10 Burst results for "18 75 Page Act"

"18 75 page act" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

09:24 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on KQED Radio

"As they immigrated to these shores. This is one of the ways in which American racism works. Asian Americans have been identified as foreigners rather than citizens. Erika Lee is director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It's the history of the expulsion of all of Seattle's Chinese and Chinese American residents in 18 86. It's the story of how hundreds of people were intimidated and then forced under armed guard to leave their homes and businesses. Herded together and forced to board a steamship out of town in 18 86. This episode is hardly ever taught in our history books, It's almost impossible. To find any monument or recognition or plaque or any historical marker. Related to this brutal history in Seattle, a city known for its progressiveness, a city that in the early 20th century marketed itself as a gateway to the Orient. This is nothing to bash on Seattle. It's just a reflection of the violence and then a racer that exists and that continues to endure. Relationship to Asian American history. The injustice, she says, particularly marginalized women, the stereotypes in the media images that permeate American popular culture. From the 19th century up through the present either focus on the Asian Dragon Lady, the madam who runs the whorehouse or the degraded Asian female prostitute or the submissive geisha who finds fulfillment in serving typically a white male. Partner or customer, or the well meaning Vietnamese prostitute from the Vietnam War era films. Stereotypes firmly cemented, Lee says. With the expansion of the American Empire, we have had such a long term heavy presence of U. S military and Okinawa in South Korea, the Philippines and the resulting sex, trade and sex work that has exploited Asian women. It's part of that culture of that military experience of the culture of US empire. Not only did American culture fetishize Asian women here and abroad U. S policies meted out collective punishment based on ethnic stereotypes and nothing more. We have not just excluded Asian immigrants, but the very first group that we actually barred from the United States were Asian immigrant women. Because of this idea that they were either prostitutes or potential prostitutes. This is the 18 75 Page Act, which was our first federal immigration law passed in the U. S. But if we're discussing the paradox of both exploiting and punishing Asian Americans for the same supposed sins Wrap your head around this. The same immigrant group excoriated by society was later embraced as a shining example for all ethnic groups of how to successfully integrate into the dominant white economy and culture. Jason Oliver Chang is associate professor of history as well as Asian and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. He says that a half century ago, Asian Americans were dubiously characterized as model immigrants. When the 1965 heart seller Act was signed into law, by Lyndon B. Johnson Heart Seller Act established a new system. Governing U. S immigration by establishing a merit based approach that gave preferences to certain categories of people and eliminating the country quota numbers. And this dramatically opened up immigration to new flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia and then became the preferred mode of immigration for a number of companies from agribusiness to high tech companies. These flows of highly skilled immigrants fueled a dominant image of who Asian Americans were in this period of rapid growth for Asian migration. There's this immigrant cohort that on one hand, is welcomed with open arms. And yet simultaneously subject to discrimination and violence. Violence, which Didn't even register in the national psyche. One of the challenging things among many with the idea of the model minority is that by recognizing discrimination, you're being targeted for violence. It disrupts a national narrative about success about civil rights progress. And it disrupts a convenient story about how Asian Americans fit into a liberal progressive society. And so in some ways, the erasure of their experiences is required to maintain that image of Asian Americans as the diligent worker as the person who won't rock the boat. Is that eraser? Is it more like the failure to connect dots? Erika Lee spoke to us about the expulsion of Seattle's Chinese residents in 18 86. There was another sort of program in the 18 seventies in L A. Can you tell me about that? In 18 71 October 24. There was a conflict between Chinese people that led to the killing of a cop and another white resident. And that led to a majority of the residents threw around 500 people to descend onto the Chinatown where they killed between 17 and 20 people. I was able to read some first person testimony and just the gruesome details behind it just demonstrated a wholesale cleansing of a neighborhood grabbing Anyone at their disposal and lynching them in the streets on the premise that they were clearing out the impurities and making Los Angeles a safe place. Just gets back to that notion of eraser or at least of malignant indifference. This is a country that kind of savers. It's massacres. We all know about the ST Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. We know about Custer's last stand and the lynchings in the Jim Crow South. The Chinese massacre of 18 71. I'm embarrassed to say it's news to me. How does it come to pass that an entire society if I'm speaking for it? Fails to notice a crime so grave I think part of that comes from a deeply ingrained sense that Asians don't belong and that their history no matter how consequential important or Their contributions. However great they may have been are irrelevant to the understanding of the development of the United States. That master was 150 years ago. In the eighties, however, they were two other ghastly crimes. One the murder of Vincent Chin. In 1982 2 white men be chin to death a few days before his wedding Chin was Chinese, but he was blamed for the rise of Japan's auto industry at a time when America was losing manufacturing jobs. His killers essentially got away with it. They receive probation and the $3000 fine and a school shooting in Stockton, California, where all the victims were Southeast Asian refugees in 1989, a mass shooting at an elementary school in Stockton was the worst the nation had ever seen. Five Children were killed. 30 students and teachers wounded. These two events put together demonstrate that there is a sense of no consequence for practicing violence against Asians. It's really difficult to paint a detailed image of who Asian Americans are in a society which knows very little about why they're here. And so in that absence, atrocities and the attacks on Asian Americans appear random, chaotic and episodic. If part of the problem is invisibility. You have a plan, at least for your home state. What is it? That's right. We need.

Erika Lee Latin America Jason Oliver Chang 1982 Asia 1989 Los Angeles 18 75 Page Act Stockton Seattle 18 86 Vincent Chin $3000 19th century Chin South Korea United States Vietnam War 30 students early 20th century
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WBEZ Chicago

WBEZ Chicago

09:30 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WBEZ Chicago

"The past 140 years in American history of committing violence against Asians. Almost as soon as they immigrated to these shores. This is one of the ways in which American racism works. Asian Americans have been identified as foreigners rather than citizens. Erika Lee is director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It's the history of The expulsion of all of Seattle's Chinese and Chinese American residents in 18 86. It's the story of how hundreds of people were intimidated and then forced under armed guard to leave their homes and businesses. Herded together and forced to board a steamship out of town in 18 86. This episode is hardly ever taught. In our history books, it's almost impossible to find any monument or recognition or plaque or any historical marker. Related to this brutal history in Seattle, a city known for its progressiveness, a city that in the early 20th century marketed itself as a gateway to the Orient. This is nothing to bash on Seattle. It's just a reflection of the violence and then a racer that exists and that continues to endure in relationship to Asian American history. The injustice, she says, particularly marginalized women, the stereotypes in the media images that Permeate American popular culture from the 19th century up through the present either focus on the Asian Dragon Lady, The madam who runs the whorehouse or The degraded Asian female prostitute or the submissive geisha who finds fulfillment in serving typically a white male partner or customer, or the well meaning Vietnamese prostitute from the Vietnam War era films. The stereotypes firmly cemented, Lee says. With the expansion of the American Empire. We have had such a long term heavy presence of U. S. Military and Okinawa and South Korea, the Philippines and the resulting sex, trade and sex work that has exploited Asian women. It's part of that culture of that military experience of the culture of US empire. Not only did American culture fetishize Asian women here and abroad U. S policies made it out collective punishment based on Ethnic stereotypes and nothing more. We have not just excluded Asian immigrants, but the very first group that we actually barred from the United States were Asian immigrant women. Because of this idea that they were either prostitutes or potential prostitutes. This is the 18 75 Page Act, which was our first federal immigration law passed in the U. S. But if we're discussing the paradox of both exploiting and punishing Asian Americans for the same supposed sins, wrap your head around this, the same immigrant group excoriated by society. Was later embraced as a shining example for all ethnic groups of how to successfully integrate into the dominant white economy and culture. Jason Oliver Chang is associate professor of history as well as Asian and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. He says that a half century ago, Asian Americans were dubiously characterized as model immigrants. When the 1965 heart seller Act was signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson, the heart seller act established a new system. Governing U. S immigration by establishing a merit based approach that gave preferences to certain categories of people and eliminating the country quota numbers. And this dramatically opened up immigration to new flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia and then became the preferred mode of immigration for a number of companies from agribusiness to high tech companies. These flows of highly skilled immigrants fueled a dominant image of who Asian Americans were in this period of rapid growth for Asian migration. There's this immigrant cohort that on one hand, is welcomed with open arms. And yet simultaneously subject to discrimination and violence. Violence, which Didn't even register in the national psyche. One of the challenging things among many with the idea of the model minority is that by recognizing discrimination, you're being targeted for violence. It disrupts a national narrative about success about civil rights progress. And it disrupts a convenient story about how Asian Americans fit into a liberal progressive society. And so in some ways, the erasure of their experiences is required to maintain that image of Asian Americans as the diligent worker as the person who won't rock the boat. Is that a racialism or like the failure to connect dots? Erika Lee spoke to us about the expulsion of Seattle's Chinese residents in 18 86. There was another sort of program in the 18 seventies in the lake, and you tell me about that. In 18 71 October 24. There was a conflict between Chinese people that led to the killing of a cop and another white resident. And that led to a majority of the residents there around 500 people to descend onto the Chinatown where they killed between 17 and 20 people. I was able to read some first person testimony and just the gruesome details behind. It just demonstrated a wholesale cleansing of a neighborhood grabbing Anyone at their disposal and lynching them in the streets on the premise that they were clearing out the impurities and making Los Angeles a safe place. Just gets back to that notion of eraser or at least of malignant indifference. This is a country that kind of savers. It's massacres. We all know about the ST Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. We know about Custer's last stand and the lynchings in the Jim Crow South. The Chinese massacre of 18 71. I'm embarrassed to say it's news to me. How does it come to pass that an entire society if I'm speaking for it? Fails to notice a crime so grave I think part of that comes from a deeply ingrained sense that Asians don't belong and that their history no matter how consequential important or Their contributions. However great they may have been are irrelevant to the understanding of the development of the United States. That massacre was 150 years ago. In the eighties, however, they were two other ghastly crimes. One the murder of Vincent Chin. In 1982 2. White men beat Chin to death a few days before his wedding Chin was Chinese, but he was blamed for the rise of Japan's auto industry. At a time when America was losing manufacturing jobs. His killers essentially got away with it. They receive probation and the $3000 fine, and a school shooting in Stockton, California were all the victims were Southeast Asian refugees. 1989, a mass shooting at an elementary school in Stockton was the worst the nation had ever seen. Five Children were killed 30 students and teachers wounded these two events put together demonstrate that there is a sense of no consequence for practicing violence against Asians. It's really difficult to paint a detailed image of who Asian Americans are in a society which knows very little about why they're here. And so in that absence, atrocities and the attacks on Asian Americans appear random, chaotic and episodic. If part of the problem is invisibility. You have a plan, at least for your home state. What is it? That's right. We need.

Lyndon B. Johnson Jason Oliver Chang Erika Lee Latin America Asia 18 86 18 75 Page Act Stockton Vincent Chin 19th century Seattle 1982 30 students $3000 Los Angeles Immigration History Research C ST Valentine's Day Massacre early 20th century Chin United States
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

WABE 90.1 FM

07:39 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

"Approach harbor the incarceration of 100 and 20,000. Japanese Americans more recently. 9 11 fatal violent attacks on South Asian Sikh, Muslim and Arab Americans. So yellow peril. Rhetoric dictates that you scapegoat Asians and you scapegoat them violently. And you know you putting that in? Ah, larger historical context. You wrote that US culture has long presented Asian women as sexual lies objects for white male enjoyment. Can you talk a little bit more about that history because some people may not understand that or may not be aware of that. Sure so. In that piece. I talk about how the first Wave of Asian women to the United States and in this case, it was women from China. Retreated. And they were essentially bought and brought. Into sexual servitude. So they're immediately is an association of Asian women with sex. In fact, the very first law that we can say was discriminatory. Based on race was the 18 75 Page Act, which predated the 18 82 Exclusion Act. So The idea that Asian women are connected with sex started from the first arrival of Chinese immigrant women to the United States and then because of subsequent wars in Asian nations. And the way that women during war are used So again, this is not unique to the United States. We can certainly see the incidences of Korean comfort women during World War two and their abuse by the Japanese imperial Military has another example. But the images, especially in media in film, so if we take the rash of Vietnam War films from the mid The late eighties, where you have platoon and full metal jacket and hamburger hill and you're seeing images of Asian women who are either elderly peasant. Vietnamese speaking women or the approximation of Vietnamese in those films. And then younger women who are featured it as prostitutes. This is all contributing to this idea that whenever you're seeing Asian people two dimensionally Asian women. Prostitutes. And can you talk a bit about the page act? Because you know and reading about these attacks on Asian Americans I have read about In and knew about the Chinese Exclusion Act, which specifically banned Chinese workers from coming to the U. S. But I hadn't really heard about the page Act, which, as you said, came earlier than the Chinese exclusion Act. So I should say, really speaking about Chinese women, but I'm going to use use Asian so Chinese women as I as I mentioned majority, vast majority of them. Um, who came to California entered into sexual servitude, and the vast majority of them died in that sexual servitude. So Of course, what you have when you have women who are forced into sexual servitude is a rising disease, veneer, real disease, so in the public imagination of this time Chinese women, Asian women are diseased, and they're also so public health outcries about the impurity of Chinese women because the understanding Of disease in this period, especially was that somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese. And I want to really repeat that. Somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese, because that kind of rhetoric is exactly what we are seeing now. With Cove in 19. And and and so you have that embodied in the law of this country and in you know that is in the fabric of this country. And now you come to this point where you're seeing this sort of violent acts often against Asian women. How does that Feel at this point. And why do you think it hasn't been getting the attention? Perhaps other discrimination has So is complicated, and it's bound up into the model minority myth so My primary identification is Asian American, But that's pretty rare. Most people of Asian descent don't actually use the term Asian American as a primary motive identification other than Checking a box on the census identifies Asian American because for me, the choice of being Asian American is a political act, one that is rooted in social justice. What people don't seem to understand is that the term model minority coined in the 19 sixties by AH white man, William Peterson was actually used not to praise Japanese Americans, as his article seemed to suggest. But actually was a way to condemn black Americans who are agitating for social justice and civil rights at this time, So it was a way of saying, Like, Look at these Japanese Americans. We put them in camps and they didn't complain. They went willingly to prove their loyalty, and then we took them out of camps and they don't even speak English and they're so passive and docile and there the good model minority unlike these black people who are causing problems for our nation. So I think there's a lot of Asian Americans that aren't quite as politicized and understanding of this larger history of racism that Asian Americans have have experience from the time that they first set foot on U. S soil. I also think, and I've been doing numerous workshops on anti racism and anti Asian racism particular It's hard. To talk about how People are feeling vulnerable, who are Asian American at potentially being attacked? When you're seeing footage of countless numbers of black people who are really fatally Being targeted. And so when I speak to Asian American student groups in particular there, they don't want to feel like they're taking away from the vital conversation about anti black racism. At the same time, they are also suffering. And you talked about with one of our producers. You said that to be Asian in America is to be invisible. What did you mean by that? People don't know the stories of Asian Americans like when I was growing up in the 19 seventies 19 eighties in California, and look, California's is the state that's associated now with having a very large Asian population. But what I learned about the contribution of Asians to U. S history was that the Chinese built the railroad. Period. End of sentence. Chinese built the railroad, so the average American knows nothing about a very long history. Of Asians in America, and they don't know about the many different discriminatory laws and acts that have been passed and that the our ideas of citizenship Hinge on who Asian Americans.

William Peterson 18 75 Page Act 18 82 Exclusion Act China United States 19 sixties Chinese exclusion Act California Vietnam War America Chinese Exclusion Act World War two 100 U. S U. S. 19 seventies one mid The late eighties Chinese first
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

09:30 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"To the past 140 years in American history of committing violence against Asians. Almost as soon as they immigrated to these shores. This is one of the ways in which American racism works. Asian Americans have been identified as foreigners rather than citizens. Erika Lee is director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It's the history of The expulsion of all of Seattle's Chinese and Chinese American residents in 18 86. It's the story of how hundreds of people were intimidated and then forced under armed guard to leave their homes and businesses. Herded together and forced to board a steamship out of town in 18 86. This episode is hardly ever taught. In our history books, it's almost impossible to find any monument or recognition or plaque or any historical marker. Related to this brutal history in Seattle, a city known for its progressiveness, a city that in the early 20th century. Marketed itself as a gateway to the Orient. This is nothing to bash on Seattle. It's just a reflection of the violence and then a racer. That exists then that continues to endure in relationship to Asian American history. The injustice, she says, particularly marginalized women, the stereotypes in the media images that permeate American popular culture. From the 19th century up through the present either focus on the Asian Dragon Lady, the madam who runs the whorehouse or the degraded Asian female prostitute or the submissive geisha who finds fulfillment in serving typically a white male. Partner or customer, or the well meaning Vietnamese prostitute from the Vietnam War era films. The stereotypes firmly cemented, Lee says. With the expansion of the American Empire, we have had such a long term heavy presence of U. S military and Okinawa and South Korea, the Philippines and the resulting sex, trade and sex work that has exploited Asian women. It's part of that culture of that military experience of the culture of US empire. Not only did American culture fetishize Asian women here and abroad U. S policies meted out collective punishment based on ethnic stereotypes and nothing more. We have not just Excluded Asian immigrants. But the very first group that we actually barred from the United States were Asian immigrant women because of this idea that they were either Prostitutes or potential prostitutes. This is the 18 75 Page Act, which was our first federal immigration law passed in the U. S. But if we're discussing the paradox of both exploiting and punishing Asian Americans for the same supposed sins Wrap your head around this. The same immigrant group excoriated by society was later embraced as a shining example for all ethnic groups of how to successfully integrate into the dominant white economy and culture. Jason Oliver Chang is associate professor of history as well as Asian and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. He says that a half century ago, Asian Americans were dubiously characterized as model immigrants. When the 1965 heart seller Act was signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson, the heart seller act established a new system. Governing U. S immigration by establishing a merit based approach that gave preferences to certain categories of people and eliminating the country quota numbers. And this dramatically opened up immigration to new flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia and then became the preferred mode of immigration for a number of companies from agribusiness to high tech companies. These flows of highly skilled immigrants fueled a dominant image of who Asian Americans were in this period of rapid growth for Asian migration. There's this immigrant cohort that on one hand, is welcomed with open arms. And yet simultaneously subject to discrimination and violence. Violence, which Didn't even register in the national psyche. One of the challenging things among many with the idea of the model minority is that by recognizing discrimination, you're being targeted for violence. It disrupts a national narrative about success about civil rights progress. And it disrupts a convenient story about how Asian Americans fit into a liberal progressive society. And so in some ways, the erasure of their experiences is required to maintain that image of Asian Americans as the diligent worker as the person who won't rock the boat. Is that a racialism or like the failure to connect dots? Erika Lee spoke to us about the expulsion of Seattle's Chinese residents in 18 86. There was another sort of program in the 18 seventies in L A. Can you tell me about that? In 18 71 October 24. There was a conflict between Chinese people that led to the killing of a cop and another white resident. And that led to a majority of the residents who've around 500 people to descend onto the Chinatown where they killed between 17 and 20 people. I was able to read some first person testimony and just the gruesome details behind. It just demonstrated a wholesale cleansing of a neighborhood grabbing Anyone at their disposal and lynching them in the streets on the premise that they were clearing out the impurities and making Los Angeles a safe place. Just gets back to that notion of eraser or at least of malignant indifference. This is a country that kind of savers. It's massacres. We all know about the ST Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. We know about Custer's last stand and the lynchings in the Jim Crow South. The Chinese massacre of 18 71. I'm embarrassed to say it's news to me. How does it come to pass that an entire society if I'm speaking for it? Fails to notice a crime so grave I think part of that comes from a deeply ingrained sense that Asians don't belong and that their history no matter how consequential important or Their contributions. However great they may have then are irrelevant to the understanding of the development of the United States. That massacre was 150 years ago. In the eighties, however, they were two other ghastly crimes. One the murder of Vincent Chin. In 1982 2 white men be chin to death a few days before his wedding Chin was Chinese, but he was blamed for the rise of Japan's auto industry. At a time when America was losing manufacturing jobs. His killers essentially got away with it. They receive probation and the $3000 fine, and a school shooting in Stockton, California were all the victims were Southeast Asian refugees. 1989, a mass shooting at an elementary school in Stockton was the worst the nation had ever seen. Five Children were killed 30 students and teachers wounded these two events put together demonstrate that there is a sense of no consequence for practicing violence against Asians. It's really difficult to paint a detailed image of who Asian Americans are in a society which knows very little about why they're here. And so in that absence, atrocities and the attacks on Asian Americans appear random, chaotic and episodic. If part of the problem is invisibility. You have a plan, at least for your home state. What is it? That's right. We need.

Lyndon B. Johnson Jason Oliver Chang Erika Lee Latin America 19th century Chin Asia 1982 18 86 Stockton Seattle 30 students 18 75 Page Act $3000 Immigration History Research C United States Vincent Chin early 20th century ST Valentine's Day Massacre Lee
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

09:19 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Ways in which American racism works. Asian Americans have been identified as foreigners rather than citizens. Erika Lee is director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It's the history of The expulsion of all of Seattle's Chinese and Chinese American residents in 18 86. It's the story of how hundreds of people were intimidated and then forced under armed guard to leave their homes and businesses. Herded together and forced to board a steamship out of town in 18 86. This episode is hardly ever taught. In our history books, it's almost impossible to find any monument or recognition or plaque or any historical marker. Related to this brutal history in Seattle, a city known for its progressiveness, a city that in the early 20th century. Marketed itself as a gateway to the Orient. This is nothing to bash on Seattle. It's just a reflection of the violence and then a racer. That exists then that continues to endure in relationship to Asian American history. The injustice, she says, particularly marginalized women, the stereotypes in the media images that permeate American popular culture. From the 19th century up through the present either focus on the Asian Dragon Lady. The madam who Runs the whorehouse or the degraded Asian female prostitute or the submissive Geisha, who Finds fulfillment in serving typically a white male partner or customer, or the well meaning Vietnamese prostitute from the Vietnam War era films. Stereotypes firmly cemented, Lee says with the expansion of the American Empire. We have had such a long term heavy presence of U. S. Military and Okinawa and South Korea, the Philippines and the resulting sex, trade and sex work that has exploited Asian women. It's part of that culture of that. Military experience of the culture of US empire. Not only did American culture fetishize Asian women here and abroad U. S policies made it out collective punishment based on Ethnic stereotypes and nothing more. We have not just Excluded Asian immigrants. But the very first group that we actually barred from the United States were Asian immigrant women because of this idea that they were either Prostitutes or potential prostitutes. This is the 18 75 Page Act, which was our first federal immigration law passed in the U. S. But if we're discussing the paradox of both exploiting and punishing Asian Americans for the same supposed sins Wrap your head around this. The same immigrant group excoriated by society was later embraced as a shining example for all ethnic groups of how to successfully integrate into the dominant white economy and culture. Jason Oliver Chang is associate professor of history as well as Asian and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. He says that a half century ago, Asian Americans were dubiously characterized as model immigrants. When the 1965 Hearts seller Act was signed into law, by Lyndon B. Johnson Heart Seller Act established a new system. Governing U. S immigration by establishing a merit based approach that gave preferences to certain categories of people and eliminating the country quota numbers. And this dramatically opened up immigration to new flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia and then became the preferred mode of immigration for a number of companies from agribusiness to high tech companies. These flows of highly skilled immigrants fueled a dominant image of who Asian Americans were in this period of rapid growth for Asian migration. There's this immigrant cohort that on one hand, is welcomed with open arms. And yet simultaneously subject to discrimination and violence. Violence, which Didn't even register in the national psyche. One of the challenging things among many with the idea of the model minority is that by recognizing discrimination, you're being targeted for violence. It disrupts a national narrative about success about civil rights progress. And it disrupts a convenient story about how Asian Americans fit into a liberal progressive society. And so in some ways, the erasure of their experiences is required to maintain that image of Asian Americans as the diligent worker as the person who won't rock the boat. Is that a racialism or like the failure to connect dots? Erika Lee spoke to us about the expulsion of Seattle's Chinese residents in 18 86. There was another sort of program in the 18 seventies in the lake, and you tell me about that. In 18 71 October 24. There was a conflict between Chinese people that led to the killing of a cop and another white resident. And that led to a majority of the residents around 500 people to descend onto the Chinatown where they killed between 17 and 20 people. I was able to read some first person testimony and just the gruesome details behind it just demonstrated a wholesale cleansing of a neighborhood grabbing Anyone at their disposal and lynching them in the streets on the premise that they were clearing out the impurities and making Los Angeles a safe place. Just gets back to that notion of eraser or at least of malignant indifference. This is a country that kind of savers. It's massacres. We all know about the ST Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. We know about Custer's last stand and the lynchings in the Jim Crow South. The Chinese massacre of 18 71. I'm embarrassed to say it's news to me. How does it come to pass that an entire society if I'm speaking for it? Fails to notice a crime so grave I think part of that comes from a deeply ingrained sense that Asians don't belong and that their history no matter how consequential important or Their contributions. However great they may have been are irrelevant to the understanding of the development of the United States. That massacre was 150 years ago. In the eighties, however, they were two other ghastly crimes. One the murder of Vincent Chin. In 1982 2. White men beat Chin to death a few days before his wedding Chin was Chinese, but he was blamed for the rise of Japan's auto industry. At a time when America was losing manufacturing jobs. His killers essentially got away with it. They receive probation and a $3000 fine and a school shooting in Stockton, California were all the victims were Southeast Asian refugees. 1989, a mass shooting at an elementary school in Stockton was the worst the nation had ever seen. Five Children were killed 30 students and teachers wounded these two events put together demonstrate that there is a sense of no consequence for practicing violence against Asians. It's really difficult to paint a detailed image of who Asian Americans are in a society which knows very little about why they're here. And so in that absence, atrocities and the attacks on Asian Americans appear random, chaotic and episodic. If part of the problem is invisibility. You have a plan, at least for your home state. What is it? That's right. We need.

Erika Lee Latin America 18 75 Page Act Vincent Chin Jason Oliver Chang 1982 Asia Stockton 19th century Seattle Los Angeles $3000 1989 18 86 17 Lee Immigration History Research C early 20th century Vietnam War ST Valentine's Day Massacre
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

09:31 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Headlines to the past 140 years in American history of committing violence against Asians almost as soon as they immigrated to these shores. This is one of the ways in which American racism works. Asian Americans have been identified as foreigners rather than citizens. Erika Lee is director of the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It's the history of the expulsion of all of Seattle's Chinese and Chinese American residents in 18 86. It's the story of how hundreds of people were intimidated and then forced under armed guard to leave their homes and businesses. Herded together and forced to board a steamship out of town in 18 86. This episode is hardly ever taught. In our history books, it's almost impossible to find any monument or recognition or plaque or any historical marker. Related to this brutal history in Seattle, a city known for its progressiveness, a city that in the early 20th century. Marketed itself as a gateway to the Orient. This is nothing to bash on Seattle. It's just a reflection of the violence and then a racer. That exists then that continues to endure in relationship to Asian American history. The injustice, she says, particularly marginalized women, the stereotypes in the media images that permeate American popular culture. From the 19th century up through the present either focus on the Asian Dragon Lady, The madam who runs the whorehouse or The degraded Asian female prostitute or the submissive geisha who finds fulfillment in serving typically a white male. Partner or customer, or the well meaning Vietnamese prostitute from the Vietnam War era films. The stereotypes firmly cemented, Lee says. With the expansion of the American Empire, we have had such a long term heavy presence of U. S military and Okinawa and South Korea, the Philippines and the resulting sex, trade and sex work that has exploited Asian women. It's part of that culture of that. Military experience of the culture of US empire. Not only did American culture fetishize Asian women here and abroad U. S policies made it out collective punishment based on Ethnic stereotypes and nothing more. We have not just Excluded Asian immigrants. But the very first group that we actually barred from the United States were Asian immigrant women because of this idea that they were either Prostitutes or potential prostitutes. This is the 18 75 Page Act, which was our first federal immigration law passed in the U. S. But if we're discussing the paradox of both exploiting and punishing Asian Americans for the same supposed sins Wrap your head around this. The same immigrant group excoriated by society was later embraced as a shining example for all ethnic groups of how to successfully integrate into the dominant white economy and culture. Jason Oliver Chang is associate professor of history as well as Asian and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. He says that a half century ago, Asian Americans were dubiously characterized as model immigrants. When the 1965 heart seller Act was signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson, the heart seller act established a new system. Governing U. S immigration by establishing a merit based approach that gave preferences to certain categories of people and eliminating the country quota numbers. And this dramatically opened up immigration to new flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia and then became the preferred mode of immigration for a number of companies from agribusiness to high tech companies. These flows of highly skilled immigrants fueled a dominant image of who Asian Americans were in this period of rapid growth for Asian migration. There's this immigrant cohort that on one hand, is welcomed with open arms. And yet simultaneously subject to discrimination and violence. Violence, which Didn't even register in the national psyche. One of the challenging things among many with the idea of the model minority is that by recognizing discrimination, you're being targeted for violence. It disrupts a national narrative about success about civil rights progress. And it disrupts a convenient story about how Asian Americans fit into a liberal progressive society. And so in some ways, the erasure of their experiences is required to maintain that image of Asian Americans as the diligent worker as the person who won't rock the boat. Is that a racialism or like the failure to connect dots? Erika Lee spoke to us about the expulsion of Seattle's Chinese residents in 18 86. There was another sort of program in the 18 seventies in L A. Can you tell me about that? In 18 71 October 24. There was a conflict between Chinese people that led to the killing of a cop and another white resident. And that led to a majority of the residents around 500 people to descend onto the Chinatown where they killed between 17 and 20 people. I was able to read some first person testimony and just the gruesome details behind it just demonstrated a wholesale cleansing of a neighborhood grabbing Anyone at their disposal and lynching them in the streets on the premise that they were clearing out the impurities and making Los Angeles a safe place. Just gets back to that notion of eraser or at least of malignant indifference. This is a country that kind of savers. It's massacres. We all know about the ST Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. We know about Custer's last stand and the lynchings in the Jim Crow South. The Chinese massacre of 18 71. I'm embarrassed to say it's news to me. How does it come to pass that an entire society if I'm speaking for it? Fails to notice a crime so grave I think part of that comes from a deeply ingrained sense that Asians don't belong and that their history no matter how consequential important or Their contributions. However great they may have then are irrelevant to the understanding of the development of the United States. That massacre was 150 years ago. In the eighties, however, they were two other ghastly crimes. One the murder of Vincent Chin. In 1982 2 white men be chin to death a few days before his wedding Chin was Chinese, but he was blamed for the rise of Japan's auto industry. At a time when America was losing manufacturing jobs. His killers essentially got away with it. They receive probation and the $3000 fine, and a school shooting in Stockton, California were all the victims were Southeast Asian refugees. 1989, a mass shooting at an elementary school in Stockton was the worst the nation had ever seen. Five Children were killed 30 students and teachers wounded these two events put together demonstrate that there is a sense of no consequence for practicing violence against Asians. It's really difficult to paint a detailed image of who Asian Americans are in a society which knows very little about why they're here. And so in that absence, atrocities and the attacks on Asian Americans appear random, chaotic and episodic. If part of the problem is invisibility. You have a plan, at least for your home state. What is it? That's right. We need.

Lyndon B. Johnson Jason Oliver Chang Erika Lee Latin America Asia Chin Stockton 19th century 18 86 18 75 Page Act Seattle 1982 $3000 Vincent Chin Los Angeles Immigration History Research C 30 students ST Valentine's Day Massacre early 20th century United States
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

07:38 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Recent memory. World War. Two Bombing Approach Harbor, the incarceration of 100 and 20,000. Japanese Americans more recently. 9 11 fatal violent attacks on South Asian Sikh, Muslim and Arab Americans. So yellow peril. Rhetoric dictates that you scapegoat Asians and you scapegoat them violently. And you know you putting that in? Ah, larger historical context. You wrote that US culture has long presented Asian women as sexual lies objects for white male enjoyment. Can you talk a little bit more about that history because some people may not understand that or may not be aware of that. Sure so. In that piece. I talk about how the first Wave of Asian women to the United States and in this case, it was women from China. Were treated. And they were essentially bought and brought. Into sexual servitude. So they're immediately is an association of Asian women with sex. In fact, the very first law that we can say was discriminatory. Based on race was the 18 75 Page Act, which predated the 18 82 Exclusion Act. So The idea that Asian women are connected with sex started from the first arrival of Chinese immigrant women to the United States and then because of subsequent wars in Asian nations. And the way that women during war are used. So again, this is not unique to the United States. We can certainly see the incidences of Korean comfort women during World War two and their abuse by the Japanese in payroll. Military has another example. But the images, especially in media in film, so if we take the Rash of Vietnam War films from the mid to late eighties, where you have platoon and full metal jacket and Hamburger Hill, and you're seeing images of Asian women who are either elderly. Hasn't Vietnamese speaking women or the approximation of Vietnamese in those films. And then younger women who are featured it as prostitutes. This is all contributing to this idea that whenever you're seeing Asian people two dimensionally Asian women. Prostitutes. And can you talk a bit about the page act Because you know and reading about these attacks on Asian Americans. I have read about the new about the Chinese Exclusion Act, which specifically banned Chinese workers from coming to the U. S. But I hadn't really heard about the page Act, which, as you said, came earlier than the Chinese exclusion Act. So I should say, I'm really speaking about Chinese women. But I'm going to use use Asian so Chinese women as I as I mentioned majority, vast majority of them. Um, who came to California entered into sexual servitude, and the vast majority of them died in that sexual servitude. So Of course, what you have when you have women who are forced into sexual servitude is a rising disease, veneer, real disease, so in the public imagination of this time Chinese women, Asian women are disease, and they're also the public health outcries about the impurity of Chinese women, because the understanding Of disease in this period, especially was that somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese. And I want to really repeat that. Somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese, because that kind of rhetoric is exactly what we are seeing now. With Cove in 19. And and and so you have that embodied in the law of this country and in you know that is in the fabric of this country. And now you come to this point where you're seeing this sort of violent acts often against Asian women. How does that Feel at this point. And why do you think it hasn't been getting the attention? Perhaps other discrimination has So is complicated and it's bound up into the model minority meth so My primary identification is Asian American, But that's pretty rare. Most people of Asian descent don't actually use the term Asian American is a primary motive identification other than Checking a box on the census identifies Asian American because for me, the choice of being Asian American is a political act, one that is rooted in social justice. What people don't seem to understand is that the term model minority coined in the 19 sixties by White man. William Peterson was actually used not to praise Japanese Americans, as his article seemed to suggest. But actually was a way to condemn black Americans who are agitating for social justice and civil rights at this time, So it was a way of saying, Like, Look at these Japanese Americans. We put them in camps and they didn't complain. They went willingly to prove their loyalty, and then we took them out of camps and they don't even speak English and they're so passive and docile and there the good model minority unlike these black people who are causing problems for our nation. So I think there's a lot of Asian Americans that aren't quite as politicized and understanding of this larger history. Of racism that Asian Americans have have experience from the time that they first set foot on U S soil. I also think and I've been doing numerous workshops on anti Racism and anti Asian racism particular. It's hard. To talk about how People are feeling vulnerable, who are Asian American at potentially being attacked? When you're seeing footage of countless numbers of black people who are really fatally Being targeted. And so when I speak to Asian American student groups in particular there, they don't want to feel like they're taking away from the vital conversation about anti black racism. At the same time, they are also suffering. And you talked about with one of our producers. You said that to be Asian in America is to be invisible. What did you mean by that? People don't know the stories of Asian Americans like when I was growing up in the 19 seventies 19 eighties in California and look, California's Is a state that's associated now with having a very large Asian population. But what I learned about the contribution of Asians to U. S history was that the Chinese built the railroad. Period. End of sentence. Chinese built the railroad, so the average American knows nothing about a very long history. Of Asians in America, and they don't know about the many different discriminatory laws and acts that have been passed and that the our ideas of citizenship Hinge..

William Peterson 18 75 Page Act Chinese Exclusion Act 18 82 Exclusion Act California World War China United States America Chinese exclusion Act U. S. U. S World War two 19 sixties 100 Chinese Arab Americans 9 19 seventies one
"18 75 page act" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

07:40 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Memory. There were two bombing approach harbor the incarceration of 100 and 20,000. Japanese Americans more recently. 9 11 fatal violent attacks on South Asian Sikh, Muslim and Arab Americans. So yellow peril. Rhetoric dictates that you scapegoat Asians and you stake of them violently. And you know you putting that in? Ah, larger historical context. You wrote that US culture has long presented Asian women as sexualized objects for white male enjoyment. Can you talk a little bit more about that history because some people may not understand that or may not be aware of that. Sure so. In that piece. I talk about how the first Wave of Asian women to the United States, and in this case it was women from China were treated. And they were essentially bought and brought into sexual servitude. So they're immediately is an association of Asian women with sex. In fact, the very first law that we can say Was discriminatory. Based on race was the 18 75 Page Act, which predated the 18 82 Exclusion Act. So The idea that Asian women are connected with sex started from the first arrival of Chinese immigrant women to the United States and then because of subsequent wars in Asian nations. And the way that women during war are used So again, this is not unique to the United States. We can certainly see the incidences of Korean comfort women during World War two and their abuse by the Japanese imperial Military has another example. But the images, especially in media in film, so if we take the rash of Vietnam War films from the mid The late eighties, where you have platoon and full metal jacket and hamburger hill and you're seeing images of Asian women who are either elderly peasant. Vietnamese speaking women or the approximation of Vietnamese in those films. And then younger women who are featured it as prostitutes. This is all contributing to this idea that whenever you're seeing Asian people two dimensionally Asian women. Prostitutes. And can you talk a bit about the page act because you know, in reading about these attacks on Asian Americans, I have read about in a new about the Chinese Exclusion Act, which specifically banned Chinese workers from coming to the U. S. But I hadn't really heard about the Page Act, which, as you said, came earlier than the Chinese exclusion Act. So I should say, I'm really speaking about Chinese women. But I'm going to use use Asian so Chinese women as I as I mentioned majority, vast majority of them. Um, who came to California entered into sexual servitude, and the vast majority of them died in that sexual servitude. So Of course, what you have when you have women who are forced into sexual servitude is a rising disease, veneer, real disease, so in the public imagination of this time Chinese women, Asian women are disease, and they're all sorts of public health outcries about the impurity of Chinese women because the understanding off disease in this period especially was that somehow the disease is inherent. Being Chinese, and I want to really repeat that. Somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese, because that kind of rhetoric is exactly what we are seeing now with Cove in 19. And so you have that embodied in the law of this country and in you know that is in the fabric of this country. And now you come to this point where you're seeing this sort of violent acts often against Asian women. How does that feel at this point? And why do you think it hasn't been getting the attention? Um, perhaps other discrimination has So is complicated, and it's bound up into the model minority myth so My primary identification is Asian American, But that's pretty rare. Most people of Asian descent don't actually use the term Asian American as a primary motive identification other than Checking a box on the census identifies Asian American because for me, the choice of being Asian American is a political act, one that is rooted in social justice. What people don't seem to understand is that the term model minority coined in the 19 sixties by AH white man, William Peterson was actually used not to praise Japanese Americans, as his article seemed to suggest. It actually was a way to condemn black Americans who are agitating for social justice and civil rights at this time, So it was a way of saying, Like, Look at these Japanese Americans. We put them in camps and they didn't complain they went willingly to prove their loyalty. And then we took them out of camps and they don't even speak English and they're so passive and docile and there the good model minority unlike these black people who are causing problems for our nation. So I think there's a lot of Asian Americans that aren't quite as politicized and understanding of this larger history of racism that Asian Americans have have experience from the time that they first set foot on U. S soil. I also think, and I've been doing numerous workshops on anti racism and anti Asian racism particular. It's hard. To talk about how People are feeling vulnerable, who are Asian American at potentially being attacked? When you're seeing footage of countless numbers of black people who are really fatally Being targeted. And so when I speak to Asian American student groups in particular there, they don't want to feel like they're taking away from the vital conversation about anti black racism. At the same time, they are also suffering. And you talked about with one of our producers. You said that to be Asian in America is to be invisible. What did you mean by that? People don't know the stories of Asian Americans like when I was growing up in the 19 seventies 19 eighties in California and look, California's Is a state that's associated now with having a very large Asian population. But what I learned about the contribution of Asians to U. S history was that the Chinese built the railroad period. End of sentence. Chinese built the railroad. So the average American knows nothing about a very long history. Of Asians in America, and they don't know about the many different discriminatory laws and acts that have been passed and that the our ideas of citizenship Hinge on.

18 75 Page Act William Peterson 18 82 Exclusion Act United States Vietnam War Chinese exclusion Act California China Chinese Exclusion Act America 19 sixties World War two Page Act U. S. U. S 100 mid The late eighties 19 seventies English Chinese
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WBEZ Chicago

WBEZ Chicago

07:35 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WBEZ Chicago

"Memory. World War. Two Bombing Approach Harbor, the incarceration of 100 and 20,000, Japanese Americans more recently, 9 11 fatal violent attacks on South Asian, Sikh, Muslim and Arab Americans. So yellow peril. Rhetoric dictates that you scapegoat Asians and you escaped up them violently. And you know you putting that in? Ah, larger historical context. You wrote that US culture has long presented Asian women as sexualized objects for white male enjoyment. Can you talk a little bit more about that history because some people may not understand that or may not be aware of that. Sure so. In that piece. I talk about how the first Wave of Asian women to the United States, and in this case it was women from China were treated. And they were essentially bought and brought. Into sexual servitude. So they're immediately is an association of Asian women with sex. In fact, the very first law that we can say Was discriminatory. Based on race was the 18 75 Page Act, which predated the 18 82 Exclusion Act. So The idea that Asian women are connected with sex started from the first arrival of Chinese immigrant women to the United States and then because of subsequent wars in Asian nations. And the way that women during war are used So again, this is not unique to the United States. We can certainly see the incidences of Korean comfort women during World War two and their abuse by the Japanese imperial Military has another example. But the images, especially in media in film, so if we take the Rash of Vietnam War films from the mid to late eighties, where you have platoon and full metal jacket and Hamburger Hill, and you're seeing images of Asian women who are either elderly. Hasn't Vietnamese speaking women or the approximation of Vietnamese in those films. And then younger women who are featured it as prostitutes. This is all contributing to this idea that whenever you're seeing Asian people two dimensionally Asian women. Prostitutes. And can you talk a bit about the pay Jack? Because you know, and reading about these attacks on Asian Americans. I have read about in and knew about the Chinese Exclusion Act, which specifically banned Chinese workers from coming to the U. S. But I hadn't really heard about the Page Act, which, as you said, came earlier than the Chinese exclusion Act. So I should say, I'm really speaking about Chinese women. But I'm going to use use Asian so Chinese women as I as I mentioned mature, vast majority of them. Um, who came to California entered into sexual servitude, and the vast majority of them died in that sexual servitude. So of course what you have when you have women who are Forced into sexual servitude is a rising disease, veneer, real disease, so in the public imagination of this time Chinese women, Asian women are diseased, and they're also the public health outcries about the impurity of Chinese women because the understanding off disease in this period especially was that somehow the disease is inherent. Being Chinese, and I want to really repeat that. Somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese, because that kind of rhetoric is exactly what we are seeing now, with Cove in 19, and and so you have that embodied in the law. Of this country and in you know that is in the fabric of this country, and now you come To this point where you're seeing this sort of violent acts often against Asian women. How does that Feel at this point. And why do you think it hasn't been getting the attention? Perhaps other discrimination has So is complicated and it's bound up into the model minority myth, So my primary identification is Asian American, but that's pretty rare. Most people of Asian descent Don't actually use the term Asian American is a primary motive identification. Other than checking a box on the census identifies Asian American Because for me, the choice of being Asian American is a political act. One that is rooted in social justice. What people don't seem to understand is that the term model minority coined in the 19 sixties by AH white man, William Peterson was actually used not to praise Japanese Americans, as his article seemed to suggest. But actually was a way to condemn black Americans who are agitating for social justice and civil rights at this time, So it was a way of saying, Like, Look at these Japanese Americans. We put them in camps and they didn't complain. They went willingly to prove their loyalty, and then we took them out of camps and they don't even speak English and they're so passive and docile and there the good model minority unlike these black people who are causing problems for our nation. So I think there's a lot of Asian Americans that aren't quite as politicized and understanding of this larger history. Of racism that Asian Americans have have experience from the time that they first set foot on U S soil. I also think and I've been doing numerous workshops on anti Racism and anti Asian racism particular. It's hard. To talk about how People are feeling vulnerable, who are Asian American at potentially being attacked? When you're seeing footage of countless numbers of black people who are really fatally being targeted. And so when I seek to Asian American student groups in particular there, they don't want to feel like they're taking away from the vital conversation about anti black racism. At the same time, they are also suffering. And you talked about with one of our producers. You said that to be Asian in America is to be invisible. What did you mean by that? People don't know the stories of Asian Americans like when I was growing up in the 19 seventies 19 eighties in California, and look, California's is a state that's associated now with having a very large Asian population. But what I learned about the contribution of Asians to U. S history was that the Chinese built the railroad. Period. End of sentence. Chinese built the railroad, so the average American knows nothing about a very long history. Of Asians in America, and they don't know about the many different discriminatory laws and acts that have been passed and that the our.

18 75 Page Act William Peterson 18 82 Exclusion Act California Chinese Exclusion Act Page Act World War China America United States Chinese exclusion Act World War two U. S 100 U. S. Jack 19 sixties Vietnam War Cove 19 seventies
"18 75 page act" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

WABE 90.1 FM

07:35 min | 6 months ago

"18 75 page act" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

"Of 100 and 20,000. Japanese Americans more recently. 9 11 fatal violent attacks on South Asian Sikh, Muslim and Arab Americans. So yellow peril. Rhetoric dictates that you scapegoat Asians and you scapegoat them violently. And you know you putting that in? Ah, larger historical context. You wrote that US culture has long presented Asian women as sexual lies objects for white male enjoyment. Can you talk a little bit more about that history because some people may not understand that or may not be aware of that. Sure so. In that piece. I talk about how the first Wave of Asian women to the United States and in this case, it was women from China. Were treated. And they were essentially bought and brought. Into sexual servitude. So they're immediately is an association of Asian women with sex. In fact, the very first law that we can say was discriminatory. Based on race was the 18 75 Page Act, which predated the 18 82 Exclusion Act. So The idea that Asian women are connected with sex started from the first arrival of Chinese immigrant women to the United States and then because of subsequent wars in Asian nations. And the way that women during war are used So again, this is not unique to the United States. We can certainly see the incidences of Korean comfort women during World War two and their abuse by the Japanese imperial Military has another example. But the images, especially in media in film, So if we take the rash of Vietnam War films from the mid to late eighties, where you have platoon and full metal jacket and Hamburger Hill, and you're seeing images of Asian women who are either elderly Hasn't Vietnamese speaking women or the approximation of Vietnamese in those films. And then younger women who are featured it as prostitutes. This is all contributing to this idea that whenever you're seeing Asian people two dimensionally Asian women. Prostitutes. And can you talk a bit about the page act? Because you know and reading about these attacks on Asian Americans I have read about The in and knew about the Chinese Exclusion Act, which specifically banned Chinese workers from coming to the U. S. But I hadn't really heard about the page Act, which, as you said, came earlier than the Chinese exclusion Act. So I should say, I'm really speaking about Chinese women. But I'm going to use use Asian so Chinese women as I as I mentioned majority, vast majority of them. Um, who came to California entered into sexual servitude, and the vast majority of them died in that sexual servitude. So Of course, what you have when you have women who are forced into sexual servitude is a rising disease, veneer, real disease, so in the public imagination of this time Chinese women, Asian women are diseased, and they're also the public health outcries about the impurity of Chinese women, because the understanding Disease in this period, especially was that somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese. And I want to really repeat that. Somehow the disease is inherent to being Chinese, because that kind of rhetoric is exactly what we are seeing now. With Cove in 19. And and and so you have that embodied in the law of this country and in you know that is in the fabric of this country. And now you come to this point where you're seeing this sort of violent acts often against Asian women. How does that Feel at this point. And why do you think it hasn't been getting the attention? Um, perhaps other discrimination has So is complicated, and it's bound up into the model minority myth so My primary identification is Asian American, But that's pretty rare. Most people of Asian descent don't actually use the term Asian American is a primary motive identification other than Checking a box on the census identifies Asian American because for me, the choice of being Asian American is a political act, one that is rooted in social justice. What people don't seem to understand is that the term model minority coined in the 19 sixties by The White man, William Peterson was actually used not to praise Japanese Americans, as his article seemed to suggest, but actually was away. To condemn black Americans who are agitating for social justice and civil rights at this time, so it was a way of saying, Like, Look at these Japanese Americans. We put them in camps and they didn't complain. They went willingly to prove their loyalty, and then we took them out of camps and they don't even speak English and they're so passive and docile and there the good model minority unlike these black people who are causing problems for our nation. So I think there's a lot of Asian Americans that aren't quite as politicized and understanding of this larger history of racism that Asian Americans have have experience from the time that they first set foot on U. S soil. I also think, and I've been doing numerous workshops on anti racism and anti Asian racism particular It's hard. To talk about how People are feeling vulnerable, who are Asian American at potentially being attacked? When you're seeing footage of countless numbers of black people who are really fatally Being targeted. So when I speak to Asian American student groups in particular there, they don't want to feel like they're taking away from the vital conversation about anti black racism. At the same time, they are also suffering. And you talked about with one of our producers. You said that to be Asian in America is to be invisible. What did you mean by that? People don't know the stories of Asian Americans like when I was growing up in the 19 seventies 19 eighties in California, and look, California's is the state that's associated now with having a very large Asian population. But what I learned about the contribution of Asians to U. S history was that the Chinese built the railroad. Period. End of sentence. Chinese built the railroad, so the average American knows nothing about a very long history. Of Asians in America, and they don't know about the many different discriminatory laws and acts that have been passed and that the our ideas of citizenship Hinge on who Asian Americans.

18 75 Page Act William Peterson 18 82 Exclusion Act Chinese Exclusion Act China Vietnam War United States 19 sixties Chinese exclusion Act California America World War two U. S U. S. 20,000 first Chinese English Vietnamese 19 seventies