History never repeats itself on this fascinating playlist. Whether you're a history buff or buffoon, these historical tidbits will excite and inspire. Sourced from leading talk radio shows and premium podcasts.
Leon Trotsky assassination attempt - May 24, 1940
"APP on Apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcast. This Day in history class is a production of iheartradio. Hey y'all I'm eaves and welcome to this day in History Class. A podcast for people who could never know enough about history today is may twenty fourth twenty twenty. The Day was may twenty fourth nineteen forty Mexican artists. W fosse GAYDOS and Stalinist agent. Gula Vich along with a crew of hitmen attempted to donate Leon Trotsky Trotsky was a Soviet revolutionary and Marxist threats who was a leading figure in the Bolshevik movement under Vladimir Lenin after Lennon died in nineteen twenty four and Joseph. Stalin rose to power in the Communist Party in Soviet Union Chomsky emerged. As one of Stalin's main critics and opponents Trotsky was against the increasingly bureaucratic Soviet state and called for more democracy in the Communist Party. He thought that the Stalinist policy of socialism and one country would hinder efforts for World Revolution in Nineteen Twenty Five. Trotsky was removed from his post in the war commissariat. The next year he was dropped from the Polit Bureau and in nineteen twenty seven he and his supporters were expelled from the Communist Party. In January of Nineteen Twenty eight Trotsky was exiled to a tie and Soviet Central Asia. He lived there for a year before he his wife and their son were expelled from the Soviet Union and sent to Turkey but he continued to write and criticize Stalin as well as people who had opposed Stalin but has settled for the regime. Trotsky settled on the Turkey island of principle where he stayed for four years. He completed his autobiography and his three volume history of the Russian revolution some of his supporters volunteer to serve as his bodyguards but in nineteen three Chomsky and his family were offered asylum in France soon enough. He was no longer welcome in France either and he moved to Norway then Mexico where he had been granted asylum skis settled in Koya con area of Mexico City at the Blue House the home of painter Diego Rivera and free to Carlo and he continued to write completing the revolution betrayed in one thousand nine hundred eighty six but in a series of trials in the late. Nineteen thirties many so-called old bolsheviks were found guilty of treason and imprisoned or executed many of the defendants confessed to having plotted with Trotsky to kill Stalin and other Soviet leaders Trotsky was found guilty of treason in absentia and sentenced to death on May twenty fourth. Nineteen forty Stalinist agent. Iosif Grigorovich
"I'm Eric. Marcus out of the closet and into your podcast feeds once again speaking to you from my guest room closet revisiting the making gay history archive as a coping mechanism in the Cova crisis. I hope these trips to the archive. Help you a little. They helped me a lot here on West Twentieth Street. In New York City. Things have been slowly opening up the Jihad place on the corner. The French pastry shop across the street and soon our favorite restaurant down the block but normal not even close noisy traffic and streams of chattering tourists on the way to the high line park have been replaced by chattering. Birds Looking for mates or just hanging out the city that never sleeps is a surprisingly sleepy place to live at least in my neighborhood where many people have fled to second homes or other parts of the country so this is the Tenth Week that my partner. Barney and I have been sheltering in place here in the US at least nine hundred thousand or dead more than a million and a half infected along with a cold statistics. There's been much discussion about how this pandemic is the great equalizer that no matter who you or the size of your bank account. You're not protected from this virus. It's true that viruses don't discriminate but our society does and this virus has cast in stark terms how systemic inequality the termines. How likely you are to get sick and if you get sick how likely you are to die and that brings me to Perry Watkins. Another of the many people I interviewed who is just trying to live his life when fate and in Perry's case racism cast him in a very different role one that could easily have landed him. Six feet under Perry Watkins was Nineteen Year Old American college student living in Germany and studying dance when his draft number was called. It was thousand nine sixty eight. The war in Vietnam was at its peak. But Harry figure that after a quick trip to the army's induction center in Tacoma Washington he'd be back in Europe doing what he loved. He thought he had nothing to worry about. Because the military didn't want homosexuals and Perry made no secret of the fact he was gay in life or on the army's intake form that he had to fill out turns out he plenty to worry about. So here's the scene. It was mid November nineteen eighty nine and I was sitting in Perez semi dark living room in Tacoma Washington. It was too cold to take my coat off. Perry was bundled up to and explained that he couldn't afford to heat. The House. Perry was a handsome man with close cropped. Hair a beard and abroad smile. His every gesture offered a glimpse into his past as both dancer and a drag performer. I Clinton microphone to Perry's jacket and press record interview with Perry Watkins Sunday. November nineteenth nineteen thousand nine five thirty PM at the home of Perry Watkins in Tacoma Washington. Interviewer is Eric. Marcus tape one side one. I want to go back in history. How's that we're working our way back? Honey asks granted good very this is this is. This is kind of interview. I love talking to a lot of people the most torture to me is. When I ask a question you know. You don't think I'm going to get those kinds of answers okay Did you know you wanted to work in the military? I didn't want to check the box because I wanted to go in the military. You didn't weren't you know that's why I checked the box? If I wasn't planning to go into the most I check the box. Yes and I was drafted anyway. You check the box. That said homosexuality. Would you like to see a copy of the former leave you? I think you checked with the sexual. Yes you were drafted. Yes would you you draft nineteen sixty eight Vietnam War. Good thinking I would school yes. I'm not that Oh so we shopped. Yes what's absolutely? How did someone tell me the chronology of this you you you wit? You've got your shit. There's this thing to look everybody's as what you didn't realize that most people don't realize I was not trying to go into the military. That's why I told them I was. That's why I find it absolutely ludicrous. That the army is in court saying we don't want this man. Well why the Hell did you take me right so you you know? Excuse me and why am I the one that is being accused of being at fault? It is amazing but no I check the block yes. They sent me into a psychiatrist. Who said to me baited me? It was funny and I knew what he was doing. He came in and he says why. Did you check the blocks and I went because you asked me to fill the format honestly well. Did you object to going in the military? No I didn't want to go in the military whom did right but I certainly had no objection to serving my country. You used to be owns extremely so who I really check. The box was because I thought if I go into the military. I'm not going to hide the fact that I'm good. I know myself well enough to know that so when I get thrown out mom will be angry if I lie. That was why I checked the box. When I put out my mom will be more angry with me for lying that. Why didn't I just tell the Damn truth to begin with so then he said well what you like to do. I said well the same thing you know anyone who was gay likes to do Orlando Sex. Whatever no I mean specifically put this psychiatrist I looked him and said you mean to tell me your license okay. Because you don't what a homosexual does I? He got angry with me. I WanNa know what you like to do. So he made me tell him that I liked and get fucked in the ASS specifically then he turns around and says. Do you ever date women now. Stop and think about that. Do you think this is a man who's just made me say I like to Suck Dick. You're not gonNA ask me. Do I ever sleep with women. Do I ever have sexual intercourse limited over Fuck Women? You know you're going say. Do you ever date women. Well now. What clean do you know who doesn't who said yes? His finding was that I was homosexual but qualified for military service now according to the regulation and this is what I find it amusing because the army's always shooting about our regulations says homosexual can't be in the military you're right you're regulation required. That man make a determination that if I was suitable for military service that I was lying that I am not homosexual. The only way you can put someone in the military who check that box. Yes Sadr isn't Adrian. I'm draft walk into the draft board DOT com. Oh walked up. The steps and three guys looked up that I'd gone high school with from the time that I was in junior high school. I told people that was good. Why I had this relationship with the young man that told someone in my mechanical drawing class and I walked in and he told them
How do pirates retire?
"And all next week. I'm investigating the myths and mysteries of the pirates that sailed the seven seas during the golden age of piracy. Yesterday I debunked the idea that pirates never had treasure chests full of gold blooms and pieces of eight and cited the discovery of the pirate ship wide up by BERRY CLIFFORD CHESTER TREASURE. That he hold from the remains of that ship and yeah it was a treasure map that led into that site today. I'll detail how pirates were able to repair their ships despite being unable to pull in any protocol and where they ended up when they go to old from the coast of wealth leak Massachusetts where Clifford found that pirate ship. Wider will travel eight thousand miles across the Atlantic cross the continent of Africa to an island in the Indian Ocean in the seventeenth century. A thirty one mile stretch of land was called Ile Sainte Marie. Just a short sale as the seagull flies. For in the seventeen and eighteenth century was home to more than a thousand pirates but it was no mere coincidence that the colony was set up on seemingly remote island this particular stretch of land in the Indian Ocean was chosen specifically for location from here. The pirates could easily intercept and plunders ships. Traveling from the East indies laden with valuable cargo. So associated was island with piracy that gone to Madagascar for Limes. Was a message often left at pirate meeting places. It is believed that feared Brin Adam Baldrige realized that the bays and inlets of the island would provide safety for ships as well as affording about a full supply of fresh food water and women. It is also thought that the ample supplies of fruit were used for making that infamously favorite drink of these. See Ferry Marauders. Rum was the many inlets. The provided a defensible harbor for careening. This ship was pulled ashore and much of its whole. Planking was either scraped clean or replaced because this process placed ships and their crew in a vulnerable situation change were pulled across the entrance to the inland just below the surface. In the event of the pirate harbour was discovered in an English or Spanish ship attempted to enter the chain would rip out there Keel but more than a pirate harbour. I all Sainte. Marie became last stop for aging pirates. To this day you can go. To The island of find hundreds of stone markers at with names dates and the skull and crossbones on some many times entire crew would end up on the island and bury their treasure often in fear of having it taken by another pirate truth. Tunnels were dug containing all kinds of traps. Should an attempt be made to steal their booty? One of the most notorious Captain Kidd suffered at the hands of his crew burned his ship to the water that was the adventure galley and then sank after the remains of the ship were discovered so many tourists came to what was commonly called. Pirates island. This would be about nineteen eighties. They were injured when they descended into those ancient pirate tunnels so many were injured that the local government had the entrances cemented over. Well Monday. I'll describe what life on a pirate ship was like. And how many pirate cans couldn't fire a cannonball more than one hundred feet and what the battle between ships was really
"On this episode five minutes in Church history. Let's talk about a scientist Sir. Isaac Newton. He was born in sixteen forty three. He died in seventeen twenty seven he was actually born in the exact same year of the death of Galileo. He was born in originally humble circumstances. His father died three months before he was born in sixteen sixty one he went off to Cambridge. He had a grasp of Latin and a very curious mind. He would pass the time sketching clocks and windmills and other kinds of gadgets. Once he got to Cambridge he studied astronomy. This was the era of Copernicus and Kepler and of course he studied the classic Philosophers Aristotle and Plato. He kept his notebooks and in one of them. He wrote amicus Plato. Amicus Aristotle's Maga's Amici Veritas. Plato is my friend. Aristotle is my friend. Truth is my best friend. And he also let Cambridge embarked on studying mathematics. In fact he would come to the way in this field he is credited for inventing the study of Calculus as he called it the calculus of infant hassles and it was also while he was at Cambridge that he studied the motion of the moon and the planets and he recognized this force. That was acting on these planets orbit. He was discovering what would come to be called the law of gravity. He would go on to publish. His books is famous book in Seventeen. O four the book called optics and in There. He puts forth his theory of colors. A very interesting a young student in the colonies at the College of Connecticut. We know it as Yale. University would get a hold of Isaac Newton's book optics and he devoured it. This of course is Jonathan Edwards. And he wrote his own little scientific paper he called of light rays and this was all from. Reading Isaac Newton and Edwards draws this corollary from just being amazed at how the actual physical human eye processes light rays. This is what Edwards had to write hence the infinite art that was exercised in the formation of the eye that has given it such an exquisite sense that it should perceive the touch of those few rays of the least fixed stars which enter the eye which all put together won't amount to the million million million million million to part of the least moat of such an exquisite sense that it should distinctly perceive an image upon the retina that it is not above the eighty million millionth part of an inch wide. That has so nicely polished the retina that it should receive so small a picture upon it when the least pro Tuba Rinse or an evenness would utterly destroy and confound it here's Edwards amazed at the human eye but far more amazed at the God who created the human eye and the God who created the universe and it was Isaac Newton who unlocked this for Edwards and it was Isaac Newton who unlocked this for so many other people as Alexander Pope. The poet has it that nature and nature's laws lay hidden by night. God said let Newton be and then there was light Newton as the father of modern science. Believed that no way would science give us less room for God or somehow make less space for God and understanding of him? In fact it was the exact opposite for Isaac Newton. The more he studied God's universe the more he was led to acknowledge and worship God. Newton once said gravity may very well explained the motion of the planets for the can't explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and God knows all that is or all that can be known. That's the Great Isaac Newton
"We eat a seriously astounding amount of pizza. Americans collectively eat three hundred fifty slices a second and one hundred acres a day more than five billion pizzas are sold around the world each year. It's a lot so we all eat it but are we all eating the same thing to get back to where we started with the donut. Pizza that is going to be haunting my dreams. Is there actually a standard definition of pizza? Oh No okay. The reason on laughing about that is because anytime I am asked i. I've become somewhat of an expert or authority on the history of pizza and anytime I mask. There's always someone who disagrees. With my definition Carol how Starsky is a history professor at the University of Denver and author of pizza a global history. So I WANNA be really careful about what I say here that this is my opinion as a food historian that I believe pizza is a yeast. It flat bread that has ingredients baked onto the crust dat is sort of the most basic definition of pizza. I don't get that specific Rice A-ok it has to be round or it has to be square or it has to be thin or thick or it has to have tomatoes and cheese on it. But here's the thing you ask to beat the experts definition of pizza you get two different definitions and I think that we need to kind of establish effect that pizza pizza until you put tomato sauce on it right because before that. It's a flat bread. I mean if not then you could argue that the Egyptians had pizza because had flat breads and that'd be absurd to say Francisco. Maguire is the head chef at modernist cuisine. They've already put out a five. Thome series called bread and now they're working on an equally exhaustive pizza book or books for which they have been doing a lot of research which sounds delicious although Francisco says. It's actually very exhausting to the tally. As of December. It's been two hundred pizzerias and it's just a number. That boggles the mind. Because I mean if we've been two hundred pizzeria fixture does at least five pizzas per pizzeria. And I don't want you to think that we eat the entire pizza. You have to pace yourself. It is a marathon of any pizza by the end of the day. You just want to like carrot or something vegetables something that feels a little bit better to your body to eat because there is such a thing as too much pizza. I'm convinced but I agree with Francisco that the definition of pizza is kind of a slippery thing. I call just any flat bread pizza. It's thirty year pizza. I'm from Mexico. I would say no but I thought about it because has sauce and it has cheese and it's a flat bread and cooked. You know an Camman which is very high heat so strictly defining it you could. You can see how. How some of these lines crossover each other. I think we can all agree that a Tortilla is not a pizza for starters. A TORTILLA is platte. But it's not really a flat bread. It doesn't have yeast but there are a lot of delicious Houston. Flat breads around the world. There's lava and pita and Lavazza non and those are just off the top of my head. Carol says there's archaeological evidence going back ten thousand years little instant pizza things. They were cakes of mashed grains baked on a hot stone and then topped with whatever was handy oil honey herbs or even more complex sources so a flat breads go back to the Neolithic the Dawn of agriculture and if they're yeast did flat breads in so many different cultures than pizza. Can't possibly be an Italian invention right. These are the kind of fighting words that will land you in court. Cynthia specifically the Court of Historical Review in San Francisco which is a fake court stopped by real judges. They've made some landmark rulings in their time on where the Martini was invented. And whether or not chicken soup is the Jewish Penicillin and in nineteen ninety one. The court gathered to debate. A serious question is pizza. Originally Italian or Chinese. The Chinese case was surprisingly strong prosecuted claim that pizzas descended from pink to which are rice flour cakes filled with sausage and spices. That were brought to at LE- by our old friend Marco Polo back in the twelve hundreds and then transformed with the use of local ingredients. Let the judge wasn't buying it even before Marco Polo made his way to the eastern back the attractions in what is now Italy around about one thousand BC. We're making little cakes at looked much more like pizza. The Italians won their day in
New England's Dark Day - May 19, 1780
"Day was may nineteenth seventeen. Eighty this guy. In New England and parts of Northern Canada turned unusually dark in an event remembered as the dark day several days before may nineteenth people in New England notice that the sky appeared smokey and the Sun and the moon appeared read on the morning of May Nineteenth. The Sky was cloudy and still had a reddish you throughout the morning. This guy continued to get darker by noon. People were using candles for light. The darkness stretch from the skies over Portland Maine to the southern coast of New England. It was so unusual that many people paint some people went to church while others went to taverns birds reportedly suffocated from the smoke and ash. Some people noted that the air smelled like sit the Connecticut legislature even move to adjourn Abraham Davenport. A member of the Governor's council opposed joining the legislature. He said that quote the day of judgement is either approaching or it is not if it is not there is no cause of an adjournment if it is to be found doing my duty. Harvard Professor Samuel Williams collected observations about the darkness and wrote about the day's events. According to his account the darkness continued until the middle of the next night. He said the following candles were lighted up in the houses. The birds having some their evening songs disappeared and became silent fouls retired to roost. The were crawling all around as at break of day objects could not be distinguished but at a very little distance and everything for the appearance. In Gloom of Night Williams reported that people saw a layer of scum on the surface of water that appeared to be the ashes of burnt leaves from his observations. He determined the likely cause of the darkness. He suggested that fires had caused favors to rise in collect in the air since the weather had been clear the air heavy in the wind quote small invariable but many people dismissed the idea that wildfires caused the darkness in the weeks after may nineteenth people proposed different theories about the origins of the event. Some thought that sunlight was being blocked by a huge mountain others believe that biblical prophecy being fulfilled later. Research suggested that distant forest fires cost the darkness researchers from the University of Missouri and US Forest Service examined tree rings and fire scars and determined that a major fire occurred in seventeen eighty in Algonquin provincial. Park in Ontario Canada. They concluded that a low pressure weather system curate smoke from the West or north to New England. The fires in the Algan highlands were the most likely cause of New England's dark day but fires burning in the eastern. Us could have also contributed to the darkness.
Mavericks & Legends: Isabella of France
"And contested figures in English history. Let's talk about Lean Isabella of France. Isabella was born in twelve. Ninety five she was the only surviving daughter of Philip. The fourth King of France and his wife Joan. The I of Navarre Isabella had three older brothers. Who at Various Times all reigned as kings of France or Navarre? Isabella was twelve years old when she went to England and married Edward the second a month later pair was crowned King and Queen of England. Isabela was too young to participate in English politics. At first she soon became known for her intelligence and diplomatic skills. Those skills were vital when mounting tensions between the king and lower nobility erupted Edwards favorite nopal. Here's Galveston was murdered in thirteen. Twelve by Jealous Barons. Who believed he'd become arrogant? Violence could have escalated quickly. But Isabella's smooth things over and for some time. Her diplomacy worked. Shortly after Galveston's murder Isabella gave birth to her. First Child. Edward of Windsor. She would give birth to three more children over the next step role. Years leader rumors claimed that Isabella and Edward had a troubled marriage from the start. That wasn't the case. They were a relatively happy functional. Couple until Edward chosen new favorite Noble House and the thirteen twenties Edward through his adoration at the Dispenser Family. A father and son do. The king had a particular affinity for Hugh Dispenser. The younger would married one of his nieces and thirteen o six and was appointed as his chamberlain in thirteen eighteen. The Dispenser Family was despised by many in the royal court. Were Hughes arrogance. Greed and excessive wealth Isabella in particular hated and feared them and Hugh may have contributed to some of the relationship woes Isabella and her husband when England went to war with Isabella's brother Charles. The Fourth of France Edward started to treat as it felt like an outsider and confiscated her lands in March thirteen twenty five Edward Sent Isabella to France to negotiate. Peace with Charles. Thanks once again. To her diplomatic skill the talks were a success Edwards set his and Isabella's thirteen year old son Edward of Windsor to perform the final ceremony. The agreement with her son the heir to the throne under her control in France. Isabella saw an opportunity. She offered her husband an ultimatum. Isabella refused to return home. Unless King Edward Removed Dispenser From Court and allowed her to return to her royal duties as normal. The king refused so Isabella state in France while there she started an affair with an English baron named Roger Mortimer who had escaped from prison after being arrested for leading a rebellion against the king together. Roger and Isabella formed a political alliance and decided the time had come to overthrow the king. Isabella's secured ships money and troops patrolling her son to a Belgian noble. It's September thirteen twenty six Isabella in with an army of mercenaries and exiled nobles. Many of the king's supporters joined her side right away including his two half brothers and his cousin. The dispensers were quickly captured and executed parliament force. King Edward the second to abdicate his throne to his fourteen year old son in January thirteen. Twenty seven Edward. The third began his reign. He wasn't yet of age so the country was ruled by a Regency Council. Isabela and Roger weren't officially part of that council but they seemingly had to factor ruling power and considerable influence for several years. Eventually Isabella and Roger Mortimer became as unpopular as the king before them in thirteen thirty Edward. The third ordered the arrest and execution of Roger Mortimer and sent his mother into retirement. Is it Ella? France passed away in thirteen fifty today. Many see Queen Isabella as a historical seductress who led her male victims to their dooms plays and novels painted her as a cruel
Birth of the Urban Legend
"Today I am going to take a look. At myths and one in particular that is huge a myth that is regarded debated by perhaps perhaps millions of people and it starts in Rome. No one could talk about the Catholic. Church without mentioning. Vatican City. Balance City is an independent city state within Rome. Italy is under full ownership sovereign authority and jurisdiction of the holy. See the area that occupies represents the smallest city state in the world coming in at one hundred ten acres with a population of about a thousand. It is ruled by a type of theocracy minister by the pope while the Holy See dates back to earliest Christianity. The Independent Vatican City state on the other hand didn't come into existence until February. The Eleventh Nineteen Twenty nine this is different from the papal that occupy most of Italy from seven fifty six to eighteen seventy. The Vatican walls were built to keep out pirates during the ninth century. Pirates were pillaging much of southern Italy when they sacked. Saint Peter's in eight forty. Six Pope Leo. The fourth decided he needed a little extra protection. A thirty nine foot wall was constructed around Leone City. An area which included the current Vatican's territory gradually when the threat receded. Many gates were opened in the walls. It was shortly after the wall was built but no connection. Eight fifty five to eight fifty eight that a new pope came into power. The story goes that a lady pontiff rained for a brief time in the ninth century. Disres- was a young woman who disguised herself as a man and entered religious training distinguishing herself as a scholar. She rose through the church ranks and elected Pope John. Eight the year eight five. She went onto rule for two years. Her gender always concealed but he flowery holy robes. Her secret was only revealed. Eight fifty eight when she unexpectedly went into Labor during a papal procession. Some accounts say she died in childbirth while others claim that her and raged followers dragged her behind a horse and stoned to death. Either would've been an appropriate response for the Times before you scoff at the idea of a female pope. Let me lay out some facts. The story of a female pope surfaced in the thirteenth century. Chronicles written by a couple of Dominican Friars then in the fourteenth century. She was mentioned in a book about famous women. Her image eventually graced paintings sculptures and Tarot cards for a short time. She was included in a collection of papal bus in. Italy's CNN Cathedral. Some historians dismissed Pope Joan as a myth that we go. Here's our myth citing that her supposed rain overlaps Pope Leo fourth and Pope Benedict third. Some scholars believe that she was had been expunged from the church history. One ancient scholar provides her nationality place of birth length of her pontificate as two years. Seven months and four days. Then there are some who say she didn't die immediately after giving birth instead she was deposed after her confinement and did penance for many years after her death she was buried in. Estonia were her son held the Office of Bishop generally today all sources a pope. Joan are thought to be nothing more than an urban legend yet. There are hints of a female Pope's existence in both art and architecture on the pillars and Saint Peter's basilica in Vatican City seven sculptures showing a woman's facial expression while going into labor can be found but wait in the oldest surviving com copy of the pump typical the official book of biographies of Popes during the early Middle Ages Pope Benedict. The third is missing completely then are medieval coins that show the likeness of Pope Jonas Elias. Yes there are and this is suggesting that she may indeed have existed. Science had proved that these coins are not fake when archaeological find has documents that Pope Joon US crown. Louis the second of as a holy Roman emperor eight fifty six. Although the available evidence seems to cast some doubts regarding the existence of Pope John. It is likely that some would continue to believe that this figure was real whether it's a piece of fiction or history detail. Pope Joan will most likely on until absolute physical documentation surface. It finally and the
Mavericks & Legends: Eleanor of Aquitaine
"Legend was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe. During the Middle Ages known for her extraordinary beauty and brilliance. She was a leader who wielded significant influence over everything from art and literature to politics and the perception of women. She was queen of both France and England and built a long legacy through advantageous marriages for her many children. She was a role model for future. Female leaders please welcome. Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor was likely born in the year. Eleven twenty two to William the Tenth Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Elinor was the oldest of the couple's three children medieval aquitaine was a huge fiefdom located in the western central and southern areas of present France to the south of the Laura River. It was renowned for its wealth and influence and for being an enlightened capital of culture and. Learning Eleanor's father a lover of literature and the arts ensure that all of his children received the best cultural and academic educations available. Eleanor was fluent in multiple. Languages learnt math astronomy in history and was adept at sports such as Falconry and chess. When Eleanor was eight her mother and younger brother died seven years later. Eleven thirty seven her father died of dysentery. While on a pilgrimage. On his deathbed Williams last act was to do everything he could to protect. Eleanor and her inheritance of Aquitaine. He ordered his men to rush to the court of King. Louis the six the France to ask for protection for his daughter until a marriage could be arranged he also asks Louis to find an appropriate match. Louis was all too delighted to choose his own son. Louis the seventh were married a few months later. Eleanor and Louis. The seventh a match. She was renowned beauty and intellect well-versed in politics and well traveled. He was incredibly sheltered for an heir to the throne and was generally a quiet man for most of his life. Bluey was not the air and was never trained in the skills necessary to rule. It had been expected that he'd go into the Church so we spent most of his early life in monasteries. That changed when his older brothers suddenly died and Louis was thrust into the spotlight from the start. Their relationship. Louis was submissive. To and reliant upon eleanor when he accepted the task of leading the second crusade. Eleanor made it clear that she was coming along. It's not surprising given Louise Limited leadership skills and existent travel experience that the crusade was not a success. Eleanor is famously. Recorded by medieval historians treating the trip more as a big adventure than a serious endeavor brought more than three hundred ladies in waiting with an accompanying baggage train spanned miles still the same historians. Note that eleanor was a better leader and more respected than her Mika's even though the crusade was a series of misadventures eleanor managed to increase her social capital during the trip while Louis was continually marginalized by the time they reached. Antonio Louis was resentful of his wife. Eleanor asked for an annulment and Louis agreed ending their marriage upon their return to France and eleven fifty two weeks after ending her first marriage. Eleanor married Henry Duke of Normandy and Future King of England. The two ascended to the throne two years later in eleven fifty four it was a tempestuous marriage. Unlike her first husband Henry was not easily controlled by eleanor. The more she tried to control him the more he fought back by having affairs. He also disapproved eleanor surrounding herself with musicians and poets. Still Henry and eleanor did have eight children together. On whom eleanor focused. Most of her attention. She was well aware that she could eventually wield much more power through her children around eleven. Seventy Eleanor left her husband and moved back to her family home in. Potier taking her favorite son Richard and daughter Marie with her in eleven. Seventy three eleanor's oldest son Henry. The young king started a rebellion against his father. King Henry was soon joined by a number of his brothers. The rebellion lasted a year. And a half before it was finally crushed some believe that eleanor who had publicly supported her sons had actually instigated the revolt as a result. King Henry had eleanor imprisoned in eleven. Seventy four. Eleanor STAYED IN CAPTIVITY FOR SIXTEEN YEARS. Until Henry's death in eleven eighty nine. By then Eleanor's oldest son had died so her second oldest Richard the first known to history as Richard. The Lionheart ascended the throne. Eleanor was very close with Richard. Soon after taking the Throne Richard. One off to take part in the third crusade and left. Eleanor in charge. Though she'd been locked away for over a decade it took eleanor no time at all to get back in the swing if things. It wasn't long before she was signing documents and having others address her as eleanor. By the grace of God Queen of England Richard Eventually returned home from the crusade after being kidnapped in Jerusalem and ransomed his mother in eleven ninety nine. Richard was killed in battle while fighting. King Philip of France over territory. He was succeeded by his brother. John upon becoming King John Quickly signed a peace treaty with Philip with peace finally achieved. Eleanor MOVED TO FUND TO ROW. Abbey where she died in twelve o
Kingpins Daily: Eliot Ness
"Times but in his nineteen fifty. Seven book the untouchables. Ness reveals a more vulnerable side of himself. One that suggests that even the most by the book offices questioned the very rules they enforce. He wrote doubts race through my mind as I consider the feasibility of enforcing which the majority of honest citizens didn't seem to want the law of at Ness was referring to was the eighteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. I ratified in January. Nineteen nineteen it banned the manufacture sale and transportation of intoxicating liquors and incited the prohibition era for those unfamiliar. It's important to note that Americans didn't just wake up with a hangover and empty liquor cabinets. They had the opportunity to prepare for prohibition and prepare they did many acted like Frat boys before a big snowstorm. They hoarded alcohol. And why shouldn't they? There was absolutely no promise that the storm of prohibition was going to pass any time soon. In fact they were politicians. Like Senator Morris Sheppard of Texas essentially telling people the pigs would fly before it ended. Needless to say there were stockpiles of liquor everywhere and by everywhere we mean in the cellars of those who could afford it. How were they able to purchase these now? Illicit goods simple the eighteenth amendment was poorly written as we said it banned quote the manufacture sale and transportation of intoxicating liquors. It failed to mention whether alcohol was illegal to consume and it didn't define what in the good hell intoxicating meant so without parameters to enforce any law. Authorities like Eliot Ness. We're left twiddling their thumbs. Enter the VOL- Stead Act in nineteen twenty it defined intoxicating liquors any substance containing point five percent alcohol or more for perspective. That's one tenth. The average can of beer of course higher proof substances could still be manufactured and sold for practical applications like medicine cleaning and religious sacraments e there were loopholes and whether loopholes there are people abusing said loopholes for profit. Which is exactly what happened. The reason prohibition caused mind speakeasy as Pianos flappers and booze is because alcohol didn't go anywhere. In fact during prohibition consumption increased by an estimated sixty to seventy percent it just moved from the free market to the black market from being a stable of the American home to being. Contraband as it did. The line between crime and leisure became incredibly blurred which led to some very lucrative and suddenly criminal enterprises. Elliott's ness the man in charge of enforcing prohibition laws in all this mess in Chicago. No less the home of notorious mob. Boston bootlegger Al Capone Aka scarface. Ness worked for the Prohibition Bureau from Nineteen Twenty Six all the way to the end of prohibition in Nineteen Thirty Three. In that time he was surrounded. By other prohibition who were accepting bribes in exchange for turning a blind eye to these illegal operations. Everyone was getting rich and they use this new ethical gray scale to justify their actions. It was after all just alcohol. Who is it hurting? Really like said the majority of honest citizens didn't even want the law ness wasn't the delusion that any person who chose to imbibe where criminals but at the same time there were men like Al Capone men who were undoubtedly criminals and from between those two extremes sprung doubt and the fact. That ness had doubts is important. It's a shame that history frequently ignores that chapter of his story too often. He's relegated to a trope. The unflinching leader of the untouchables. A team of agents that upheld the law at all costs but the truth is much more complicated than that. What misunderstood was the good and bad can exist on both sides of the law. Yes Eliot Ness would one day help take down. Al Capone a man responsible for the deaths of many innocent lives. But prohibition had more victims than those men victims whose stories are often forgotten the poor the ones that we're most held accountable by the laws of prohibition simply because
Great Comet of 1861 discovered - May 13, 1861
"Was made thirteenth eighteen. Sixty one Australian amateur astronomer. John Tebbit Observed Great Comet of Eighteen. Sixty line the comment was visible to the naked eye for about three months and it was visible through telescopes until eighteen. Sixty two John. It was born in in Windsor New South Wales and his father was a farmer. He developed an interest in astronomy early on thanks to conversations with his tutor at work and articles that he read by Astronomer John Russell Hind in eighteen fifty. Three Tebbit bought Marine sextant. He also had a clock with a seconds pendulum that regulated by making celestial observations and he had a small telescope over the next few years he acquired more instruments this first astronomical publication in the Sydney Morning Herald in eighteen fifty four when comments appeared. Tebbit would calculate their orbit. A comment isn't icy body in space that releases gas as it passes near the son in eighteen fifty eight. He observed Donizetti's comment in Australian Sky Timid also observed phenomena like meteors planets and variable stars between eighteen fifty four and eighteen sixty two. He published thirty four pieces in the Herald eighteen. Sixty the government astronomer William Scott and bite it Tebbit to work at the Sydney Observatory Turned down the request on May thirteenth eighteen. Sixty one tebbit was thirteen. The skies for comets. There is marine telescope. He saw a nebulous. Object Mir a star in the constellation a readiness. He decided to keep observing object. Tubby sent a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald announcing his discovery of the great comet of eighteen sixty one and it was published in the paper on May twenty fifth his twenty seventh birthday in it. He said the following while engaged. In examining the heavens with a small telescope. On the evening of Monday the thirteenth instant nebulous star of about the fifth magnitude in the Constellation. Our readiness attracted my attention. It was then a distant a few minutes of a decree from thirteen sixteen of the catalog. A star of the sixth magnitude. Finding there was no nebulous star in the catalog in the same position. I immediately conjectured. It must be comet. He went on to say that he realized the comet had moved half decree and that he had told William Scott about his observation announcement incited a considerable amount of public excitement and responses. Tebbit continued making observations on the comic for weeks. The comet became visible in the Northern Hemisphere. In late June earth passed through the comments tail causing meteor showers. It remained visible to the I for around three months but it stayed visible through a telescope for several more months. The comment is formally designated C eighteen. Sixty one J one and hundred sixty one to the term. Great Comet isn't an official designation but it typically describes comment that is extremely bright as most comments are not visible to the naked eye. And even when they are they're often fuzzy fate tebbit built his own small observatory and continue to publish his observations. The Great Comet is expected to return and the twenty third century
"On this episode of five minutes in Church history. We are going on quite the journey. Let's explore five cathedrals in Europe ready. Well we'll start in Florence at the Santa Maria del Flora or the Duomo di Ferenza as Tian's would call it. This cathedral was started in twelve ninety six. It was finished in fourteen thirty six and one of the final structures that was put into place for this Cathedral. Was the famous dome. It was designed and built by Brunelleschi. Who had studied geometry and physics but for much of it by his own account. He relied on his own intuition. And well it worked The Dome was built in. It still lasts. It's made of brick. It has its white ribs in its terra cotta tiles and it serves as such a great backdrop for so many spy movies. So I'm sure you've seen it or the site of that Cathedral. There and Florence goes all the way back to a church that was likely dedicated in three ninety-three by none other than ambrose of Milan and that's the cathedral at Florence. Well let's keep moving. We'll go to Paris and to Notre Dame in two thousand nineteen. It was all over the news. Of course because of that fire it will take millions to rebuild and it will take many years to it as restored. It was first built back in eleven sixty three it epitomizes that ribbed vault and flying buttress style those cathedral structures that are so crucial. It was the site of a temple to Jupiter and the early Roman days and then it was a church and then it was a cathedral in seventeen ninety three. This is the time of the French Revolution. It was rededicated no longer as a church but as the cult of reason and all of the statues to marry were replaced and they were replaced by Statues Lady Liberty Well. It stood that way for many decades and then along came a novel. Victor Hugo's the hunchback of Notre Dame in eighteen thirty one and when that novelist published drew attention to the cathedral and its restoration so Paris. Well let's travel a little north and let's go up the Rhine River and let's go to Cologne. Germany and Statistics abound about this cathedral in Cologne. Germany are you ready? It is the tallest twin spires church in the world. It is the second tallest church in Europe and it is the third tallest church in the world. Those twin spires reached five hundred sixteen feet. Construction began in twelve sixty four. Here's a statistic for you. It has one hundred eighty five thousand square feet of space. This is a huge building. It was so huge that the allied bombers use those twin spires as a landmark further bombing raids during World War Two. The cathedral survived it. Took some hits but it survived in. It stood in a pile of rubble that was the city of Cologne. If you go there today you can climb all the way up to the top for viewing platform. If you're willing to climb five hundred and thirty three stone steps you can also hear. It's eleven massive bells. The largest of those bells weighs twenty four tons. Well let's cross the English Channel and we'll go over to London to Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey has a number of people buried in it and the number of people memorialized in it. Over three thousand people have plaques inside Westminster Abbey and many of them are actually buried there. Isaac Newton the poet Robert Browning kings and Queens and princesses and princes and of course inside Westminster Abbey in Jerusalem chamber in the sixteen forties. We have the writings of the Westminster standards. Well let's reach north a little bit. We've gone from Florence to Paris to Cologne to London. Let's go to Edinburgh to Saint Giles. Cathedral it dates back to eleven twenty four. But it's glorious. Moment came in the sixteenth century. It was the seat of the Scottish reformation in fifteen fifty nine. John Knox was installed as minister at Saint Giles. What a great story. What a great story. All of these cathedrals have to
Against All Odds: Lone Survivor
"Some survival stories hinge on strength of will a person's raw determination to live other times science steps in and saves the day Anna Hogan home worked as a radiologist at the University Hospital of North Norway. She made history there in nineteen ninety nine but on the operating table. Her remarkable incident began with a skiing trip after work with some colleagues. They were all avid skiers who were familiar with the local mountains and the conditions that day were ideal sunny with lots of fresh powder. They were only a few runs in. When Anna tripped losing her skis tumbled and slid toward a frozen stream when she hit the ice broke and her upper half was pulled into the frigid rushing. Water her friends ray able to reach her in grabbed her boots before the current could pull her all the way under. They phoned for help beneath the water. Bogging home struggled upward and managed to reach the airspace under the ice. She could breathe but her clothes were soaked. In near frozen water drowning now had to fight hypothermia to see who would get her first. By the time the Rescue Team arrived hacked a hole in the ice and halt her out. Bogging home had been submerged for nearly an hour and a half. Her skin was pure white. Her pupils were blown. She had no heartbeat. The Medevac helicopter. Ride took another hour during which the rescuers performed. Cpr At more information on the meat. Mak Your brain this piloting left to its own devices. The human body likes to be around ninety eight degrees Fahrenheit or thirty seven degrees Celsius all sorts of complex involuntary automatic. Things happen to keep you as close to that number as possible but the world is a cold place. Sometimes when the body census you getting too cold it begins to protect you from the outside in since air polls heat away from the surface of the body. Blood vessels in the skin begin. Constricting less blood is going to your arms and legs and more is staying in your core to keep your internal organs warm. This leaves -ceptable to frostbite. But you've got bigger problems. If the vessel constriction doesn't stop the temperature drop. The body tries to make more heat by moving the muscles. You'll start to shiver. Usually from the chest muscles outward. This too can be a problem if it goes on too long as it tears through your nutritional reserves and taxes heart increasing the risk of heart attack or stroke if your body temperature drops below ninety five degrees Fahrenheit thirty five Celsius hypothermia sets in your blood pressure drops and your breathing becomes shallow. This means less oxygen is getting to your brain which can bring on slurred speech. Confusion nonsensical action and none of which will be particularly helpful. Arctic Explorer Robert Falcon Scott referred to this in his writings on his nineteen eleven expedition as a half thawed brain. And there's a truly bizarre reaction that happens sometimes paradoxical undressing the freezing person suddenly feels like they're burning up and strips off all their clothes so now you're dead and everybody can see your hoo-ha as the cooling continues. The brain and other organs begin to shut down when the helicopter landed at University. Hospital fog and homes core temperature was fifty six degrees Fahrenheit fourteen degrees Celsius about sixty percent of what it should be. She had no signs of life. But the head of the Emergency Department mads Gilbert and his team made a decision. Anna was not dead until she was warm and dead. They rushed log home into an emergency room and hooked up to a heart lung. Bypass machine pumping her blood out of her body to warm it and then pumping it back in hours past. And her temperature's slowly rose. The staff watched her vitals. The ekg machine blipped then flatlined again. Then booked again. Suddenly homes heart jumped back to life coming on its own. The cold had preserved her brain like an organ waiting to be transplanted even while it was starving. Her brain of oxygen on a bag home was alive but she had a long row to Hoe. It took twelve days for her to open her eyes and it would take years for her to walk again but she did hell. She even went skiing again though. I most certainly would not not unless you want to try to her. Record for the lowest body temperature in the living eventually person outdoor recreation while healthy and fun always carries with it inherent dangers analog in home had her friends nearby to help. Aaron Ralston did not to tell you his story. Please welcome Mike Guest one Herrera from the podcast sick Parviz magna now for a story of survival and April. Two thousand three mountaineer Aaron Ralston goes hiking at. Utah's Kenyans National Park. He befriends hikers Christie and making and shows him an underground pool after swimming. Aaron parts ways with hikers and continues through a Slot Canyon in Blue John Canyon climbing he slips and falls knocking over boulder which crushes his right hand and wrist against the wall. He calls for help but realizes soon that he is alone. Ralston begin recording a video diary to maintain morale as chips away parts of the boulder to try and free himself and tries to keep warm at night he rashes food and water to survive the ordeal. No water available. He is forced to drink his era. It is sterile for those that don't up. He sets up a pulley using his climbing rope. In a futile attempt to with the bowed over the next five days Ralston tries using his multi tool to cut himself free but the latest doll to cut the bone in his video. He becomes desperate and depressed. He elucidates about scape relationships and past experiences including a former lover and Krisztian Megan during one hallucination. He realizes his mistake that he did not tell anyone where he was going. And he decides that destiny has trapped him with the bolter on the six day. Ralston has a vision of his future. Son Springs Wilson Survive. He fashions or turnkey from a camel. Tube insulation and uses the Caribbean or to tighten it then using his knowledge of torque he breaks bone in his arm and using the multi tool so amputates it he wraps stump to prevent examination and takes a picture of the boulder repels down a sixty foot rock face using his other arm and drinks rainwater from open. He needs a family on a hike. Who ALERT THE AUTHORITIES AND A UTAH? Highway Patrol helicopter brings him to the hospital. Years Later Ralston starts a family continues climbing and always leaves a note saying where he has gone with that. Being said Aaron Ralston shares. What he has learned that three gifts. Adversity gives you one shows you who are what is important after realizing that we are likely going to die in that Canyon. Allston recorded goodbyes. To his family his last will and testament formulating those thoughts and focusing on his family kept him going and motivated not to give to it. Shows us what we're capable of multiple points throughout his experience said underestimated his ability to survive yet. Kept powering through emails stone. He thought would be his last. I found strength courage and determination and grit that I could never conceived of Ralston sub. Adversity causes us to dig deeper. Now he had ever done before to get in touch with the thing that motives even when we lose our motivation three. It shows what extraordinary about being alive. By the Time Ralston was able to amputate his own hand. He was smiling while he did it because he had come so close to death so many times throughout this ordeal driver freedom his well to see his family again genesis certainty that he had more life left to live in the end overpowered all of the agony and despair. He felt along the way Robinson is one of the few unforgettable survivor stories. That are out there. This has been done from Parvez. Magna giving an podcast. Check out my show as we talk about multiple success stories and how everyone got from their point point B. Thanks look in the show notes for a link to his show which all the appearing onto from that very well known story to one that's lesser known but always fascinates me when I come across it if again on Christmas Eve. Nineteen seventy-one Julianne. Cup was a high school senior living in Peru though she was a German citizen owing to her German researcher parents seventeen year old. Julian and her mother board a flight across the country to join her father at the research station. Her parents had founded. Julian's graduation was the day before and this way she could both attend the ceremony and the family could spend the holidays together
Against All Odds: Lone Survivor
"We're all going through some degree of hardship right now but most of us have family or friends in person via technology to help us through in that respect alone. We're doing a lot better than the subjects of today's episode. Take for instance Ricky McGee in two thousand and six when he stumbled in front of a pickup truck of two Australian Ranch Workers Jack Larussa the local parlance. He's deeply sun-scorched. Skin hung off skeleton. They weren't even sure they were looking at a man and not some demon of the northern outback. Things had been considerably better for McGee. Ten weeks earlier the thirty five year old was hale and hearty and had just landed a new job driving along a baron. North Australia highway. He spotted a group of stranded travelers in their vehicle on the side of the road knowing it could be a long time before anyone else came by. He let some of the men get into his car to drop them at the next town. That was the last thing he could clearly remember. He came to in the middle of the desert stripped naked and barefoot under the harsh Sun which bonus fact bombards Australia with more UV rays and other continents because of the whole meal zone layer. Mcgee had nothing not even a notion of which way to go waiting for help to find him seemed fruitless so he began to walk each morning. He told himself today was the day today. He would see a house or town. At least erode he could follow each day ended the same as the day before there was one ameliorating factor in his situation. The rainy season had just ended and there was water to be found. He found a decent size waterhole and began to try to make shelter one week had ticked by before food in the form of a lizard crossed. Mcgee's path he was able to catch and kill it with his bare hands. Laying the meat out in the sun to dry McGee's diet was made up of anything that walked crawled or slithered past him lizards snakes grasshoppers bugs and even leeches after his ordeal. Mcgee said that the Leeches weren't bad but you had to eat them quickly otherwise they'd attached to the inside of your mouth. He also eight any plant that passed a taste test which is not strictly speaking the best way to find non poisonous plants but he got lucky. His Diet was diverse. But not plentiful calories were thin on the ground no pun intended dingoes have begun prowling around trying to decide if he was meet yet starving weakening and beginning to despair mcghie fashioned across for the top of his shelter. It seemed likely that the shelter would become his casket but he managed to stay alive when he'd been carjacked. Mcgee weighed two hundred thirty three pounds or about one hundred and five kilograms when the jackaroo found him he only weighed a hundred pounds or forty five kilograms but he was alive. He managed to keep himself going alone in the desert for seventy one days in what his rescuers described as one of the most isolated places in Australia. Mcgee was flown to the Royal Darwin Hospital where medical staff described as a but well hydrated a credit to his decision to stay at the waterhole police and the media were initially suspicious of McGee's story assuming that his previous minor drug offence must have meant he'd been up to dirty deals with dirty dealers and that's how he ended up stranded. His stolen car never turned up. Which would have helped his story. Mcgee even offered to eat a frog on live. Tv BUT THANKFULLY BUSH. Survival experts weighed in that his story was plausible. So no more frogs for Ricky. Mcgee water kept Ricky McGee alive but it was nearly the death of Jose Alvarenga a man who would probably rather not hold the record for the longest time spent adrift at Sea alone in November. Twenty Fifteen Alvarenga. And please forgive me. If at some point ISLIP and say Alvarez it's almost guaranteed to happen was getting his gear together for a thirty hour deep sea fishing trip off the coast of Costa Zule Mexico. His quarry were sharks. Marlins and sailfish expensive fish. That would hopefully give him an edge over his competition. The trip didn't get off to a promising. Start WHEN ALVAREZ. Usual partner backed out at the last minute and he took on a less experienced. Fishermen named Ezekiel Cordova that he'd never even spoken to before that day but he figured it was a short trip so everything would be OK on. November seventeenth the pair. Sit Out on a twenty four foot fiberglass. Gif small was boats go with fishing gear a radio an enormous cooler. That would soon be almost overloaded with fish just a few hours into their journey though a storm world and it stayed for five days. They had to dump their catch to lighten the boat. So it'd be more maneuverable. Alvarenga tried to steer the boat back to shore but he couldn't see where the shore was in the pounding rain and the little ship didn't have. Gps when the storm finally cleared the men found that the motor was gone as was most of the fishing here and the electronics were all badly damaged unlike the passengers of the SS minnow. Who took all of their belongings on a three hour cruise Alvarenga and Cordova had only a day's worth of food and water. There was enough charge in the backup battery of the two way radio for Ranga to get a mayday message out. But he couldn't tell us potential rescuers where he was because he simply didn't know what part of the seemingly endless Pacific Ocean they were in the search teams had tried to look for them but the rain had made it impossible. There was no way to know how long they would be out there. So the men turned to the sea for survival. Alvarenga was able to catch fish turtles and seabirds with his bare hands. Though Cordova was basically useless. In those efforts the turtles were lucky. Catch their meat is actually rich in vitamin C. Which prevented the men from developing scurvy? They collected rainwater when there was rain to collect but otherwise had to hydrate themselves with a mixture of turtle blood and urine there. You're in the sun rose and set dozens of times but the flat horizon of the ocean remained. Unbroken
Mavericks & Legends: Anne Boleyn
"Today. We're talking about one of the most controversial figures in English. History person to and fall from power. Were extremely dramatic. She helped bring about England's split from the Catholic Church became the queen of England and had a daughter who would serve as one of the most famous monarchs of all time. Her opponents accused her of witchcraft. And slandered her name and historians continue to debate her real intentions. Let's talk about the mysterious and Berlin and Berlin was born around the year. Fifteen hundred in Norfolk England. Her father was a respected royal attendant and her mother was the daughter of a powerful duke and spent her teen years at the French court as a companion for Henry. The Eighth Sister Mary who was married to the French king by fifteen twenty two and was back in England. She wore glamorous French clothing and copy attention of many suitors. She even caught the eye of King Henry. The eighth himself and may have I come into contact with King Henry after acting as the lead in a court play in fifteen twenty six. At that time Henry was still married to his first wife. Catherine of Aragon though the pair had a daughter they had been unable to produce a male heir to the throne and Henry was getting desperate. The story goes that Henry tried to make an his mistress but she refused to sleep with him out of wedlock. That may have served to increase. Henry's infatuation yet. Divorce wasn't an option. As Henry was a devout Catholic. Henry attempted to get his first marriage annulled but the pope refused his please. An may have inspired the eventual solution. It was the era of the Protestant reformation and and gave Henry a copy of a book called obedience of a Christian man. The Books Protestant author argued that kings were actually the rightful head of the church. Not The pope. This book greatly influenced Henry who ignored the pope's wishes divorced Catherine in fifteen thirty one. An Berlin married King Henry. The eighth in January fifteen thirty three the next year Henry broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and established his own. The Church of England. This move caused conflict in the country for the subsequent two centuries after her marriage and helped gather and support a new royal court that bolstered. Henry's decision to found a new church. Not much is known about Ann's time as Queen but she may have helped transition monasteries into a new role as educational institutions. She and Henry had a daughter Elizabeth I but they struggled to have more children. Henry was starting to doubt the marriage. He waited so long for to make matters worse. The separation of church fueled foreign enemies and incited domestic opposition. In fifteen thirty six and was charged with adultery and plotting against the king. She was locked in the Tower of London. The king ignored olivennes protests. She was declared guilty in a bias trial and sentenced to death. She was executed by sword in. May of fifteen thirty six and was queen of England for about three years after Ann's death. Her opponents continued to slander. Her nearly all images of her were destroyed though depictions were created
C.S. Lewis, Essayist
"Cs Lewis was born in Belfast Ireland. In eighteen ninety eight he would die in nineteen sixty three and what a life he lived. He was known as Jack and far as we can tell that was because of one of his dogs names from his early childhood who was Jiaxi and CS. Lewis accepted that name and adopted that name for himself. He was an oxbridge scholar. Which meant that? He how to position at both Oxford University and Cambridge University. He's been hailed as a philosopher and apologist theologian of course he's probably best known for his NARNIA chronicles. His actual profession was as a professor a chair of Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Well let's take a look at his life and let's bring one piece of that life to the surface and that is Lewis as essayist while he was baptized as a child into the Anglican Church as a teenager he drifted into agnostics Zim. And then at the Ripe Age fifteen. He declared himself to be an atheist as a teenager. He also served epic poetry. He was taken by norse mythology and all of the medieval literature. Cs Lewis goes off to France. He saw the horrors of World War. One being involved in trench warfare a shell exploded not too far from him taking the lives of two of his buddies and injuring him and then he was sent back to the UK to serve out the rest of the war on the home front went on to his life of scholarship and eventually he would be influenced by George MacDonald. Who would lead him from atheism to a generic theism in a belief in God in general and then through his friendship with Jr token and continued reading of McDonald and others. He was led from theism to Christianity. Tolkien would have much preferred that. Lewis had joined him in the Catholic Church but Louis went the way of anglicanism went back into his Anglican Church. Louis like to call this Christianity Mirror Christine Hannity and of course that's the title of one of his books. Well the thing I want to talk about Louis is his work as an essayist and one essay in particular comes up from time of nineteen forty one to nineteen forty-three once again. Europe is embroiled in a World War and World War Two and during this time. Cs Lewis is doing radio addresses during air raids over the BBC. So if you can put that setting in your mind these are some of the great essays that come from the pen of Louis in this context. Some of these. Sac PREACHED SERMONS IN CHURCHES. And some he prepared specifically for the radio in a number of them were published as books later the one in particular that I wanNA talk to you about is called the wait of glory. It's an essay and it's also a title of book of essays in it. Lewis says that almost all our modern philosophies have been devised to convince us that the good of man is to be found on this Earth at such a twentieth century things such a modern thing to neglect God and push him out of our lives to neglect the eternal and the transcendent to be fixated on the horizon of the material. Well Lewis says there is far more to ultimate reality than what we see and it is the weight of glory so he writes. It may be possible for each to think too much of his own personal glory hereafter. It is hardly possible for him to think too often or too deeply about that of his neighbor. The load or wait or burden of my neighbors glory should be laid on my back a load so heavy that only humility can carry it in. The back of the proud will be broken. It is a serious thing to live in a society of possible gods and Goddesses to remember that the dullest and most uninteresting person you can talk to May one day be a creature. Which if you saw it now. You'd be strongly tempted to worship or else a whore corruption such as you now meet if at all only in a nightmare and he'll go on to say there are no ordinary people because we all have this weight of glory.
Eating the Wild: from the lost primeval forests of Europe to Robin Hood
"Used to be covered in these dense wet deciduous forests which is very different from what we see today where really hardly any of this primeval force exists anymore for her book feasting. Wild jeanneret actually visited one of the last tiny slivers of European primeval forest. It's in Poland. And it really is just a shadow of its former. Self Europe's forests were so vast that actually we think that the root of the word wilderness came from descriptions of these places the roots of the words wild and wilderness. I'll go back to untamed animals. The forest was a place. Teeming WITH ANIMALS UNGOVERNED BY HUMAN HANDS UNGOVERNED BUT NOT UNTOUCHED FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. Europeans would go into the forest to find dinner day all kinds of animals wild boar venison there is something called the RMC which is the precursor to domesticated cattle. There was for a spice in moves the animals so abundant here. That really there was no form of hunting restriction it was abundant but it was also really valued killing a huge wild animal and then being able to share it was a sign of how wealthy and powerful you are. King said to have lots of wild game. At all their banquets. Animals would be breezed in rosewater and spices. Sometimes they would be covered in gold leaf and brought to the table hole and kind of carved up in front of the guests so while it was very much a form of status for kings so by the Middle Ages Those Morris. Were already starting to shrink between one thousand. Ad and thirteen hundred thirteen hundred. Europe's population grew by about fifty million people and all of those people needed to eat so there was increasing. Need to cut down the forests in order to grow grain and various crops and then also would was used for everything it was used for building houses and making carts by the fourteen and fifteen hundred. Europeans began sailing around the world. They first set forth to trade and then to stake their claim on foreign lands is colonialism spread across the globe. There was demand for very large old growth trees to create the ship. Masts that were needed and as early as the eleventh century The demand for wood was really threatening the forest where these kings went out and hunted the game meat that was so important to their diets and their status. Gina races that originally European forests had mostly being treated as common land. Anyone could hunt there. But as far back as ancient Rome the elite had sat down laws saying yes anyone could hunt but only as long as they weren't trespassing sort of by Default European kings and noblemen were the ultimate owners of the forest so as European king started to see their game meat being threatened by the need for Forest Land Day set out some very similar conservation measures whereby the king really restricted access to hunting in his forest. This is really the beginning of modern conservation lives whereby people were kept out of the forests. It's weird to think of royalty preserving their hunting grounds and keeping out the poor folk as the blueprint for the conservation movement. But jeanneret says these laws were really some of the earliest forms of environmental legislation forests. Were no longer for everyone to use as they pleased they were just for the Kings. They had very large administrative networks to manage this for so the forest wardens would they would hand out hunting licenses. They would make sure that game. Animals didn't starve winter or in times of drought. Sometimes they would prepare the venison for royal feasts and they would mete out. Punishments punishments were usually for poaching and they were definitely not just a slap on the wrist. If you ignored the game laws you could have a trial by hot iron and if you were found guilty then your eyes would be torn out or you were castrated. So poaching really big deal. The kings went to great lengths to prevent people from poaching and this had an impact on how people related to the natural world around them. The forest said always been wild in earlier centuries in Europe. They'd even been places of spirituality. But at this point the forests started to become scary rather than sacred. The authorities deliberately painted a picture of forests filled with outlaws and rebels dangerous rule breakers people who posed a threat to society with the stories. The authorities told a violent outlaws in the forest. Some of those were based on reality. There were people breaking the rules in the forest but they were breaking them because they thought the rules were unfair and they were hungry for poor people. This was one former getting food. And any time there was an economic downturn hunting would rise poaching would rise in the forests and so people did find it as an active resistance against the sort of forms of power and some of the rebels who broke the rules and hunted in the forest. They actually became folk. Heroes like Robin Hood and his band of Merry men. So Robin Hood was stealing from the rich and giving to the poor but this also came out of this idea that the force were not necessarily landscapes that poor people were allowed to access or use the resources of and so it wasn't active resistance to go in there and to get in game animals and feed yourself on one level. This is a story of power who could hunt and eat the wild game and wendling European forests and who couldn't that it's also the story of the impact that split between rich hunters and bore poachers had on how Europeans thought of wild food and the whole concept of the wild and wilderness. This is a very particular way of thinking of wild meat. As game to be hunted for sport by the elites and otherwise off limits and this is a template that the Europeans took with them as they colonized countries around the world so when the first European colonists arrived in the Congo Basin they sort of carried this cultural baggage of seeing forest as these dark empty wastelands without people so even though there were a long history of human habitation and numerous groups living in the Congo Basin forests. The European comments kind of didn't see them and there was this real sense of Europeans thought of this landscape as Darkest Africa. Take David Livingston. He was a Scottish missionary and explorer. Who is obsessed with finding the source of the Nile? He did a an exploratory expedition across the Congo wilderness. And he described Congress for us as suffocating wilderness and people waste that seem to have an oppressive silence so in May of eighteen eighty five. The you know quote unquote international community. Which is England France Germany Belgium and Italy? They recognize King Leopold the second of Belgium as having a sovereign claim over much of the Congo and five years later these same countries created what was effectively the first international conservation law this lowest passed in the early nineteen hundreds and it was called the Convention for the preservation of wild animals birds and fish in Africa. Local people couldn't hunt or trap or fish in certain areas of the country. The law was modeled. After the way European forests had become protected game reserves for rich people rich people in particular but of course just like in Europe the forests in Africa weren't actually pristine empty wildernesses before there were plenty of people who depended on them. There were a lot of different groups. Living in the Congo forest somewhere. More nomadic hunter-gatherers others were farming communities living within the rain forest but for all of these groups wild meat provided a very essential source of food. So there were all kinds of animals being eaten everything from various kinds of antelope to forest buffalo wild boar monkeys. You know just hundreds of different animals that communities ate in the forest there were cultural. Taboos around eating certain species particularly ones that were long lived and slow to reproduce like elephants which could and did occasionally provide a lot of meat was considered a sacred act to kill an elephant similar with eating bonobos which are great ape. That's very similar to us. There were beliefs that there is a direct link to that ancestral spirit world so all of these cultural beliefs had an ecological basis to really help conserve animals that had large social complex social groupings or were slow growing and thus thunderbolts over
Stratton brothers trial began - May 5, 1905
"Nineteen O five the stratton brothers trial for the murder of Thomas Farrow began. The straightens case marked the first time anyone was convicted for murder and Britain based on fingerprint evidence the study of fingerprints and their use in identification picked up considerably in nineteenth century Europe. That said the history of fingerprinting is inextricably linked with colonialism and racism in Eighteen fifty-eight William James Herschel. An Englishman became an officer in the Indian Civil Service. He was posted to Present Day. Junkie POOR IN INDIA THAT YEAR. He had a local man. Place his handprint on a contract. In lieu of signature personal goal was to keep the man from being able to deny his signature at a later. Time Herschel continue to require handprints from locals on contracts eventually realizing that he only needed prints from the index and Middle Finger. He was convinced that fingerprints were unique and permanent and believe they could be used to prove someone's identity other. Europeans also focused on the potential for fingerprints use and identifying suspects in solving crimes building on others work eugenicist and polymath Sir Francis Golden identified patterns in fingerprints and published a classification system for them the use of fingerprints and forensics didn't really take off until the turn of the twentieth century as he's a little hot in. Tundra both are credited with creating the Henry classification system for fingerprinting by nineteen one. Scotland Yard also known as the London Metropolitan Police established a new fingerprint bureau. The next year the first recorded trial in England that relied on fingerprint evidence took place in the trial. Harry Jackson was sentenced to several years in prison for burglary in London. After his fingerprint was presented as evidence in court just two years later the first murder trial in England in which fingerprints were used as evidence began Thomas. Farrell was found dead after a robbery and his wife and died a few days later. An empty cashbox was found in the apartment. As well as two black mass a fingerprint was found on the cashbox and inspector Charles Collins from Scotland. Yard's fingerprinting bureau examined it but the print didn't match the Faroes the officers or anybody in the bureau's file but witnesses reported seeing two men in the area on the morning of the crime and police track down and arrested Albert and Alfred Stratton. Their prints were taken an Alfred. Right thumbprint mashed the print on the cashbox. The brothers trial began on May fifth. Nineteen O Five. The fingerprint was the strongest evidence linking them to the crime scene and using fingerprints. Evidence was still a relatively new technique but collins explained the classification of fingerprints to the jury. And how he had never found two prints that had more than three characteristic in common in this case. Alfred Sprint and the cashbox print had multiple similarities. The Stratton brothers were found guilty of murder. And sentenced to death by hanging fingerprint. Evidence has been used in criminal investigations in cases ever since though techniques and technology in the field have changed significantly.
Kingpins Daily: Henry Hill
"Today's quote is from Mafia so Henry Hill an associates at the Lucchese crime family as many Italian Mafia. Al FISA COOLED. That is. He wasn't associate until his arrest in nineteen eighty off to wish he turned. Fbi informant eventually. He sold his life story to Simon and Schuster in the book. He'll explain the appeal of joining the mob at the age of twelve. My ambition was to become a gangsta. Be a wise guy to me. Being a wise guy was better than being president of the United States to be a wise guy was to own the World Hill. Wasn't the only little boy to see. The attraction of the Mafia lifestyle for decades in the twentieth century. Italian communities like Hills Brooklyn neighborhood. Brownsville showed children what joining one of the crime families could do for you. There was the wealth. The Glamour of the guns. The secrets and the rituals. The respect and fear of the community generally speaking the power joining the Mafia as hill put it was to own the world. Show the president of the United States might own the world too but he owned it from somewhere far away somewhere with alien rules kid from an immigrant family didn't know and thus was unlikely to aspire to in contrast mob guys are wiseguys as hill and his pals called them stuck around the neighborhood in their sleep cars and fancy suits. They spoke a language. The kids could understand a language drawn out of old world conceptions of honor and violence a language memorialized in storybooks in spoken around the dinner table by Sicilian. Grandpas and fact wise guys with such an integral respected part of life in many Italian American communities that they will also called goodfellas hence the name of the Iconic Award Winning Nineteen Ninety Scorsese Film. A film that was based on Henry. Hill's life story. The film like hills quote displays. Just how alluring. The life of King Pin can be despite the violence and despite the possible consequences which Henry Hill experienced in full as a young protegee of the Lucozzi organization in the early nineteen sixties. He was involved with arson gambling. Schemes truck hijacking loansharking assault and drug dealing in the early nineteen seventy S. He served four years in prison for extortion but once he got out he was back on the streets or rather at the airport. One of his most notorious crimes was the one thousand nine hundred seventy eight Lufthansa heist he and several other. Lucchese associates rubbed a cargo terminal at New York's JFK. Airport came away with five million dollars in cash and nearly one million dollars in jewels. It was one of the most lucrative cash robberies ever occur in the United States and hill and his cronies got away with it. Only a small fraction of the lutes was ever recovered and the only person convicted for the crime was an airport worker. Who abetted the thieves but hill didn't escape the law for long two years later in nineteen eighty? He was arrested on drug trafficking charges by turning informant for the FBI hill was able to weasel his way out of both harsh legal punishments and death on the streets at the hands of Lucozzi enemies after a stint in witness protection. He published multiple books about his life. And did the talk show circuit the glamorous life was still his for the taking but even getting out to the mob didn't erase the violence from hills life in two thousand three his son and daughter. Greg and Gina Hill published a joint memoir about their mafia childhood. It clarified the ways in which hills violence and drug use tore his family. Apart as Gina explained in an interview on Fox News on my seventeenth birthday. He beat me with an inch of my life and then he took a butcher knife to a picture of me. Henry Hill may not have served out the jail sentence. His crimes deserved but he and his family paid the price for his glamorous life of Mafia law the little boy in Brownsville Brooklyn got what he asked for but not perhaps what he wanted.
First ascent of Shishapangma - May 2, 1964
"The day was may second nineteen sixty four. A group of Chinese climbers became the first people to reach the summit of Shisha Pong a mountain in Tibet at more than twenty six thousand feet or eight thousand meters. Sheesh oppong is the fourteenth highest mountain in the World Sheesh upon is thought to mean range above the grassy plain the mountain is a part of the Himalayas. And it's located in southern Tibet. Near the border of Nepal. Shisha Pungwe was the last of the eight thousand yrs or mountains more than eight thousand meters in height above sea level to be climbed in June of Nineteen thirty on a Porno. Wyant became the first eight thousand meter peak to be climbed and in nineteen sixty. A team of climbers summited delivery one. That made it the thirteenth eight thousand dollars to be summited making Shisha Palma. The only one that had not yet seen a successful ascent since Tibet in China impose restrictions on travel to the region. Few western climbers had been near. She Chicago people were sent to scout the mountain before the expedition began. The chosen climbers began training. Orders were put in for clothing equipment and food and early in one thousand nine hundred sixty four. An expedition of one hundred ninety five people was put together. The team. Included experienced mountaineers climbed Mount Everest as well as less experienced climbers it also included scientists journalists photographers and medical workers among others on March eighteenth. The expedition set up base camp north of the peak at around five thousand meters above sea level by April twenty. First the final assault camp was pitched just below the summit. There were thirteen people in the summit party including expedition leader. Xiujing deputy leader of the Assault Party Chong Chunyan and Wong Fu who took part in the first ascent of Mount Everest via the north face but only ten people took part in the final assault since three people were dealing with altitude sickness on the morning of May second. They reached the summit not long after they made it to the top. They began their descent back to the final assault camp over the next several decades. More people attempted to summit the mountain. The next ascent of Shisha Pong did not happen until nineteen eighty when the mountain was open to foreign teams the first winter ascent of the peak took place in two thousand and five otherwise hundreds of people have made it to the main summit of Shisha PA as of twenty eighteen thirty one people have died on Shisha Palmer. Some of those deaths were caused by avalanches falls altitude sickness and fluid accumulation in the lungs caused by sending to high altitudes
Revisiting the Archive: Ellen DeGeneres
"So here's the scene. It was four. Pm on Saturday February seventeenth. Two thousand one. I was in the hills above sunset boulevard in Los Angeles standing in the doorway of Ellen's modernist house looking at the video intercom. I was a little nervous. So I took a couple of depressed before I pushed the Buzzer after a while Ellen answered with a Hello. That had a question. Mark embedded in it turns out. She'd forgotten about the interview and I had to explain who I was. And why was there a minute later? Ellen greeted me the door. She really wasn't expecting me. She was dressed in a fleece top over. A t-shirt check Pajama bottoms and thick socks. Her hair was a mess. Not a fashionable bedhead mess a real mess. Ellen was very polite and apologetic as she led me into the living room along the way she introduced me to a very friendly cat a silver black and gray kitty with white paws and a white belly to match. Ellen's living-rooms loft like with lots of glass overlooking a garden. We took our places on a long tope. Mohair SOFA IONS in my backpack. As soon as I got my tape recorder out. Ellen's cat dove in to see what else was inside. I place my tape. Recorder between US ATTACHED THE LAPEL MIC to Ellen's top and oppressed record. Oh he'll join you probably but he's not real affectionate in that way Show up in hill. Walkaway wasn't allowed to do to sit right. The other one's more like that Saturday February seventeenth two thousand and one location. Is The home of Ellen. Generous in Los Angeles California Interviewers Eric. Marcus tape one side. One Citizens Building Ellen. Degeneres E. L. L. E. N. D. E. G. E. N. E. R. E. S. So all right. When did I learn about gay people? I really didn't get involved at all in any kind of politics or any awareness of gay struggles game movement. Anything at all until I came out. Just live my life and and All the way up in till you know I decided to make it public but every everybody knew That I was gay and it wasn't a problem for anybody so I just you know I live my life and I did my work and I think that's what a lot of people Choose to do and just Feel like there's no need to do anything else. It's fine like what's the what's the problem. Why do we need to do anything until you find out about the teenagers and the struggles that that most kids go through in high schools and and the statistics and the gate bashing whether it's verbal abuse physical abuse until you're really Confronted with that you. You don't think that there's a problem to growing up. There was no. We were never called names endeavor. Hassled about now not at all. Not at all. Inter family wasn't too shoe I I didn't know I was gay. I had thoughts of like liking girls. It was very clear to me that I liked girls. But it didn't think it was anything that I could actually pursue and that that was an option for you. I just thought you had a boyfriend. I got married and had a kid but I didn't ever fake it like I didn't pretend to have a boyfriend or anything like that I knew I had to fake it when I was doing standup On stage in your whole goal is to get the audience to really like you and it's hard enough to get them to like you when you're a girl on stage. I knew that that was going to be an uphill battle. If they thought I was gay it was going to be impossible. I had that all the way you know publicly until I came out because I knew that that would hurt my career. What was it that made you think what did you see? It's what I didn't see. I mean I didn't see anyone else that was openly gay and there was obviously a reason for that You you hear about the people that are in the business that are and you see how they handle their Public Persona and So you kind of follow that and when I decided that it was more important to be me and more important to live my life truthfully and to follow what. My Soul's path is that's when a lot of crying started and I realized how much fear and how much pain was a surrounding my sexuality. I didn't have a choice. Became is so big of a thing to me that it didn't matter if I was going to lose all of my money my career. It didn't matter it was what I had to do. And that became more important for the first time then. My career or quick was the process of going from most important to feeling. Like by. Don't say who I am. I can't well who knows how long it had been bubbling but when the the light bulb all of a sudden went off. I think it probably was a matter of a couple of months and I made that decision. I told my riders that that I was Gonna come out and then I wanted the character to come out at the same time so that kind of happened almost and then it took about a year for Disney to say okay. We're going to allow this when they were saying. You know I don't know and and I kept saying to them over and over again you know. You're a huge company. That can just cancel my show and move on and have another show you know. I'm the one that that stands to lose everything and if I'm willing to do this then at least you can be willing to do this. I just didn't care at the time you know if if I would have been fully aware of all the consequences and oh my God the you know the public is going to hate me and the the press is going to attack me and it's going to you know I'm really gonNA lose a lot of people Maybe I wouldn't have done it. You know but I don't think I had a choice and I was naive enough to think. Yeah but okay. They've already seen the show for four years and they know who I am. They like me. I make them happy. I see the response I get. I have people who you know. Love me who are grandmothers and young kids and all colors all ages and they're going to see gay people are not what they you know. Everybody has a certain thing. They cling onto and decide. That's what everybody is and so maybe I can help. Open their
Explorers & Contenders: Xue Susu
"Today we're GonNa talk about a woman who was adored by politicians strategists poets and pretty much. Anyone who met her are contender of the day was lauded for her ability to shoot targets from a moving horse an athletic feat that perhaps was more accepted at the time due to her many other skills and more typically feminine pastimes. Meet Xiujei Sue Shuhei. Sue was born near the southeast coast of China. In the fifteen seventy S it was the latter half of the Ming Dynasty. An era in China now known for its population boom as well as vast expansions an art and trade are the fifteen eighty s Shuhei. Sue was a Courtesan in the city of Nanjing working in a legendary pleasure district frequented by powerful upper class clients. Their shoe as sue was local celebrity. She was a talented painter and poet. Who Only met with the most educated men as clients shoe? Isuzu poetry focused on her experiences providing historians with fatal insight into the world and culture of her workplace era in the fifteen ninety S. Shuhei soon moved to Beijing. She hosted popular literary gatherings and parties wealthy scholars in clients and she also demonstrated her own talents and interests. She was an incredible Archer and horseback rider and she displayed skills publicly referring to herself as female night. Errand fellow poets were so stricken by her depicted her in their work one female contemporary wrote a flower goddess with chivalrous mind. Your spirit can be confined by no means. You have the wisdom to command an army. This poet went onto compare Shuhei Su Su to a military commander and a legendary archer. Many men also wrote about as sue and historical accounts essays and poems. The horseback riding was seen as quite a masculine pursuit. She way sues mastery of that along with many other skills was seen as attractive. Shuhei Su Su also showed expertise in calligraphy embroidery music and Strategy Games after impressing Beijing. Xiujei sued disappeared off the map for awhile. It isn't entirely clear why some historians say she spent time as a private concubine others note that she had several husbands around this time but death or divorce ended each of the Union's among her husband's were military officers scholars and strategists leader in life as Soo- converted to Buddhism and chose to remain single. Her work is a cortisone may have ended she continued her artistic pursuits. She created many notable figure paintings depicting religious subjects. She also hosted parties prominent email artists. She Way Sue passed away sometime around sixteen fifty from horseback riding and archery to embroidery painting and poetry. She's remembered for her athletic prowess as well as her artistic abilities today. Shula sues work is held in many museums both inside and outside China
"This is a movement in theology that began in the eighteen hundreds and came on very strong and the nineteen hundreds. So let's take a look at it where it came from and what it's all about well. The story of dispensationalist begins with John Nelson. Darby he was born in eighteen hundred in Westminster London but his family roots were Irish and so when he came of age to go to college he was sent to Trinity College Dublin. He excelled as a student there and won the classics prize. That skill set would come in very handy for him later. He be involved in translating the Bible. It translate the Bible into German into Dutch and French and even the Complete Bible into English. He had his own translation. Darby would die in eighteen. Eighty two. He's known for two things being one of the early founders and what is called the Plymouth Brethren Church and also being the father or founder of dispensationalist him. This came about in the eighteen thirties. Eighteen forties there may be four significant features dispensationalist them that Darby began and then developed by others. The first is to see a distinction between Israel and the Church prior to dispensationalist them. You could say it was Covenant Theology and there was a connection between Israel and the Church. The understanding was there was one people of God but Darby began with a distinction between those two two peoples of God as it were and so God had a distinct and unique plan for Israel and a distinct and unique plan for the Church. This led to the second feature of dispensational and that is to see scripture as divided into dispensations. Now Darby had seven of them the Scofield Reference Bible. We'll talk about that in a minute. It had seven of them. Dispensationalist were not always agreed on the number of dispensations but they did agree on the concept. That was the idea that God dealt with humanity in different ways as he moved through the dispensations of scripture. So we have the distinction. Between Israel and the Church we have the dispensations the third feature is a literal hermitic that gets applied to prophecy and apocalyptic literature once that literal. Herman is applied. Well that leads us to the fourth feature and that is all of the end times events and charts and you've heard of these events of courses the rapture and that's followed by the seven year tribulation and that's followed by the second coming of Christ and the knots followed by the Millennium and then enter into the eternal state. This of course is using the book of Daniel and the book of revelation applying that little harmonic and seeing this as the literal timetable. For the EN times or for Eschaton Legiti. So those are some of the features that were given to dispensations by John Nelson Darby. Three things helped dispensational ISM get very popular in the twentieth century. The first was the beginning of the Bible Institute Movement Moody had one in Chicago. His was not the first. But it was certainly the flagship institution and these institutions sprung up. All over both the UK and the United States and they taught dispensational. The second thing was prophecy conferences. These were very popular in the early. Nineteen hundreds. They were known a Lake Philadelphia. They were in Dallas Texas. They were everywhere. And then the third thing that popularized dispensational was the scofield reference. Bible named for Cyrus Ingersoll. Scofield who was born in eighteen forty three and died in nineteen twenty one he used the dispensations as the framework to understand the Bible and its structure any applied that dispensational harmonic to texts and it also put forth that dispensational distinction of a separation between Israel and the church. So there you have it. Dispensational SOM started by John Nelson Darby and furthered along by the violence to movement. The prophecy conferences in the Scofield Reference Bible in the Early Twentieth Century.
Jessie Redmon Fauset - Editor, Journalist, Poet, Author
"Day was April twenty-seventh eighteen eighty two Ryder Jesse. Redmond FO- set was born in Camden New Jersey. Fo- set was the literary editor of the Journal the crisis and an important figure in the Harlem Renaissance Jesse was the seventh child. Born to Redmond any faux set her mother died soon after she was born her father then moved to Philadelphia and married Bella Huff who had three of her own children together. Redmond and Bella had three more children Jesse graduated with honors from Philadelphia. High School for Girls Jesse got a scholarship to Cornell University where she majored in classical languages. She graduated from the University in Nineteen O Five. Because she was blacklisted he philadelphia would not hire her to teach in the public school system so she taught at Douglass High School in Baltimore for a year then she moved to Washington. Dc to teach French Latin at a high school for fourteen years before set began to write for the NWC PS magazine the crisis in nineteen twelve the ACP or the National Association for the Advancement of colored people is a civil rights organization that was formed in nineteen o nine and nineteen ten. The crisis was founded with W E B Two boys as the editor and Co founder published several short stories poems articles and book reviews in the crisis before she became literary editor of the Journal in Nineteen Nineteen. She moved to New York to take the position. And until nineteen twenty six. She took over a lot of do voices work at the crisis during her time there. She lectured in traveled around the
The Great Alaska Quake of 1964
"This book. This is chance is a book about a seismic event like our current pandemic except that it was an actual seismic event. Tell us about the earthquake that hit Alaska on March twenty seventh nineteen sixty four. It was Good Friday evening and this was the largest quake that's ever been recorded in. North America is still the second largest one in the world I think even more disturbingly and almost with more experience it lasted for four and a half minutes so is incredibly destructive quake but it was also there. Was this kind of psychic disorientation. That came along with it. Especially in the city of Anchorage which was really Alaska's biggest city by far at that time of just seeing this community that people were still very much in the process of building and inventing just kind of being turned literally upside down in some spots. Was the epicenter in Anchorage proper? No the was. It was close anchorage. It was just east of Anchorage under the sea and so there were a lot of communities that were affected around Alaska. I chose to focus the book on Anchorage because you know like I said it was really a place that was just beginning to get on. Its feet that sort of represented the promise of what Alaska could be felt great pride and itself but also real insecurity. Quake came in a very precarious moment for the community. When it was really just starting to feel like it had something to offer the rest of America and to be struck like this in such a seemingly random and very cruel way I think really affected the self image of the community. I mean Alaska is still kind of a mystery to many of US lower continental Americans. What was it like at the time? The Greater Anchorage area was. It was the city of one hundred thousand people in nineteen sixty four which is almost half of the state's population and really the only community that outside probably would have deigned to even call a city and it had a fourteen storey hotel but that was by far the biggest building. It had kind of an a new upscale neighborhood of kind of modernist homes it had JC PENNEY BUILDING. Which was a really really big deal that some big national American retailer would come build an Alaska and so again it was just really kind of finding its way you know straining to make itself a real place when this earthquake happened and it was it was feeling very insecure about its future because it didn't quite know that after this boom of statehood that it had found any way to sustain itself. It was still this feeling that this place that they were building this arm of society. They decided to build way up. In the corner of the world might be an experiment that just might not work out and then the ground literally shakes underneath them getting at those very fragile new foundations. I mean you. You chose in your book to focus really on the impact that the quake had on the people of Alaska. Why did you decide to approach the story? In that way. The way that I came into the story was through the story of this radio broadcaster. Genie chance who is sort of a part time radio reporter and working mother in Anchorage and who by a quirk of luck but also her own persistence? Wind up being this voice on the air and the three days after the quake that was really able to help the city co here in in a very disorienting dislocating moment bypassing information over the air passing personal messages from people looking for their family members. And once you find a like that. Who's really this node for? People coming together after an event like this. You start to see how all these individual stories of the earthquake. All of these people who are tossed around separately were really kind of joined in a shared experience. You use the Thornton Wilder. Play our town as a kind of framework. Can you explain how you did not why you made that decision? A big threat of the story. Is this Community Theater Group in Anchorage she was doing? Our town was interrupted by the quake that weekend. Think I'd probably read the play in in high school and and you know not proud to admit it but just you know didn't really take it seriously. I just started. Had this impression of it as this hokey simplistic ed piece of Americana. And when I started reading the play again I realized that in some ways it's it's themes are the themes of the story of earthquake to this idea that you know we don't recognize the preciousness or the fragility of our daily lives until we're thrown outside of it till we get some other perspective on it and the other weird thing that happened was is that you know there's this character in the play the stage manager who is standing on stage with the characters and telling you basically how they all die. The future and I realized that because I was spending so much time. Trying to recount the story of these three days but I was doing it from more than half a century later. I had that same kind of omniscience about these characters and it was very painful to watch people in the course of these three days struggling with these issues of life and death knowing that you know in one case month later this fellow would die in a plane crash or this guy was going to have a stroke and you know he was expecting to retire but he but he'd be dead six weeks later more and more. The book became kind of mimicking the structure and the way that our town is narrated which I think took it to some kind of unconventional places. But it really did seem like the way that this story should be told and you the author then become the stage manager. Yeah in a way. It's not you know we don't walk around and daily life knowing the future right but in a weird way this project put me in that position and the stage manager was really the only other person that I'd seen have that same experience. So yeah you know for the most part the book is this sort of intimate retailing about people in the in the real time of those three days after the quake but I do come in in the middle of the book as as a character. Who's just in a in a basement with all of genie? Chances Forty some odd boxes of her life just digging through trying to piece together that that map of her life.