18 Burst results for "Albert Alexander"

"albert alexander" Discussed on Forked Up: A Thug Kitchen Podcast

Forked Up: A Thug Kitchen Podcast

09:11 min | 7 months ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Forked Up: A Thug Kitchen Podcast

"The New York Post, and it's about a man who lost his penis to a blood infection and he had a new one built on his arm. So usually, I'm not a person to read these kind of medical. Forearm to yeah. So there's a picture of him with his right arm under his. Chin. He sitting on the lawn with his knees ups. BLERTA's. Forearm. Straight out and he's got Dick Hanging off of it that they blurred out. Like an immediate click for me like fucking immediate immediate, and we can't. We can attach dicks to arms but can't find a vaccine I. mean this has been really monopolizing. Okay. So he had a taint infection. Okay. and for some reason, this man was in the UK and he just did not go to the doctor. So you went into the article wanting to feel sorry for him because losing a Dick Sucks us just that you have my sympathy. But he had a taint infection that he did not go to the doctor about at all in a place where he had free health insurance and his penis went black and fell clean off, and there's a quote in the article. He said quote because I had been through the devastation of knowing I was going to lose it because it's penises turned black I, just picked it up and put it the bin when it fell off through. This should waiver. Age? And then eventually went to the doctor nowhere. That's organic material. You could throw that in the compost. Do you don't need to do that in the trash that's going to end up in a landfill? Seen. They've fabricate a new Dick yesterday made this new Dick, the article goes into it. Absolutely Love I. Love when there's instances like this, where you have to use the word, penis can't be like man loses rod reattached is the four. Yes. So he's he's been having. He's had this penis on his arm for four years. Jesus, and here. Wow. Maybe that's how long it took to grow or something. This is like one of the last paragraph in the article I'm GonNa. Just read it. fucking verbatim quote at the new penis has still not been attached four years after the procedure, due to a series of missed appointments, scheduling problems at this guy stuff shortages at the hospital, and lastly the coronavirus pandemic, what does it take to get this man to the hospital for his if his dick fell off and he still didn't go to fucking hospital if you're missing if you're missing literal Dick, appointments you lost a Dick due to. Negligence Your own. Your own negligence. You don't have my pity Sir Yeah, and then you get a new Dick Grown on your arm and you this appointments. Busy Lady. You're a busy lady I wonder sometimes when people get. Plastic surgeon until like it's a job. Yeah. I wonder if that's what it is. If the Surgeons Listen My work was immaculate this motherfucker ahead, three follow up appointments. I didn't see them ever again like. I can't believe that he threw it in the garbage. I can't believe how casual he was about his turning black and falling off his body, and I can't believe how nonchalant about walking around with a Dick on his forearm needlessly. Blake. The placement of it is I'm just filled with questions. So our you dude, intend to use this for its original purpose. They did say the Bulls he did not lose his balls in down there. The balls are intact. It's just a shaft uh-huh, and he will be able to Pe- through this. I mean I, guess that makes sense it. It's insane and it's on his forearm. So this man is having to cook with a walking in public like this with a Dick on his fucking forearm, like you lost one free to Google this. He? Lost? One Take arose doing. Google it, but do it in a incognito. Mother. All the men I sent it to did not respond very well, all the women I sent it to or like I'm a crying. because. You know there's already that stereotype that men won't go to the doctor, but also there's the stereotype that men are very attached to their penises. So it's like this is the perfect confluence. Shoot Perfect storm of. Problems. The Guy seems oddly proud again, they blurred the Dick, not this man's face. What is going on in the world, yeah. I. Yeah. No. I saw. You haven't twitter exchanges about. Criminally under reported story like. Yeah I mean with everything going on, I, think that story uses they a ray of sunshine in an otherwise bleak new cycle. You know I mean. It's delicious. That's enough about the forum. Pena's May never enough, but we'll. Come back into my. Let's get into some food his. is now time for this week in food history. Serious Shoot. So in our tour around the kitchen, I was trying to think of summer fruits and vegetables that maybe I could do a little history on and I came across something fucking incredible credible that I had never heard of. So we're going to talk about how one cantaloupe has saved millions and millions of lives are you ready? So we all know the story of how Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in nineteen, twenty eight. If you guys don't, I'll do a very quick refresher. The Scottish microbiologist returned to his laboratory following a summer holiday and found that all of his growth plates of staphylococcus bacteria had been contaminated with mold, but he noticed that wherever the mold is. is growing the bacteria cells had been killed, and then he figured it wasn't actually the mold that was killing him, but this juice byproduct and that the produced was just destroying the bacteria and this is what flemming named, Ellen, and boom. This was our first discovery of antibiotics like very set laboratory setting, but it wouldn't be until nineteen, thirty, nine that ernest chain and Sir Howard Florey managed to distill concentrated penicillin from mold. But by nineteen forty one, they were finally ready to treat their first human patient. So you can see like how long this took from the discovery of it to you know, okay. We're GONNA test this on people but due to the experimental nature. Nature, of this drug, they needed someone who was seriously ill if not like on death's door. So in nineteen, forty, one, Albert Alexander, a police constable in Oxford in the UK had scratched his face and that scratch had gotten really infected by both staphylococcus and streptococcus bacteria, and he lost an eye already to the infection, and he was getting more obsesses all across his face. So he was not long for this world. So they're like perfect candidate. So Alexander was given an intravenous infusion of one hundred and sixty milligrams of penicillin and within twenty four hours, his fever had resolved and he'd regained his strength and appetite and he was able to talk, but sadly, it was clear. Clear that the mold that they had been working with made very little amounts of penicillin, it took almost two thousand liters of mold culture fluid to obtain enough pure penicillin, treat a single case of substance in this person. So after five days of treating this man, the team ran out of penicillin and his condition quickly worsened and he died guys. This was the world we used to live in people died from a scratch on their fucking faces was that was in forty one. That's really not that long. Our grandparents were alive. Some of our parents may have been alive and yeah. So he he just died a little cut and because they couldn't make enough penicillin. So. was clearly promising going to be a miracle drug, but they needed a more effective way to produce the antibiotic which was badly needed. Since this was at the height of World War Two I read a statistic that in World War One, we lost eighteen percent of soldiers to Monja, and that could be treated with penicillin. So scientists all over the world sent in mold samples to laboratories hoping that they would help discover the mold that could make more penicillin. So on a hot summer day A. A laboratory assistant, Mary Hunt arrived with a cantaloupe that she picked up at a market that was covered in this golden mold in. Illinois. So she went to all the farmers markets in Pretoria and she was asking for all their moldy fruits and vegetables which the shop owners were super reluctant to sell her because it wasn't. You know their best stuff and she's like, no, no, no, no. Give it to me and they thought she was just an odd eccentric woman. You Adore with this cantaloupe. Business I have money you have..

Penicillin penicillin Dick Google UK BLERTA The New York Post Albert Alexander Jesus Pretoria laboratory assistant Alexander Fleming Mary Hunt Illinois Blake Bulls
"albert alexander" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

05:02 min | 10 months ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"It's kind of getting stuff wet with this this stuff that that that fights bacterial growth, but they couldn't isolate the compound that was causing the. The effect and stabilize it and make it make it generally useful so to quote from Aminov. Paper Aminov that I mentioned earlier quote for twelve years after his initial observation Alexander Fleming was trying to get chemists interested in resolving persisting problems with the purification and stability of the active substance and supplied the penicillin strain to anyone requesting it, but he really he, he could never cracked the nut oatmeal and he didn't finally make this discovery of the process I for stabilizing and isolating the compound and by nineteen forty. Aminov writes that fly. Ming finally abandoned his quest wood. Fortunately, it was right about that. That time that capable team at Oxford University, including the researchers Howard flurry in Ernst chain or Chine. They picked up on this research and they. They kicked off the research project that would eventually break through on this and they're all these interesting story, so of course, this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal, and there are all these stories about how they turned their lab, at Oxford into this giant incubation center, or factory for mold, like they employed all these lab assistants who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls. And they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs, and basically every container that they could And eventually they did. They were able to isolate and stabilize this compound so to quote from an Article from the American Chemical Society. In nineteen forty Flory, it'd be Howard Florey carried out vital experiments, showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February. Twelfth Nineteen, forty, one, a forty three year, old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses, and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting. Affecting his is facing lungs, penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery while, but unfortunately despite this recovery, which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander, eventually got worse again, and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course, they would. Would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him. and I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another important biochemist, a guy named Norman Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows. Shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin scale it that would be needed to even one person. Let alone. The whole world the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it, and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. concilium, which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the Penicillin Phil Trait, and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story I'd never heard about this The so the story goes like this..

penicillin Albert Alexander Oxford Penicillin Alexander Fleming Oxford University Aminov Howard Markel Oxford Howard Florey American Chemical Society Norman Heatley Ming Howard Flory University of Michigan Ernst
"albert alexander" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

02:41 min | 10 months ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Twelfth Nineteen, forty, one, a forty three year, old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses, and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting. Affecting his is facing lungs, penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery while, but unfortunately despite this recovery, which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander, eventually got worse again, and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course, they would. Would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him. and I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another important biochemist, a guy named Norman Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows. Shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin scale it that would be needed to even one person. Let alone. The whole world the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it, and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. concilium, which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the Penicillin Phil Trait, and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story I'd never heard about this The so the story goes like this. Apparently, one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day. Day In nineteen, forty, one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold, which is great, because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one but the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called penicillin. Chris. Chris O. GM with Markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and then later, markel writes the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab, so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much. Much insulin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine. All right on that note. We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back, we're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're going to look at it.

Oxford Penicillin penicillin Albert Alexander Howard Markel Oxford Norman Heatley Chris O. GM University of Michigan Markle
"albert alexander" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You

This Podcast Will Kill You

15:38 min | 10 months ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You

"As well as stabilize which made experiments much easier to perform and finally on May Twenty Fifth Nineteen Forty Penicillin was injected into four of eight mice. That had been infected with. Strep podge unease and the four that received treatment survived and seemed absolutely one hundred percent healthy and the four. That did not died a yeah and this was great news. I mean not for the mice that died but for the world but there is still this huge problem of production because although he had made amazing progress in the stabilization of penicillin he simply could not make enough of it to keep up with demand. And it's not like the lab had the funds to supply the materials or equipment to ramp up production So he resorted to stealing. He took bedpans from the hospital. Supply Cabinet and baking trays from the kitchen to supply this huge amount of space that he needed to grow the mold and he basically macgyver. D- His way through the purification process through a collection of random junk that he found in the lab. I love that. He is amazing. Beginners literally needed containers to grow molden. He's like yeah. I'll use this. I'll use that coup great. You're not using this. You haven't baked in a while. Yeah it's really impressive. And in the in the book that I read there are some like figures that show his setup and it's like the just amazing it's amazing. That's there's like so much more to all of these stories so and this is already a very long story but it's just fun and it's fun to like know about the individuals themselves and the personalities and how much personality as a role. Yeah it's very cool. Yeah so in. August of Nineteen Forty. Flory felt that he had enough to go public with this penicillin news and he published this research in an article in the Lancet titled Penicillin as Chemo. Therapeutic agent but at this point penicillin hadn't yet been tested in humans. Just mice I up with someone with terminal cancer but no bacterial infection. After receiving a shot of penicillin she developed a high fever in seizures and so that led them to realize that the process of concentrating penicillin also had this unintended side. Effect of concentrating impurities So they fixed it but instead of just testing to see whether it was safe injection. They also needed to test whether it was effective needed someone with an infection and they found one in an Oxford policeman named Albert Alexander who had scratched his face with a Rosebush while gardening over the course of the few months that small cut that tiny cut led to a massive infections. All OVER HIS BODY. He was quote oozing pus everywhere growth. I think his is like everywhere just everywhere one day after just one injection of two hundred milligrams of less than five percent pure penicillin will. He had made a miraculous improvement. The pus had stopped flowing and the fever had gone but the problem was still in keeping up the supply so the researchers had known that penicillin is excreted by the kidneys. They started to collect the policeman's urine and rush back to the lab to re purify them back to the hospital to reinject but they just couldn't keep up with demand they couldn't do it until the policemen died five days after once they ran out of penicillin just said but another person. A young kid that they treated survived later on. And so this was proof enough that it worked as long as you had enough of penicillin But there was never enough. Never Never Florey and Heatley needed more funds if they were ever going to make penicillin feasible treatment for infections and so they turn to a country that had the funds and the agricultural research infrastructure that they needed the United States after meeting with some friends slash fellow researchers about the work that they wanted to do. They came to the conclusion that they needed to head to the foremost site of agricultural research in the country the northern regional research lab in Peoria Illinois Peoria. That's like this is pure. Is the site for penicillin like from when it went from a novel. Potential thing to actual penicillin actual penicillin. Yeah Wow Peoria Uria. I wonder if they have that. Just like blazoned everywhere. All their bridges like penicillin salon was found deer. It wasn't down there but outskirts of Peoria. Never she streets So how exactly did penicillin go from medical curiosity to world changing substance? Yeah there are three big developments that would make this transformation. Possible number one. Finding strains of penicillin that produced the most penicillin number two developing the best protocol to rapidly. Grow the mold and number three improving the fermentation process that actually led to penicillin to find these turbo strains of penicillin a bacteriologist at the lab named Mary. Hunt went to Peoria markets like every day every weekend to find moldy fruits and vegetables like the veg market. She's just walking around farmers market lake. Don't worry I'm here for work. And she hit pay dirt. She had absolute in one thousand. Nine hundred eighty three with mouldy cantaloupe keen elope the mold on that cantaloupe was so powerful that it became the source for basically all of the world's penicillin and as for a better growth medium the Midwest. Us is known for what type of food Aaron corn corn the corn corn corn and corn corn corn and corn and it turned out that grilling penicillin in something called corn steep liquor. Plus sugar produced one thousand times more penicillin than the previous method. Wow that's a lot way to go corn way to go corn corn for the win but once again it came time to ground truth penicillin on Valentine's Day. Nineteen forty to a woman named Anne Miller was in the hospital in New Haven Connecticut. After experiencing a miscarriage she had developed Blood Poisoning Aka hemolytic. Streptococcal septicemia her. She had like fevers of one hundred seven. She was not coherent. It was really bad and her doctor ended up through a series of pleading calls. He ended up securing a small glass. Vile containing five point. Five grams of penicillin had come from that research lab. Five point five grams at the time. Nineteen forty two was half of the entire amount of penicillin in the US. Whoa he guest at a dosage. 'cause he there's no Renault guidelines and he injected the drug into an. She survived the night and the next day and the next day and the next fifty seven years after that. Wow yet her chart her medical chart from this. Time is actually in the Smithsonian's National Museum of American history. So you can go and see it. I love that museum. Yeah Oh it's amazing. Yeah and this marked a real turning point in penicillins history by nineteen forty two and nineteen forty-three many pharmaceutical companies in the US including Merck and Pfizer got into the penicillin Biz and worked on their own production processes meaning that mass manufacturing was just around the corner and so were massive profits just like heaps and tons and loads of money money money money money money money and where is the successful treatment of an Miller with penicillin had led to the biomedical industry. Taking note of the drug a horrific fire would wake up the public to it on November. Twenty eighth nineteen forty two and artificial palm tree at a Boston nightclub called the coconut grove caught fire and within minutes the entire club was consumed wo four hundred and ninety two of the over. One thousand partners died. Isn't that it's one of the one of the deadliest fires in in American history. That's terrifying. It's horrible and hundreds more were horrifically burned at mass general hospital. The doctors decided that rather than debris down of the burns. They would try to administer and sulfur drugs. It's hard to say whether the penicillin did perform the miracles on these burn victims as the newspapers later claimed but regardless it had now become firmly established in the public's eye as a wonder drug demand for penicillin reached new heights. But the mounds of this dry brown powder weren't just there for anyone to use because there is a war going on right and so basically until the war was over. Penicillin was strictly reserved for troops allied troops with most of the drug being used for wounds received in battle and also gonorrhea most civilians and there were a few exceptions. Wouldn't enjoy the benefits of penicillin until after the war was over and Australia would actually be the first company to open up. Its use to the public. Even with all of these amazing advancements in penicillin production. There is still one big piece of the puzzle that that had yet to be solved that of its structure so chain had made some progress towards this but only in that he could produce crystallized degradation products which he offered up to biochemist's Dorothy Crawford Hodgkin. Who had already made amazing amazing discoveries about the structure of many large complex organic molecules such as cholesterol testosterone? Epson insulin and many others using x Ray crystallography so with the crystals that chain had given her Hodgkin used x Ray crystallography to get a clear idea of the different components of penicillin. But a clear idea is not the same thing as a clear idea and without that clear idea penicillin would never be synthesized. In a lab where it could be produced in larger quantities. Were more stable. More pure and more efficient. The breakthrough came when Hodgkin proposed a Beta Lacombe ring necked. It's amazing and by all accounts just like Heatley not only amazingly brilliant researcher. She was also really kind and well loved by everyone who knew her. Oh I have a baby book that she is the letter D for skin. He's so that makes me happy. So anyway penicillin wouldn't be synthesized until nineteen fifty seven but knowing its structure was integral not too not just making it in a lab but also in trying to look for other compounds that have similar structures and could be used to treat bacterial infections so the recent that I spent so much time talking about penicillin in this history of antibiotics as a whole is because it provided this new framework for thinking about what these different antibiotics might look like and where you could look for them right so namely in the existence of other living things but as you talked about Aaron Penicillin acts on only a subset of bacterial. Species gram positives. It's not effective against gram negatives like you're sitting at pestis or limited trachomatis or vibrio cholera or acid fast bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis and up until the early nineteen the second leading cause of death in the US was bacterial. Pneumonia which could be caused by. A variety of gram positive and gram negative. Bacteria and tuberculosis wasn't much farther down the list. Sixth-place so the war bacteria was far from over and spoiler still not over today and besides penicillin years yielded more than just penicillin in terms of antibiotics to other drugs named Tiro Thrice and Grandma Sidon were developed from compounds produced by a soil bacterium. But there's a reason that those two might not sound familiar even though they're still occasionally used today. So one of these works by stopping proteins from being made as you had described and the other make cell membranes impermeable both of these things will definitely kill bacterial cells. But in these cases they also killed animal cells. So they're useless pretty limited but why important thing they did was give people a reason to look in soil for other possible antibiotics and whereas flemming's discovery of penicillin had been possibly fortuitous accident. The hunt for antibacterial compounds soil was grueling systematic trial and error search full of long days of hard work. Which is I mean. Let's face it. That's how most scientific developments actually happened right one of the people doing these long days of work and often even sleeping in the lab was a PhD candidate named Albert Schatz. His particular obsession was with acton. My CDs which is a group of soil bacteria and trying to find a compound to kill mycobacterium tuberculosis. And if you listen to our two regulus from way back in Season One. This story may sound a bit familiar to you. As we know to recuse is very deadly and at the time there was no cure so Schatz was basically exiled to do his work in the basement by himself. How dangerous he was. Culturing asus okay. Yeah but this isolation I guess paid off on October. Nineteenth nineteen forty three. He discovered that bacterium named streptomycetes gracieuse produced a substance that killed mycobacterium tuberculosis. And that substance is what we know as trump to mason stripped in my fan but just like with the early days of penicillin. There was a production issue. How do you make enough of the stuff to actually perform meaningful experiments? And that's where Schatz advisor Salman Wachsman leaned on the labs connection with Merck to enlist their help in ramping up production so eventually they were able to make enough streptomycin to test tested on. Guinea pigs infected with tuberculosis. And guess what it worked it worked. It also worked on humans which was again viewed as Miracle..

penicillin Penicillin Aaron Penicillin penicillin Biz United States Nineteen Forty Heatley Peoria Illinois Peoria Peoria researcher Anne Miller Merck tuberculosis septicemia miscarriage mass general hospital National Museum of American hi Albert Schatz Albert Alexander
"albert alexander" Discussed on Invention

Invention

14:56 min | 1 year ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Invention

"Seven W M Z Q in Washington DC or wherever the rotates you on the iheartradio APP. All right we're back now. We'll get to Alexander Fleming in a minute With the discovery of penicillin but Alexander Fleming was not the first person to notice that there might be some anti microbial. Properties of certain fungi. That's right there was there was work going on in this area of prior to Fleming Fleming was was picking up On some of it and and really just overall our understanding of fungi in general was advancing as we mentioned in our psychedelics episodes. You know there was a time where we did not recognize fun guy as being separate from the realm of plants right Before we realize that it was a kingdom unto itself in all ultimately kingdom. That has a little more in common with the the animal kingdom than it does with the plant kingdom and a lot of talented folks working in this area but one of them might come us as opposed to a lot of people in this because her name was Beatrix Potter the Bunny Rabbit. A bunny rabbits yes. Okay off the bunny rabbit fame. I was kind of a curious coincidence because I was reading about all this and then just randomly on the stuff to blow your mind discussion module. Which is the FACEBOOK Group for people? Listen to the show to discuss episodes. Someone brought up trix Potter in regards to something to do with squirrels. Because there's a lot of squirrel squirrel content in the discussion module and they brought a beatrix potter and Beatrix Potter actually ties in to this episode. A little bit because in addition to being the author and illustrator of the the tale of Peter Rabbit and associated British animal tales. She was also a naturalist with a great deal of interest in astronomy and most importantly of all my college ready so she produced a lot of just beautiful scientific watercolor illustrations. Various fungi in her neck of the British would part of her studies. And if you studied a lot of a local mold as well and did illustrations of them. She's she's a legitimately a very interesting character. That was you know. Unfortunately she lives in a time in which the sexism of the day prevented her from. I think reaching the heights of in the natural sciences that she would have been afforded later on But in a lot of her work is also just being. I think rediscovered in appreciated for the first time You know in recent decades but the yeah the next time someone busts out some the trix Potter A. Remember this is not just an individual who wrote some fanciful tales and illustrated them. She was also just issues out there. Studying the natural world and create a in in advancing our understanding of the my college. She was sort of looking into the hidden life of nature in multiple ways. Yeah you know I see some sources that are asking the question. Okay was Beatrix Potter. Sheer true naturalist a true natural scientists over she just a an amateur. That was just very interested in these things. And I don't know it's kind of complicated question to ask when you consider the limitations In the Victorian era for women but I think undoubtedly she she D- I would side with the fact that she was a natural scientist I mean she authored or co authored one paper if I remember correctly so I'm I'm GonNa give her giver full credit. Was it about a guy it was a it was a mushroom in particular I forget it was one of those related to the Russillo mushrooms but I forget which species but Basically she was she was kind of up against the Patriarchy for the most part though. Yeah well is it. Time to turn to penicillin itself. Yes let's turn to this the key discovery here and our inventor are discover Alexander Fleming. Okay so who was Alexander Fleming? Okay so Fleming was born in eighteen. Eighty one died in nineteen fifty five and he was a Scottish biologist. Physician microbiologist and pharmacologist. He was the son of a farmer and he observed and studied a great deal of death from Sepsis in World War One. He observed that while antiseptics worked well at the surface deeper wounds sheltered bacteria from the effects of things like sulfur. Drugs right so if you have the kind of superficial wound you could clean it off pretty good and that might help protect you from From bacterial infection. But if you have a deep wound and say like dirty stuff it's of soil and other crud gets lodged deep in there. You might not be able to clean the wound out very well right. And it's exactly the kind of stuff that's going to get lodged in there especially with your war wounds where there is a stab or or or deep cutoff or a bullet entering the body. We'll makes me think about The when we were reading about the idea of stegosaurus perhaps weaponized. I mean not consciously stegosaurus perhaps Having an adaptation to weaponize infection against its enemies oh by dragging its dagga demise or spikes through the Dung right exactly yeah having dirty. Bagga miser spikes and then when it wax the T. rex in the crotch with them that That gets infected later and eliminates a Predator from the area and The the the predators of the day would not have had access antibiotics certainly not or even that beer from and we mentioned earlier so Fleming was devoted himself to research and he Prior to penicillin he discovered license. Ximen naturally occurring enzyme mucus and other parts of the body than inhibits bacteria. So you know. He was already in this area. You know looking for for new New Breakthroughs new discoveries but then his biggest breakthrough of all is this discovery of penicillin. And it's truly one of the more amazing invention slash discovery moments from history because while he was exactly the right person to make the discovery and then deserves all the credit he was given the key. Moment comes down really to pure luck and we simply don't know if anyone else would have made the discovery if he had not been there to observe it. Okay so what happened with this discovery so around? Nineteen twenty seven or so. He had engaged himself in studying STAPHYLOCOCCI or staff and he had stacks of Petri dishes dish specimens in his lab which I've seen described as being kind of an untidy lab a- petri dishes full staff all over the place notes and so forth and so the key moment comes in September of Nineteen. Twenty eight right right so he has these staff petri dishes out and then he leaves them for the weekend to go on holiday with his family. Any when he comes back he expects to just see how they've progressed. See how they've grown but he finds that they haven't grown in fact they have died. Something has ravaged his specimens. Yeah now it's this is one of those stories where he gets very narrative is so you do have to wonder if some details of it or embellish to how how the story may have changed over time but is the way the story has been passed down and I think it seems to be largely basically true The way that I've seen the story often told us that he comes in. There's a blob of mold growing in one of the plates and all around the mold. There's this halo of nothingness. Swear you know normally what you would see is that if you've got a plate for culturing bacteria they would be these little dots and blobs on the on the plate but instead there's this halo where there's no bacteria bacterial dead zone now. Of course we know. Staphylococcus is a bacterium group linked to all kinds of human disease and misery. Staph infections right. If this mold could kill staff that seems medically relevant. So what happened here? Well He? He realized that he was dealing with some sort of a fungi. Luckily there was a my college est with a lab just below Fleming on the floor below his lab a man by the name of cj La Touche and in fact it's also been suspected that the mold and question that killed Fleming's the staff might have drifted up from a low shays lab adding extra element of weird chance to this whole situation. Okay so perhaps. His samples were contaminated by stuff from the lab next door or down a floor right. That's one that's not. That's not a theory that's presented in every source but it does pop up fairly frequently so specifically this mold was what would later be identified. As a strain of penicillin no tottenham and. It was obvious that it's secreted something that prevented staph bacteria from growing and so fleming followed up in studying the secretion. This this mold juice says I've seen it called he. He found that it didn't only prevent the growth of staphylococcus. It WORKED AGAINST COMMON. Bacteria like streptococcus or meningococcus and and the back and also against the bacterium that Causes Diptheria. Interestingly while Fleming did see applications for penicillin curing disease and he mentioned them briefly in the paper he published in nineteen twenty nine about this discovery about The antibacterial properties of concilium He primarily thought of this secretion of penicillin as a tool for bacteriologist to sort strains of bacteria basically into penicillin sensitive versus non penicillin sensitive species and that could be useful in the lab. Yes so he. Sometimes criticised is really not understanding completely what he had here not having the vision to see where could go well. I don't think he completely understood. He did indicate that this could possibly have uses in medicine right Fleming and his assistance Stewart. Craddock in Frederick Row Ridley tried for years to turn this accidental discovery into a stable isolated compound that would be useful and this. This was a problem because like so. You've got the secretion from the mold molds making some juice it's Kinda getting stuff wet with this stuff that that That fights bacterial growth. But they couldn't isolate the compound that was causing the effect and stabilize it and make it make it generally useful So to quote from Aminov Paper Aminov that I mentioned earlier quote for twelve years after his initial observation Alexander Fleming was trying to get chemists interested in resolving persisting problems with the purification and stability of the active substance and supplied the penicillin strain to anyone requesting it. But he really he he. He could never crack the nut ultimately and he didn't finally make this discovery of the process for For stabilizing and isolating the compound and by nineteen forty off rights that Fleming finally abandoned quest but fortunately it was right about that time that a capable team at Oxford University including the researchers Howard Florey and Ernst chain or Chine they Picked up on this research. And they they kicked off the research project. That would eventually break through on this And they're all these interesting story so of course this is wild World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal and then there are all these stories about how they turned their lab at Oxford into this giant incubation center or sort of factory for mold like they employed all these lab assistants were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls and they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs and basically every container that they could and Eventually they did they were able to isolate and stabilize this compound so to quote from an article From the American Chemical Society in Nineteen forty. Flory that'd be Howard. Florey carried out. Vital experiments showing penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February Twelfth Nineteen Forty One. A forty three year old policeman. Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin. He'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses and a developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his is facing lungs. Penicillin was injected and within days. He made a remarkable recovery. But unfortunately despite this recovery which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander eventually got worse again and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him. That after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course they would collect the urine and tried to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him And I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin and the mold juice was led by another Important biochemist a guy named number nine Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows and obvious early problem. They had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin at the scale it. That would be needed to treat. Even one person let alone the whole world The strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus penicillin. Which would maybe they thought produced higher concentrations of the penicillin filter rate and. I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story. I'd never heard about this So the story goes like this. Apparently one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day in nineteen forty one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold which is great. Because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one The mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of concilium called Penicillin Chris. Gm which Markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and then later markel writes that the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab so bombarding with X. Rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain. That would make two thousand times as much penicillin as the old school fleming. Mold so by Nineteen Forty. One Penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine. All right on that note. We're GONNA take a quick break and when we come back we're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're GONNA look at it in.

penicillin Alexander Fleming Penicillin Beatrix Potter Oxford Penicillin Nineteen Forty Oxford FACEBOOK Washington Howard Florey Albert Alexander Staph Nineteen Forty One Peter Rabbit University of Michigan Howard Markel Russillo scientist
"albert alexander" Discussed on The Anthropocene Reviewed

The Anthropocene Reviewed

09:43 min | 1 year ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on The Anthropocene Reviewed

"Years ago. I acquired an infection in my left eye socket caused by the bacteria. Staphylococcus Aureus my vision clouded and then. My eye socket swelled shut and I ended up hospitalized for over a week how I experienced the same infection anytime in history before nineteen forty. I would've likely lost. Not just my I but my life then again I wouldn't have ever lived to acquire orbital so you lights because I would have died of the staph infections I had in childhood. Stella Aureus is not a normal part of the human microbiome but many people perhaps around a third are like me. Nonetheless hosts two colonies of it on our skin or in our nasal passages or in our digestive systems. These colonies are usually harmless but while anyone can get sick with staff those of us who live omitted. Every day are more likely to suffer infections. When I was in the hospital the infectious disease. Doctors made me feel very special. One told me you are colonized by some fascinating Lee. Aggressive Staff He told me I wouldn't believe the petri dishes if I saw them and went on to call my continued existence. A real testament to modern medicine. Which I suppose it is for. People like myself colonized by fascinating. The aggressive bacteria there can be no harkening back wistfully to pass Golden Ages. Because in all those pasts I would be dead in. Nineteen forty one. Boston city hospital reported in eighty two percent fatality rate. For staph infections. I remember as a child hearing phrases like only the strong survive and survival of the fittest and feeling terrified by them. Because I knew I was not fit or strong. I didn't yet know that when humanity protects the frail among us and works to ensure their survival the human project as a whole get stronger failing to understand that has held our species back for Millennia and in fact still does because staff often infects open wounds. It has been especially deadly during war near the beginning of world. War One. The English poet Rupert Brooke Famously wrote if I should die. Think only this of me that there's some corner of a foreign field that is forever. England Brookwood indeed die in the war in the winter of nineteen fifteen but not in some corner of a foreign field but instead on a hospital ship of a bacterial infection by then there were of course. Thousands of doctors treating the war's wounded and ill among them was a seventy one year old. Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogden who decades earlier had discovered and named Staphylococcus Ogden who sported a magnificent moustache throughout his adult. Life was a huge fan of Joseph. Lister WHO's observations about post surgical infection led to the use of carbolic acid and other sterilization techniques these dramatically increased surgical survival rates. In fact after visiting lister and learning from Him Ogden returned to his hospital in Aberdeen and tore down the sign above the operating room that read prepare to meet the God. No would surgery. Be a desperate last ditch effort. It could be safe and clean and survivable. Ogden was so obsessed with listers carbolic acid spray that his students wrote a poem about it. The spray the spray the antiseptic spray. A would shower it morning night and day for every sort of scratch where others would attach a sticking plaster patch. He gave the spray. It's all right but it's no Rupert Brooke. At any rate Ogden had good reason to give the spray. His first wife Mary. Jane had died after childbirth a few years earlier at the age of twenty five. There's no record her cause death but most maternal deaths at the time were caused by postpartum infection often due to staphylococcus aureus and dogs had hundreds of his patients die of post surgical infection so no wonder he was obsessed with antiseptic protocols. Still he wanted to understand not just how to prevent infection but also what precisely was causing it by the late. Eighteen seventies many discoveries were being made by surgeons and researchers about various bacteria and their role in infection but staphylococcus was not identified until Austin lanced a pus filled abscessed leg wound belonging to one James Davidson. Under the microscope. Davidson's abscess was brimming with life. Ogden wrote my delight may be conceived when there were revealed to me beautiful tangles tufts and chains of round organisms in great numbers. Ogden named these tufts and chains staphylococcus from the Greek word for bunches of grapes and they do often look like grape bunches plump and just a little bit oblong and also quite yellowish green. A few years later a German scientist noted that there were in fact several species of staphylococcus and named the one Ogden had found Staphylococcus Aureus or the golden staff but Ogden wasn't content with just seeing the bacteria. Obviously he wrote the first step to be taken was to make sure the organisms found. In Mr Davidson's pus were not there by chance. So he set up a laboratory in the shed behind his house and began trying to grow colonies of staff eventually succeeding by growing them. In the medium of a chicken egg he then injected the bacteria into guinea pigs and wild mice which became violently ill. Ogden also noted that staphylococcus seemed to be quote harmless on the surface despite being quote so deleterious when injected I have also observed this in so far as I am not much bothered by having my skin colonized by Staphylococcus Aureus but find it. Dilatot serious indeed when it starts replicating inside my eye socket. James Davidson by the way went on to live another forty years after his staph infection. Thanks to a thorough deriding and Ogden's liberal use of the spray the spray the antiseptic spray but staphylococcus aureus remained an exceptionally dangerous infection until another Scottish scientist Alexander. Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. Actually one Monday morning in nineteen twenty eight Fleming notice that one of his cultures of Staphylococcus aureus had been contaminated by a fungus penicillin them which seemed to have killed all the STAPH BACTERIA. He remarked allowed. That's funny Fleming. Then used what? He called his mould juice. I wish I were making that up to treat. Couple patients including during his assistance. Sinus infection but mass production of the antibiotic substance secreted by. Penicillin proved very challenging. It wasn't until the late nineteen thirties. That a group of scientists at Oxford began testing their penicillin stocks. I on mice and then in nineteen forty one on a human subject. A policeman named Albert Alexander who'd been cut by shrapnel during a German bombing raid and who was dying of bacterial infections in his case both staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. The penicillin caused a dramatic improvement in Alexander's condition but the researchers didn't have enough of the drug to save him. The infections returned and Alexander died in April of nineteen forty one. His seven-year-old daughter Sheila ended up in a local orphanage. Scientists began to seek out more productive strains of the mold and eventually found one on a cantaloupe in a Peoria Illinois grocery store that strain eventually became even more productive after being exposed to x rays and ultraviolet radiation. But essentially all penicillin. In the world descends from that mold on that one cantaloupe in Peoria. That's not the astounding thing about the story though the astounding thing is that after scraping off the mold that became the world's supply of penicillin the scientists in question eight the rest of the cantaloupe.

Staphylococcus Ogden staphylococcus penicillin Stella Aureus Rupert Brooke James Davidson Sinus infection Albert Alexander scientist Peoria Boston city hospital Fleming Lee England Brookwood Peoria Illinois Aberdeen Sheila Joseph Oxford
A Brief History of Staphylococcus Aureus

The Anthropocene Reviewed

09:41 min | 1 year ago

A Brief History of Staphylococcus Aureus

"Years ago. I acquired an infection in my left eye socket caused by the bacteria. Staphylococcus Aureus my vision clouded and then. My eye socket swelled shut and I ended up hospitalized for over a week how I experienced the same infection anytime in history before nineteen forty. I would've likely lost. Not just my I but my life then again I wouldn't have ever lived to acquire orbital so you lights because I would have died of the staph infections I had in childhood. Stella Aureus is not a normal part of the human microbiome but many people perhaps around a third are like me. Nonetheless hosts two colonies of it on our skin or in our nasal passages or in our digestive systems. These colonies are usually harmless but while anyone can get sick with staff those of us who live omitted. Every day are more likely to suffer infections. When I was in the hospital the infectious disease. Doctors made me feel very special. One told me you are colonized by some fascinating Lee. Aggressive Staff He told me I wouldn't believe the petri dishes if I saw them and went on to call my continued existence. A real testament to modern medicine. Which I suppose it is for. People like myself colonized by fascinating. The aggressive bacteria there can be no harkening back wistfully to pass Golden Ages. Because in all those pasts I would be dead in. Nineteen forty one. Boston city hospital reported in eighty two percent fatality rate. For staph infections. I remember as a child hearing phrases like only the strong survive and survival of the fittest and feeling terrified by them. Because I knew I was not fit or strong. I didn't yet know that when humanity protects the frail among us and works to ensure their survival the human project as a whole get stronger failing to understand that has held our species back for Millennia and in fact still does because staff often infects open wounds. It has been especially deadly during war near the beginning of world. War One. The English poet Rupert Brooke Famously wrote if I should die. Think only this of me that there's some corner of a foreign field that is forever. England Brookwood indeed die in the war in the winter of nineteen fifteen but not in some corner of a foreign field but instead on a hospital ship of a bacterial infection by then there were of course. Thousands of doctors treating the war's wounded and ill among them was a seventy one year old. Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogden who decades earlier had discovered and named Staphylococcus Ogden who sported a magnificent moustache throughout his adult. Life was a huge fan of Joseph. Lister WHO's observations about post surgical infection led to the use of carbolic acid and other sterilization techniques these dramatically increased surgical survival rates. In fact after visiting lister and learning from Him Ogden returned to his hospital in Aberdeen and tore down the sign above the operating room that read prepare to meet the God. No would surgery. Be a desperate last ditch effort. It could be safe and clean and survivable. Ogden was so obsessed with listers carbolic acid spray that his students wrote a poem about it. The spray the spray the antiseptic spray. A would shower it morning night and day for every sort of scratch where others would attach a sticking plaster patch. He gave the spray. It's all right but it's no Rupert Brooke. At any rate Ogden had good reason to give the spray. His first wife Mary. Jane had died after childbirth a few years earlier at the age of twenty five. There's no record her cause death but most maternal deaths at the time were caused by postpartum infection often due to staphylococcus aureus and dogs had hundreds of his patients die of post surgical infection so no wonder he was obsessed with antiseptic protocols. Still he wanted to understand not just how to prevent infection but also what precisely was causing it by the late. Eighteen seventies many discoveries were being made by surgeons and researchers about various bacteria and their role in infection but staphylococcus was not identified until Austin lanced a pus filled abscessed leg wound belonging to one James Davidson. Under the microscope. Davidson's abscess was brimming with life. Ogden wrote my delight may be conceived when there were revealed to me beautiful tangles tufts and chains of round organisms in great numbers. Ogden named these tufts and chains staphylococcus from the Greek word for bunches of grapes and they do often look like grape bunches plump and just a little bit oblong and also quite yellowish green. A few years later a German scientist noted that there were in fact several species of staphylococcus and named the one Ogden had found Staphylococcus Aureus or the golden staff but Ogden wasn't content with just seeing the bacteria. Obviously he wrote the first step to be taken was to make sure the organisms found. In Mr Davidson's pus were not there by chance. So he set up a laboratory in the shed behind his house and began trying to grow colonies of staff eventually succeeding by growing them. In the medium of a chicken egg he then injected the bacteria into guinea pigs and wild mice which became violently ill. Ogden also noted that staphylococcus seemed to be quote harmless on the surface despite being quote so deleterious when injected I have also observed this in so far as I am not much bothered by having my skin colonized by Staphylococcus Aureus but find it. Dilatot serious indeed when it starts replicating inside my eye socket. James Davidson by the way went on to live another forty years after his staph infection. Thanks to a thorough deriding and Ogden's liberal use of the spray the spray the antiseptic spray but staphylococcus aureus remained an exceptionally dangerous infection until another Scottish scientist Alexander. Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. Actually one Monday morning in nineteen twenty eight Fleming notice that one of his cultures of Staphylococcus aureus had been contaminated by a fungus penicillin them which seemed to have killed all the STAPH BACTERIA. He remarked allowed. That's funny Fleming. Then used what? He called his mould juice. I wish I were making that up to treat. Couple patients including during his assistance. Sinus infection but mass production of the antibiotic substance secreted by. Penicillin proved very challenging. It wasn't until the late nineteen thirties. That a group of scientists at Oxford began testing their penicillin stocks. I on mice and then in nineteen forty one on a human subject. A policeman named Albert Alexander who'd been cut by shrapnel during a German bombing raid and who was dying of bacterial infections in his case both staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. The penicillin caused a dramatic improvement in Alexander's condition but the researchers didn't have enough of the drug to save him. The infections returned and Alexander died in April of nineteen forty one. His seven-year-old daughter Sheila ended up in a local orphanage. Scientists began to seek out more productive strains of the mold and eventually found one on a cantaloupe in a Peoria Illinois grocery store that strain eventually became even more productive after being exposed to x rays and ultraviolet radiation. But essentially all penicillin. In the world descends from that mold on that one cantaloupe in Peoria. That's not the astounding thing about the story though the astounding thing is that after scraping off the mold that became the world's supply of penicillin the scientists in question eight the rest of the cantaloupe

Staphylococcus Ogden Staphylococcus Penicillin Stella Aureus Rupert Brooke James Davidson Sinus Infection Albert Alexander Scientist Peoria Boston City Hospital Fleming LEE England Brookwood Peoria Illinois Aberdeen Sheila Joseph Oxford
"albert alexander" Discussed on Invention

Invention

03:59 min | 1 year ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Invention

"Fleming finally abandoned his quest but fortunately it was right about that time that a capable team at Oxford University including the researchers Howard Florey and Ernst chain or Chine they <hes> picked up on this research and they they kicked off the research project that would eventually break through on this <hes> and they're all these interesting story. So of course this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal and <hes> they're they're all all these stories about how they turned their lab at Oxford into this giant incubation center or sort of factory for mold like they employed all these lab assistants who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls half and they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs and basically every container that they could <hes> and eventually they did they were able to isolate and stabilize allies this compound so to quote from an Article <hes> from the American Chemical Society in Nineteen Forty Flory and that would be Howard Florey carried out vital experiments showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February twelfth nineteen forty one a forty three year old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses and developed a life <unk> threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his is facing lungs penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery well but unfortunately despite this recovery which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander eventually got worse again and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course they would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin he he excreted again so that it could be re administered to him <hes> and I should mention also that the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin and the mold juice was led by another important biochemist a guy named Norman Heatley ugly but this case of Albert Alexander shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale they simply lacked the ability to make penicillin at the scale it that would be needed to treat even one person let alone the whole world <hes> the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus penicillin which would maybe they thought produced higher concentrations of the penicillin filter eight and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan physician and Medical Historian Howard Markel that tells a really interesting story. I'd never heard about this. <hes> so the story goes like this apparently one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day in nineteen forty one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold which is great because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one <hes> the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called Penicillin Chris O._G._S._M.. Which markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and <hes> then later markel writes the the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much penicillin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine all right on that note? We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back? We're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're GONNA look at it <hes> in and I think a fun way by considering really interesting arresting. What if.

penicillin Howard Florey Oxford Howard Markel Albert Alexander Oxford University Fleming Norman Heatley American Chemical Society Flory University of Michigan markle forty three year one day
"albert alexander" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

TED Radio Hour

04:24 min | 2 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

"I'm a big fan of organic farming methods that tend to hold more moisture in the soil getting rid of lawns getting rid of things that kind of wastewater really conspicuously. Let's tighten up our infrastructure. Let's cover canals. So they don't have operated. Let's get the pipes leaks fixed. And there are lots and lots of things like that. We can do. Now when I talk about this people often, tell me, well isn't black the answer or Ganic food local food. She M O's new trade subsidies, new farm bills. And yeah, we we have a lot of good ideas here, but not any one of these is a silver bullet. In fact, what I think they are more like silver buckshot, and I love silver buckshot, you put it together. And you've got something really powerful, but we need to put them together. So what we have to do. I think is invent a new kind of culture that plans. The best ideas of commercial agriculture in the green revolution. With the best ideas of organic farming and local food and the best ideas of environmental conservation, not to have them fighting each other, but they have them collaborating together. But this is hard, right. I mean, take Gad people to focus on a problem. That's that's like not in their face. It doesn't seem so urgent. Well, I think a lot of folks would argue that you know, we're fighting millions of years of evolution. Homo sapiens, thousands of years of history as civilized humans that tells us that we should be out there exploiting resources. So we could survive to the next day Dow, but if it meant using a little more soil or a little more land or grabbing a few extra animals to eat that was her job. I mean, we went from all of human history, we were basically insignificant compared to the size of the earth. And now suddenly in one generation or so we've flipped it around. Now, humans are bigger than the earth are appetite for resources is bigger than what the earth can actually provide. That's never happened before. So we're trying to get as smart as possible in a generation or two to undo millions of years of evolution thousands of years of history. That's really hard. But we're getting smarter. Justice were also getting dumber about planet, and I'd like to tip the scales to see how we can make the smarter went out. That's John fully he's in college issed and the executive director of the California academy of sciences. You could see his entire talk at Ted dot NPR dot org. So on the show today. We're talking about finite resources. And here's a story about something. We don't normally think of as a resource at all we heard about it from Ramadan, lex Orion. He's an economist who studies the patterns of disease and the story begins in late December nineteen forty in Oxford England, and this this police Manute shows up at info Marie in Oxford and on his day off from work he'd been scratched by Reuss thown. Apparently, the policeman was a guy named Albert Alexander. And that little scratch had turned into a nasty infection is anti aside of his cheek is infected and swollen. His eyes was so badly infected that they had to take his eyes out. There's a giant abscess on his face. Remember back in nineteen forty infections were a leading cause of death. Most of the soldiers in major wars didn't die from being shot. They died from infected wounds if someone had an infection from simple scratch, they could just weeded out. There was a good chance of dying. But it just so happened that at alab not too far from this particular hospital in Oxford where Albert Alexander wound up researchers working on an experimental new drug which was capable of killing bacteria. It had been discovered purely by accident a couple of years earlier, and it was made from a type of mold. But the researchers didn't know if the drug was safe enough to use a human being had never been tested in by chance. They found out about Albert Alexander. And they figured this was going to die anyway. And so why not try out the drug and give them the drug the first day already? He starts looking a little better as appetite returns. Secondly, he looks a whole lot better day three even better day four much better..

Albert Alexander Oxford lex Orion Ganic M O California academy of sciences Oxford England John executive director Reuss thown Marie
"albert alexander" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

TED Radio Hour

04:24 min | 2 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

"I'm a big fan of organic farming methods that tend to hold more moisture in the soil getting rid of lawns getting rid of things that kind of wastewater really conspicuously. Let's tighten up our infrastructure. Let's cover canals. So they don't have operated. Let's get the pipes leaks fixed. And there are lots and lots of things like that. We can do. Now when I talk about this people often, tell me, well isn't black the answer or Ganic food local food. She M O's new trade subsidies, new farm bills. And yeah, we we have a lot of good ideas here, but not any one of these is a silver bullet. In fact, what I think they are more like silver buckshot, and I love silver buckshot, you put it together. And you've got something really powerful, but we need to put them together. So what we have to do. I think is invent a new kind of culture that plans. The best ideas of commercial agriculture in the green revolution. With the best ideas of organic farming and local food and the best ideas of environmental conservation, not to have them fighting each other, but they have them collaborating together. But this is hard, right. I mean, take Gad people to focus on a problem. That's that's like not in their face. It doesn't seem so urgent. Well, I think a lot of folks would argue that you know, we're fighting millions of years of evolution. Homo sapiens, thousands of years of history as civilized humans that tells us that we should be out there exploiting resources. So we could survive to the next day Dow, but if it meant using a little more soil or a little more land or grabbing a few extra animals to eat that was her job. I mean, we went from all of human history, we were basically insignificant compared to the size of the earth. And now suddenly in one generation or so we've flipped it around. Now, humans are bigger than the earth are appetite for resources is bigger than what the earth can actually provide. That's never happened before. So we're trying to get as smart as possible in a generation or two to undo millions of years of evolution thousands of years of history. That's really hard. But we're getting smarter. Justice were also getting dumber about planet, and I'd like to tip the scales to see how we can make the smarter went out. That's John fully he's in college issed and the executive director of the California academy of sciences. You could see his entire talk at Ted dot NPR dot org. So on the show today. We're talking about finite resources. And here's a story about something. We don't normally think of as a resource at all we heard about it from Ramadan, lex Orion. He's an economist who studies the patterns of disease and the story begins in late December nineteen forty in Oxford England, and this this police Manute shows up at info Marie in Oxford and on his day off from work he'd been scratched by Reuss thown. Apparently, the policeman was a guy named Albert Alexander. And that little scratch had turned into a nasty infection is anti aside of his cheek is infected and swollen. His eyes was so badly infected that they had to take his eyes out. There's a giant abscess on his face. Remember back in nineteen forty infections were a leading cause of death. Most of the soldiers in major wars didn't die from being shot. They died from infected wounds if someone had an infection from simple scratch, they could just weeded out. There was a good chance of dying. But it just so happened that at alab not too far from this particular hospital in Oxford where Albert Alexander wound up researchers working on an experimental new drug which was capable of killing bacteria. It had been discovered purely by accident a couple of years earlier, and it was made from a type of mold. But the researchers didn't know if the drug was safe enough to use a human being had never been tested in by chance. They found out about Albert Alexander. And they figured this was going to die anyway. And so why not try out the drug and give them the drug the first day already? He starts looking a little better as appetite returns. Secondly, he looks a whole lot better day three even better day four much better..

Albert Alexander Oxford lex Orion Ganic M O California academy of sciences Oxford England John executive director Reuss thown Marie
"albert alexander" Discussed on #WeThePeople LIVE

#WeThePeople LIVE

02:02 min | 3 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on #WeThePeople LIVE

"So terrified of dirt was because dirt could end your life people used to lose their limbs because of the kind of injury that your friend hands you know women used a die in childbirth routinely because of infections strep throat used to cause heart failure pneumonia killed three children out of every ten the very first human to get penicillin experimentally was a british policeman named albert alexander was he was from bush asli sick he had an incredible constellation of staph and strep infections he was covered in lesions doctors had to take out one of his is in the reason he was sick was like a lot of brits of his agent class he was a was tremendously enthusiastic gardener you'd gone out into the back the garden in the back of his row house to trim his roses and he scratched his face with a thorn in that thorne ended his life as there so little penicillin in the world that they gave him the first dozes ever received by person and for five days he got better and then the drug ran out and he taught did you say that new monia killed thirty percent of the children who got it yes wow that's amazing since i've had pneumonia and i know several people who've had pneumonia and it's unpleasant but there's no suggestion that it's gonna kill you fennell so there's some kind of a in terms of the overuse of antibiotics and you talking about the new delhi strain and the use of antibiotics in in poultry farms in china and places like that this is sort of a prisoner's dilemma kind of situation here right now it's not that it's a tragedy of the commons i guess that that everybody has everybody has an incentive to use it for their own personal gain and the the cost of overusing antibiotics is dispersed around everyone we face the same problem with climate change in every individual person's interest to have cheap energy that comes from.

pneumonia albert alexander staph thorne penicillin fennell china thirty percent five days
"albert alexander" Discussed on Wow In the World

Wow In the World

02:14 min | 3 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Wow In the World

"Exactly which is why alexander fleming's discovery was such a huge deal so what happened next well he spent the next few months just dealing away reading more and more of this tennis ilya mold toil toil toil toil and eventually he discovered that this mold could be used to create medicine that could not only stop staphylococci but all sorts of other fictious bacterial diseases as well we aiding world i antibody medicine cool it senate but that's not the end of story it isn't not even close just find the fast forward button here wait a minute said you had the entire history arctic's i didn't think you meant literally had the entire one hundred years on oh yeah i got everything from that day alexander fleming found a worm in his apple the woman to us talking about antibiotics in your backyard just a few minutes ago what i always wear a lab coat when i got of course you do but second what's too far let me just hit the rewind button here doc around nineteen forty one they're wrote this way so roy very good who's that mindy that guy roz is dr howard laurie he's just showing mr albert alexander into his lab oh albert alexander i know him he's the first person who was ever treated with antibiotics he got ripped by a rose thorn in his garden and then his cut got an vetted with staphylococci bacteria from fleming's lab yeah and even though alexander fleming had been able to combat small microscopic doses of staphylococci in his lab to treat a whole person that would take a lot more mole.

alexander fleming senate apple mindy roz roy dr howard laurie mr albert alexander one hundred years
"albert alexander" Discussed on Sawbones: A Marital Tour of Misguided Medicine

Sawbones: A Marital Tour of Misguided Medicine

02:02 min | 3 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on Sawbones: A Marital Tour of Misguided Medicine

"Doesn't seem like a smart idea um so that is what took a long time was to take that mold and isolate what is the compound in here that will help us treat infections and how can we do that just because something worked in a petri dish doesn't always mean it will work in the human body and even if it will making that happen is a that's a big process sleight of research goes into that so it took a long time it actually wasn't until 1940's to now we've jumped from 1928 to nineteen forty dead he was doing this research and he was publishing and another scientists dr howard florey who was a professor pathology at oxford university got really excited about it and said you know i think we can help with us so him and hit and another biochemist that he worked with dr ernst chain started working on this process how can we make more of this mold and isolate what in it will treat nina will kill the staff so the problem that and they they were very successful in doing this except that what they ran into is that it took them 2000 leaders of mold culture so they had to create two thousand leaders of this mold in the lab to isolate enough penicillin which was the key what that was what they call the compound that they found that inhibited the growth of bacteria to treat a single case of sepsis in a person uh that's a lot of mold lot annoyed to treat one person and they were having trouble overcoming that 'cause that what happened is they had this new thing they were using it in their lab in it seemed to work really well um and then there was a local case of a guy albert alexander who was a police constable who had been working in his rose garden when he nicked his face probably i'm assuming a thorn or something and he developed a really horrible say elitest from that infection of a skin and obsessed media big pocket of plus an infection under there he became septic he was dying and they were giving himself a drugs which were around at the time and.

oxford university dr ernst chain nina penicillin albert alexander dr howard florey professor
"albert alexander" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM

WHYR 96.9 FM

01:44 min | 3 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM

"And he was gardening and he stretched to face on a thorn on a rose bush and had caused fulminant infection that he his skin was ruined he lost an eye he could barely walk and he was almost cured by the first doses of penicillin except penicillin was very hard to make and they didn't have quite enough drug and so he died so in my own family there's a story migrate uncle died and nineteen 38 three years before albert alexander experiment from getting scratched and cut by something falling on him at work he was a fireman and the heavy whose novel on one of the fire hoses tumbled off the shelf and hit him and two weeks later he died of what we would now call septicemia the only treatment they had for him was transfusions people lined up who had worked with him in his firehouse to give transfusions hoping to dilute with at the time they thought of his blood poisoning so scratches were deadly childbirth was deadly cuts were deadly i remember my grandmother on the other side of the family being absolutely obsessed with handwashing and scrubbing the kitchen and scrubbing the floors and when i was growing up i thought this was absurd but i grew up with an antibiotic era and my grandmother was born just before it so anything that we think of now as just time not even risks than our daily lives could have ended our life back them and we run out of antibiotics it will again exactly you are destined to do this work i just might add that listeners if you're just joining us you're tuned into foods with radio where we are joined by maryn mckenna she is a wellknown author she has specialized in public health and food policy and.

penicillin maryn mckenna albert alexander public health nineteen 38 three years two weeks
"albert alexander" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM

WHYR 96.9 FM

02:31 min | 3 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM

"Uh a new york times reporter went to this dinner that was being given on his behalf and at this dinner that's what fleming said yeah moral responsibility will be attached to people or entities that caused resistant bacteria to come into the world and it's a really really powerful and and much less wellknown warning and it seemed to me that given the entire history of antibiotic use particularly in agriculture that this was a warning that deserved to be sounded again i totally agree i will encourage people to note that section of this book in particular and share those words because they are so critically important you want to paint a picture of what it was like before we had antibiotics i will i think it's so hard for us to imagine ourselves into this condition but it shouldn't be hard because if we're not more careful with antibiotics we may find our way back there again but almost every one that i know and you know would born within the antibiotic era rayo fleming the accident the lab accident essentially that causes fleming to identify penicillin happens to 1928 when opoku flee he leaves a window open in his lebar tree in london and something blues in the window onto the petri dishes of staff bacteria that he's working with and when he comes back later to clean those dishes off and reuse them because it's 1928 metal have plastics so they have to wash the glass often or use it he discovers that they're a little deadzone on the staff and let's caused the deadzone is at the centre of each deadzone there is a tiny speck of pedophilia mold and it has excreted a chemical that killed the staff so that's the very start of the antibiotic era even though penicillin doesn't really get developed as a drug untold 1943 gets rolled out on the battlefields of world war two and 1943 becomes available to the general public in about 1944 and is so remarkable that the nobel prize is awarded just one year later and 1945 so before penicillin the mildest infections things that we would not think twice about now were lifethreatening the first per them to get penicillin experimentally was a british police officer named albert alexander who like a lot of middleclass british people loved at the garden and he went out in his back garden.

reporter penicillin world war nobel prize officer albert alexander york times fleming opoku london one year
"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

02:08 min | 4 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Radio

"House as the exhibit has also brought to like you knew works he was us down desde by a collection of water colors and rawlings found in a room using stern france they were creations of artist albert alexander smith police officers who is also walking the a street soldiering world you know war i'm one if you're papers he you look was suspicious documentary so has you a black soldier need to happen on documented the life immigrant of that's his how the fellow role cool with i'm police soldiers when the los angeles i had police no idea cooperate these with these federal pieces law enforcement success with until other daniel sorts of crimes said if you are investigating rick terrorism guess what i for found example author or racketeering lind era of you interstate know spent crimes five any number of years things or researching her book forgotten about a black american division on the day every year thought she knew everything about african american soldiers in the two world wars until she came to this exhibit she points to a film showing the harlem hell fighters playing on a wall the world war one black regiment had a reputation for being ferocious in the trenches and were said to have introduced jazz to france and they played it is sad them masa yes the french national anthem for the first time in the two areas to a chance pete astounding the fans who heard until that never heard such a thing here we're seeing the hell fighter is on about plying their instruments can fall army address in the scene then arriving back in new york city here i'm just i've never seen a started sources extraordinary for reasons he movie is pouring over the paintings and rich historic details of the exhibit he says many french people today have a deformed and i just the lives of black americans when move with him in it will be could do shows of host time he enough to all we hear about it trounced him in order of young blackmon's as morning and it's exhibit shows the tragedy but also the fantastic human adventure of the african american experience eleanor paris we are thankful on this thanksgiving morning that you're listening to your public radio station which brings here morning edition you can turn into all things considered later this afternoon you can keep up with us all the time on social media among other places on twitter were i'm empty aren't skit davis and green.

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"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

02:30 min | 4 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Good morning i'm david and then i shouldn't it there was a time when some african americans frustrated by segregating in the united states found greater freedom in france times of changed but there is this connection a residents between france and black americans and now paris is the location of a new exhibit of the works a black american artists like jacob lawrence lemaire beard and and face wrangled when you hear about their work and the story what you're really hearing are some lessons in american history and p our zone are beard slid reports when curators daniel should tv set out to put together innings a bit of the works of black american artists he realized he needed to provide context the french he says are not familiar with the history of things like jim crow segregated and that shaped african american art jim cause that doesn't mean any seeing for for us on so i had the idea that this show really work well would need and you spots you know these took command finish and the color line as the exhibited the in these and this called offers some six hundred original works in documents relating not only to art like to send among literature photography and music richard powell as an art his story in it duke university he consulted with see team on the exhibit this exhibitions amazing in the something kind of some pull the same time something quite remarkable by providing a history lesson through um african american are house as the exhibit has also brought to like you knew works he was us founded by a collection of water colors and rawlings found in a room museum in eastern france they were creations of artist albert alexander smith who is also a soldiering world war one he was document in as a black soldier the line if of his fellow i'm soldiers i had no idea these these pieces success until daniel said riddick guess what i author lind era viewers spent five years researching her book forgotten about a black american division on the day thought she knew everything about african american soldiers in the two world wars until she came to this exhibit he points to a film showing the harlem hell fighters playing on a wall the world war one black regiment had a reputation for being ferocious in the trenches and were said to have introduced jazz to france.

african americans united states france jacob lawrence lemaire beard jim crow richard powell rawlings albert alexander smith world war daniel david paris lind harlem five years
"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Public Radio

KQED Public Radio

02:11 min | 4 years ago

"albert alexander" Discussed on KQED Public Radio

"Up researchers working on in experimental new trot which was capable of coming back here it can discovered purely by accident a couple of years earlier going was made from a type of mold but the researchers didn't know if a drug was safe and have to use i mean human being it it never been tested and by chance they found out about albert alexander and they figure this person is going to die anyway and so why not try with his drug and the differences drug the first day already starts looking a little better as appetite returns secondary he looks a whole lot better they three even better day forming much better fifty it looks like the manly actually live and then they try not a pederson than kind of chilling the very first antibiotics we were not a pena so um and that much he died well but you have to remember this was such a remarkable experimented even worked out because somehow those drug worked in the spring shouldn't and opened up this and died hero of medicine everything that we know is mother medicine pretty goes back to that particular dak win out but that would sounded live to because offensively and that was the start of the antibiotics revolution the fact that you could keep and infection it be from the ball beat meant that you could not the from surgeries you could perform long so trees and because of that you could have concerts months you could have the route can out all of these will meet possible by the fact that we have mountain buyout to keep track met on a patiently a miracle trotted i mean arguably the one of the most effective impart medical advancements in human history so usually and the maddux completely transform team in my stands overnight but the antibiotics revolution is starting to unravel according to the center's for disease control twice as many americans now die each year from infections that can't be cured with antibiotics than from ha the eight and that problem is getting worse in fact even as recently as say fifty you know eighteen years.

albert alexander maddux eighteen years