by having my skin colonized by Staphylococcus Aureus but find it. Dilatot serious indeed when it starts replicating inside my eye socket. James Davidson by the way went on to live another forty years after his staph infection. Thanks to a thorough deriding and Ogden's liberal use of the spray the spray the antiseptic spray but staphylococcus aureus remained an exceptionally dangerous infection until another Scottish scientist Alexander. Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. Actually one Monday morning in nineteen twenty eight Fleming notice that one of his cultures of Staphylococcus aureus had been contaminated by a fungus penicillin them which seemed to have killed all the STAPH BACTERIA. He remarked allowed. That's funny Fleming. Then used what? He called his mould juice. I wish I were making that up to treat. Couple patients including during his assistance. Sinus infection but mass production of the antibiotic substance secreted by. Penicillin proved very challenging. It wasn't until the late nineteen thirties. That a group of scientists at Oxford began testing their penicillin stocks. I on mice and then in nineteen forty one on a human subject. A policeman named Albert Alexander who'd been cut by shrapnel during a German bombing raid and who was dying of bacterial infections in his case both staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. The penicillin caused a dramatic improvement in Alexander's condition but the researchers didn't have enough of the drug to save him. The infections returned and Alexander died in April of nineteen forty one. His seven-year-old daughter Sheila ended up in a local orphanage. Scientists began to seek out more productive strains of the mold and eventually found one on a cantaloupe in a Peoria Illinois grocery store that strain eventually became even more productive after being exposed to x rays and ultraviolet radiation. But essentially all penicillin. In the world descends from that mold on that one cantaloupe in Peoria. That's not the astounding thing about the story though the astounding thing is that after scraping off the mold that became the world's supply of penicillin the scientists in question eight the rest of the cantaloupe
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Plus this sustainable method of producing these nanno wires will make it easier to build the sort of devices. We're trying to make in hoping to make in the future <hes> he points out that we've been making the thimble sized has to mounts of the sort of you know wire materials that we need for for the future. We're trying to build but what we need. We need buckets of them. We need buckets of of these. Nanna wires in this is a possible means by which we can grow buckets. It's of Nanna wire. Oh it almost sounds like the early penicillin problem you know with the Oxford researchers in the lab and they were working with Alexander Fleming strain of penicillin. We talked about this in a recent episode of invention <hes> you know they could. They could create this penicillin penicillin A._M.. Fungus the the mold but they couldn't make enough of it that it would be useful like the first time they tried to treat somebody with it. who had a deadly infection? The the guy was successfully treated for a few days but the guy with the infection eventually died because they ran out of penicillin. They just couldn't make enough of it and they later <hes> only broke through as a medicine because the discovered a more productive strain that could make more of the stuff yeah I wanna come back to the <hes> the the <hes> the sustainability aspect of this too the idea here being that you could have these these devices in when they're done. You're not just like it's not going into a dump rise not potentially being you know part of some sort of toxic waste it is <hes> just has been you know biodegrading into the environment. Oh Yeah I mean electronic waste is actually a big deal. We you know we we don't see a lot of it but what happens to all these electronic components when we're done with them and the thing breaks and you just throw it away the possibility being able to grow these things I mean obviously that's a tremendous advantage yeah absolutely and ended. They'd be biodegradable. You just you know some other bacteria just eats them up when you're done <hes> but another thing that I've read about these elector active by bacterias materials that some of them are extremely good candidates for the Bio remediation of waste including toxic and radioactive ways where they can take something like a type of radioactive waste say like at a you know a type of uranium and they can through their. They're a metabolic process reduce that uranium to say a less soluble form so they're not going to completely destroy it but they might change it into a form that makes it less <hes> damaging to the environment in the same could would be true for other forms of pollution and another thing I've seen it referenced is the the idea of using bacteria like this to clean up oil spills. You know yes you can like eat eat hydrocarbons that are in places. They shouldn't be right plastic waste being another another big one yeah so it's it's interesting. We've been championing fun guy on the show for a little bit here and now it's it's <hes> bacteria time to shine. We're back in the land of Jubilee Yeah Jubilee being the D._N._d.. Demon Lord of Slimes and oozes which last episode we kind of associated loosely with bacteria and it is the archenemy of the Demon Lord of Fungus. I raised the flag of Jubilee for today my side all right so there we have it. <hes> there's various areas here where we could branch off so you know if you're interested in hearing more episodes back about bacteria or about <hes> various means of dealing with radioactive waste we would love to hear from you in the meantime checkout acceptable your mind dot com. That's where you find all the episodes and if you want to support the show you can tell some friends about it. Tell family members about it. Tell household pets about our show and then make sure you rate in review US wherever you have the power to do so huge thanks as always to our excellent audio producer Maya coal if you'd like to get in touch with us with feedback on this episode or any other to suggest a topic for the future or just
"alexander fleming" Discussed on MSNBC Rachel Maddow (audio)
"We turned on msnbc happy to have you with us this is alexander fleming he was born in scotland in eighteen eighty one was trained as a doctor and a research scientists nineteen fourteen his career was interrupted when he went off to serve in world war one i served for the duration of the war returned back in nineteen eighteen where he became a professor at saint mary's medical school in london which is where he had done his own medical training before the war alexander fleming's research was about bacteria and viruses and vaccines in nineteen twenty eight a in his lab at saint mary's alexander fleming had a very fortuitous and ultimately world changing encounter with some dirty dishes he had been working with a fairly nasty strain of staff bacteria syria in his lab when he found quite by accident that one of the culture plates he had been working west i guess had been neglecting and or or maybe somehow cross contaminated in any case it had starting to grow a little bit of mold it's an under normal circumstances that might be cause for drinking oh no this is spoiled or you know you'd be at least mildly grossed out certainly that would normally be cause for throwing that out are cleaning up that culture play but what i noticed that day in nineteen twenty eight and what ultimately changed the world and saved millions of live with that on that culture plate which he had been growing that stuff bacteria there was a little splash around about spot of mold an in that little splash spreading out from the edges of the mold there was no bacteria which meant it occurred to him that mold what's killing the bacteria and in that moment alexander forming asked that's the key question which is hey what's not old slumming ended up writing a paper about his discovery it was published the following year nineteen twenty nine to not much acclaim not much notice but years later almost a decade later scientists working out a lab at the university of oxford they came across alexander fleming's nineteen twenty nine paper and they decided that this previously fairly obscure discovery thing thing about the mold killing off the bacteria it looked like it might be promising and so those scientists at oxford decided to start working on it and over the course of nineteen thirty nine in nineteen forty and into nineteen forty one they turn that initial discovery into something very promising indeed speed because they end bacterial substance that alexander fleming had stumbled upon and discovered in that moldy dish a decade earlier with something that he called penicillin end by nineteen forty one those researchers at oxford had figured out how to turn that penicillin mold discovery into medical treatment and it was something quite close to eight miracle cure that could stop all kinds of infections and you know what that must have met at that particular time in that particular place right english researchers developing this miracle medical cure in nineteen forty one in england had just gone to war against germany in nineteen thirty nine and what have become the second world war by nineteen forty one things were not going awesome in that war disabled east right but this
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"What do you think is the greatest in instrumental coincidence in history? Discovery of penicillin. Tell me about that. Alexander Fleming in nineteen twenty one was looking for a way to help soldiers on the battlefield, not die of infections, because most of their more detriment sections, and actually getting blown up. They didn't have a way of doing it. The horse manure get into their wounds out in Horsfield's. So what, what was I going to do? He was a physician but a researcher and a drop of his nasal drippings fell on a Petri dish that had some bacteria growing on them. Some probably some streptococcus, and where where the nasal drippings fell the, the bacteria had died, and there was what he called a halo of, in addition, inside that circle there were no where where the liquid had four. And there were no alive bacteria, but you can't make an antibiotic of as not. Brent? So years, eight years later, and there's a lot more to it than, I'm going to be able to tell you sure a penicillin, mold fill on the same kind of Petri dishes. And while he was on vacation, and the timing was just right. And how did happen is like all kinds of things that went into this, but he saw that same, halo of Bishen, because this penicillin mold,.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Wow In the World
"It wasn't too bad heart coming into right behind you. Mindy step? What do you think of my home theater? Hugh could fit like three hundred people in here. I thought maybe it's a little too much. But then Reggie was like, please. I wanna have all my friends over to watch some old movie called the birds, and I was like this is for the birds. Okay, fine. Reggie you always get your way, this is so cool Mindy. Mindy? I'm back here guy Roz in the projector booth. Somebody's gotta run this bad. Boy, right. Boot up build projects are here. Should be business now. Okay. Hello and grandma Jeep or the Antar. Thank you for joining us today for updates on upcoming movies special deals and discounts on food. Please ask one of our attendance for information on how to sign up for. Okay, fine. Tonight's Bill will be antibiotic a history running commentary from yours. Truly running commentary sit back and relax as we take you through the history of molecular medicine. The year is nineteen twenty eight and Dr Alexander Fleming. A famous bacterial. Chemist? A famous bacterial gist. Bacter- lot numbers bacteriologist. Does this all night? Hang on a second guy Roz, Dr Alexander Fleming, famous bacteria back back Scott back ya. Are you trying to say bacteriologist they had? They had at that time. But you did mean a bacteriologist, right? A scientist who studies bacteria. Yeah. That's what I was trying to say. The movie back who's that back to the film? Win Vander returned home from his summer vacation to enjoy the Scottish. Found that his lab was a complete mess is a complete miss. And there he discovered that a mold called tennis Cillian datum had contaminated or poisoned all of his Petri dishes. Petri dishes, and many Petri dishes are those little discs of plastic or glass that scientists put bacteria and other things on. So they can look at them under the microscope. You got a guy Roz and when he put one of these moldy Petri dishes under the microscope. He noticed the penicillin mold had completely stopped the growth of the bacteria that he already had on that Petri dish, and what type of bacteria was that Mindy? It was a 'Bacterial called. Mindy isn't that a deadly disease, technically, it's a big family of bacteria guy, Roz and just like in most families? There are some members that are totally fine. But others, well, let's just say they're the kinds that can be a little cuckoo for cocoa pops. If you know what I mean to me, like, cure, and Mojo EAC, but unlike my aunt, Mojo, these guys don't stay out singing karaoke till three in the morning. Instead, the calls all kinds of problems for us humans everything from food poisoning skin infections. But you're right. They can sometimes turn deadly especially before Alexander Fleming's discovery high can imagine. Because before the discovery Venta biotechs things as simple as a paper cut or a scraped knee could be deadly because in wounds could let infectious bacteria life stuff. Exactly. Which is why Alexander Fleming's discovery was such a huge deal. So what happened next? Well. He spent the next few months just dealing away reading more and more of this tennis Ilian, mold twin toil toil toil toil and eventually he discovered that this mold could be used to create medicine that could not only stop staphylococci, but all sorts of other infectious bacterial diseases as well we aiding ruled first antibiotic medicine, cool it. Tennis in it. But that's not the end of story. It isn't not even close. Just find the fast forward button here. Wait a minute. New said you had the entire history of -biotics. I didn't think you literally had the entire one hundred years on. Oh, yeah. I got everything from that day. Alexander fleming. Found a worm and his apple..
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Science for the People
"In the barnyard because it was winter in the insects when longer present. So suddenly there are it's possible to keep chickens year round Jukes is part of this. He's a rising star into the Agra. Cultural nutrition and at the same time after he's been doing that for a while, several other things are happening. The first is the start of the antibiotic era. So I think everybody is some point here is the story of Alexander Fleming with his dishes of bacteria. Something blows in the window. Mold grows on his dishes in he realizes that what is excreted by the mold is killing the bacteria in his Petri dishes. And from that we get the first antibiotic penicillin which is a compound produced by the mold. When what I think most people don't know is that Fleming does that in nineteen twenty eight, but we don't actually get penicillin drug until the early nineteen forties. There's a long gap in which slimming does really know what to do with this compound. He is discovered, and then he gets some collaborators who figure it out. And the advent of World War Two makes it urgent to have something to cure people, especially soldiers on the battlefield. So penicillin in the early nineteen forties suddenly changes the world. And at the same time, the war ramp. Up enormously, the need for protein. So there's there's huge new infrastructure built in cattle pigs and poultry production to feed the troops that are deploying millions of troops all around the world, and then the war ends that infrastructure isn't needed anymore. There's a crash in the protein markets so that they need to reduce their costs. It's the beginning of the of the wonder drugs. People other manufacturers are following Fleming by by discovering streptomycin tetracycline and.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on After The Fact
"Need for more drug innovation. We've just been listening to a story about Alexander Fleming and the development of penicillin it's probably worth reminding people that was like less than a century ago. I mean, you know, there are people alive today who can remember the days without antibiotics, but the new thing we're starting to talk about beyond all of that is resistance to antibiotics. I will tell us what that actually means. And what the problem is. Yes. So bacteria are much older than we are billions of years old. And they've engaged in. Chemical warfare for long as they've been around. And so they're really good at defending themselves. And so when we start using antibiotics which are mostly natural molecules that kill the bacterial cells factor really good at picking up jeans that let them live in the presence of those antibiotics, and they're also really good at passing those genes around which means almost as soon as you develop a new of attic, the bacteria will start becoming resistant to them anytime, we use antibiotic we are helping to create resistance, which doesn't matter that's sort of the price you pay if you're using antibiotic treatment infection, what we have to be really sure we're doing is not using antibiotics when we don't need them. And it turns out that about thirty percent of the time. Those about IX that adults take for cold, or whatever are are unnecessary. Probably more than that. And it's leading to a serious problem. What are the numbers? Yeah. So the the numbers are surprised, and I think there's a tendency of people and policy may. This is a problem that if we don't do something someday, we'll have this problem. But the CDC actually has produced numbers that show that about two million Americans a year get a resistant infection and of those twenty three thousand die from that resistant infection. So that's not people who with resist infection. That's actually the cause. And those are pretty conservative estimates that the CDC has generated. So if you think about it that's the equivalent of jet plane crashing every week. But even more worrisome is how fast new resistant strains can emerge. I give you an example. So there's a bacteria called CRE, which has long acronym. But the somebody called it at one stage, the nightmare bacteria and that name sort of stock. So the this this CRA this nightmare bacteria shows up in the US the first time in North Carolina in two thousand one. So it's in one St. the next couple of years there are out Br. Aches in New York City, and then it starts to March across the country like a plague of locusts so by two thousand sixteen it's in forty eight states. Now this year, it's in all fifty states. And that is a is a bug that can really until recently only be treated with one drug and pretty old kind of toxic drug. And so as that bacteria starts to develop resistance to that drug all of a sudden, you have potentially and untreatable infection that's happening now..
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Part-Time Genius
"The rest of the time he spent being a great husband and father but apparently he did have this one white whale that he never conquered like all his life he tried to make a delicious frozen pancake but it just never happened no man but that is a great story thousand waffles in an hour just coming up with this motorized you that is really impressive and i i did not know that about the the man as company all right well i'm gonna stick with food theme and talk about the invention of one of the greatest snacks of all time mango i'm talking about none other than the cheese puff and i found the story from the tedium newsletter and just like alexander fleming and penicillin cheese puffs were were really more of a discovery than invention so i love your idea of comparing cheese puffs and penicillin like those things have equal way in human history yeah yeah fillins more important than you realize it's it's as important as she's okay this little company and beloit wisconsin where they made animal feed and so basically the company ran all their food through this industrial grinder to make the food softer for the cows so they could chew it more easily and then they would be able to eke out every last bit of corn that they were using and what came out the other end were these thin little flakes so the grinder worked pretty well but there were some kinks in the machine would get stock and so they were looking for ways to make the process a little bit smoother so what they did was you know sometimes the operators would moisten in the corn before it went through but is this one employee edward wilson noticed when the moi's corn hit the heat of the machine it actually puffed up on the other side without any of the kernels now since this was going to animals most people just went back to not moistening the corn and running it on through the wilson decided to try something out he took some of the puff corn home he seasoned it and then he tried it out to see how it tasted and then the process he created what he called corn curls and these were the predecessor to so many things we've got cheese was cheese doodles cheetos understanding so hungry thinking about it but for what it's worth the company decided to change their name to the atoms corporation and they shifted to being a snack company and they marketed their new cheese puff as quote the aristocrat of snacks and i can't think of fancy slogan is so so fancy anyway so what do you have next mango well one prison i'm grateful for.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on WNYC 820AM
"Ice listen let's actually here is the south of small very tiny bubbles that released from the glacier is in fact in the glacier is very tiny small bubbles forum to end the snow is falling and new and new layers are building the glacier is a third the compression this bubbles became very very small and when the glacier reaches the ocean waters all these bubbles are released to the ocean we've every bobble we can hear the characteristic noise and it's like an explosive explosion so every bubbles generates impulsive noise and that's why the this north area this area's close to the polar glaciers one of the loudest areas in the world ocean i'm a diver and if you are a diver you can hear the noise of melting of this popping bubbles when you are diving there and it's really fantastic and you feel like being in a different planet but with his submerged microphones it's our changing canada oscar hopes to better understand mapping out the pattern of melting changes across the its role in the dramatic collapse processes in the floating ice shelves in a couple of weeks he'll be back and it's foul bod refining his techniques for analyzing and interpreting the complex polo sam feels fiamma studio see succeeds it is a very complex region to understand you have the glaze sears the ocean the atmosphere they're all interacting and so we really need measurements that last multiple years to train our understanding and acoustics could be one of the tools that we use to make these measurements fiamma strenuous and you also heard cry acoustic version oscar gloviczki crate job title we finish with a piece of bacterial history a swab from the news of alexander fleming the discoverer of penicillin is just one sample in a historic and valuable collection of bacterial archetypes held in the uk accessible though to scientists around the world researchers.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Ice listen let's actually here is the south of small very tiny bubbles that are released from the glacier is in fact in the glacier is very tiny small baubles forum to end the snow is falling and new and new layers are building the glacier is a third the compression this became very very small and when the glacier reaches the ocean waters all these bubbles are released to the ocean we've every bubble we can hear the characteristic noise and it's like an explosive noise explosion so every bobble generates impulsive noise and that's why the this north area this area's clues to the polar glaciers one of the loudest areas in the world ocean i'm a diver and if you are a diverse you can hear the noise of the not of this popping bubbles when you are diving there and it's really fantastic and you feel like being in a different planet but with his submerged microphones it's our changing canada oscar hopes to better understand mapping out the pattern of melting changes across the its role in the dramatic collapse processes in the floating ice shelves in a couple of weeks he'll be back and refining his techniques for analyzing and interpreting the complex polar stanfield fiamma strenuous succeeds it is a very complex region to understand you have the glaze sears the ocean the atmosphere they're all interacting and so we really need measurements that last multiple years to train our understanding and acoustics could be one of the tools that we use to make these measurements fiamma strenuous and you also heard cry acoustic oscar gloviczki great job title we finished with a piece of bacterial history a swab from the nose of alexander fleming discoverer of penicillin is just one sample in a historic and valuable collection of bacterial archetypes held in the uk accessible though to scientists around the world researchers the welcome sign of genetics institute of now teamed up with the curator of this national collection of type cultures to produce a parallel library of bacterial genomes that julian told me what made the exercise worthwhile historically it's a very very interesting collection for microbiologists had some rarely fascinating historical strains in there so strange that were isolated by robert cock who is one of the microbiologist who first showed the bacterial pathogens that's a strain in.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on KQED Radio
"World each year experts have predicted it will eclipse the number of people affected by cancer by twenty fifty one of the biggest causes is the overuse of antibiotics on monday a group led by researchers from the center for disease dynamics economics and policy will at least a new study looking at the global consumption of antibiotics they found the use of antibiotics worldwide has increased sixty five percent from two thousand to twenty fifteen miles o'brien is here to help us understand this latest study miles i will just remind us how does the overuse of antibiotics lead to these resistant diseases sometimes called superbugs hello lisa yes what happens is antibiotics kill bacteria that make us sick that's the simple explanation but the bacteria over time evolve and develop an ability to survive the onslaught of the antibiotics they in essence get smart so over time bacteria survive that have resistance built into the antibiotic themselves alexander fleming who invented penicillin discovered penicillin just before world war two warned against its overuse precisely because of this here's a few more words about how antibiotic resistance works from dr helaba of the tufts university medical center resistance happens naturally so bacteria have various mechanisms to survive and so if they're presented with an environment that is not so good that is there's an antibiotic trying to break through their cell wall they might build stronger cell wall or they might there's an antibiotic coming in they might pump it out so they figure out ways to evade the effect of the antibiotic so this study should give us quite a bit of pause because it means with more antibiotics and use there are more bugs out there that develop the resistance so called superbugs and now we have a much better global picture of the scope of the problem that seems to be what's new here is just the scope of this study seventy six countries worth of data over fifteen years and where did they see the biggest increases in antibody views obviously globally but we're specifically so at least they found the.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on Radio Free Nashville
"To you is it has been volumes of books me about this tv shows made about it over fifty million dollars made own and a third of me i know of a third in the people have bath from this now let me start from the beginning i can make quick became with columbus but officially insists in the 1500s indiana they knew that this uh do he who's going around county gasoline named narrowed zeeks uh let's fastfood koa hour for tat okay some two fifteen wanted this tonight ten twenty two the early 1920s mr alexander fleming came up with uh the tunnel cylinder refined it took him a few years okay let's fastball little bit so during world war i wanted to hit lived in that people uh uh the things schilling that would q in this you to remember now they took pictures of how people die before they got shaath nafta so may at bush's only lifts mile oh and it will kill you safest main gonorrhea all of us the same thing i so they know it it in key all right let's fassel because i wanna make a quick now in night she in 1940s a m mark roe there harry truman right the ductless did this is written by military back and read it and and tell him we wanted to do something because the alabama ugo kartesky the experiment that will monitor this piece i was waiting for us to get to that these people have to get phil simmons not give it to the white fullback dig not give him to who they don't like they try to put it like it when the thing but it was it was the human thing leninist hassle so from nineteen 40s all away tonight to 722 when they went when this toes by lawyers about it at sea you don't know my job so i'm not going to get it and tell him about and they bring it up so that's when it was declassify okay on the wrist to nixon but nine years later ronald reagan came in and renamed at age i'm telling you you don't have to lead you don't have the you wouldn't believe people should keep in the heat and you will doubtless aides aids is ottowa at okay noncivilisation gonorrhea syphilis and gonorrhea are not the same thing they're they're caused by two different bacteria all right moved and.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"Since that actually some of the bugs getting resistant to modern disinfectants and it wouldn't be nice to go back to the and soap and just out and alcohol alone but then the other thing seems to be that we all know what we have to do about hygiene people get sloppy they forget the classic example is the rise of mrsa in hospitals and in the notice it rose to dreadfully high levels and that was paul handwashing particularly if staff but also of visitors and poor cleaning of hospitals equipments unit the lights around patient said dripstone said beds and everything we got on top of it with a massive campaign that was very expensive led by the chief nurse and down it came and we were proud of that but guess what a few years ago it started to rise again mrsa and then you do the the search and you find people have got sloppy again why is it we can't learn it what's and stick to it i think the people believed that infection is a problem of other countries poor countries and other people poor people not a problem that we all face when it comes as mentioned by sally recent scientific reports have found that resistance to komen disinfectants by some bacteria and viruses is on the rise to now in our newspapers but it's not just this resistance to disinfectants it is causing concern sonics this also the growing resistance to antibiotics how how big an issue is this really i mean it this isn't come quite unto listed is sort of came off the list of the development of of antibiotics too cheap bacterial infections but just taught me three that so we had cell phone of mines in the fertile and then penicillin with alexander fleming in the 40s and then his nobel prize except speech he predicted resistance and the people would die and one of the saddest things for me.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on The Majority Report with Sam Seder
"It was getting to this and i think may maybe a little bit jaded for the amount of time that i spend with uh with um would tort lawyers but what uh and product liability lawyers what did those other scientists say uh at that time they were veterinarians and they third uh this is going to create antibioticresistant in the animals that you're going to be feeding me antibiotics too and the results of that are unpredictable and they had good reason to believe that because just a few years earlier alexander fleming the scientists who who found penicillin warned in 1945 when he was accepting the nobel prize that if we did not conserve antibiotics and use them very carefully antibiotic resistance would result now he was talking about misusing them in human medicine in humans but the way he he describes what might happen he talks about someone going into the pharmacy and buying penicillin and dosing himself in under dosing himself he was describing without knowing it exactly what was going to happen in agriculture where where animals would receive these tiny doses too small to cure an infection that would nevertheless uh exert in effect on the bacteria in their systems and caused resistance to emerge let's talk about uh rymer door is it raven holt uh in seattle because this is this is where um we see we see where we get a notion of this and also discuss i i i don't have it in front of me the arc the process akron izing so yeah so this is this is um you know one once a process dart's to become profitable you sort of know how it's going to go right so so the the company that started this whole business if growthpromotion literally in the partries for which thomas ucs work which made the drug quartet recycler oreo mice and they apparently got the idea that if uh they they were selling.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM
"And that has ruined the careers of a number of professional athletes but it turned out there was a third epidemic and that was on farms and i actually tell a piece of that story in this new book big chicken that in two thousand four an epidemic of mersa linked to pigs began to spread among pig farmers in the netherlands and then moved into healthcare in the netherlands and then caused episode max across europe and eventually cross the canada and then to the united states and what made this so unusual is that the antibioticresistant signature of this particular strain the the drugs that it was resistant to were not drugs that were being used in medicine against mersa it was drugs that were being given to the pigs as part of the industrial farming conditions that they were being held at and that was a big red arrow pointing maybe for the first time with real clarity to an epidemic arising from antibiotic use in agriculture that could not be challenged in any way if there was only one explanation and that was the aggregate cultural use of antibiotics and it wasn't that epidemic coming you know years after i had first started looking at antibiotic resistance that really started me on the path that led to this book now um well i was surprised by certain components of this book and i'm sure you probably had some while i'll moments yourself so i wanted to say that i love the way you start this book you're in paris and you're eating this delicious chickens so you make this story so compelling and so interesting pageturners i think is the way they describe books like these you cannot put them down but i had learned is that alexander fleming of course who discovered penicillin i knew that he had warned it was an audience in new york and you write about it about the consequences of using these drugs carelessly penicillin.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on AM 1300 Business Radio KKOL
"Black play which took a third of europe the a third of europe died with the black plague and there was no better treatment for spanish flu then there was for the black plague so fast forward again to 1928 there's a scotsman by the name of alexander fleming who was searching for a cure to spanish flu and he was training a lot of things trying to find something that would react in cars the spanish flu buck to die so he was set up in a laboratory in his own house and had petri dishes said all the things you see in a laboratory not very sophisticated by today's standards but by those standards it was pretty elaborate and he left for vacation it was a warm time and he left the windows open and through the window some green mold flew in and contaminated those open petri dishes and when fleming got back he saw that this mold was growing and it was it in had an impact on the spanish flu bug and he began to work on it in isolated into a pure substance which called penicillin he tried it on animals and eventually a london policeman was a recipient the first recipient human recipient of penicillin but it was a very difficult product the mold was very temperamental the yield was low in isolation was difficult extraction was extremely difficult fleming discovered that in 1928 but it wasn't until the 1940s that they learned how to make penicillin and volume and that led to a major drug discovery and for most of the next fifty years the same methodology was used to fine drug candidates you don't many of the companies in nineteen eighty seven when i went to that biotech conference had build up libraries of potential compounds that would react to a disease a disease cell i can remember i think merck had 17 million different substances and they would go around the world and.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on AM 1300 Business Radio KKOL
"To the black plague which took a third of europe the a third of europe died with the black plague and there was no better treatment for spanish flu then there was for the black plague so fast again to 1928 there's a scotsman by the name of alexander fleming who is searching for a cure to spanish flu and it was train a lot of things trying to find something that would react in cars the spanish flu bug to die so he was set up in a laboratory in his own house and had petri dishes and all the things you see in a laboratory not very sophisticated by today's standards but by those standards it was pretty elaborate and he left for vacation it was a warm time and he left the windows open and through the window some green mold flew in and contaminated those open petri dishes and when fleming got back he saw that this mold was growing and it was it in had an impact on the spanish flu bug and he began to work on it in isolated into a pure substance which he called penicillin he tried it on animals and eventually a london policeman was a recipient the first recipient human recipient of penicillin but it was very difficult product the mold was very temperamental the yield was low in isolation was difficult extraction was extremely difficult fleming discovered that in 1928 but it wasn't until the 1940s that they learned how to make penicillin volume and that led to a major drug discovery and for most of the next fifty years the same methodology was used to fine drug candidates you don't many of the companies in mateen eighty seven when i went to that biotech conference have buildup libraries of potential compounds that would react to a disease a disease so i can remember i think merck had 17 million different substances and they would go around the world and they were pick up dirt from here an organic material from somewhere else they would build those into a drug library and then when the founded the disease that they wanted to work on friday defended drug candidate they would run it against fifteen or twenty million different samples and see if they got any reaction and the regular reaction from from dozens or hundreds and that it was.
"alexander fleming" Discussed on FRONTLINE: Audiocast | PBS
"Fifty years from today the cholesterol drugs we have now war just as well as they work today the cancer drugs we have now we'll work just as well as they do today that's true of all the other direct classes antibiotics are the only class of drugs that the more we use the more rapidly we lose when you use it it becomes less effective for me and vice versa that is the essence of antibiotic resistance the cdc's dr swing of arson the more you expose a bacteria to an antibiotic the greater the likelihood that the resistance to that in body going to develop so the more antibiotics we put into people we put into the environment the more opportunities we create create for these bacteria to become resistant but people forgot about the danger of resistance because the drugs were so effective and what they had forgotten was the warning that alexander fleming himself the man who discovered penicillin gave us a 1945 that resistance was already being seen and the more we wasted penicillin the war people were going to die of penicillin resistant infections bacterial resistance is largely inevitable but it's also something that we have certainly helped along the way we've fueled this fire of bacterial resistance these drugs are miracle drugs antibiotics that we have but we haven't taken good care of them public health officials estimate that one third of all antibiotic use in the us is either unnecessary or inappropriate.