Where modern medicine meets technology and innovation. Listen for the latest biotech news on technological innovation, genetic engineering and pharmacology, broadcast on leading talk radio shows and premium podcasts.
COVID in Your Genes: The Risk Factors
"Since march we've been discussing how. Covert nineteen varies between different people depending on their genes and back at the start. The evidence was patchy. Look how far we've come a recent study combines. The work of a couple thousand geneticists using dna kindly contributed for millions of people around the world to pin down which common genetic variations are doing us dirty. The study hasn't yet been peer reviewed. But it's such a large collaboration that we're going to spend the whole program learning what they've found hughes geneticists nathan pearson from the cove in nineteen hosts genetics initiative. We have uneven examples where human genetic variation shapes who gets given infection and maybe shapes how severely they get it at cetera so we had kind of a hunch going in like other infectious diseases. This might play out similarly and given. That's our expertise. That's our our bailiwick. What can we bring to the table along with everyone else from you know. Virologists themselves to public health. Scientists to people are studying all facets at every scale of society and our response to it. What can we bring to understanding. How responses vary perhaps in part by the genetic spellings the dna in us. And did you have a hunch. About how much of role. Genetics would play personally. I didn't go in with a strong hunch. Either way and i think that people who are more expert in corona viruses or in viruses generally in in our responses to them might have gone in with stronger or weaker. Hunches on that front but for me it was sort of an open question and i think for a lot of our colleagues we felt similarly we. We weren't gonna put all our chips on that part of the of of the board but that we might have some say let they give you an example. There you know one of the better studied viruses before this one that afflicts people was hiv. And we know for example that human genetic variation in a couple of parts of our genome strongly shapes who gets hiv generally controls the load of that virus over time. It's a very different kind of virus so we can't extrapolate too much from hiv because it stays in us. It's a retrovirus. But we knew that it played a role in addition to the variation hiv one hiv to etcetera in the virus. Itself
A highlight from Can We Truly Progress When Our World's On Fire?
"No question today is we've got questions from all over the world this very local this some guy in heading which is oxygen while it's literally just koby down the road from where i'm recording this right now because because you're up in a place just up the road from us scale now guy. Oh actually said she discovered this podcast vira patron page and that she listens to it through our website on the big play button which is You never know how people are gonna find us off the question. Actually 'cause discussing where we get the questions wrong whenever the world so the very great local to us. 'cause studio after mocks very circle might the villages and actually from oxford itself but again christians from all over the world to the question of. Why are you know why you've got questions from there. How did they find it. I literally comp asking that question we've got some got starts given to us by the student groups that have been looking for us recently but they don't tell the whole story do this. I mean it's a big cobweb night. People people they recommend that they the internet's a big place. You know you own stuff about of the music. I listen to nov. music for example comes from just finding it by random. I'm not picking up an album just because a lot of walking into a music shop than ears and song by now austria way for a good friend of mine who i know that the had said music is me will say listen to this. I've got the cd this cds. So there's many ways you could pick these things up. Yeah i would say right now though. Share this podcast with five. Your friends right now. Go share with gyles question now look sows in people because this is Meaty question again. Do along the milk bottles out for the milkman. The ruby spins out. Wh- for winkles our school's out for summer. Okay say the question is climate change on rainforest destruction intertwined can. We truly have a hope of trae gress when our world is on fire. You've got some strong views mistura. And i think this might be were dominated by you today. Just thinking about how share it. We'll share it. I just like to pass on to you. Sometimes so i can listen to what want to say and i think that is instant on the whole kind of we're aware of our actions is a species so some species are and some parts of our our our web still doing anyway so people so parts are actually other wearing just carrying on regard is that we want to use the resources and it seems that profit is always the same in a to make more profit to get more growth. What is the next thing. The next thing that is going to make us money in the big the big thing with paul is a great example. Same whenever we buy anything we automatically look far more valid. Boy i because it's even sustainable is not not great. Yeah that we were using. We're using the the isn't the planet operas power. We see fit. We'd kind of mississippi look at longer term. I don't think it's necessarily to profit and to derive for profits how our winter of driven for our we get about profit. Snow again. What we do so we do. But it wasn't on guy. Oh she she says the world is on fire. It's a very in some ways. It's an used description I will do is actually on five. Climate change is just one factor in not as a big issue. It can you know especially the rainforest issue with losing it. It can be addressed. It's not gone too far yet. West to five. That's what i want to look at. Yeah i was mistaken that we have maybe gone to follow ready. I was even even if you take some a lot more. Local still continue went for a walk yesterday. There were there certain areas of the city which you know were built in one guy says nara picking an area not enough already any specific reasons. I the thought we were walking through. It is narrated obstacle frauds. Part part was built all in one thousand nine hundred thirties now before that because it was just open fields open grassland for bills in progress so much we see so much progress around us. We leave encroach so much. We kind of forget just how much we have and how much we spend. As a species and we continually
Nature Makes GMO Fish
"Skeptical of aqua bounties fast-growing salmon while nature makes genetically modified fish to next up. Why the effort to find a quote biological basis for being transgender is misguided and harmful and finally cure for sickle cell diseases inches closer with the launch of a major gene. Therapy trial very exciting stuff. But first up kevin. Let's talk about Natural gm fish apparently. Yeah this is really cool and this is a report that came out in. Cbc news which is canadian broadcasting company usually not writing very favorable things about genetic engineering because this isn't genetic engineering unless it's genetic engineering that nature did so the story goes back to a couple of researchers at queens university. A lorry graham and peter davies found this evidence a while ago now that there was this antifreeze gene that helped the rainbow smelt live through freezing temperatures so super cooling fish and some other organisms can endure temperatures below freezing because of a mechanisms that keep their cells from forming ice crystals. What interesting stuff going on there and if you think about it. These are cold-blooded so when it gets below freezing you have the risk of freezing so years ago. Probably a decade and a half. I guess they found this evidence that there was A this gene that that didn't seem to make a whole lot of sense that that it that it looked like a in so we go over now to herring and smelt How was this hearing. Gene ending up and smelt the last time that they were related was by extremely distant ancestor. They said by the article article here. Two hundred and fifty million years ago so that was like the carbon difference period so these two individual lineages of fish split off pretty early a back before dinosaurs or you know and so this really cool so well same time as early dinosaurs.
The mystery of the flute boy bones
"Was originally on display beautiful in the center of the room. When my office is. I remember just being immediately really captivated by what is the story with that skeleton. It was just incredibly irreverend yet. Really surprising to say something with so much huma and whimsical and kind of goes against the grain of what we think about medicine today. I encountered the skeleton as a medical student. Now assisting over sort. Of course it's got to be real big suspicious. It's a fake scott. What otherwise look like a normal foot likely but it is unlikely ending credible story. You're about to hear from a collection that the public can't say it's tucked inside the harry. Brookes allen museum of anatomy used to take generations of medical students at the university of melbourne including this guy at the entrance to that museum. There are a few specimens skeletons and one in particular. Was this little boy sitting on a pedestal with this one leg so in his quite unusual looking arms and hands he's has a flute recorder just held up to his mouth. My name is dr. Chris o'donnell and just has patients who are alive and dead. So i spend about half my time doing radiology of the living butts. My job is as a rail. Just or as. I call myself a nick radiologist looking at right all of the safest at the victorian shooter forensic medicine
Finding New Uses for TNF Inhibitors
"Jim thanks for joining us. It's my pleasure to be talking with you today. We're gonna talk about tumor. Necrosis factor or tanf the role. It plays in inflammatory conditions and one hundred and eighty life. Sciences develop new therapies that target. Tanf i'd like to start with a little history though early in your career you served as chief scientific officer and senior. Vp of research and development center core and led the team that developed remedied. The firsthand inhibitor. When you were doing this at what point did the raw potential for tanf. Inhibitors become clear. Will the it's fascinating story in that When i joined santa are chief scientific officer. They had a very very large substance program going on treating patients with sepsis and they had a gm antibody against endotoxin and The day initial data was a little unclear and the fda required them to do in all comers sepsis trial and that failed and senator gore was in big problem. Because of that lot of people it actually hired a salesforce to sell this stuff so We were talking with the clinicians who treat substance patients. They were convinced that it really was tian out. Tumor necrosis factor that was causing the inflammation and the death of these patients. And so we did have an antibody against tanf that was made and we humanized. And i treated about fifty patients with sepsis with this anti and and nothing happened
Artists on the loose at the Large Hadron Collider
"At the beginning of the universe minutes after the big bang as temperature cooled the most fundamental particles of matter came into existence so neutrons protons photons electrons and others the basic building blocks of everything we know and see and much way died and to study these teeny tiny particles tucked inside every atom in the universe. invisibly are physicists. Nate this vast instrument one that occupies an entire vast landscape two hundred hectares of farmland. The contrast between big and small here cyber czar. We're about eighty eight meters underground. That the moment kilda. I'm jacob new-zealand. It's great we have people from all walks of life and all over provision who got physicists engineers computer scientists edmund people like me and they're all from different parts of the world i think from the star of the these filled like a mini country so i'm asking schroeder and i'm a experimental particle physicists. In i don't know somehow. When i leave sern i realized that i'm still honing in the normal world. I don't know some kind of refuge from everything else that is going on outside in the world and here science is what really matters. I feel like Since great that it's a kind of a political place you know. The relationship with russia never changed during the cold war with. We're about science purely about saying well not just science. I'm here for art to people as you'll hear science friction with natasha mitchell. Many meters underground this week and easter special from our archive inside the heart of soon. Just outside of geneva in switzerland home to the world's largest most powerful particle accelerator. The large hadron collider the hcc. Now this of course is the place where the elusive higgs. Boson particle was discovered. And where last week scientists hinted they just might have discovered a brand new force of nature or put it another way a violation in the standard model of
Identifying Rare Compounds with A.I.
"Today. We're going to talk about what's happening in the area of artificial intelligence and the discovery of new plant compounds. We're speaking with dr jim flat. He's the co founder and ceo of bright seed so. Welcome to the podcast. You great thank you for having us. kevin Of love talking about what we're doing in both howard can impact agriculture food and health. So looking forward to the discussion today. Yeah that's kind of the triad that i like to shoot for here because we talk about all three of those things usually not in one episode but the other thing that i really would like to kind of maybe extract from you if we can during the course of this is that it seems like you guys are playing on the cutting edge and we have so many students and others who are listening who are trying to think of what the heck am i gonna do it. My career where everything is moving so fast. And i you know if you could help us understand insurer how these new edges reveal themselves that would be so cool but let's start off by talking about You know your idea. Your search here is identified novel plant compounds and we already know. So much about this by metabolic tableau. Mix all. These methods are great. So what's really left to discover. Yeah so kevin. That's a great question and you know this is what's so fascinating really dive into plant. Biology is you know from your own research. Plants are often referred to as nature's south foremost chemists. They have to They produce a number of small molecule compounds of phytochemicals of that are essential for their growth and survival and as it turns out. You know we have Evolved around These plants and these compounds in terms turns out that a subset of these compounds actually have important health benefits in we call these small molecules that are health beneficial fighter nutrients
The Fight Over Vaccine Passports
"Okay. I think that this term vaccine passport gets thrown around lake. We all understand what it means. Is there a- definition like one what does vaccine passport mean. I think it depends you ask the biden administration would say this would be documentation of people who have been vaccinated and they can present it as needed to travel authorities to businesses. That are requiring some proof of the shot. They actually try and avoid the word passport lizzy. The they've talked about credentialing of this information vaccine. Verification republicans would say that passports are it infringement This is an increasing argument from from the right. That passports are an attempt By the government to collect data in an appropriate way to but into people's personal health decisions and even the use of the word passport is creating some complaint that this is an elitist term that only people who travel internationally have passports. So why why are we even cutting on to that terminal. I mean it's not all that different from the like little yellow cards that you get if you've gotten a a yellow fever shot or something like that when you travel or if you traveled in the past i've i've had inoculations and had to show that cross borders. I remember doing the same. When i went to south america. I think in college but the idea is a little different. Only that we're in the middle of a global pandemic right like there's more import able to demonstrate that you're protected against covid nineteen as we're trying to ramp down cove nineteen.
Greenwood Genetic Center on Epigenetics
"I guess they are front. Greenwood genetic center. Dr louis and kelly walden rate is an assistant director in greenwood's molecular diagnostic laboratory and kelly is greenwood's director of diagnostic development and h net counselor by training. Welcome to the show guys. It's fantastic to have john. Thanks for having us. Thank you so a lot of genetic counselors. If they're listening they know greenwood for their visual aids. I think that's what greenwood is most popular for. But could you give us a little more background and tell us about the other division of green genetic center. That people may be less familiar with kelly. Did you want to start us out of just giving background information. So the green which genetic center is a nonprofit organization We do have four divisions we have our clinical division said they see patients across the state of south carolina. We have our research. Division focused on functional studies setting the causes of autism birth defects intellectual disability. Our education division. They provide programs across the state from middle school. High school all the way up through our medical genetics training programs and then are gonna collapse. I agree with diagnostic labs. We have cited genetics molecular and biochemical testing. And so in this episode we are focusing on epigenetics and really exploring what happy. Genetics is testing four. Bg that conditions for those. That may not understand like they hear this epigenetics term. They're like what is genetics. I have no idea reagan. You fill us in on just giving us that background information so that you know us talking about testing options and conditions all make a little bit more sense. Yup so epigenetics is the process in which expression in jeans are either increase or decrease in a way that's independent makoni sequence
Using AI to Map the Bioactive Compounds in Plants
"Jim thanks for joining us. Daniel thanks for having me. We're gonna talk about bright seed. It's a platform notice forger and the potential for it to explore the rich and largely uncovered compounds that exist in the plant world. Let's start with fighter nutrients though what does this term referred to yes. South fighter nutrients are the subset of small molecule compounds. Produced by plants called out phytochemicals. That actually are biologically active and have benefits for human health. Plans are natures of foremost chemistry. There often referred to as that in they produce these compounds for their own growth survival but given the plants have been the you know basically foundation for food system. It's surprising that some of these compounds that have benefit for plants also have found a role in human health and so these fighter nutrients. And that's what we've created forger platform and bright seed to explore and understand how we can take advantage of this For human health. The numbers are kind of a stabbing when you look at them. What's the opportunity. How big a world of compounds are out there. And and how well characterized are they today. Yeah great great question daniel. We estimate that there are upwards of ten million or more distinct compounds small molecule compounds produced by
How to Get Your Energy Back TODAY with Dr. Amy Shah
"Dr amy. Welcome to the podcast. It's a pleasure to have you here. Thank you so much for having me. Who's a socal. We were chit chatting a little earlier but the book is called. The book is about being tired. And i wanted to check in and see on your book tour and as a mom and still practicing physician. How're you doing doing good. I actually stick to my own advice. I get my morning routine. I get my sleep. If i get my sunlight that i'm good to go so i feel good today. I'm good we also suggesting a little bit of when you get off equilibrium. What artists signals. What you pay attention to. That's a sign that i've gotten a little bit too far off. I need to reset and need to ask for help. What is that for you that you've gotten a little bit lack of a better term off track for yourself. Yeah for me definitely. It's my emotional control. So if i i'm always working and i think you all of us were always working on our mind control right so how. We react to things when i find that. I'm losing control my emotions of getting a little too angry or short or impatient To emotional about things around me. That's when i know that. I'm not on the right track. And that's first line and that. I need pullback may get a little more asleep some nature time back to my basic self care Things to get myself reset. Because my when i'm at my best i am. I want to be patient. I want to be kind And i want to be focused and energetic. And if i'm not those things that's when i know that things are not going well
The Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Is Said to Be Powerfully Protective in Adolescents
"In Children ages. 12 to 15. The news comes as covert 19 cases are on the rise again. Health officials with the White House covert task force say they're worried about another surge in the U. S. Dr. Anthony Fauci, We have seen now immune protection. Against Cove in 19 variants when individuals of vaccinated against the wild type strain on two mechanisms, the anybody response that has a spillover effect. As well as the cross reactivity. Today, Fresno Kings and Madeira counties
this African COVID success is a big wake-up call for the West
"Scenes from wuhan in china and the tesha mitchell joining you for science fiction. Welcome videos emerge on social media of authorities using increasingly drastic measures. I remember when this chilling footage i vs four corners program last february. A woman in a pink tracksuit is being dragged kicking and screaming from an apartment block by police in black suits. And what now. Six back then a bit over twelve months ago. It was hard to believe this heavy handed response to a virus. We knew almost nothing about around. China residents post scenes claiming officials a welding. The doors of apartment buildings shot so people can't get out even as infectious disease. Specialist started to sound alarm bells outside of china. Most countries were slow to act. Some seem to be in denial preferring to feed conspiracy theories about the origins of the virus. But not the country you'll hear about on science friction today and it might surprise you to hear what country that ease. Shocking news breaks that the man who would i warned. The outbreak has died of coronavirus. We've known that if a country as serious as china today that be careful. It wasn't their website the magnitude of the problem the speed of the problem and the spread of the virus so we took action because we knew that was the level of travel with having tourists coming here. We were at risk so every country should have done that as early as january last year. Rwanda stop plane. Distant for china pediatrician and global health. Later dr onions been guajillo is rwanda's former minister of health. And we start screening all the beeper entering in rhonda for covid sign and take the information in case. There were fine coveyed a positive during their stay in runner so that we can do easily contact tracing
The AstraZeneca Saga
"On monday. Night reporter peter. Aldous was relaxing watching some tv trying to unwind. I had finished my day. Attic was nine twenty one m my time just after midnight. A s- coast time. Peter cover science for buzzfeed and you can hear it in his voice. He's the kind of person precise enough to note that something happened at nine twenty. One earlier that day he'd written a story about astrazeneca's newest covid vaccine trial. The results looked pretty good. It seemed like the vaccine was seventy nine percent effective but then he got this email just after nine twenty one pm from the national institutes of health with something that just never seen. Before which is basically saying that. The data monitoring committee for the big us trial of astrazeneca's coronavirus vaccine was concerned about the statement ostracized occurred put out basically astrazeneca's data the data that looked positive the data that was. Npr's earlier story was outdated and potentially misleading
Setting Boundaries for Better Brain and Emotional Health
"Nicole. Welcome to the broken brain. Podcast have been following your work for quite some time. And i just want to say. Congratulations on the new book. It's a fantastic manual dive deep into it in this conversation. And i know you're in the midst of the book launch right now at the moment so i wanted to ask actually a little bit of a selfish selfish question which is in the context of going from interview to view and media. How you check in with yourself to make sure that you're taking care of your own needs when you go from situation to situation yes first of all. Thank you for carving out your time for me. This morning i'm super excited for this chat Thank you for actually asking me that question. It's something. I make a point to consciously remind myself to do that personal check in because i'm someone who historically especially when i'm busy when i have the things to do. I get very achievement focused very to do list focus so with a lot obviously of appearances in my schedule i can really shift into that mode of checking the boxes getting it done and forget to check in with myself so for me. It's a daily intention that i set Starting in the morning really making sure that. I honor those morning hours. Which for me or where. I make A lot of my lifestyle choices. I set the time to connect with my consciousness with my body and then of course reminding myself to do that throughout the day. So it's a constant discussion in my own mind As that reminder of wait a minute do. I have needs in my okay. Do i have the resources available to do all of the things that i have to do each and every day.
Improving the Delivery of Drugs through Thin Film Freezing
"Glen. Thanks for joining us. Thanks for having gani good afternoon. We're gonna talk about tff. Pharmaceuticals its efforts to reformulate vaccines and medicines with its thin-film freezing process and the implications of the technology in different applications for it. Perhaps we can begin with thin film freezing. What's the process like. How does it work. What's the end result here. Well thanks to the questions. The tried to paint day as vivid word picture as i can describe how this works. But if you in your mind or in the listener's mind can can envision a bulk chemical that ultimately becomes a tablet that people take or a vaccine or botanical. That that's kind of a good start so whatever we have we ultimately try to get it into a solution and the the sort of the constant characteristic of what we do is the goal is to make whatever will working on as absorbable as possible and many pharmaceutical compounds or not ends. The very unique feature of thin-film freezing that works on. I would say almost every if that every type of pharmaceutical compound known to man We've heard about large molecules. Small molecules even botanical in that realm are biologics. But just again think about that and the goal. If if it's not oregon solution is to take that compound into a solution by using something that we call it that our agents that help you know soluble allies pharmaceutical compounds. Now the incipient we use our approved scipion. We don't use anything that is used in the pharmaceutical
Will Selecta Biosciences be the Next Top Platform Biotech?
"The first company. I wanted to touch on is news from july lilly and they're huge company. Say like a large mega cap at one hundred and eighty three billion dollars and what they recently presented was the full data set from their molecule demand in alzheimer's disease. And this is a phase two trial looking at this antibody that targets a specific epoch on the amyloid beta approaching and this episode is only visible in established plaques. Now i don't want to belabor the point about the amyloid hypothesis which i've done in previous videos. Suffice to say that a number of different molecules have been attempted in this indication in specifically the mechanism of reducing amyloid plaques. And they've all failed and what we're seeing here is that in this multi center randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. That donna had a significant is what they're showing here in the air score but not a very profound impact on cognition and so they looked at this primary outcome the air score and this is a combination of the as well as the ads. Ads and so eight ask cogs general measure of cognition whereas the ads. I is a measure of activities of daily living. So they did a combined score with that and demanded mobs improvement led to a p value of point zero four so technically significant. But i'm not sure that if they replicated the stayed in a face. Three trout necessarily be positive. It is an interesting thing because when you look at the actual aid. S cog thirteen score. We don't see any significant change. It is better in indiana but not by a significant margin and then the mse score is basically no difference between the two so this is another data point to suggest that perhaps the amyloid beta hypothesis isn't one that these companies should be looking at and the last thing i wanted to show here. Is that the one thing that they do. See a significant change in the amount of amyloid in the brain and so the pet scan here to show that the dynamic treated group has a significant reduction in the amount of amyloid plaque in the brain compared to placebo. So the drug is able to reduce the emily beta plaques. But it's not able to improve cognition really as much as you would expect given the effect is there so i wanted to bring this up because there is an upcoming. Pdf date for biogen's advocating mob and this is going to be a huge movie for the stock and it was originally supposed to be in march but it was delayed until june seventh of this year. So keep your eyes on that. I don't know if i'm going to make any position on it. I think that the fda should not approve it given the results from the advisory committee but given that the so many is on this pdf. I feel like there's a chance at the fda could overlook that and end up approving drug. So it's definitely jairo word. Play and i would treat it as such and proceed likewise so that is eli lilly. I wanna quickly move on to another company in the alzheimer's face called novus and i touched on them in my previous video and what we heard in the last week was that they announced positive face to data and this is interim data showing the nbs for one or another name for the molecule is positive in improved speed and coordination in parkinson's patients. And this is a twenty five day treatment. Nine patients were in the treatment group and five or in the placebo and on the announcement of this data. I think the stock was trading around one hundred fifty maybe two hundred million dollars market valuation and went up to around two fifty three hundred before settling around two hundred and fifty million dollar market cap so big move up in the stock and i'll tell you the data. The ceo explained that the study was power to investigate a difference of twenty to twenty five percent in biomarker levels not to demonstrate efficacy making this data that much more significant so to provide some context. And why i think this is interesting. Is that i in my previous video. Didn't really seem to bullish on a novus and the reason for this is that it reminds me very closely other types of amyloid beta drugs because this drug reduces app the precursor protein to amyloid beta. So my rationale is that if they're targeting the same emily data pathway. Given that there's been so many molecules that have failed previously targeting that pathway. I don't expect that this one is going to be any different now. Having said that. I decided to take a position because we've seen over and over again. That companies have been able to spin face to data in a positive way that leads to these big increases in the sock even though in phase three there's an eventual failure so i decided to take a position in stock and i have been rewarded handsomely so far and i'm going to hold on to see the rest of the phase two data so to get the actual data here in one test that measures the speed of execution. The results were statistically significant. P equals zero point zero four showing that while parkinson's disease patients are slow in coding. Boxes met with an s four. Zero one improves their performance. In these same patients other test that measures coordination showed an improvement in their movements and was almost statistically significant peak will s- appoint zero seven. Then they say in all end. Es up tests performed the placebo group either stayed the same or performed worse than at baseline instead the a b s four zero one group either stayed the same perform better than at baseline and as we know. Md s up drs is a specific tasks that measures severity and progression of the disease.
A highlight from Natasha tries taxidermy: the wild, wonderful world of the museum makers
"This is an abc podcast. So there's a whole kit in front of scalpels tweezers seizes yup raid. Because i'm gonna do some stitching. We got a little bit of foreign source. Yes that's going to help us up any any moisture that stock coming out. We don't want you. Don't want blood on your fitness okay. That's your warning right there. There is just a little bit of flesh and bone feathers and skin in this edition of science friction. Hey natasha mitchell wielding a scalpel yes. But i promise you there will be no booze. People think that we actually is some of the stuff everywhere. But what you're going to realize it's not it's can be quite claimed so i'm putting my and getting pretty psyched because i'm gotta do some taxidermy. It's not really so it's not just texted name. Used to be called stuffing. So back in the newseum methods back then back when it was cold stuffing was literally that took the skin off something so that skien up and it could have been stuff. Local straw wood fiber. Anything really moneim. Stephen smith now. You wanna strategist talk taxidermist. Yes not sure about that. But of working at melbourne museum for thirty five years as a traditional museum taxidermist when i started the museum deep experience and always had a love natural issue but never thought on the lawn of taxidermy but the head prepare to their by forty years. He wanted someone to mental and just happened to be at the right time. Do you know. I texted dummied spaceman. Yeah and it's still museum was on display not long ago. And she's brought braxton emotions really. That's qual which is quarter. Ray specimen for in victoria that museum. Texas domus like dana. Almost a scarce these days to record quite rare. we're not commercial taxidermist tweaking. The game not deer and foxes and things like that so we're really specialized in understanding anatomy and so forth of orlando ninety wall off. Pretty darn good texaco. And i'm he to learn some of that art will try to this. Is the first main interview. Been allowed to record outside of my home in over a year. And i've been inside an abc studio just three times since last march so hell. I'm breaking out and getting visceral and how to feel really alive. Heaven encounter with the date and to do that. I've ended a kind of fantasy office in central victoria to meet a jio called the museum micheals. It's a little tin shared at qatargas from the march per in saw there's a hell of a going on. That's for sure. I wanna tetiaroa. I'm you and would apply scored lot team which is a wonderful arts precinct. At the back of kesselman victoria of a workshop. Here russia with dane. And we make things. Do they ever but calling the mealy. Things is an understatement. That can range from tony insects to huge blue while so they might be skeletons ago into a research collection or they might be models of things that be intake extinct animals fossil replicas. We do all sorts of things cultural thing so in my my mic replicas of aboriginal artifacts. It's over your left shoulder. I say a taxi dummied crew to our garage. his will we're staring down upon us is donna. Sole model over there is a kangaroo. Boxing kangaroo koster think some carcasses of bats some fox's a crocodile peering overhead must all taxidermy is for institutions loch ness schools or universities museums. And it was at the melbourne museum. Where you in dane. I met as kids starting out. His trainy museum paradis every surface in this large teen shared by national. Their office is adorned with a menagerie of natural history to lots Books sketches the hand built models. Taxi do specimens they make of marsupials snakes. Spiders birds plants and a whole lot more. The drawer of is offset all different colors and sizes. Because that was that's yeah. Donoso must be adorable. Who had fish monday night in europe. A lot of these blind gloss they not shape for is is my and then we have other ones which we call a blankets. Got the black pupil. And we'll pintail the the fine detail in behind the glass say from totally beguiling alongside. The taxi dumi specimens the artificial models. They make a flora and fauna began small out of all sorts of materials just looked so real and that's the point so that's a cast of a koala body probably did full of the concentrations in phillip island. But i wanted to say every now and then it had blink and a ted tune. Someone did that just told. The person is now here and if you thought he did a pretty good job of perfecting your salad or surviving. Endless zoom meetings. This past year these two had the coolest project during. Victoria's covid lockdowns. We were fortunate enough to be in. Regional victoria where we did have some restrictions but we could still work with a team of five people and we built a sixty made a dinosaur and it had to travel to. W for the new museum that i don so tortona soros a massive sore reports four legged brontosaurus type thing. A long neck long tile her before creating an enormous authentic replica of a dinosaur. That's long extinct is a big engineering fate. And a scientific one knee with i fanned some of the fossil reminds of the dinosaurs. I've found what i think. Too skinny impressions so the dinosaurs lied in a muddy bank. It's got up. And it's left an impression lucky footprint if you like of its skin and i believe that be the skin texture of that particular dinosaur and we had very sculpt all that over the whole sixty square meters of skin and there was built. I've six months took a stray march sculpt the skin so while everyone else was making salad watching netflix. Videos during lockdown. You don a soul. That's every fantasy when we were making to get we wouldn't have been essentially distance. Arena was good. The donoso project it was texting is really good. Bicycles fly understanding anatomy getting inside of animals working closely with animals. We can apply that to building sculptures of prehistoric animals as well and getting that wrought and with that donoso looked fantastic. The log was about to walk out of the the workshop Picking up my scalpel again. I've got a real animal in mind so today is the
A highlight from Using Gene Therapy to Create a Drug Biofactory within a Patient
"Outcomes. Advair and biotechnologies is developing a gene therapy to treat the condition rather than addressing an underlying genetic causes though the gene therapy carries a sequence that causes the either produce a flip the veg- jeff inhibitor. Market is i- leah zahle trip. We spoke lawrence fisher. Ceo of at vera about the company's gene therapy how it works and why the one and done approach could translate into better results for patients laurent. Thanks for joining us. Thank you for having me. We're gonna talk about wet age. Related macular degeneration aviram and its efforts to develop gene therapies for this and other conditions. Let's start with. Amd what is it. How does it manifests itself in progress. So wet n. g. or wet or neo vascular related. Macular degeneration is a disease. That affects Nuns of people globally. It manifests itself by fluid. That accumulates in the macula novice vision and patients. Who have this disease start. Losing their sights pretty rapidly. The current treatment of these patients Which has been developed since the mid thousand is to inject on a monthly or bimonthly basis in there. I a an antibody called an anti theft. The leading drugs. I leo flavors and it works quite well in studies. Where patients could. Actually i recover partner vision and maintain its with these frequent injections however in the real world over two years for a number of reasons Patients tend to lose vision. So there's a clear unmet medical need for treatments that are longer lasting and can bear real efficacy. What is the mechanism of action for a veg. Jeff inhibitor. what's it actually in doing. So it blocks at footsie. Vascular endothelial growth factor which is a reaction to the fact that the retina has a lack of oxygen so tries to develop new vessels enforcing the new vessels and blocking the sites and the retina retinal cells and blocking their function and interfere with vision so they have a counterproductive effect. And by blocking that skill does that with anti-death it's actually reduces the amount of fluid and we allow patients recover their vision. You mentioned that over time. The success rate is in great with patients. How much of that has to do with compliance and the need to regularly administer this by injecting directly into the i. Well if you think about it. What exact the antibiotic and the i you inject a significant amount and over time that goes away you know it's essentially reabsorbed into circulation and so As as the antiquated goes away the Cels grow back. The fluid accumulates in the macula threat officially sites and so some patients need more frequent injections every four weeks every eight weeks. And you're correct. I mean it's an full-time an injection in the eye of these patients need a caregiver. The take them to their appointments. It's the only takes a whole day. and You know they can't go about their lives. So there's definitely an issue with compliance. That was very obvious during covid. Nineteen sixty patients tend to be elderly and at risk and in fact there was a reduction in the sales of lia in two thousand twenty as a result of the pandemic so this is absolutely key factor in why in the real world. We need a longer lasting until your lead. Experimental therapy is eighty zero. To two is not a conventional gene therapy in terms of correcting mutated gene that underlies the disease but actually produces the protein. That's used in the therapies today. What is a dvd m. Two and what does it consist of. So this is actually correct. A most people think about gene therapies as a advanced therapies that correct a defective gene and barred ministered in patients with diseases. Here what we've done is we've included Transgene vector i wished is injected inside the victim. Just like a standard of care in outpatient setting and that vectors crosses what is known as the island transducer those two uses a salad in the back of the eye to produce lower levels of flipper saps. And what we've seen is That's one injection. In our optic study. We had patients who had an hundred and nine injections price coming in this study at over two years later they're completely injection free and maintain their vision and they have what we call dry maximize which is essentially absence of free. Build up that. We want to avoid in this bishop. Population have what's unique about algae therapy product. Eighty seventy made is not normally for Therapy unique jackson surgical intervention when you the the the surgeon inject the gene under the retina with a blob and that has a number of issues and limitations first of all required surgery and the amount of ice you can put in that small space is limited as location its ability to trans use enough cells to be successful so eighty two was actually evolved to be able to Finest wade through the island. Transi south without simple outpatient in office injection. And that's the result of direct pollution essentially platform. We can use further indications as. Well you need to get a patient to produce enough of this to have a therapeutic benefit. How difficult is getting the dosing right. That's really excellent questions. Obviously what you is. That is studies in animals. I to see how much of that back. How much does that protein can be producing the i. We've done that in multiple studies and should we can actually generate sufficient amount of protein that is equivalent to what you would see roughly four to six weeks after injection. And that's what you wanna see us go the maintenance of for these patients and what when we started our study we started at a dose of sixty eleven and we thought this would be the law does and what we found out is that one hundred patients at zero rescue action so all of these patients are now two years and has had no need for new jackson's which is really remarkable and unusual and we sat down by three full two to eleven. And what we've seen. This patience is that more than two thirds of the patients had zero restaurants. Actions that overall if you look at the reduction in annualized on tshuva jeff injections it was an eighty five percent. Ninety six percent reduction so very dramatic improvements. At of course these patients You can imagine you administer vector with transient. You need to get some profit access to minimize any kind of immune response that we see. And we see some low level inflammation that is managed with topical stored eyedrops based on these study who are now planning to single phase three trials that we plan to start a later this year and the hope is that we can file a seven navigation for approval in twenty twenty
A highlight from Finding New Uses for TNF Inhibitors
"Team for remedied. The first of the team up inhibitors is today in pursuit of new uses for these therapies. Now co one. Eighty life sciences. Woody and his team are pushing. Tanf inhibitors into new indications for inflammatory and vibrato conditions. We spoke to what he about the role of tanf in the inflammatory process the indications his companies pursuing and why these well established drugs have gone untapped for these purposes. Jim thanks for joining us. It's my pleasure to be talking with you today. We're gonna talk about tumor. Necrosis factor or tanf the role. It plays in inflammatory conditions and one hundred and eighty life. Sciences develop new therapies that target. Tanf i'd like to start with a little history though early in your career you served as chief scientific officer and senior. Vp of research and development center core and led the team that developed remedied. The firsthand inhibitor. When you were doing this at what point did the raw potential for tanf. Inhibitors become clear. Will the it's fascinating story in that When i joined santa are chief scientific officer. They had a very very large substance program going on treating patients with sepsis and they had a gm antibody against endotoxin and The day initial data was a little unclear and the fda required them to do in all comers sepsis trial and that failed and senator gore was in big problem. Because of that lot of people it actually hired a salesforce to sell this stuff so We were talking with the clinicians who treat substance patients. They were convinced that it really was tian out. Tumor necrosis factor that was causing the inflammation and the death of these patients. And so we did have an antibody against tanf that was made and we humanized. And i treated about fifty patients with sepsis with this anti and and nothing happened and so the moral of the story is the conventional wisdom was incorrect but we were left with this antibody that was really quite spectacular antibody And at that point. I came in contact with an old colleague that i actually don't agree with dr mark feldman at the kennedy institute of rheumatology london and he had done some experiments with human tissues showing that the rheumatoid arthritis was driven by a series of sight of crimes.
A highlight from Ep. 35: COVID and Climate Change
"I'm mary parker. And welcome to this episode of you. Rica's sounds of science It's coming up on earth day and this year we have some interesting data to consider during the global pandemic many countries all but shut down. Travel dropped precipitously. Many people stop commuting and large gatherings were almost entirely cancelled. This led to a noticeable decrease in air pollution in many areas in fact according to data reported by the european space agency last june covid nineteen effect on air. Quality could be seen from space. This does not mean that. Climate change has been noticeably affected. Industrial operations are still a big factor. In air quality. Many people want to return to previously normal activities as soon as possible and we are all still heading towards a tipping point for global climate change. But we can learn from this data here to discuss the ongoing trend toward sustainability. Are greg bilardo. Senior director of corporate sustainability for charles river and eric director of america sustainability services at schneider electric. Welcome greg and eric. Welcome to be here. Thanks glad to be here as well. Yeah thank you guys for coming so to get started. What do each of you see as the lessons. Learned from lockdown in terms of sustainability. All greg don't you start. You know what. I saw that as a softball question. Let me go. Sorry are to me or what. We learned from lockdown is a little bit of the world of possibility. And maybe how we wanted to do things a little bit differently moving forward. Of course. we don't want to operate where there's no travel where everybody is working remotely all the time but we did see the dramatic benefits of a lower carbon footprint. I think it was roughly a seventeen percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions that were attributed to the slowdown during the pandemic. That's not how we wanted to achieve those reductions but certainly we saw was the mountains in los angeles for the first time in twenty years or so the smog had cleared up and we realized that we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and clean up our air even more quickly than weren't doing it so i do think we'll start to see more remote work moving forward. Probably more of a hybrid model people still need socialization. People are not necessarily having to live in the town in which they work all the time. A lot of things that were done face to face. A lot of sales calls have friends of mine that were. I'm planes all the time. And they realized. We just don't need to do this and eric can. You weigh in. And can you also tell us a little bit about schneider. Electric and the perspective that you're coming from sure thanks And as i said. I appreciate the opportunity to join you all on this. Podcast today knows. I mentioned. I'm with schneider. Electric in addition to being a global manufacturing company that produces electron equipment basically supports all aspects of of the energy infrastructure. My group the group. That i sit with in the energy. Supply and sustainability focuses on consulting around topics of sustainability management energy efficiency and climate change. And certainly we. We've got our own perspective in terms of how it's impacted our business and our way of working like greg. I'm an optimist. And i think if anything it sort of opened our eyes to many the opportunities and sorta challenged the way in which we've always gone about and done things but given that we also work in the consulting space and interact with a number of different client organizations around the globe. You know we. We obviously know that. It hasn't impacted all organizations in the same way. I'd at largely agree with greg that changes in the way in which we communicate changes the way in which we assume a need for physical presence Either in an office or in a meeting or in a hotel or on an airplane more definitely gonna things that will carry with us in terms of immediate impacts. The climate change global emissions footprint. You know we think about things like business travel. That's that's probably the most pronounced impact that will see in numbers that folks are reporting out on for for twenty twenty for instance. We work with a number of folks in commercial businesses whether it's banking sales or things like that who seem ninety plus percent drops near year on your reliance on things like air travel and which as you might know has a significant greenhouse gas emission footprint graduated to cars and commuting earlier but even more broadly thinking about business travel by rental cars you know with owned fleets and sales vehicles that are out there on the roads an my morning commute in the mornings when i have gotten out and you know ventured into. The office has been considerably lighter than we've experienced. And so you know. Mobility is certainly an area that we've seen impacts and probably some lessons learned that will retain into the new normal as everyone says. I think though as well greg's point around hot desks and virtual working environments and things like that. That's that's a challenge at an opportunity for for all organizations so the need to to create safe while let while conditioned spaces for that may vary in the future. I think is a challenge that organizations will wrestle with how tight or how can we get with real estate now While still allowing for for those needs to get together virtually but i think as as well we'll see elimination of it in the retail sector for instance an industry that was already undergoing massive shifts towards e commerce and mobile shopping online shopping. And things of that nature clearly. We've seen an acceleration of that over twenty twenty and maybe some of those shopping trends remain. No i can speak for my family. There's folks in my family were eager to get back to the mall or get back to a store but for others of us were were perfectly happy
A highlight from #146 Jo Bhakdi on Whole Exome Sequencing
"My guess today is joe. Bach t the founder and ceo of gene. And in this episode we are going to be exploring whole genome or rather xm sequencing. We might touch base on whole xm and genome sequencing together. So thank you so much joe for coming on the call here and letting us talk about this specific type of genetic testing. You're excited to be here. I think the tremendously important topic. End of once paves the way in some respects. In gem landon also semitic testing today's jeremiah. And yeah very excited dive in so when it comes to whole xm sequencing for people. That maybe haven't heard of this before if there are students listening what is whole sequencing. So genetic testing started you know very in a very limited way focusing on assisting arians of maybe specific genes because there was simply no other option to do things because sequencing was expensive and very complicated to handle so as you s you listeners. Probably know we have a bunch of billion nucleotides on the of these seventy one percent that coding would be called. Coding genes or coding locally. Pat speak at specific best Sexy interesting topic We have but we have something around twenty twenty one thousand genes that are being used. You know people say up to nine thousand additional silence genes that are not being used so expression of day and then you have a vast ninety. Nine percent of the genome is likely non-coding light these not the us nothing red not be translated per proteins to be most accurate. Let me talk about the entire thing. Twenty two chromosomes mataya wait. He's you dis many talk about. Show me talking about this. One percent of the twenty billion roughly thirty million nuclear tides. Vastly twenty thousand genes. Our buddy actually uses to produce you know these twenty thousand proteins and so basically to more cost effectively. If you would have told everyone ten years ago it was cost effective that ten million dollars something to do a single akzo at nowadays wanting us the first company to bring this allows one thousand dollars including clinical interpretation at which is dramatic. It's a dramatic step change. And that is very time because it's utilize brecca dean example jeans to bracken's lead to our Talk about twenty thousand genes. so it's very different scope and another thing. Besides the sequencing costs need massive amounts of a i in cloud computing to clinical analysis of twenty thousand genes. If you want to do it. Cost effectively not have a durations.
A highlight from Episode 166: J&J's vaccine pause, talking about remote risks, & why no new drugs for Covid-19
"With another unexpected volatile development involving kobe. Vaccines this time. Trouble has come for johnson and johnson on tuesday. The fda and the cdc to temporarily halt vaccinations with the j. covid nineteen vaccine because of concerns about a rare but serious clotting problems seen in some people who had received the vaccine on wednesday. A committee of independent experts was brought together to examine the clotting issue further six cases have been identified and j. and j. indicated. A possible seventh is being investigated. One person has died at the end of the meeting. The experts declined to vote on whether or not use of the. Jj vaccine should resume. Many members of the committee said they had too little information to be able to estimate the benefits and risks of the vaccine or to recommend. Its use be restricted to people in certain age groups that means the j. vaccine pause is likely to continue for at least another week to ten days while more data are gathered and analyzed joining us to help better understand this clotting issue and its implications for the jay vaccine. Both here in the. Us and abroad is k. Cup for schmidt. He's a science journalist and contributing correspondent to science magazine based in berlin germany. Kyw welcome to the podcast in q. So you've done some excellent reporting in recent days about the possible link between this rare clotting disorder observed and certain covid nineteen vaccines namely the astrazeneca vaccine. And now possibly the j. j. vaccine so you know based on the reporting you've done what appears to be happening biologically in these cases. Yeah that's that's a really difficult question. I mean First of all. I should say that you know all of this reporting has been done with my colleague rich vogel also also here in berlin and basically i think the phase that we're in is one where we're slowly going through different hypotheses and to shoot them down one by one in terms of what might be causing this now. One of the first things. I think you have to realize is what we do know. Is that these patients who have these rare complications seemed to have. Antibodies against platelet factor. Four and this is something that is very similar to a disease that we know heparin and use promo side opinion t and that's kind of the starting point for a lot of these scientists investigating what might be happening now in heparin induced thrombosis subpoena. You get these. Ps four antibodies. Because the ps four is a small molecule. That's positively charged. Heparin is a large molecule. that's negatively charged. And the idea. Is that in some patients when they get heparin the peer four binds to the heparin. And that makes it. More visible to the immune system and so the immune system starts producing antibodies against pia four. That leads to the plates being cross linked and activated. And so you get this clotting. That's what kind of stocks this the big question now is how does a vaccine in the absence of heparin produce. This picture and the first basic idea was well. We do know that in covid. Nineteen people sometimes have blood clots and possibly that has to do with spike protein. So maybe all that's happening. Is that the body sees. The spike protein produces antibodies against it and these antibodies just happened to also recognize. Ps four. because there's maybe some similarities there this hypothesis that was actually tested. It's just a preprinted at the moment but basically the researchers didn't see this as happening so it didn't see that for instance. The antibodies from people who had had covid nineteen recognized. Pia for now. There's a few other hypotheses. One that i find interesting is that maybe the dna that is being shuttled into cells from the through the edina virus in astrazeneca. For instance. Maybe that acts like heparin. Because dna to is large molecule that's negatively charged. And and the question there is. Is there really any free. Dna in in the vaccine normally it should be contained within the edina viruses. But of course. I think fifty billion particles in one dose of the vaccine so possibly some of those break open and then you have some of this negatively charged dna and possibly be. That's what leads to this again. It's just officers at the moment. People have some really interesting different ideas. About what would be causing it. And in some ways the johnson and johnson signal. We're seeing now and questions about the other vaccines that use. Said you know. Virus will be one part of the because it might help us to understand. Okay is it. The vector is it something else in these vaccines so the more we can tease apart which vaccines are causing this. Which vaccines aren't it. It gives us clues as to what the mechanism can be and what it can be. Is there a group that's been identified to be at higher risk of these unique clots. And does that perhaps say anything about the biological underpinnings of what's going on right. I mean that's been the debate in europe for a few weeks now because we did see a lot more of these rare clotting cases in women but then one of the big problems here was that it wasn't quite clear how many men and women were vaccinated with astrazeneca in the first place. So because of the way that the recommendations were at first in europe it was actually quite a lot of women. So i think was norway. For instance had five cases four of them women and one of them was a man and when they looked at who they actually vaccinated they found that they vaccinated exactly eighty percent of women and twenty percent men with astrazeneca so so that was exactly in line with that now in the.
A highlight from #207: The Dangers of Fluoride on the Brain and IQ with Dr. Mark Burhenne
"Get today to get ten percent off one of my favorite probiotics out there. Now back to this week's episode. Dr be dr mark hanna. Welcome back to the broken brain bond gas. It's great to have you here drew. I am excited. I'm excited about today's topic. And it's always great to have a discussion with you. Yes and i really appreciate your balanced approach especially when it comes to categories that require more investigation whether it be you know heavy metals and mercury usage coming into a dental health. Or in this case we're talking about fluoride right fluoride this Thing that a lot of people have heard of But they may not understand originally where came from and what its uses are strong arguments that are both four eight and also against it and some data and the research. That's come out over the last few years on the topic. It's an important thing to chat about and we'll get into all the reasons why but first let's start off with can you. I remember hearing about fluoride as a practitioner or in your training. What did you hear about it. And what did you understand your training as a dentist. Now floyd what a what you said earlier. It's easy to jump on a bandwagon and run with bed And that whole idea of having a balanced Kind of approach to things. I've been groping with floride whether it's safe or not. Should i use it on my patients. Should i raise my daughter's With flirted having them drink. Florida to water. I've been grappling with this for ever since i graduated from dental school and mostly ever since catherine my firstborn was born. I mean that's that's thirty two years now so so it's a long process and can i ask one question about that. So even in your dental training. You're grappling with ben because having so many family members that are dentist sort of the world of dentistry just like doctors learning about nutrition in medical school. You sort of are just indoctrinated into just anything that's shared. You're not really told to question it. You're like this is the science that's out there. Don't question it. So what puts you in a place and situation that you actually had some questions. What was going on in your life that in dental you just didn't accept that or at least yes that they're worse. Yeah that's a great question because we are indoctrinated. I'm very excited to be at this dental school to have gotten in and you kind of roll with it and everything that you are given you know a didactic clinically. You try and absorb as quickly as possible. You don't have time to question something and then go and do research. There's no time at dental school So that's a really good question. I think it happened. I i can't remember specifically but i think it happened. It came to a head before my oldest daughter was born. Because i was worried about water to begin with i was raising my family in the silicon valley. It's a very fragmented water supply. There doesn't come from hetch. Hetchy one our up in the sierras. Like in san francisco. That's a pretty good water supply so it was groundwater and groundwater there were super sites nearby there's a lot of we've had a industrial silicon chip manufacturing there since the sixties And stuff gets dumped into the ground gets into the groundwater so i went out and bought a filter and part of my my approach was will what. What can i filter out. What do i need to filter out and fluoride was on that list because prince your question. It's difficult Because i don't really remember but it was something in me and again i was into health. I was a biochemistry major. I was taking supplements then as reading books on longevity that was just kind of a hobby on the side of dentistry. hadn't really formed at that functional approach head and to me.
A highlight from Podcast: Nature makes GMO fish; Biology and gender; Curing sickle cell with CRISPR
"Kevin fulda professor who cares about science communication. This is the weekly show where we discussed the biggest stories from the genetic literacy project to keep you informed about groundbreaking developments from the world of science and medicine and of course help you separate facts from fallacies as you read the headlines everybody. Welcome back to the show. Cameron and kevin here as always kevin. What's up how are you doing. Just great having a really good time with some refereeing national panel grants things that are part of the service you do to the industry and i'm glad it's done. Yeah sounds very fancy pants so good for you. Good for you. It's exciting stuff. It really is when you when you see the really exciting science. That's taking place around the country and the groups that are getting around different issues. We're not just talking about biology. Genetic engineering but in so many different fields is really exciting in hearing that we're getting a twenty percent bump in federal science funding That's really we need that bad. I mean eh really need it badly. So really exciting. Times all very good and Speaking of science let's dive into our stories. We've got some very innovative things to talk about. I think so i up. Skeptical of aqua bounties fast-growing salmon while nature makes genetically modified fish to next up. Why the effort to find a quote biological basis for being transgender is misguided and harmful and finally cure for sickle cell diseases inches closer with the launch of a major gene. Therapy trial very exciting stuff. But first up kevin. Let's talk about Natural gm fish apparently. Yeah this is really cool and this is a report that came out in. Cbc news which is canadian broadcasting company usually not writing very favorable things about genetic engineering because this isn't genetic engineering unless it's genetic engineering that nature did so the story goes back to a couple of researchers at queens university. A lorry graham and peter davies found this evidence a while ago now that there was this antifreeze gene that helped the rainbow smelt live through freezing temperatures so super cooling fish and some other organisms can endure temperatures below freezing because of a mechanisms that keep their cells forming ice crystals. What interesting stuff going on there and if you think about it. These are cold-blooded so when it gets below freezing you have the risk of freezing so years ago. Probably a decade and a half. I guess they found this evidence that there was A this gene that that didn't seem to make a whole lot of sense that that it that it looked like a in so we go over now to herring and smelt How was this hearing. Gene ending up and smelt the last time that they were related was by extremely distant ancestor. They said by the article article here. Two hundred and fifty million years ago so that was like the carbon difference period so these two individual lineages of fish split off pretty early a back before dinosaurs or you know and so this really cool so well same time as early dinosaurs. So how did this happen. So what it seems. More likely to have happened. Is that a relatively contemporary setting. The one gene has jumped from herring to smelt. Makes no sense. How does that happen. And so that's really where the story stepped off. Well let's get into that if we can because if you if you're not talking about sexual reproduction how. How is this occurring. How are you getting this. Dna from one species. That's very distantly related to another. Can you can you elaborate on some of the details of that. All of that was the really big question right. How did this come up. How does this happen. What was really cool was that they went and actually were had access to the gene sequences. Or the genomic sequence of the herring and smelt. And you can look at them together. You look at the rainbow smelt sequence in the harring sequence together. And what you see. Is that that Well let me go back. If you look at the sequence of the rainbow smelt and compare that to others melts. They have what's called symphony. You have the same shared sequence of all of the genes in the region and it turns out that this one has the same as other smells except