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A highlight from Episode 73: Video Games!
"Well, hello, everybody, happy whatever it is when you're listening to this to you. My name is Mick Sullivan and this is the past and the curious. Maybe it's December when you're listening to this. Maybe it's November. Maybe it's January, maybe it's 2028. I don't know. Hello in the future. Anyway, I get a lot of emails. And a lot of people suggest many different things to consider for an episode. But I have to say the number one thing that I have gotten requests for has been video game history. And I like video games, like I had a Nintendo and NES when I was a kid. I've had a few other game consoles through the years, but it's not how I spend my time. It's never really been my thing. I think it's cool, but it's never really been my thing. But luckily, there are some really awesome stories, particularly of the people behind the devices that you use and enjoy. Actually, the first story is a man named Ralph Baer. He escaped Nazi Germany and became a pioneer in video games, and just a few years later, a black engineer named Jerry Lawson took some of those ideas and really expanded upon them, and we have those two guys to thank for an awful lot. One summer day, in 1966, Ralph Baer couldn't get an idea out of his head. It wasn't a new idea. He had thought about it years before, but no one thought much of it when he suggested it, so he had moved on to other things. But now, while he waited for someone he knew at a busy bus station in New York City, he sketched out a more complete version of this idea. There was something there as boss would decide, soon, Ralph had the official thumbs up he needed to invent the very first home video game console. Ralph Bayer was born into a Jewish family in Germany in 1922. With the rise of the Nazi Party during his youth, this was an increasingly dangerous time and place for Jewish families. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and soon the rights of Germany's Jewish people were all but destroyed. The Nuremberg laws of 1935 limited the freedom of Jewish people throughout Germany, and they lost nearly all political power. These laws also meant Ralph and his fellow young Jewish students could no longer continue their educations. They were expelled from school. His parents, lottie, and Leo could see the rise of hate and danger that surrounded their family, and decided to flee before it was too late. Lottie's family had arrived in America back in 1895. Leo's job had brought a bit of money, and importantly, he could speak English. At the time, America had strict, often unfair rules about who could be issued a Visa to stay in America. Despite thousands of people being desperate to flee Europe, the American government refused more people than it accepted during this time. Some years, many of the allotted passes went unused. But the bears were fortunate and they're already in America family, savings, and fluency helped them get to New York and safety. Two months after they arrived, the event known as crystal knocked happened in their homeland. This state sanctioned rioting destroyed Jewish businesses, burned homes and took many of the first lives in what became known as the Holocaust. Fortunately, by that time, the recently arrived 16 year old Ralph was already hard at work in New York City. One day, after ten hours of stitching leather in a factory, he glanced at an ad in a magazine someone on the subway was reading. It was for a correspondence course to learn radio repair. Basically, pay to learn by mail. He paid the fee and completed the coursework which arrived regularly in his mailbox. And before long he was working as a radio technician. In 1943, he was drafted to serve in the United States Army. Ralph was more than willing to return to Europe and help stamp out the Nazi forces. His gift and interests and technology and native German tongue made him a great choice for military intelligence, and he actually worked under general and future president, Dwight Eisenhower. Around the time after World War II, there were probably only a few thousand television sets in America. Before the war, a Chicago man named Ulysses armand sanabria, the son of a Puerto Rican immigrant, launched one of the first television stations in the world. He had a dream for America, and at the war's end, he recruited 2000 returning soldiers to train at his new American television institute of technology. The lack of TVs and homes didn't face him. It's the wave of the future I can picture it now, a TV in every home. He knew that the world would need lots of expert technicians and Ralph Baer would be one of those 2000 soldiers trained to take care of the 2000 or so TVs in America. I wonder one ratio isn't a great business model, but luckily for him, by the time Ralph graduated, Ulysses vision was well on its way to coming true. TVs became the center of many family living rooms. As Ralph repaired machine after machine, he had a lot of time to think. It occurred to him. TVs are incredible, like maybe the most technologically advanced thing ever up to this point. But they only do one thing. Broadcast images someone else has sent. What if people could control what was happening on the TV? What if you could play games? In the 1950s, he was working for an electronics company and suggested it as a new approach to business. What? Nobody likes games. People want the news. And commentators giving opinions. Maybe an interview with an opera star here and there for fun, but games. We're well Ralph. So, Ralph filed the unappreciated genius idea in the back of his mind until he pitched it to a new company a decade later in 1966. By this time, there were millions of television sets in America alone. I love it. Here's two smart teammates to help you and $2500. Come back to me when you figure it out and we can have some fun playing pixelated television challenges, medium fast broadcast contests, maybe just video games, what? Come on Ralph, just make the machine. With his team of two other scientists, they worked in a secret room with circuit boards, television sets, buttons, wires, and a whole lot of creativity. In May of 1967, when Ralph and his fellow game designer William Harrison first plugged in their new invention to play the game, they programmed from Ralph's ideas. Ralph lost. It wasn't much of a game, though. They couldn't do much more than move a dot on a screen. So they had to get creative. A see through plastic sheet was placed over the television screen on which the image of a bucket was printed. The game console originally called channel LP or channel let's play, placed a blue dot on the screen, so it oriented towards the bottom of the bucket that was stuck to the television screen. Player a had a controller with a button. As did player B and when the game started, player a tried to fill up the bucket by moving the dot upwards to the top. Player B tried to stop it by pushing the water back down. This was simply controlled by which player pressed the single button the fastest and the most.
A highlight from Underwear Chronicles Thirteen Garrett Morgan
"Hello, everybody. Welcome to the past and the curious. My name is Mick Sullivan. And this is the penultimate, which is a fancy way to say second to last. The pen ultimate installment up the underwear chronicles. I promised 14 stories, this is story number 13. There's actually two other stories that will be in the book, in addition to a bunch of other shorter bits and the underwear Hall of Fame. Those you can find in the book when the book comes out, it's getting really, really close. We actually, as of November, 17th, it is I'm actually waiting the final proof so I can see the physical book, which is really, really exciting. And this week I have spent the entire week reading all of the stories out loud again and recording them for the audiobook version of icy Lincoln's underpants. So that is all very close. If you're listening to this in November, it's gonna be out if you are listening to this in the future. Maybe it's out already. This episode is about Garrett Morgan, who is someone we've covered in the show before one of my favorite people of all time. But this is a much deeper dive and the last time I think my friend Brian actually narrated it. This time it's me with a whole bunch more information. I can't wait to share it with you. Garrett Morgan, let's go. While growing up near Paris, Kentucky, Garrett Morgan's dresser wasn't filled with the soft white drawers he had heroically show the world later in life. Just as his underwear and pajama selection left a lot to be desired, the early circumstances of his life didn't offer a plethora of options either. Days brought hard work, probably while wearing scratchy, burlap undies, which were the common quick homemade underwear solution of the day. Night might have brought much needed sleep, but it was still in those same uncomfortable undies. A home full of older and younger siblings meant most of those undies had been, or were bound to be someone else's undies. This is the way it was with pretty much everything else in the house too. For the first part of their lives, Garrett's parents had been enslaved. When the American Civil War brought an end to slavery in the United States, mister and misses Morgan remained near the plantation where they had once lived. When baby Garrett came along in 1877, they were working as sharecroppers and raising a constantly growing family. Sharecropping is mostly what it sounds like, though people were typically pretty loose with the whole sharing part. Landowners allowed tenant farmers to grow crops on land in exchange for a large share of profits, and most cases the landowners helped themselves to the largest share, though the tenants did the labor. Between the hard work of farming, teaching, and feeding 11 growing kids who probably ate more than their fair share of the sharecropped crops, Garrett's parents had plenty to worry about. They may have wanted to give their kids an education, but it wasn't something that they could easily afford. In general, public schools were a thing of the future for Garrett's time and place. Though some larger cities might have had full public education available, it was not the norm. It wouldn't even be until Garrett was 41 years old, in 1918, that American children were legally required to finish elementary school at all. His occasional schooling, which he crammed in between working on the farm, amounted to a 6th grade education. Had there been more free public school to show up to after 6th grade? Walking through the door wouldn't have been a problem. He was always looking for new ways to feed his brain. Early on, Garrett figured out that using the brain in his head was his superpower. The boy had a knack for figuring out how things worked and solving problems when they didn't. At 14, he packed a few shirts, a pair of pants, and some undies that he wouldn't have to share, and went north to Cincinnati, Ohio. Alone in the city, the barely teenage boy soon found work as a handyman. Earnings were spent on two things, staying alive and learning. After paying for food, a room and the occasional new article of clothing, he was still a growing young man after all. He used the rest of the money to hire private tutors. Obviously, Garrett was responsible in addition to being smart. These teachers for hire helped him stitch together the pieces of a formal education to complement the real world experience he was rapping himself in already. A few years later, he made the fateful decision to move farther north to Cleveland, Ohio. He had heard that the largest clothing factory in the world was here. In addition to dozens of other shops filled with thousands of people who cut, stitched, and sewed everything wearable under the sun and moon. Each day, a never ending parade of baby dresses and men's suits and women's skirts, and an assortment of underwear were finished packed and shipped out to cover rear ends all across the country. Built on the banks of Lake Erie, Cleveland was a major center in America's garment industry, so it was a good place to be for a smart kid with a mechanical mind. Of course, no one knew what brilliance was swimming around between the ears of this new arrival, so Garrett started at the bottom. Sweeping floors. He quickly found a way to stand out. While he swept up the fabric scraps and threads, he noticed a problem. The constant use of the sewing machines around him loosened the belts, which drove the engines. This slowed down the people working since the machines required regular maintenance and repair. Not only was he able to repair the machines, but he devised a solution that kept the belt tight all day. Before long, he was an official shop mechanic. In 1901, he sold that first invention, a sewing machine belt tightener. Garrett was a man who liked to solve problems, so it was the first of many. Soon after, he was playing around with some chemicals in search of a way to lubricate thread so that it wouldn't burn when pulled quickly through a machine. When he casually wiped the new goop from his hand on a rag with curly fibers, Garrett was amazed to see the little ringlets entangles completely straightened. Wanting to confirm what he observed about the potion, he asked to borrow a neighbor's curly haired dog. When the animal returned home, the owner didn't recognize the little pup. Garrett's creation had magically straightened the hair and temporarily left it looking like another dog entirely. With some more tweaking, Garrett realized his concoction would make a great hair straightener for people too. Eventually, he sold the hair tonic under the company name of G a Morgan here refining company, but for the time being, he kept working in the clothing shops, slowly moving towards his destiny. When
A highlight from Who invented emoji?
"We love your questions because often one simple question can inspire us to explore so many different topics. Science, history, art and culture, all wrapped into one question. Today's is kind of like that. My name is Leila. I'm from Melbourne, New Jersey. I'm 9 years old. And my question is, how are your emojis invented? Before we can answer how emoji were invented, we need to make sure we all know what they are. If you've ever watched a parent or an older sibling or a caregiver, sending a message to someone else on their phone, or maybe you've even grabbed their phone yourself, you might have noticed that in addition to typing words, you can type in pictures to get your message across. You might add a heart symbol or a smiley face to end a message with a kind of note of affection, kind of like, I love you, or I like you. Or you could use the face of someone laughing instead of typing out, that's so funny when somebody sends you a joke. Maybe you want to know what's for dinner. Well, instead of writing, what's for dinner tonight, you could punch in a picture of sushi, a chicken drum stick, and a bowl of salad, followed by a question mark. There are lots of pictures to choose from, and all of those symbols are called emoji. Small images, symbols or icons used in electronic communication. The emoji developed over a long period, but in particular, in Japan in the 1990s. The word is actually a Japanese word. It's a two part word. So eh, it means picture and moji means character. So emoji means picture character. My name is Paul Galloway. I'm a collection specialist at the architecture and design department in the Museum of Modern Art. And that's a very long way of saying, I take care of art and design at the museum. The museum Paul works for is sometimes called MoMA, because that's what the initial spell Museum of Modern Art. It's in New York City. As part of his job, Paul is actually working on a book about emoji. And by the way, you say emoji, whether you're talking about a single picture or lots of them. Kind of like how one moose is called a moose and many of those animals all together are still called moose. Let's get to Layla's question about how emoji were invented back in the 1990s. They were developed in people trying to make cell phones and pagers. Before there were cell phones, if you wanted to catch your friend or your parents and they were away from a home phone that had a cord connecting it to the line, you would call a pager and leave a little callback number. And then that person would then go find a public payphone and call back at that number. And the youth in Japan, the young people didn't like doing it this way. So they immediately started using pagers in a way that nobody anticipated. They would use little number codes to mean things to each other like zero one zero 6 9 meant I love you or zero four 9 meant. Thank you. And they used these kind of codes. And then along came one of the Japanese companies that was selling these pagers and said, you know what people might really like is a heart. And then they can send a symbol instead of just numbers and letters. So this company was called NTT docomo, which is very much like a big Verizon wireless AT&T. It's a huge company. And their pager with a heart on it was extremely popular. And a few years later, they released a cell phone that also had the emoji capability, but this time with a 176. So you could say that emoji were made in Japan and made for Japanese pagers and cell phones. But they even go a little further back from that. Some of you, some of your listeners might know that kind of emoticons, the smiley faces you can make with a colon and a parentheses. In Japan, they have more keys and characters on their keyboard. So there's even more complicated faces that they can make, including the shrugging. We've all seen the kind of funny shrugging face. Right, you make it out of lines and it looks like somebody with their hands raised like they're going on, I don't know. Yeah, it's a wonderful kind of, I use it all the time. People ask me, where do emoji come from? And I respond with the shrugging. Which technically is not an emoji, right? Emoji are actual pictures and emoticons are the ones that are made with the letters and numbers. And that are more sort of symbols that represent a picture. Right. And they're sideways. That's another key thing. Emoticons in the west, you have sideways faces, happy faces, angry faces. And Kala moji, which is the Japanese equivalent, they're horizontal, but they're not characters we have on our keyboard. You can't type out the shrugging emoji. We don't have the right characters on your keyboard here in the west. So that's only something that can be done in Japan. So there's emoticons, there's cow moji, and then emoji become the kind of actual faces that you see on cell phones. And they were used on cell phones in Japan for quite a long time, but they were really stuck in Japan for a while because if you were on a docomo phone, you couldn't send an emoji to somebody on a different company's phone. So each company had their own kind of locked things. So it didn't work all that well. And it wasn't until 2006 when Google added emoji to Gmail. And then in 2010, when Apple added emoji to the iPhone that suddenly the world took notice and started using them. And now emoji are used in crazy numbers. I think on Facebook Messenger apps alone, there's 5 billion emoji emoji sent every day every single day. The emoji that you are talking about that were built in the 90s, they looked pretty different than what we see on cell phones today. What did they look like? Well, they look for kids today. They might be like something they would see in Minecraft. Everything's very blocky and pixelated. And that's because a computer's back then were very, very weak. They were not very good computers. And in particular, cell phones were very, very primitive. They did not have very strong computers. Their screens were tiny, and only had one color, and it was very, very simple graphics. So the emoji from the 90s in Japan are extremely simple and blocky. Emoji today are much more detailed. They look like full little pictures, but how do they get on people's phones? Who chooses which pictures get included? And how? My name is Jane Solomon, I am a emoji expert. And I'm also a dictionary editor. Jane is an editor for emojipedia, an online encyclopedia for all things emoji. If you go to emojipedia and you want to look up, okay, what are different meanings for this kind of hand gesture or this flower or whatever? You might be able to find some information there. You might be able to find what flower specifically it is. And you'd also be able to find how it looks across different platforms. By different platforms, she means things like different phones made by different companies. So a picture of a cactus might look different on a phone made by Apple than on an Android phone. Here's something that might be tough to wrap your head around. When you send an emoji, what is actually being sent from one phone to another isn't the picture itself. It's a code. The code gets sent from your phone to your friend's phone. So, okay, I'm going to send melody a picture of a cactus. First, I find the picture I want, and then I hit send. And now melodies phone is going to read or interpret the code from my phone and what she'll see on her screen is a picture of a cactus.
How Spanish Composers Influrnced Latin America
"After christopher columbus made his first trip across the atlantic ocean spain and other european countries began to colonize the americas. Spanish music had a big influence on latin american music. And so did the music of the enslaved people who were brought over from africa one of the first places columbus landed in fourteen. Ninety two was cuba. Nineteenth century violinist. Jose white lafitte had a spanish father and an afro-cuban mother whites composition that they yaqoob ana the beautiful. Cuban uses dance rhythms from haiti and the dominican republic on the island of hispaniola twentieth century. Cuban composer and missile. The owner was a pianist. That's lik wound up performing his most famous piece. My leg ania which is a spanish dance. Kunas family was full of musicians including his great nephew. Leo brouwer leo. Brouwer was guitarist until he hurt his right hand even after he had to stop playing. He kept on composing in fourteen. Ninety three columbus landed on the island. We call puerto rico spanish for rich port. The taino people who originally lived there called it. Land of the great lords in their language voted ken. Which is the title of this piece by. Puerto rican composer. Roberto ever
James Has a Magical Wizard for a Teacher!
"On monday. James and his class met their new teacher. Mr tizard mr tizard wore a brown jacket with patches on his elbows and a neatly clipped. Short beard also wore purple framed glasses and carried a purple ruler in his breast pocket. James thought he seemed nice enough. No close said. Mr tizard arm going to hand each of you a book. Please sit silently. While i do this. However when it got to james mr tizard had run out and there were still five children to go. Who bother said mr tizard. I don't mind sharing. Said james looking at the child sat next to him but then he looked back up at mr tizard and he noticed that the new teacher had five more books in his arms. One of which he placed in front of james later outside james is best friend was talking excitedly about mr tizard. James is friends. Seem to like him when he asked james what he thought. James said I'm not sure something's weird happening in there. It's because he's a new teacher said james's best friend you'll get used to him on tuesday. The class had basketball in the afternoon. James was playing defense trying to stop the attacking team from scoring a basket as the opposition. Plays moved in. James stood his ground and held his hands why to make it harder for the other team. This forced one of the players to stop and shoot over. James's head the ball curved through the air as james pivoted on the spot hoping to catch a rebound instead the ball wedged itself between the hoop and the backboard it was stuck james and his classmates tried to jump knocked the ball free but they were all far too short. What seems to be. The problem said mr tizard approaching from the edge of the court. The ball stock. Everyone chorused just as the ball mysteriously dropped and bounced across the floor. It seems just fine to me. Said mr
Snake Slithers out of Spice Shelves at Sydney Supermarket
"A slithery surprise looking in the shelves of a supermarket in sydney australia. Twenty five year old. Elena alati was shopping for spices when a ten foot python emerge from behind the jars of spices flicking. It's tongue just inches from her face known to her friends. As the harry potter girl helena happens to be a trained wildlife handler with over twenty snake rescues to her credit and quickly recognized the reptile staring right at her. As a non venomous diamond python remaining calm she captured the unusual encounter on her phone before alerting store clerks and offering to help catch it after returning with our snake bag. One tap on the tail is all it took for the serpent to wriggle happily inside after safely. Depositing the creature back into the nearby bushland. Helena admitted that while she doesn't speak the harry potter language of serpents known as parcel tongue. She believes snakes gravitate towards her because they sense she cares about protecting animals.
What's Happening in Afghanistan?
"There's a lot going on in the country of afghanistan in south central asia. It citizens are waking up to a new leadership after the country's government collapsed and a military group called the taliban took control. This same group ruled afghanistan from nineteen ninety-six until two thousand one with very strict laws and ban. Many things like education for girls television music and movies for the last twenty years though. Us soldiers help keep the taliban out of power which meant the afghan people had more freedom just last month. The bulk of us military forces left hoping afghan leaders could rule on their own instead. The taliban quickly regained control president biden address. The american people yesterday and admitted that afghanistan fell into the wrong hands much quicker than anticipated but he felt it was time for the us to get out and for afghan leaders to find a way to lead their own country.
Tyler Gilbert Makes First MLB Start at Age of 27 and Throws No-Hitter
"First. Start in the major saturday night. Tyler gilbert of the arizona diamondbacks threw a no hitter. Tyler is only the fourth pitcher in baseball history to pitch a no no in his first big league. game bobo. holloman was the last back in nineteen fifty three even more remarkable. Tyler didn't play any organized ball last year. Kovic shut down the minor so he spent his summer throwing to an old high school coach and doing electrical work with his father to make money. After saturday nights outing he told reporters. I'd rather be doing this than pulling wires. No offense dad. Tyler was also the eighth. No hitter of the season tying a record set back in eighty. Four
What if You're Scared to Start School?
"School is starting up again after a summer. Break for many of you especially those of you in the northern hemisphere and it may be your first time back in a classroom building in a long time. Some of you in other parts of the world are in remote learning situations again. And you might not know when you'll be going back. It can be a bit unsettling especially if you're just starting kindergarten that's the case for odin. Here's what he wrote in an e mail. One of his adults helped him send to us. I'm five years old. I live in wilson wyoming. My questions are if i am terrified about kindergarten. Do i have to go. What should i do if i'm scared to go to kindergarten. And what if kids are mean to me. Well odin yes. I think you do have to go to kindergarten. School is where we learn important. Things like reading writing math and languages. It's also where we go to learn how to learn but it's totally natural to feel scared when you're going to start something new in an unfamiliar place. We thought you might appreciate getting some advice from other kids who have just recently gone through kindergarten themselves and from some teachers and other people who work in schools and have found some pretty good ways over the years to help kids get through the scary times we asked all of them descend in responses saying what they're excited about and nervous about and if they have any tips to manage those nervous feelings. Let's start with zoe and ten years old and i live in colorado and what. I'm really excited to do when i get back to. School is see all my friends. What i'm not really excited about to do at school is having to take tests. And if you're going into school and you're kinda nervous My advice to you is just have fun and try to make some friends and the school. You will be a lot better. Some of you wanted to tell odin what it was like for you when you started school. Hi i'm isadora. And i'm from kalona. Bc i was scared for her go to kindergarten tail. But when you step into the classroom there's lots of nights kids and they play with you a lot more nine ali on his own. I listen cameras. Friday a stag. He done this. Yeah i'm the best thing about king is on is my friend and then new
How the Nickelodeon Logo Came to Be
"Zoo nickelodeon which launched in nineteen seventy nine was the very first channel devoted entirely to kids a great idea in concept but the head honchos had never really worked in children's entertainment so they didn't exactly know what they were doing and it took a while for nick to really figure it out maybe they could have cracked it sooner. If they'd had some clues from summer sanders. But i digress once. They got a better idea of what they were actually going for. Thanks in part to mtv co founder. Fred siebert who observed quote looney tunes and rock and roll had a lot of things in common and one of those things that was in common was a sort of subversion of the established world of parents of teachers of you know government and of the establishment and quotes. Zoo this channel for kids needed to subvert. Anything adults likes or told kids to do and thus quoting the ringer. A new logo and direction was born. One that spoke to that rejection of order. It was a mess. Literally the shape of a splat it was also an invitation to imagine. The nick logo was only splat. It could be any orange shape that you could dream of from an alligator
Kids News: Los Angeles Dodgers Ball Girl Tackles Pitch Invader to the Ground
"Ball girl for the los angeles dodgers making. What many are calling the play of the game college senior marisa rowe. Han did what seven security guards couldn't sunday night. She took down a fan who jumped into center field. The interloper was quick on his feet. He even hurdled. One attempted tackle as he raced into the infield but he didn't bet on the back girl wearing number ninety three and waiting for him near the first baseline as he neared. She leveled up and grab just enough of his jersey to flip him over the railing. And back into the stands. The crowd went wild and soden social media with posts calling her the mvp and some football fans asking their favorite teams to sign her to a contract as for the field crusher. He was hauled out of the stadium and likely banned for life
What Is Infastructure?
"Have you ever been in the car listening to the ten news. Of course and your parent or guardian hits a pothole or bump in the road and they probably say some kind of bad word after they hit it that something called an infrastructure problem. So what exactly is infrastructure. It's really anything that helps us live our lives the way we do the roads and bridges that you drive all over the country. You're drinking water railroad airport waterways and rivers you name it. Even your internet connection is considered part of the country's infrastructure. Oh man at a time. When we're still depending on internet virtual school in work there are some parts of the country that really struggle with getting online high speed broadband. Internet is hard to get in rural areas of the us. Sometimes they connection is so slow have to go to the library or find some other way to get online man as infrastructure gets older. There's been a lot of talk about the condition of a lot of these things. In fact the country gets graded on. How well it's infrastructure is maintained right now. Experts called civil engineers give the us a c. for overall condition of the nation's infrastructure. Are you kidding me. But some areas like roads and bridges aviation in airplanes and mass transit. Used to get people to work are being graded even lower. Were talking cs and ds. It's worrying because a lot of infrastructure issues have to do a safety if a bridge is structurally deficient. It's not safe to let people drive over it in as you can see. There are a lot of areas that need attention right now. So americans can have confidence in their infrastructure.
Shiny Treasuers: A Story and Meditation for Your Bedtime Routine
"Our story today is shiny treasures. Sira the sand crab was a little crab who loved to dig on her big beach for terasury. There's the other. Sand crabs would stay near the water but sira was brave and adventurous. She loved to dig for shiny things things that she couldn't ever find in the ocean sira loved the things she found. They made her wonder about other creatures in parts of the world that she hadn't experienced herself yet every time she found something it was like finding a treasure. Just hiding in the sand for sira to dig out. Sira collected all kinds of treasures from shiny bottle caps. Two beautiful shells to pretty white feathers. Sira would bring her treasures to the big banana leaf that she called help. The leaf covered a shallow hole. She had dug up on the beach far enough away from the water that tides would never flood it at night. Sira would snuggle up under the big banana leaf with her treasures. She would wake up when the sun shone through her leaf and start her day by digging for breakfast and for new treasures of course but one sunny afternoon. A gust of wind suddenly blew cyrus. Banana leaf away. Oh no thoughts. Ira there goes my leaf. It's sunny right now. But what if it rains. My treasures will get all wet at first. Poor sira didn't know what to do so she took a deep dragon breath and out
What's Inside the Earth?
"And welcome to the inquisitors podcast. You know what the surface of the earth looks like. It's covered with mountains and sandy beaches and dirt in the woods and sometimes it's covered in concrete where people have made cities. Most of the earth's surface is covered with oceans but what is under the surface. Is it just more dirt. Could we really dig all the way to china. Science says no we could not dig all the way to china cover. The inside of the earth is actually made of four very thick and very different layers starting from the center of the earth and working out toward the surface. The layers are the inner core the outer core the mantle and the crust. The inner core is a solid ball made of iron and nickel. These are both metal elements that are very heavy. They are also both magnetic. The inner core is fifteen hundred miles across. It's roughly the size of the moon and it's very very hot. The temperature down there is five thousand degrees celsius. The next layer is called the outer core the outer core is made of iron and nickel and sulfur and oxygen. It is even hotter than the inner core. It's six thousand degrees celsius. It's a liquid layer that flows around the solid inner core. The liquid moves by convection. That means that as some of the molecules heat up they rise and as other molecules cool down they fall. This liquid layer is constantly swirling because of the rising and falling molecules. They give it like a pot of boiling water. Bubbling and moving even when the pot is
Can Your Dog Tell When You're Lying?
"About it. Dogs can usually tell when you're lying to them. That's according to a new study out of the university of vienna involving two hundred sixty canines and their ability to detect. Researchers ran a number of experiments between dogs and humans in one dogs were presented with two bowls of food one containing a treat when told which bowl had the treat. The dogs listen to what they were told. But what happened. Next is truly revealing researchers. Then switch the bowls containing the treat in front of the dogs while sometimes leading a second person watch when told by the second person which bowl had the treat. The dogs only listened when that person had actually been in the room. Moreover dog scored better than kids and chimpanzees in past similar studies.
Sunset Singalong: A Calming Short Story for Children
"Our story today is sunset sing along fernando frog hopped from lily pad to lily pad. In excitement he had a wonderful idea. He was so excited for a moment. He didn't notice a shadow overhead. It was dragon hulo dragon. Fernando called lovely. Day isn't it. Dragons smiled at fernando and nodded enthusiastically. Are you busy this evening. Right around sunset. Fernando asked dragon dragon nodded. No dragon was not busy this evening. Right around sunset. Then please come back here. At that time. There will be a special frog concert tonight. Fernando said with enthusiasm dragons eyebrows shot up in surprise and then dragon smiled with up. Big big smile. Please invite anyone else you see to fernando called and drag. It nodded enthusiastically immediately. Dragon took off to find the others and tell them about the special concert. Fernando again hopped excitedly from lily pad to lily pad. This was going to be a special concert. He had to find felicity freddie and frieda frogs and enlist their help. Fernando found his frog friends on the other side of the pond sitting amongst the cool reads friends he called. I would like to give a special concert tonight. Will you sing with me. Of course said frito cheerfully great idea ready chimed in. How fun said felicity with a big smile.
Why Do Humans Wear Clothes?
"Mining's alethia from barbecue in ohio in six years ago. My question is why hoon's have to wear clothes. Many people think we started wearing clothing for practical reasons of warmth and protection basically my nine zombie charts and i'm address historian so i spend my time thinking about clouds in the past. And what plates can teach us about history. Ambush chart is going to guide us through a little bit of the history of the clothes we wear and why we wear them as she answers. The questions you've sent us like bacteria olivia's we didn't have like a lot of other animals steve so when modern humans began moving away from very warm places like continental africa into colder parts of the world. We need to protect ourselves. Somehow we need to wear something to keep us warm if it's very snowy outside or if it's very cold so this is one answer that we workloads for protection
Why Couldn't the World's Fastest Man Listen to Music?
"Here's your i joke. Why couldn't the world's fastest man listen to music. Because he broke the record. A record is a disc with music on it that you can play on a record player but a record can break easily. People used to listen to records much more. Before we played our music on our phones or computers
Space Tourism Blasts Off
"The world has been buzzing about space lately as more and more rockets take off from our planet but the latest launches aren't from governments or organizations that you used to like nasa instead. Several billionaires and their companies have gotten into a bit of a space race on july first richard branson who owns space company. Virgin galactic became the first person to get to space in a rocket that he funded cool ends on july twenty first amazon founder. Jeff bezos flew a few miles higher than branson and a rocket called new shepherd nice. Each flight was about ten minutes long. Both virgin galactic and bezos company. Blue origin have stated that. They're looking to popularize space tourism. But right now they're charging big bucks for the privilege. Virgin is currently charging two hundred fifty thousand dollars a seat and while blue origin. Tickets aren't opened for the public to buy yet. One of bazo seat meets ponied up. Twenty eight million dollars for the first ride. These flights represents a new era for space travel. But they've also been controversial. Critics have questioned the amount of money being spent on this endeavor instead of donating to causes and solving problems here on earth especially in the midst of a pandemic but besides being joyrides for the rich and famous experts. Say that these space vehicles could one day have something to offer the science world. Scientists who want to conduct experiments in low. Gravity haven't been able to go aboard flights at all. The ships are unmanned bummer. That could change in the future scientists. Hope that they could study questions. Like how living things respond to the move from. Gravity to
Bobbie Rosenfeld: The Olympian Who Could Do Everything
"Are not an ideal outfit for running now. They might sound unfamiliar to our ears today. But these puffed up pantaloons once grace the bottom halves and cavs of plenty of young women in the early nineteen. Hundreds there called pup tent bloomers because as pants. They're so big that they kinda look like those pup tents that soldiers would cover themselves in while sleeping underneath the stars even if you don't think they look like pup tents and i'll be the first to admit that they don't exactly in the nineteen ninety s. We would call these things hammer pants but they probably used about as much fabric as a pup tent did they were big bill louis and could balloon with air so not good athletic. Wear for someone trying to run fast. They'd catch the wind like a sail. Nevertheless there stood young. Bobbie rosenfeld at the starting line of a foot race that she hadn't even planned on running. She was being cheered on by oliver softball teammates wearing her wind. Grabby it's pup tent. Bloomers she was at a citywide picnic plate in a softball game but knowing how fast she was on the base paths. Her teammates convinced her to enter a one hundred meter dash. That just happened to be taking place nearby. She said yes without much thought and the next thing she knew the starting pistol was fired. Twelve point one seconds later bobby crossed the finish line before anyone else seemingly out of nowhere. A man came running up to her asking questions. Like where did you come from. Who are you. Have you run in competition before. And when he asked her if she knew who she had beaten. Bobby shrugged and said no. He told her that she had beaten canadian champion. Rosa gross. Bobby thought that was pretty cool. Then he asked. Do you know how faster time was bobby again. Said no he told her. It was twelve point. One seconds. The canadian record.
Bugs Week: Morning Riddles
"It's bugs week and today we've got some riddles about crawley critters to puzzle your noggin. Here's your first one. This bug has two big claws and a tale. That can hurt it. Looks like a small lobster that you find in the desert. What type of bug is this scorpion. A scorpion switzer rushing to the other side of the top of your mouth. Don't brush too hard scorpions type of arachne. It that means they have eight legs like spiders. Scorpions have to sharp pincers in the front of their body. That looks sort of like the clause of the lobster or crab and they have a long tail with a stinger at the end. Scorpions used their singers to inject poison into whatever they want to eat. Switzer rushing to the bottom of your mouth and keep on brushing. Here's your next riddle. This bug is like a lamp lighting up the woods at night. They fly around in till there but turns on the light. What bug is this. Fires lies firefly's fireflies or lightning. Bugs are the little bugs that light up the woods at night. Their butts laid up like a light bulb using something called bio blooming essence. What i'll explain after you switch you're brushing to the other side of the bottom of your mouth and brush the molars in the way back. Bioluminescence is how certain animals create light bio means. Life and luminescence means cold. Light like a light that isn't made with fire or heat. Animals who bio luminescence can create light in their bodies using chemical reactions firefly's mixed special chemicals in their butts to make them light up
Why Do Elephants Like Peanuts?
"I am alice. I'm eight years old. I live in houston texas and my question is why do elephants like peanuts. Thank you great question analysis. When we're learning about animals. We tend to get our information from a lot of different places what we read what we if we can observe an animal and sometimes what we watch on. Tv and the idea that elephants like peanuts probably comes from the cartoons and movies. We've watched over. The years elephants are herbivores. That means they eat grasses and bark vegetation in zoos. They'll eat fruits and vegetables hay and sometimes pellets of food. That kind of look like pet food. The connection between elephants and peanuts is that in early. Zoos and circuses. Lots of peanuts for sold for human visitors to eat sometimes. These zoos and circuses would let humans feed the animals. And just like your dog might sometimes eat people food if you give him or her. Some the elephants would eat. The peanuts got offered these days. Zoos don't let you feed the animals and that's a good thing. Biologists and veterinarians say peanuts army. Great food for elephants so while it's funny to see elephants. Eat peanuts cartoons. They don't do it in the wild and it's not really a food. they like better than anything else.
Shelter Pet Parade: A Guided Meditation and Story for Kids
"Our story today is a shelter pet parade. Five new arrival landed our island airport. They were labeled handle with care in five very special containers. Were gilbert the goldfish mustard. Be the parakeet mri. The dog kit. The cat and larry the iguana on the flight over the five had been talking. They were all being transferred to our way. I learned animal shelter so that they all could find their forever families and be adopted. At first they all felt nervous. Not knowing where our island wise or what would happen when they arrived missy dog encouraged all of them to take a deep drag in breath in and out so that they would feel less nervous. She was grateful. They were all together and she told them she had heard that away. Island was a very nice place with people who loved their pets very much and considered them to be part of the family. And that's what each shelter pet wanted a forever family. The airplane ride had been noisy but not too long ago and after they landed their carriers were brought off the plane and immediately placed into an air conditioned van. A man checked on each of them to make sure they were ok as he checked each one. He called them by name. Larry iguana the man read off the tag peaking in. How are you doing fellow. Larry sat quietly feeling glad that the airplane ride was done mustard be parakeets. How are you little birdie. The man said mustard be ruffled. Her father's also feeling glad the airplane ride was done and gilbert goldfish man. Read from the tech What a great name he. Exclaimed gilbert swam around with enthusiasm ms kit kat. The man appearing in. Don't worry sweetie you'll be at the shelter soon. Everyone is very nice. You are safe. Kit was very frightened but the man's soothing voice made her feel a little less scared.
How Paganini Inspired Franz Liszt
"When franz liszt was twenty he went to a concert by violinist niccolo. Paganini the first superstar classical musician panini was as big as any rockstar today and he put on a great show. He was pale and thin. The dressed in black. He also memorized all his music which most performers didn't do them and he came up with new very difficult effects on his instrument. Missed left pag concert thinking. That's what i want to do. So he invented the solo piano recital with the piano facing sideways on the stage so that the audience could watch his hands and face
The Freezation of Pam McGee
"The freeze ation of pam mcgee. There are strange things done in the mid day sun by those who searched for spoil the desert sands have their hidden plans. That would set your blood to boil. The pharaohs tombs have seen strange dooms but the strangest they did ever see. Was that day on the edge of oasis hedge. I froze up old pam. Mcgee now pam mcgee was from kittery where the snowfall blasts and blows why. She left home from the north to roam around the desert. No one knows she was always hot but the endless thought of gold held her in spell though she'd often say in her brazen way she'd sooner swim a well. Well it all happened. Because i was her captain. We joined up after the war. We figured a duo could find their way through. All the desert may have in store with camel stout us to set out to search the sands for wealth and like a crown. The son weighed down and tried to sap our health one. Summer's day we tracked are way over the dawson. Pass talk of heat through son or sheet. It burned like boiling gas in an open. I rough sand would fly until we couldn't see it wasn't fun but the only one to gripe was pam mcgee and as it rose the sun imposed a dreadful pressing fire the canteens mon dry as a bone. We feared that we'd expire and though it felt we'd begun to melt. Our goal was still ahead. We'd reach the edge of oasis hedge or else we'd both be dead and that very noon like pebble-strewn. We struggled in the sand. The camels fed sun overhead. We staggered stripped and tanned. Pam turned to me and cap says she. I'm all cashed in. i guess. And when. I'm through i'm asking you please grant one last request. She seemed so low that i couldn't say no. Then she rasped out in a moan. It's the curse it heat. It's got me beat. I'm melting skin and bone.