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Drug Approval In The New Normal
"The covid nineteen pandemic has been going on long enough for scientists and lawmakers to begin to reflect on the lessons we have learned robust response to the pandemic from the scientific community has been astonishing and the flexibility shown by regulatory organizations like the fda has also been impressive if we're entering a new era of more dynamic regulatory response to emergencies. How can we ensure the balance of science and law couple that with the growing fields of personalized medicine and rare disease. Emergency use authorization and it becomes even more complicated here to discuss. These issues. is charles river director. Mike template from our scientific advisory services division. Welcome mike thank you so i understand that. The fda processes like any bureaucratic organization contend tend to build up over time. Can you talk about what this means from a scientific perspective sure and he was one of those cases that there are multiple factors. Part of it is because these documents are is so important to the drug development world. They try to be in. You'll all encompassing in certain ways means they can get fairly large are also a case of. You're all a product of our experience. Of course we also try to learn from our experiences most get added in over time and that combination as well as other factors can make them rather large one to encompass a little bit of the what gifts and also to be able to address multiple situations and in those cases they just. They can get large soda. Speak or encompassing and get a little confusing about exactly what they're trying to address and how more important how you apply those to your specific situation using the general for specific questions so i know i mean each drug obviously would have its own inherent dangers or things that you really need to look out for but are there any in this little bit off topic but are there any types of drugs where there's some safety testing that you just don't need to do for whatever reason either. The drug has no way of interacting in that sort of safety way or a variant used a million times before so they know it safe in certain ways and are those accommodated in the regulations. They are accommodated in the regulations. And it is you know we encourage people to read them quite often or we will reference them. It was part of the scientific advisory services group and we have some initial calls with people who have a certain project. They're trying to move forward. We will reference those guidances. We also at least try and remember to say read them and then take a close look at what applies in. Maybe we're things don't apply but it still the responsibility of all of us in the drug development community to undergo and take a rigorous scientific process. What makes sense. Where are the concerns. We all have limited time and limited resources. In only situations and you'll i is sit down and develop the plan and then apply the guidance to the plan as opposed to taking the guidance and then trying to fit your drug or your program into every part of the guidance pull out the parts that are important. Make sure you give them the emphasis. They deserve places where it doesn't make sense scientifically you need to rationalize that if you can't come up with a good reason. It's probably not not realistic that you don't look there but if you can't come up with a good solid rationale it's just as valid to say. Yeah we did not go in depth in here because it's a low probability. We have enough information to confirm that. Let's put our resources where there's more important
Could This Simple Hack Reduce Anxiety and Panic Attacks? with Dr. Kristen Allott
"Dr analogy welcome to the broken brain podcast. It's an honor and a privilege to have you here. Thank you so much drew. I am so excited for this conversation. I think it'll be just fine Back and forth to share information. Yeah i love what. You're bringing to the world in this topic of anxiety and i think that we zoom out in the context of the current world even prior to cove nineteen pandemic anxiety. You could see that. The instances and usage of the word in just general language newspaper social media is skyrocketing and you know languages so powerful and sometimes we really have to parse apart a word to really understand like what do we really mean when we're saying that because sometimes we say anxiety and we actually could be meaning something else when you talk about this world of anxiety and your new book which we're going to get into in a little bit. What do you really want people to help understand. What exactly is anxiety. Yeah so i think that's a great question. And i will just tell you how i approach that When i started in practice about fifteen years ago Because i'm a naturopathic physician acupuncturist decided to specialize in mental health. And people were coming in. And saying i'm anxious and and i just didn't think it was like so. How does that apply. Physiology was really the question that i was interested in and because some for some people it's stress for some people. It's i'm afraid to move forward and take a step forward for some people. It's a i'm overwhelmed like there's all sorts you know. It's a catch word as you say. And but there's also a curious about what the physiology of depression or anxiety or whatever these words were saying. And and so i. When i started in practice i literally in my on my living room floor. I had stock physiology textbooks a stack of neurology. Textbooks and the dsm and the dsm is the diagnostic statistical manual. It just describes. What the diagnosis categories for anxiety are and i was just like will. I think it's more than just an emotion like a candy but like the people were coming in with panic. Attacks like that is not an emotion that is a full embodied experience right. And and so i started just parsing out like what are the. What are the fizzy. What physiology causes these physical symptoms of shaky and racing thoughts and your heart racine. And maybe you're sweating and and all those symptoms that you know sometimes it starts small and Escalates to really big asu started to parse that out and then was like well. Once once i started to understand the physiology in the neuro physiology will. Where do we. Where can we intervene to help. People feel better and so answering your questions kind of copying out. But it's like. That's that's the approach that i took because so many people were using words and i was like i want a grounded in something concrete. Absolutely i mean if we look at the history and evolution of just anxiety and a lot of mental health. A lot of these things in early medicine were considered to be They're kind of in your head right like nothing else is going on right. We made a documentary a few years ago. Which then led to the name of this podcast. Broken brain my business partner. Dear friend dr mark hyman. We made a documentary called broken brain and the underlying premise. That documentary was what you do to your body you do to your brain. Your brain is not in. This isolated eight oregon that just as floating on top of your head. That's completely disconnected than the rest of everything. That's going on there actually an intertwined system and we have to understand that yes there can be. Let's call for lack of a better term emotional factors that are there right. Stressor is the complete driver of so many different things that we feel but let's also look at the physiology of what's happening underneath so when it comes to that topic of anxiety and the physiology gonna ask you a question which is a question that i came across a few years ago in a book by peter thiel little bit of a controversial character. But i really love this question that he had inside of this book. I think the book is called zero to one and he said what truth do you believe is true that other people disagree with in that category. So when you look at right what do you believe is true when you think about anxiety and physiology that people maybe traditional western medicine will say like. I don't know if that's true. Yeah so The one truth. That i see time and time again is it is really hard to have a panic attack. If you just ate. And i don't see panic. Attacks occur unless people are five hours from food or more at or they may have eaten some really sugary substance to at two hours ago. But if you had a real meal. It is really hard to have a panic attack. That's powerful right. There and people like that is not true and and the same applies to suicidal Which is know just part of the spectrum of people keep doing doing panic attacks they can get there and and and and the reason for that is that are i mean i can go into the physiology but but people don't believe that until they start looking mental health professionals or physicians and then when they want start looking at the pattern it holds true. Now there's always an exception to the rule ways but it holds like ninety five percent true
Is Processed Food Making People Angry and Stupid
"Heireann droop wrote here host of the green podcasts. When it comes down to what we're made of so much of it is about food. Food literally builds us brick by brick cell-by-cell that means what we eat provides. The building blocks that make up the entire body which means unfortunately for a lot of people. They're made up of junk. Our poor food choices gravely impact our brain health resulting in behaviors. That leave us. More lonely anxious depressed illness prone and more overweight than ever before my guest on today's minneapolis owed doctors. David and austin pearl mutter and shawn stevenson talked to us about how our health our relationships and even our thinking have been damaged by our western processed food diet. They discuss how our lifestyles and diet. Impact our brain function and our ability to make good choices as well as how we interact and show up for our relationships. Let's listen in starting with my interviews with doctors. David and austin parameter. I want to read a passage from the book. Our are being gravely manipulated resulting in behaviors. That leave us. More lonely anxious depressed distressful illness prone and overweight than ever before. So we talked about those two aspects which is how do we help and support people to actually make these decisions and implement change in their life to achieve to achieve whatever goal that they wanna focus on. But let's start off with what is actually hijacking. Our brand that. It makes it difficult to do. So can you describe the landscape landscape and the state of threats that our brains are under today. Sure we'll start with one of the most important and probably most straightforward of the its food. We need food. We need to eat food to keep going. But what is it that we're putting into our bodies. A recent study showed that sixty eight percent of the foods that people eat and buy in. The store have added sugar. We know sugar isn't really a good thing for us but the question has to be. What is it doing to our thinking. What is it doing to our brains and is the question that i think were now able to answer but we haven't been looking into nearly enough. What is sugar doing to our brains. Will sugar fosters inflammation which listeners know is not good for the body. Chronic inflammation has been implicated in variety of problems. Things like heart disease. Things like alzheimer's disease. What we're understanding now is that inflammation this process that sugar up regulates changes are thinking. So let's let that sink in. It's not that it changes are thinking in the long run. It changes are thinking right now. Inflammation has been shown in several recent trials to bias our decision making towards short-term impulsive thinking so to put that into context if you're eating a diet that increases inflammation you're going to make more short term or decisions like eating diet that increases inflammation choosing the wrong foods to be eating and that transcends just diet it gets into other things if you're somebody who struggles with all nine shopping. Now you have a diet. that increases inflammation. You're going to be picking the short term reward and that means your your shopping. Cart might be filling up online with things that you don't need so again. Food is one of those entry points. It's something that has been made incredibly palatable over the years and while that means it might taste good. We need to appreciate that. It is activating these circuits within our bodies within our brains that are making our decisions more impulsive more short term oriented and in the big picture taking us away from the decisions that will lead us to health and will lead us to happiness and let me add Before we move on from food and because it is It is a very important topic because we recognize that in a simplistic model there to areas of the brain. That are involved in decision. Making the prefrontal cortex which is the more advanced area. If i may and the more primitive if i may amid della and you know there's a balance between the two we tend to With inflammation unfortunately have more input from the primitive and magdala and as such are decisions are not really looking at the future as opposed if we can reconnect to the prefrontal cortex and that is the area of the brain that allows us to participate in a process of thinking of the long term consequences of our actions today s to be more empathetic. It allows us to be more compassionate has to tamp down this sense of us versus them. That comes from the amid bella. So we're trying to reconnect to the prefrontal. Cortex and in a as per our discussion of food and inflammation inflammation absolutely threatens that connection and i have to say that A thought came to me this morning while in the shower some of my best thoughts come to me and shower and having read the new york times this morning they had an interesting article about what's going on in brazil with reference to deforestation the amazon. Not a good thing. I think most people would agree with that but that said what has happened to the thought process around the globe. is influenced by the globalization of the western pro inflammatory diet. That as this western diet a finds its way to every corner of the globe. It's changing how people across our planet think and behave
From wild idea to COVID vaccine meet the mRNA pioneer who could win a Nobel
"Renew and november. When the first cases started the pop up and wuhan china their description of the virus there description of how easily it was transmitted between families once. We heard that we knew that. This virus had the potential to be a bad actor at that moment in time we said. How are we going to get the sequence for this virus and we started calling our friends and china. We called our friends at the cdc trying to get the sequence of this virus the minute that was published. We started to make our vaccines back on. I think it was january twelfth. We started making the first aren a vaccine that day. It has all happened. Unfathomably fast has an at twelve months later and the pfizer and maduna vaccines have made their way through large clinical trials with good results into syringes and now already into millions of arms. But this quite a back story here. We thought that it would be useful in a pandemic. We thought it would be influenza pandemic but you back in two thousand and five. When we made the initial observation we knew that aren a had a great potential therapeutics. Who with his collaborator catala career. How is a good bit to win a nobel prize for the science driving. Mri vaccines. he's one of my guests on science fiction today. What's been lost in the fast pace race to develop covid nineteen vaccine. This past year is a hidden story of dogged. Pursuit of a nollie scientific idea over decades often in the face of skeptics and nice ideas we went through pharmaceuticals venture capitalists. All other people. it said. Hey we have a great new invention here. And they weren't interested. They said now aren as too hard to work with. We don't think it'll ever work and they just weren't interested now with a pandemic bang with suddenly counting on mri vaccines lock eyes and medina's to help save us. But before this pandemic this brand new technology of marigny vaccines had never been approved for use in humans before. It's incredible isn't it. The heddon even made it to the stage of large scale clinical trials in humans. I don't think anybody could have predicted. Just how effective these vaccines were. And i still get chills. When i remember the moment when that announcement was made a few months ago biologist onto fox is future fellow and associate professor at the university of western australia. It has proved the nice as wrong. I mean given that fifty percent effective is the baa that the world health organization would've liked to say as the minimum to be getting ninety. Five percent is just astounding really hardly any vaccines have that level of efficacy. Cullen pat and professor of pharmaceutical biology at monash pharmaceutical sciences. He's team is working on two different. Mri vaccines for covid. Nineteen in collaboration with the doughy institute in melbourne change from the point of view the future of emo toy syrupy and we haven't had a vaccine working against corona virus. Before i could understand the science. And i could see how theoretically it might work. But i just couldn't see how we could actually make enough to be the billions of doses needed for the world. And that's still looking doc- rod it's entirely contingent on just to pharmaceutical companies meeting. The world's entire supply demands including ours here in australia. Will you receive the pfizer vaccine together just before christmas. We did the vaccine driven by your discovery. Can you describe what that moment was like figuring. My family always yells at me. Because i'm not excited enough. And they're right for man who co owns the intellectual property licenses to medina and i dream osman humble kind of guy. We were incredibly excited. When we saw the results of the phase three trial that are vaccine. Worked and of a safe and had ninety. Five percent efficacy. I'm already moved on to the next thing the next back scene. The next gene therapy you. I'm incredibly excited. That this vaccine is working that it's gonna make a dent in this pandemic many think that there's a nobel prize in chemistry waiting in the wings for you and dr katie. Rico what do you make of that. So people tell the too modest. And i really don't do things for prizes or recognition or anything else.
Gene Editing and Recovery from Radiation
"Welcome to the talking biotech podcast. Weekly podcast about agriculture medicine with an emphasis on biotechnology and the good things we can do for people and the planet names kevin volta. I'm a professor and a podcast host. Who cares about science communication mostly around the area of biotechnology. So today we wanted to talk about something interesting. Radiation and radiation has many places in biology. Of course our resistance to it. The problems that can be caused from it as well as its use as a therapeutic agent used to induce genetic variability when we do plant breeding but has some deleterious downsides and they've represented barriers both for remediation of radioactive. Waste as well as if there's issues with the side effects of radiation therapies for cancer. So i was excited to learn about some work. That's happening. The innovative genomics institute out at the university of california berkeley. There's work that's gone. Underway under darpa funding to attempt to use gene editing to solve some of the problems associated with radiation exposure. Mostly in acute radiation sickness. and so. today we're going to talk to dr feodor urnov. He's a professor in molecular and cell biology department at the university of california berkeley as well as the director for translation technology at the innovative genomics institute associated with berkeley. So welcome to the podcast. Dr urnov thank you for having. This is really a pleasure. I was really excited to read about this. Because it seems like such a cool project that's long overdue and i can certainly understand arpaio's interest in this. I tried to frame a little bit of the problem ahead of time. But could you give me a better explanation of. What is the problem with acute radiation sickness. And where do we see it across. The bay from the berkeley campus is one of the best if not the best teaching hospital in america. Ucsf in the chair of radiation oncology. Dr mary fung has told me how frustrating it is to have. Her patients succumb to cancer of the abdomen and of the pelvis. Oh things like pancreatic liver you. Try a variant. Despite the fact that she has a powerful weapon to pure those cure is a big word and the weapon is radiation as you pointed out as all technologies radiation has had a positive side in the negative side the negative side. Of course we think about weapons. We think about radiation disasters such as mobile in in the ussr. Where i went grow was born and raised three mile island Shema but then on the positive side radiation is used to determine how our teeth are doing or our lungs are doing which is particularly timely given. What's happening right now. In our nation and has also a really really powerful medicine to cure cancer. The reason it's not more widely available is what's technically known as dose limiting city and in english. That means you cannot give enough of the cure before it side effects overpower its benefits. So in dr funk's practice the physician. So i'm regurgitating. What i learned from her and other had the honor to collaborate with. She has a patient with a with a major cancer of the abdomen. Or or the pelvic area she can irradiate the tumor and eradicated. The patients do not recover because tissues that are inevitably also effective so the gut and the bone. Marrow where are aquatic stem cells live are irreversibly damaged by the radiation itself. So the patients Die off either lethal diarrhea which cannot be stopped using anything
Tapping Psychedelics for their Anti-Inflammatory Powers
"Joining us daniel pleasure. We're going to talk about the therapeutic. Potential of psychedelics loose and it's pipelines experimental therapies that extend well beyond mental health indications. There's a growing interest in psychedelics. as medicines what's led to the transformation of this area from one of illicit substances to wonder drugs. Well i think that science has led the way And really it's been clinical research conducted at the top universities around the world Principally johns hopkins to start and now all over imperial college yale university new york university etc Very much led by the science. I i think that When you the question of wonder drugs though is interesting because i think that Silla sabin like ketamine are drugs that have a tremendous amount of promise for the treatment of depression within psychiatry and these drugs have therapeutic potential and other drugs beyond psychiatry but The classification wonder always brings the kind of and probably justifiable skepticism of Is the hype real. And what's really kind of the fundamental Potential and also what are the stumbling blocks for these therapies. And so all of those things are really the focus of the company in in in looking to develop These therapies both within and beyond psychiatry. How restrictive an area is this to work in today. And historically how hampered his research been it has never been more easy to do research in this area You know over the last forty fifty years. Things have dramatically changed. I think that What's what's really notable is the amount of knowledge that the regulators have in this space. The fda ema are very well informed about both the therapeutic potential of these drugs as well as the the risks associated with their development and use. And so i think you have a very informed regulatory audience and you also have increasingly Investors and other sources of capital that are willing to explore and develop these therapies. So i don't see really the limitation being that of a regulatory or legal wine and it's much more about The you know the the aspects of clinical development and really how do you take something with potential and translate that into a solution to address. Unmet needs there's long been interest in the potential of these substances to treat depression and addiction. But you're looking at a broader range of diseases. Among other things you're looking at these substances potential anti inflammatories. What's understood about the potential use of these drugs as anti inflammatories. I think that you know. Our company is is really notable for the fact that we have the the world's leading scientists and clinical developers focused on the full range of potential. Both within and beyond psychiatry. Interestingly when people think about serotonin they think about it in the context of depression they think about it in the context of psychiatry but actually serotonin is a modulator of basic function throughout the body And in fact there's more serotonin in our in our gut than in our brain and in particular the primary target of psychedelics. The new the The primary receptor which mediates the psychedelic effects of serotonin. Two a receptor is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. It's on all immune cells. It's on all major organ systems and so fundamentally We have been away dazzled and and a bit distracted by the profound psychiatric potential of these drugs and certainly their perceptual effects. But in reality there is a much broader potential because these appear to modulate Stress response in a variety of ways. You know you if you think of it in the context of psychiatry than depression or anxiety or substance abuse are all in a way related to the kind of inappropriate or maladaptive response to stress in the rest of the body. You know whether it's Due to aging whether it's due to an inappropriate immune response we see. Similar type of modulating where the serotonin receptor seems to be implicated in a variety of chronic. Inflammatory diseases the initial discovery of the potent anti inflammatory effects of some psychedelic. Compounds was was. I made by our scientific founder. Professor charles nichols at lsu. The that research That kind of kicked off a long Research campaign in the development of anti of the anti inflammatory potential psychedelics has less through A number of very interesting discovery specifically that some psychedelics are potently anti inflammatory in models of allergic asthma in cardiovascular disease and in a variety of different models of of inflammatory disease associated with ophthalmology related to diabetic. Retinopathy macular degeneration in addition to which there is potential in neuro degeneration and a variety of other conditions and so fundamentally the potential is massive and the key. Question is and really. I think we've addressed this and we're we're very excited to kind of take the next is. How do you bias the psychedelic from its perceptual effects. And make it purely a anti-inflammatory or immunomodulators medicine and that's something that we are
A Small Molecule Cancer Drug That Promotes an Adaptive Immune Response
"Matt. Thanks for joining us. It's a pleasure nice to meet you. Danny i'm glad to be here. We're going to talk about fos flatten. Its lead therapy. Which has multiple mechanisms of action and how it works to enlist the immune system to kill cancer cells. Let's start with your lead therapeutic. Pt on twelve. Which is a first class. Harrow phosphate platinum conjugate. Break that down in simple terms. What is it thank you. That's a good question. I think maybe i'll just briefly tell you a little bit about the company and how we got to where we are with this molecule. Pt one to foss platin- therapeutics was founded by myself. And our ceo robert fallon my fellow co founder in two thousand ten and we really built the the company around this family of compounds that we in license at the discovery. Stage which comprise these Family of these first in class pi-rre phosphate platinum conjugates and based in new york. Although these days that that means something different than it used to We have a nice Small office here in midtown with our management team. Of course now are all working remotely and we worked our way through preclinical and early clinical development by running collaborations around the world. We've actually had worked ongoing in fifteen countries Since we started and These are academe amick. A- collaborations contract research organizations clinical sites but also industry collaborators We we have a an existing collaboration with pfizer and their co-development partner. Md serono or merck darmstadt on one of the combination programs that were running and we're still private company in early phase two development with pt. One too so to your question about pt to is a small molecule and actually to our knowledge. It's the first anti cancer agent containing a pirate phosphate and This has implications on its safety. Its pharmacokinetics to mechanism of action. And even on its. It's targeting where it's delivery within the body and i'm sure we can get into that further as we go. I generally think of conjugated therapies is linking targeting mechanism to a- warhead. I take it the way. Pt one to works is a bit different. What exactly conjugated in pt. One two and what to each those components do it's a great question i think we. We certainly are not an antibody drug conjugate. I don't want to give that impression. I think we're thinking of conjugation. As a medicinal chemistry term that goes back to certainly before the advent of of adc's in cancer care Our inventor of the late refunder bose was actually the first researcher able to successfully link or conjugate a pyro phosphate to platinum core molecule. And of course Platinum molecules with platinum in their core have been a mainstay of of cancer. Care for some time now. He was really seeking through his work in medicinal chemistry To find a new paradigm for a platinum containing agents he did so by congregating power phosphate. And what that does is because the para phosphate is so strongly linked. It remains intact for the most part in the body theory differently from cytotoxic agents and certainly from other platinum containing agents Pyro phosphate also benign in the body Native to healthy cells so you'll the respiration so we're not adding something that's in and of itself toxic
Science FAIL! Why it's good to do
"We've all made mistakes right. But sometimes i can make us fundamentally confront who we are and who we want to bay beck in twenty four eighteen neuroscientist. Dr been to has had a damn good reason to be excited. It was it was such a shalit's basically there was years of work at prestigious scientific journal current biology had just accepted a paper by humidity supervisors based on his phd project but not without rigorous peer review. I of course reviews as good and tough questions and lots of extra analyses. I did when finally the email arrived and said yes. The paper is accepted. it was just. It was a very happy moment. A piper in a high impact journal. That's a big deal for. Young scientist then investigates how we perceive the world visually. So as your brain stitches together sane in front of you what you see is rematch spatially. Onto a part of your cortex at wrinkly atalaya of brian. So if you think of the cortex is old crumbled up that if you would flatten it out like a sheet could see on this flat surface neighboring points on the critical surf representing neighboring points in the visual field in the scene in front of us then put people in an mariah scanner to see what happened to the map when he distracted them using different visual cues. He came up with a k. For design for study and think we scan a total of twenty seven people which was at the time by far the largest study using this type of method and the method was kind of knew. He said there was a lot to figure out. It was computational so there were some analyses that literally took weeks every weekend machine would run through that stuff when it crashed it would send me an email which is a dangerous thing to do because when you get an e mail on sunday saying oh your coaches crashed in your very tempted to go back to the office and start to fix it. That lots of careful data crunching and analysis lighter and he'd found something significant and surprising this aspect of the brain of the visual brain which part of the scene a given neuronal population of marin response to seem to be more malleable than we thought and it was surprising that it seemed to change with attention. Just through your attending a given power to seen more than an condition. There's a lot to this week but the shorter the long of it is. This was a robust finding worthy of journal. So fast four now to six years later it's june twenty twenty and bins running his lab and tame remotely in the middle of a pandemic lockdown in germany. He's home is three. Kids is a lot going on right and he gets an email. I received that email. And i have to say at i. If i'm honest i i. Wasn't that worried that something was wrong. Really wrong only been didn't understand what yet and he would have to make a career defining choice about what to do next today on science fiction. Something we can all relate to filing and why it's good to do especially in science but also wants wrapped up in a whole lot of stigma and shame again especially in science you know great successes are trumpeted and things. That are not successes. You don't want people to know about however failure is so normal to the day to day working of science we need to move towards a culture where we are actively embracing failure. We all know that air is human and assigned as you know we have to ask why and behalf to ask how and way we fe often leads to the next question we are asking and so does this theory much part of scientific process. It's very great suits of inspiration in many ways the into no signs. That's not the way it looks and sounds in science when a journal pulls or retracts a paper the stuff of nightmares for scientists. But he's angst about scientific integrity scandals scaring scientists away from talking more openly about making mistakes back to that email bend has received at the uselessly. Big university in giessen. It was from susanna stole. Who is doing pay at university college. London under the supervision of professor sam schwarzkopf. Now sam had been a post doc in the lab been had done his pitch in and susanna was building on original. Study when i first read and paper thought. The design. They've chosen was really beautiful and was impressed. Ben included a very extensive stepney mandatory material conducting analyses infect around thirty pages of supplementary data for just a two page paper. Susannah was impressed with half farah was but then she went to do her on experiments and she noticed something odd she was getting. The same results has been even with different experimental conditions. And that shouldn't be high s-. I really had no clue
Sloan-Kettering Spin-Out Harnesses AI to Diagnose Cancer
"The right treatment every time. And how are these tests generally perform today. How does pages technology change that. So in a clinical pathology setting What happens today is a pathologist or piece of tissue is taken out of a patient from a biopsy or surgery that tissue gets cut stained mounted on a glass slide. And then the pathologist is handed a set of slides to look at that patient at thaad will look at that slide and they may see something that they're not sure what it is. It may be a little unusual. They may ask a colleague. They may send it out for consultation. They may do an additional stain or send it off for some molecular testing ultimately. They're going to get all of that information back and they're going to have to make a call for that patient. What the right. Diagnosis is in a page world. That slide is not looked at under a microscope. Scanned and the pathologist is looking at a computer monitor and pages gone through those slides and matched each slide. The tissue content in that slide those patterns with a database of known tissue and diagnostics. And that information is made available to the pathologist during the course of their their clinical treatment so that they have this additional information available to them automatically forever case having to go through and take those other steps of consultation and sending cases out in additional testing in staining. They'll have that information at their fingertips so that they can get to that right. Decision faster and more standardized more confidently are slice prepared for a page test as they would be for a traditional test today yes exactly the same way in fact there's no additional Staining no additional preparation that's needed. The only piece of additional equipment is the side scattered south and is the digital. Ai system visually reading an image and is doing so in a way that's unique to the machinery somehow mimicking. What a pathologist is looking for. I think the best way to think about how. Ai works is. It's looking for patterns in data in this case patterns and tissue and so that machine is identifying these patterns matching those against database of of known patterns That have been either diagnosed by other sts or that have been results of additional testing like molecular tests or something like that to really match those patterns and then highlight that information to the pathologist during the course of their their diagnostic process as we think about going forward in that biomarker direction that i mentioned and that case These are patterns at just may not know about may not be aware about may not really be visible to the naked eye and yet the computer is able to sift through thousands ten two thousand hundred thousand millions of images and identify patterns that are signatures for treatment responses or other even known molecular markers. And how do you envision a pathologist using the system. Will they rely on. It does the pathologist use it to confirm findings or is it more of a tool to allow for greater automation. And if so. What's the output at the pathologist or the physician will see way
Ep87: Bob Nelsen of ARCH Venture Partners on Biotech Investing
"Nelson is the co founder and managing director of arch venture partners. He's one of the most prolific and successful venture capitalists in biotech history. Bob likes to get involved in startups in the very early days. He's willing to stick his neck out and do things that might seem weird or premature to most people at the time. He was an early investor in gene sequencing technology with alumina. Aren't interference without milem cell therapy with juno and infectious disease with fear dreams. Big things ahead of the pack and isn't afraid to take risk. I've interviewed bob too many times to count over the past twenty years. He was one of the first people. I met when starting out covering biotech in the seattle times. He was getting established at arch.
"My name is brady. Hogan i'm the host of this show you you probably know that by now if not. Maybe you're a new listener. In which case. Welcome aboard the the guest. Today is neal kumar. He co founder and ceo of bridge bio a company. That was founded in two thousand fifteen. They had a sizable ipo in two thousand nineteen. They raised almost three hundred fifty million dollars and they are set up as a I'm not gonna say new but a sort of tweaked. Business plan which has changed the investment proposition for investors. They've erased some of the issues around drug development and one of the co founders is andrew lo who's an economist and i found it fascinating to think about the way they are trying to run this company and the way they're trying to run this business and that's why when i was thinking about you know we'll would be a good fit for the show. I thought yeah i. I think there's a lot of things about bridge bio that are interesting to think about not only about the company itself but about greater trends in start up formation. And the the way you have a good interview is sometimes someone comes in. And they are guarded and open to talking about anything and through the conversation you get down to some sort of truth about who they are as a person which then informs the way they see the world which informs the way they run their companies that informs away tackle complex biological questions and a little bit of that did happen here with neil but also sometimes what makes a good interview is a robust exchange of thoughts and ideas. And i think that's what happened in the in the later. Half of this interview you. I just got to sit with neil and ask him wise bridge bio built this way. It looks like it's built this way for these reasons. Am i wrong about that. What does this say about the future of venture capital funding. was it. Say about the risks inherent in biotech really. Good conversation i. I came away thinking about things that are different way I learned some stuff. And that's how you know you had to go talk anyway. That's how i knew. I had a good talk. I hope it's also interesting for you and also just on top of it. What a nice guy really enjoyed talking to them. I think that's probably all you need to know so here. It is your first round his podcast. With neal kumar. Listen up yes all right about that. I literally dotted early day too. So i around from to install the audio driver on my computer. Because just goofed up so on your say that you get up you get up at four thirty for your kids. Yeah i usually. I usually get up at four thirty so like my kids when they have practice. I got it okay. You get everything out of the way early and then you've got that time with them. Although in my office. But i get up early. Go down to the basement. I thought for a second. I thought boy. His kids are hardcore if they're getting up four thirty day work ethic eight year old and a five dark phase. But so i. I was thinking about this. I know that you know that bridge byles in california. Of course in that you went to stanford where did you grow up your no. I actually was born in boston. But i don't remember anything of it because we moved to rochester minnesota when i was about three weeks old and i grew up there so minnesota southeast minnesota toward the no clinic is and i spent most of my formative years there. How was that. I mean i. It's not often that. I have some from minnesota on the show certainly from from rochester. Ideally you know. I mean i think it's interesting. Reflect on a little bit. It's it was a small town back then and probably less than sixty seventy thousand people Lots of You know diversity of thought socioeconomic diversity net. No racial diversity. I think we were the racial diversity. Yeah but it was a it was a really i think. Great grow up in middle from stuff to Air and those kind of simple living. How how is it so you just said. No racial diversity. How is it that your family was there in the first place i mean. My father is a physician researcher in the area and apologies so the male clinic was there and i think he's been there for over thirty years. That's the reason why the move from boston. Yeah okay so that so this leads into my next question so your dad is a physician and and a researcher. Yes did that sort of lead you into thinking about a life science or medicine. I think in you're effective about what you grow up around and i grew up around a lot of examples of people working on basic science. Translate basic science into stuff that could be meaningful for people and help people with it so certainly that was l. was an influence on me. I was never all reasonable pressure from to become an adopter gonna get going to go down that route queasy and data from ills a large. I certainly must have been affected by growing up in our community. You are health care since you got big part of everyone's that you could just the idea of translating research into medicine. Was your father. Also was his research also translational in that way or just because he saw patients that he thought that way. I think probably one of the one of the you know differentiating features of doing research at place like the clinic. And there's been any good examples of this act team is that you get to take what you're learning in physician settings you'll see off and start doing research on yes certainly he He connected the two and did a lot of seminal work in boston. Ins and bone mineral density and one twenty five alpha hydroxy vitamin d. Just a bunch of stuff that that also affected much of his practice to. Yeah so you're surrounded by growing up for sure. And what about siblings. Did you have siblings or have a younger sister to younger. Is she. In medicine at all home. She's a smart kettering and down she's bad. And what about your mother. Was she also in the sciences. At all or yeah looks like my mom was trained in economics. Actually and was. I actually stayed at home with us for the most part when we were younger. And then i started working in development so She does a lot with foundation and helping to raise funds for males. It's a big male family sister roster basically male clinic. They used to be an ibm plant there. That was that was of impor- But that's sort of wound down over time. So i've been if you bet if you survey roster now by
281 COVID19 Testing and Personal Cancer Screenings
"Topic here number different topics and today we're going to talk a little bit about covert nineteen and testing and some of the molecular basis of testing. And some of the things that are being done around testing and molecular analysis of kobe. One thousand nine hundred and other diseases and so we're speaking with joe baki. He's the founder and ceo of quenching. And we'll talk about covid. Nineteen testing a welcome to the podcast. Show great via kevin. It's really nice to have you on. Because i found your website. I was reading about quantum gene and it really does make a lot of sense. What's happening right now. In your concepts that are there seemed to be really applicable to this pandemic. Let's start out by talking about that. Pandemic and role of testing how critical is widespread testing to control the spread of any pandemic. Well it's i think it's the absolute centerpiece foundation to get a who would off Any pandemic Indem at some point because the first thing you need to know in order to take any intelligent action is you need to have the data and if you don't know who has covid wh- any other injuries disease that is spreading fast. Then you can take action. You need to know who has a a fast as it spread spread in. It's not a big secret. This is important otherwise you can't make informed scientific decisions in what cooler revealed is how weak While becquerels our system loss in the beginning of the pandemic on that very basic level to understand. How do we test people. How has a lot of people and what we found at hunchine when vs bid. I would argue the most advanced testing system in the nation. Now in terms of turnaround. Times is that you need to introduce a hoarder A would batch of new technologies into laboratory science to to you know keep up to that it especially cloud in the systems which are nominee not on the table when it comes to biotech These are very important because you need a critical speed and precision in mass testing. And that is what quenching. Reinvented we have the most advanced cloud system included testing that is connected to our laps and this. He can deliver same day turnaround times for advanced. Pc tests all the time. Ninety nine percent of time he deliver less than twelve And i think these capabilities that didn't exist and cuvette meet that pressure died of the pressure in innovation You know allowed companies like ours. Who to really show. What is actually possible in these new advancements on now much more high profile and and disseminate to medicine pasta because of covid. So there's a good something good came out of it. Yeah that it's true but it's really funny about this to me a really interesting. Not so much funny. What's really interesting about this is it seems so obvious. In retrospect and how did we not know that. Testing would be the cornerstone of containing anything. Even especially after we it's been through you know Murders and sars. Well it said knowledge is not enough. The questions who knows what's in who takes action on. What an our challenge. Healthcare is that you know that the system is fitted not from no. This is no high like a rationale behind the system. It's a very evolutionary system will big layoffs have their grip on certain things in the incentives are not aligned with. What's good for people for you and your family. And it's also not aligned to what's good for the nation. In terms of efficient response it is a line to a very convoluted air system and making maximum profit off a nut free market system which creates enormous distortions. So knowledge is not enough. You need incentive structures. You need entrepreneurs who breaks through these structures and create something that's actually aligned to what industry government and individuals actually need. You know one of the places where maybe the biggest failure in the current system is taken as been revealed Los angeles. And i know a looking at your website. There's a presence in california and it's been through really very strict lockdowns and limitations. at least if not lockdowns. Why do numbers keep rising there. That is a very good question because You know you see this weird dichotomy that states that have much more lax shutdown rules actually have louis spread rates. And i think as disconnect in general that you know some people believe the government has to control everything and put a lot of rules in place and others believe maybe it's more of how people behave in taking responsibility for themselves. And i think the interesting things in california. You often have a lot of lots. Over was a mutt. Many more was in the state in the united states Bought the compliance of to all these rules into know commonsense. Things is much lower so you know the response to increase even to to put in. Even tuffah was an decreased compliance. Even more right. So i mean you saw all the was. Lots of demonstrations last year mass demonstrations with no social distancing in all these things and Than people said. That's okay and i understand behind it and you can argue at either way but from a medical point of view of course it. That's a problem. Then you have a lot of underground partying going on iran people. Just ignore everything so you know the funny thing is the shutdowns a much tougher than let's say in texas florida but then when you look what people actually do everyday in how how smart they deal with a pandemic react commonsense approach as well. Let's just be a little cautious. Wash my hands a little bit more. Maybe not hung everyone all the time I think compliance actually higher in in these states. So i think you know. In the end it comes down to having common sense and and understand what population's gonna believe what lee and you know on the surface all these. You know crazy shutdowns. People don't like it at some point or just do other stuff than you will see. The effects of the one thing that all of this is really revealed to me is the importance of testing that has to go hand in hand with any kind of either requests for compliance with restrictions or just generally day to day living in the presence of a pandemic testing is in so how bad are the current limitations in the existing testing strategy. Have very interesting comparison. See because test because we all kind of a high performance testing system. We leah most requested in in the movie. Industry has probably the toughest constraints right now by the union staff test every day and they have to shutdown the next steve. There's anything sound or someone does not get tested to. They have to be on top of their game. And that's what we deliver
Episode 149: Nancy Goodman on Covid vaccines for kids, & Greg Zuckerman on Novavax's remarkable rise
"Goodman is a force. I once heard. Nih director francis collins speak about her with awe. she's championed legislation called the creating hope act to incentivize drug companies to work on pediatric rare diseases. That law led to the creation of priority review vouchers. Worth more than a billion dollars. She did all of this after losing her ten-year-old son jacob in two thousand nine to a rare form of brain cancer the next day she opened up her laptop and founded kids versus cancer. A group that pushes for medicines to be developed faster for children and she's wondering amid the fastest vaccine development program in history. Why kids are still months away from getting access to covid nineteen vaccines. Nancy goodman joins us now nancy. Welcome to the podcast. Thank you so much atom. I'm thrilled to be here so in discussing vaccines for kids. The argument always comes up that the disease doesn't strike them as hard or as much as it does adults so our co vaccines necessary for kids. Well that's a great question. Meg and i think that we need to talk about that much more carefully and make them more careful decision about when we're going to give kids vaccines. I think we all agree that we're eventually going to give kids vaccines and so the question is is it better to do now or as a delay really important i think it may very well be better to do right now so we heard just this week from dinner that they've fully enrolled their vaccine trial in kids age twelve to seventeen and that they plan to start another trial. Starting at the age of six months in the near term and pfizer would also has an authorized is at a similar pace in terms of pediatrics studies. So drug companies say they. I proved vaccines work in older age groups to get data on safety and then progressively move younger. What do you think of that system of testing vaccines so look. I'm not a physician or clinical trials. So i'm not going to comment on the science per se. But i want to ask a few questions first of all when pfizer and moderna or from pseudo company starts a clinical trial. Why did they have eighteen years of age as the minimum age of eligibility. So that's the first thing. I think companies usually go down to eighteen years of age. Just because it's tradition. There's so many variables in designing trial. And they just check the box for eighteen years of age. So i really want them to explain to us what the rationale was for not testing kids in the first place in the cancer world. Which i'm more familiar with what we talk about is there is a break around puberty and it is the case at sometimes pre puberty. There's a different dosage and scheduling and even potentially different toxicity profile for therapy. So maybe we do need to be more careful before puberty. But maybe we don't and let's talk about it. I think it's fantastic. That moderna has clinical trial down to six months of age or they will. I think that's really important. I hope that the trial is big enough that we're really going to get some important information. My understanding is pfizer doesn't have a trial. That's big enough to be sufficiently power to give us the information we need yet. You know i think when. We talk about Delaying clinical trials for kids or withholding. Do we really need a clinical trial for kids. Twelve to seventeen. Do we really need that. Extra information at and i just love vaccine. Clinical trial design experts to explain to us why we really needed. If some of those kids are as tall and heavy as adults taller and heavier than small women for example or even men. Because you know it is the case that three hundred kids of almost three hundred kids have died in the us. So far of covid and over two thousand kids have multi system inflammatory syndrome. And they're just sick sick kids and twelve school buses full of kids of died and as we delay. Vaccinations were saying that. They're going to be more kids who we know will die because they weren't vaccinated right and we know that they'll be thousands of kids who have multi inflammatory syndrome. Who will be really really sick. And they wouldn't have been if they got an early vaccination. So that's that's you know that's the harm that we're agreeing to experience so that we delay these vaccinations so one of the reasons that you created this voucher system is because you wanted to incentivize the drug companies to develop cancer drugs for kids cancer in kids as much rarer than it is in adults inchoate vaccines however they're designed to be given as you know given to as many people as possible. Twenty two percent of the population is under eighteen. So what do you think is happening here. You know look. We were all in a crisis as a nation in twenty twenty companies just put together whatever clinical trials they could. It's incredible that they got results so quickly that adults are able to be vaccinated but again. I think what's happening now is. They're not thinking about how to get information for kids as fast as possible. So there's been an increasing movement of vaccine hesitancy in pediatric vaccine even before cogan and the pandemic has led to sort of a different flavor of this a group of people worried the vaccines have been developed. Too fast for example. What do you think is the best way to address those concerns you know. I think that's such a great question. Meg and i just don't from a personal perspective. It's just not how i would. I would approach these issues. I'm a very careful in what i eat. I eat organic and plant. Based but as soon as i can get a vaccination. I'm going to be there right. So i'm clearly in the vaccination camp a couple years ago. My organization worked with the state of new york. There used to be an opportunity for for families to Not vaccinate their kids for certain. Vaccinations based on religious rationale and so new york has ended that exemption and people felt really really scared of vaccinations. And i think that that was the problem. I think we need to have a discussion. We need have more discussions with people who are really really scared and understand why they're scared and really see if we can find ways to assure them that it is really safer to vaccinate your kid or yourself than to go unvaccinated. We've spoken so many times over the years going back to two thousand fourteen And one thing you said to me at that. Time was your struck by the sort of approach of the the drug industry are the medical complex that we don't test drugs in kids because we want to protect them from the medicines were while the mindset should be were protecting them with medicines I i know you have more work. Going on in this area trying to incentivize drug companies to be testing simultaneously. Their drugs in kids. We just tell us more about bob. Sure well traditionally as you said we have a sort of paternalistic approach both in pharmaceutical and biotech industry and in our society at large where we say. Well let's test on adults first and then if we get you know if it's effective and if the taxes are acceptable then we'll try and kids but as you said the question is like know howard kids suffering while they aren't until they get this therapy and while they're waiting for adult clinical trials and in the cancer world.
Podcast: GMO terminator seeds debunked; Alternative medicine harms women; Cancer-fighting CRISPR beer?
"Through the semester during covid but enjoying the beautiful of florida winter and feeling really bad for those everywhere else. Yeah man even in california. It's kinda cold and rainy. Still so i feel a little bit gypped but i'm not in texas so there you go. Yeah yeah they really got hit hard and it was. The worst part is in place like texas gets hit with that kind of cold. Your there's no infrastructure that's prepared for it and you know heart goes out to him so many broken pipes and you know things like that that it's gonna take a long time to come back yeah. It's brutal. I saw people sleeping in their cars with engines running. I think just to stay warm. So what the garage door shut. Don't do that twitter. People were not telling you to kiss. Hobos run your. It's it's a little bit warmer. You get that extra layer of insulation right now. Not bad advice. Make sure that sleep in the car that you do it with an open garage door or without a tube. Connect to the guest to the exhaust pipe out. What we're talking about things. That are utterly false. I want to make just a quick correction a couple of weeks ago I we were discussing People tearing down statues of scientists and golden rice as a colonialism project. And i mentioned philosopher david hume. We're talking about that. I said he was alive in the eighteen. Hundreds in reality died in seventeen seventy six. So i was just so worked up about the topic that i got the dates wrong. That's an spirit. Yeah yeah and it's been bugging me for weeks. And then we get on here to record and i forget saw so there. You go policy corrected very good and the but that's yeah and did you get like a hundred emails. That said you're an idiot or not. A lot of david hume did in my head. And i and i'm sure that someone at some point in history is gonna listen to this and go. What kind of a moron doesn't know when david hume died. I had to it's for my own vanity more than anything but it is It is true now. So there you go but with that we can
Episode 21-09 Science tells us how Change Peoples Minds ???
"Let's take five with more gun this. It's five minutes in twenty ten. I spoke with bill. Bryson about his book at home assured history of private life while reading his book it became clear to me that the history of how humans live their private lives is really the history of household technology for. Hadn't thought of it in those. But yeah you're absolutely right. Houses israeli as the point. I make in the book is the history of everything i mean. You can look at it. Thomas tissue from a biological sample from a social standpoint from technological standpoint and and yet we never look at it really for many standpoints. History of private life is something that doesn't get taught in schools. It doesn't really feature on any any radar anywhere and that was the whole idea. The book was that i had spent the whole of my formative years in school learning about the history of the world from the perspective of wars and diplomacy and can big global events. Things happening a big tapestry. But actually when you stop and think about all of those things where they ultimately end up the chievements of history and up in our homes and everybody has to be somewhere. Everybody has a home. Everybody has a home in. Homes are oddly recognizable. Go on into these very much in the book but it is a strange thing where wherever you go worldview dropped into unfamiliar environment you can recognize the helms. You can distinguish homes very quickly even though a lot of times. You know are not terribly distinguishable in terms of architecture. There is something about an atmosphere of domesticity that we all know. And it's very very hard to define what makes a house or what makes a residence because it can be so many different things all really essentially an infinite number of materials that can be any kind of shape it can be these and yet we know a home when we say it. You're jumping off. Point is your actual home in england. Tell us about well. The whole idea more was that that in two thousand and three after the in new hampshire for eight years i moved back to england with my english wife and kids and we ended up living in a former church of england. Parsonage in norfolk in east anglia. And while i was sitting there soon after we arrived i was kicking. I just for books needed to come with an idea for new book. And i was actually sitting at the kitchen table and just idly fingering the salt and pepper shakers on the table and and i thought why those two. Why do we always have salt and pepper at every table ever kitchen table. I've ever sat. You know i grew up in iowa. We had salt and pepper on the table. I live in. England now had taught and pepper on the table. Why why those two. I not salt and cinnamon pepper or any other combination of things and that was my kind of starting point was thinking that know. Actually i don't know anything about and how they're organized and and really the histories behind these everyday objects that we are immersed in all the time so the whole idea of the book became. I'll make a trip travel around my own house dissolved parsonage in england. And i'll just go from room to room. And i read a history of the earth from the perspective of each room so that bathroom would be a history of hygiene and kitchen the history cooking bedroom be sex and death in sleeping. Whatever happened in history in those rooms and and see where that takes us. And i had no idea what i what i might be embarking upon and how old does the parsonage it was. It was built in eighteen fifty one. So it's about one hundred six years and you had blueprints from the original parsonage lucky that it was the property because that meant had a pretty good record of both the original plans had been saved because the church of england held onto all of these things because otherwise they might have been lost at some point in the last century and a half and also we had a complete record of of occupants from you know we knew them the names of all through the church of england new the names of all the directors who lived in this house from from eighteen fifty up until the nineteen seventies when it was sold off chertoff found it very hard to keep these grand old parsonage is it was quite expensive houses for for Country parsons and so. They beginning in the twentieth century. They began to sell off. Little by little you've been listening to a twenty ten technician interview with bill bryson about his book at home a short history of private life with the covid nineteen pandemic and global sheltering in place. The technologies in our home are distinctly unprecedented. Bill bryson's latest book is the body a guide for occupants. I'm moir again. This is five minutes. Five minutes is produced at the studios of k. Q. e. d. fm in san francisco. Five minutes is a production of tech nation media. I'm paul land from san francisco. I'm moir again. And this is tech nation
How To Tell Coronavirus Variants Apart
"Hello and welcome to the program. This month we are looking at the most critical variants of the corona virus. And finding out how to tell whether they're fleming covid vaccines plus the cost of catching a serial killer. Dna with four strands instead of two and a mutant. Fish whose fins have started turning into limbs. I'm phil sansom and this is naked. Genetics to extend any talk of new. Corona virus. Variance is slightly misleading. Looking for new new variants is not looking for needle in a haystack. Because there are thousands and thousands of new mutations in the virus and so looking for once important can be very challenging. That's sharon peacock speaking to chris. Smith on the naked scientists in january. She runs a consortium called covid. Nineteen genomics uk or k. They feverishly sequence the full genetic code the whole genome of the samples of current virus. They sent and so far. They have more than two hundred thousand sequences under their belt. The point she's making is that it's easy to find a new variant. It's much trickier to find a variant. This both new and more dangerous. There are a few methods festival we can expect between populations. We can also look at the population of genetic information that we have a to demonstrate whether for example a particular lineage or line is expanding more rapidly than we expected but experiments really critical hit. They provide crucial evidence. And there's different types of departure experiments that we want to do festival we'd look out. The virus interact with cells grown in laboratory album more likely to adhere to those cells in an entry into them. We also want to see how the virus interacts with. Antibodies that have been raised by people had a natural infection within that connected to see whether the interaction is what we'd expect to. Not all of these techniques became very useful in the uk at the end of last year when they discovered what later came to be known as the uk variant the kent variant or variant. Be one seven. It was only really in mixed late november when it really became clear that they seem to be spread of cases in the south of england whereas they was spread in other parts of the country that were under similar. Carter lockdown rose their range of explanations for that but one of them is the guy could be a somewhat different than its behavior and so at that point in the beginning of december analysts to understand the genomes very well realized that the to relate could be related and increasingly transmissible virus linked to very specific gene. Be one one. Seven genome is specific by twenty three mutations. And it's also not clear where exactly it came from. It wasn't particularly related to other variants going around the uk that was in december. A few days later south africa announced they'd found their own concerning variant then within the space of a month. Two more were found in brazil. Turns out pandemic gut punches. Sometimes come like buses. But sharon would question the way we've been referring to them. I think it's really important that we avoid labeling variants based on where they'd been first detected because whether it be i detect it doesn't necessarily mean where they've emerged and nobody can really be held responsible for an active nature from mutation. Sharon peacock had of coq. Uk so bearing that in mind can decode the scientific names. These variants have gone. They tend to be complicated because genetics is complicated. And the w. h. o. Hasn't yet come up with a standard naming system into this void. A few main systems have emerged. The open access gifts aid uses one system. The group next strain that we featured on naked genetics. Back in april uses a second. The third is my favorite. And it's where the name be. One one seven comes from. It's a system proposed left year with the acronym name penguin. Here you'd find the vary based on events in its pass. Those events will usually be it arriving in a new place and expanding and multiplying through the area using the pangolin website. We explain why it's called. B one one seven. Be an escape from china at the end of twenty nineteen. The first one is a big expansion through europe at the time of the italian outbreak. At the start of two thousand twenty the second one is a more specific european wave and the seven means this bad needs variant
Michael Friend Advocates For Diversity in CRISPR
"Can you talk about what that role endangered so as a minority being part of minority coalition. How does that actually would say you're planning. Events are one out of the types of responsibilities. you're kind of involved in shore. What for chris. Carr my role on is on of the committee and really is to help develop strong. And broad foot trenton. Targeted monastic communities by by really joe trying to facilitate interactions with community based organizations to include aftermarket universities. Darkly restore cabrera colleges. Hvac us that had a very long standing history of mistrust to some extent. And so i kind of summit up just to really increase bernardi representation in these conversations around christopher and engagement with a very strong focus on making sure we have diverse forces some of our listeners. Who may not know exactly. What could a split on this. Can you just in a few lines. Dealers about guzman on absolutely or christopher is is an organization that really focused on the compensation crispin and they do it from the perspective where they're not be. The four or guest technology did not pro con but to really have conversations as it relates to this technology in house being utilized many ways and the benefits and risks down a bowl and started out by uc berkeley in conversations. There which later a year after moved to boston and she'll hope these. These conversations are kind of women around the country at really sparing Lotta interests around. Christopher and i can say that they've been very diverse voices after just faded indiscretions discussions. That's a very interesting role in vegas to learn more about your experiences by doing this. Just one question before that. How did you get into you. Know the crisper fields specifically was your background and christopher. How did that come to be that. You are involved in organized crisper con is. It's all started. President obama launch of the precision medicine issue which was pm. I in two thousand fifteen. I was invited to be a part of that much and that pm. I initiative is a multi year multi million on effort that was developed to keach around creating a diverse cohort to trutv by disease treatment for all but that program is currently known as all of us program and so from that launch. I started the minority coalition for position mets. So you're speaking under the bit of audio experiences. As an event organizer being part of that rising committee on crisper con- you had mentioned that when pulling together some event it was really impossible for you to find black researchers in the area. So could you elaborate more on the garden. Status stakes are the neck of diversity that you are seeing in the field. Well just to be honest. You know this is that i think at this point is kinda shameful in subsets. Your article article that you've written highlighting some of top companies in fear. Know as you look at even these compromises need couples this leading the work around crisper. You can see most senior today. Shes clearly the lack of diversity that so evident in these companies. And i think what is sometimes hurtful. Is that in this crisper in some ways to successive crisper. Really an johnny outcome A black disease sickle cell disease which is driving an has driven a lot of interest at of course financial investments. And so i would say at this point. It's not looking very good chance of diversity that's really agree. Find especially about Disease just in so many articles that i have read or even written this diseases. Come up as such a brian. Focus for Research and we know that it affect african americans more than it does Other people and still not having representation of black scientists in the field is just sad. I agree with you a follow up on that. Is that just not many black scientists working ingredient or are we just not finding them. I'll say that this virtually not the technology is not at at the universities is that you're you're not finance you. Just technology act most of the dominant. African american universities are even doing a lot of work relies life and even those universities though workout agriculture and so crisper. Unfortunately it's not a conversation there yet and so therefore you're not seeing much interest in feel released incomes. African indies universities. And i think that's where it needs to start than than from there will see a lot more scientists in the field right. That's a great point and it answers my next question. What what can we do to solve that issue lately. How can be tryin gate. More black scientists involved in the field and from what i'm hearing seems to be more than bartering. The education part itself like trying to get them introduced to the -nology early on so that we get more in a presentation later in the field rate. Absolutely thank you. Don't wait that issue. It may sound complex with reality is quite simple at dad. You know when you look at those fortunate created technology our shop by jennifer auther devalue carpenter i think is very important to those that are leading what creates thousand to also ensure to these technologies are being shared at these at these universities and more so in in compensations. Until i really would hope that those that that rentals touch opposition would name watch awards ensured that we don't repeat history and stuff says right another question around the same lines is you know what are some of the ways that you have found that increase engagement within engaging black communities are whether it is just including more people of color in anna's auden industry venue organizing confidence. So do you have any suggestions on what we can do to insure diversity in towards inclusive environment for my my friend and my bed sore dot to change room who is the founder at a personal genetics education program or call. Pg at harvard university and and one of the things that had said stray Really have to be a to rate compensation and so just guide you know we're having these conversations on both sides of cheap oil and we haven't started really started we have started to see dat crispy con organization that i serve on advisory committee. We did have out first conversation
084 - Navigating the Neurodegenerative Disease Subsector | $CRTX $AVXL $ALEC $CYCN $SAVA
"Lincoln the description below so excited to be back. And i've got a great show for everybody today. We're gonna be talking about companies that are involved in the neuro generation space. And the reason why i wanted to do this is that some companies saw a huge increase in their stock price. After cassava scientists released their updated data on their alzheimer's asset. And i thought it would be useful for us to look at other companies in the space to get more broad brush on the landscape of neuro degenerative diseases and see whether or not some company stand out as better or worse investments. So today we're gonna talk about cortex sign annex. Scientists elector cycling on. And we're gonna touch a little bit on cassava scientists. And before i get into the show i did want to mention that. I'm going to be doing an ask me anything on the sub reddit. Biotek plays so. Check out that sub. Reddit there's actually really nice community there. People who are interested in the biotech sector and they've just reached ten thousand subscribers. So check that out and input your questions on a spreadsheet. That's over there. And i'll do my best to answer them. I think it starts at one pm at pacific standard time and with. Let's just get right into the show. And before i get into the actual companies involved in the space. I did want to talk about the potential total addressable market. And it's important that we start off with this and i'm not going to belabor the slide too much 'cause i did touch on it last time but we want to know is the potential revenue company could garner if their asset went all the way through the clinical process and finally got approved and marketed. So that patients could actually reach the drug. The best way for us to do this in my opinion is to look at a previously approved drug. That looked similar indication and one. That's great for the alzheimer's market is one called. The generic name is dan episode and this drug was a wild success. It treats the symptoms associated with alzheimer's disease but it doesn't actually change the course of disease progression and what we can do is look at the pricing air set. Multiply that by the total number of alzheimer's disease patients in the usa. And then we come up with a total potential addressable market. That drug. Going through the pipeline. Right now could potentially garner if it was approved and in this way it sort of a best case scenario if a company could get their drugs successfully through the pipeline and i did this math with air set from pricing based off of two thousand and twelve and we come up with twenty four billion dollars a year and obviously that's a huge increase from what a lot of these companies are valued at today and the reason for this is particularly difficult to get these drugs all the way through the clinical process and then fda approval the other thing we can do is compare previous sales figures so for air sept in particular the peak sales reach around three point. Five billion dollars. In two thousand nine and two thousand ten now obviously. This is a long way from twenty four billion dollars year but you have to keep in mind that previous sales figures are a snapshot from that time and not to mention that a drug that potentially can change the course of the disease rather than just treat. The symptoms could probably garner significantly higher price tag than what air sep did in two thousand and nine ninety thousand ten so i think for us kind of an optimistic target for cns companies are able to get all the way through the approval. Process could be somewhere in the range of ten to twenty billion dollars and that's a useful metric for us when we go to evaluate the risk reward taking investment in one of these companies. And my last point here is just to mention that we have to discount that potential price tag by quite a bit given that. Cns companies fail very very often even higher than your average company in the biotech sector. And with that. Let's talk about our first company which is coretec sign and they traded on friday the nineteenth at thirty two dollars and fifty cents a share giving them a market cap of around nine hundred and sixty million dollars their net loss in q three of two thousand twenty twenty two million and they have current assets of q. Three twenty twenty of one hundred forty three million with current liabilities at sixteen million dollars and this company is targeting a bacterial brain infiltrate that occurs from the mouth and this bacteria that's causing this is called p. ginger vallis and what it does apparently is it can go through the mouth into the brain and secrete. This protein called ginger pain proteges. And this pros as has been known to cause inflammation and then eventually correlate highly with neurodegenerative disease. What the company is hoping to do is commercialized. An asset that is able to inhibit this protease called lysine. Ginger pain with their inhibitor. At zagan stat or core three eighty eight. And in this way. They're hoping to change the course of alzheimer's disease since the association with this bacteria and this is correlate really high with mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer's disease so their main asset is core radiate and. They're looking at alzheimer's disease. Pero donald disease as well as parkinson's disease. They have a number of different assets but because courts radiate is the furthest along. It's the one that i think contributes the most to the current market cap. So i'm gonna focus on that and to give a bit of background on the asset. It's orally available. It penetrates the blood brain barrier which is very important for a cns drug and they have pan protection until the year. Twenty thirty seven now. We're the company's at is they finished phase one b and. They looked at older volunteers. That were healthy and then older patients that had actual alzheimer's disease. They did a number of different cohorts courts. One two three are the volunteers treated for ten days and then cohort four patients with actual alzheimer's disease and they treated them for twenty eight days.
Ep.187: Stem Cell Education Featuring Dr. Willy Lensch
"We're going to start off with an Paper this is something that we actually alluded to. I believe in our one of our is a cr episodes Something that i'm actually quite excited about. In my opinion this is the first true cardiac developmental org annoyed okay. this is a paper. In nature biotechnology titled human heart forming organoids recapitulate early heart and for that development. Coming from lab robert swaggart and first authors leakage. Iraklis again. I think we did discuss this on the icr episode. I think there are some Somebody was presenting this data. It might have been dr droplets Forgive me so or models of early tissue development have been produced for a bunch of different tissue types right. Intestine brain is super popular. We talked sergio. Posco about these things we talked to you. Alison watery kidney and other organs to but and this is something. That's really bothered me for a long time. Similar approaches for the heart haven't really been there. They've been kind of lacking for the most part quote unquote cardiac organoids have been amalgamations of endothelial cells and cardi myocytes kind of smashed together and those have been called organoids but they don't recapitulate the development of the heart now in this study. They do exactly that. They're generating complex structure three-dimensional cardiac organoids or heart forming. That they call him. Hbo's by embedding human pluripotent stem cells in maitre gel followed by directed. Cardiac differentiation will get around to that in a second. Because i was a a point of discussion before the show beauregard. Listen how they ended up doing them doing the doing the next generating these organoids. They're able to make these really neat complex structures of cardiac tissue combined with ender. Sort of recapitulating. What's going on during cardiac development. You got the formation of the ms ended earn for example and they did it by directing cardiac differentiation using a protocol. That i'm pretty familiar with by phase wint pathway modulation with small molecules. Something i do all the time and so these. H f os heartwarming organoids. Have this myocardial ring layer. You've got to check out the images in this one. It's like almost like a like a tree like a a ring in a tree trunk or something like that and get this little nice green ring of gfd positive and kicks two point. Five g p cardiac cells. My cardi myocytes. So got this myocardial. There that's lined actually by indo cardio like layer as well into cardio like cells. the cardio are the The specialized endothelium that are found within the heart within the chambers of the heart. And they're actually found pretty early during the cardiac development as well and they're able to naturally induce the formation of decorum in these delvin organoids. And not only that but they those endo cardio like sells was surrounded by some septum transverse unlike cells and they actually he even have a distinct anterior versus post earier. Four good ended her two shoes and even a vascular network like a a very rudimentary basketball network. But we'll give it the the exciting thing as as i've been alluding to this whole time. Is that this architecture. Kinda resembles early natural heart development before the formation the heart tube. And they're actually saying that. This is more this sort of like the the formation of the maybe the early second hartfield or something like that. It's known to actually require the interplay with the the forego derm development and so you're having that natural interaction between the ended arm and the derm actually form not only the the cells of the four gut. Actually they actually has liber populations. Some few pancreatic populations as well next to their car cardiac cells to and finally of course to bring it into nature biotech to apply it. You have to apply it to study human disease. So they apply these heart. Forming organoids actually studied genetic defects in vitro by showing in cakes. Two point five. Knockout heart forming organoids show a phenotype phenotype that sorta like the heart malformations that are described previously in transgenic mice. Point five is a really important regulator of cardiac development and by knocking it out able to show a athena type. That's been seen in mice so it's in my opinion a really exciting Cardiac developmental story. It's a really. The perhaps the first true cardiac development organoids as opposed to a tissue that's formed by smashing different cell types together. And the funny thing is i remember going on twitter of wild back a few months ago and i was sitting in on a conversation between two podcasts guests. Actually benoit's bruno and james hudson from down there in australia.
#195: 5 Steps to Reduce Anxiety, Stress, and Toxic Thinking with Dr. Caroline Leaf
"Today's episode. First of all thank you for joining us in the podcast. Been a fan. Always see you on the charts. Sear incredible content on instagram and also just makes me smile to know as somebody who's like so into their family. I work with both my sister. And i work with both my dad and i've worked with my older sister and my previous companies that have had over the years and it just brings a smile on my face when i see a happy family working together for a positive mission which is even bigger than just making money so i just want to say hats off to you and your family because you just shared with me that you work with three of your daughters which is incredible Thank you so much dude. Appreciate that. I work with my husband as well. He's also part of it so it's like literally only one child is involved so but thank you so much for having me on your part cost sharing that if we can work family. It's it's great. It's really works really well so i'm a big fan of yours too sir. Thank you thank you so much so actually have a couple of questions that i wanted to start off with before we jump into here a little bit in some of your work. That's their one is off of that. you know. I think anybody who has worked with their family on anything or even having worked with your family. Let's say you're planning a bridal shower or a wedding or you're with the birthday party anytime you work with people that you're close to especially family. There's going to be little messes that come up. Are obscenity top suggestions that you've seen over the years of you working with family that they're gonna be breakdowns. How do you help clean up some of those messes breakdowns when they happen. I'm suddenly at you. Ask the question because it's so relevant. It's all sounds rose in wonderful but because it's family you can you can get you down as we know. And so we've take adopted a philosophy and you don't apply it but it's what we try and use guiding principle and that is that this is a very famous philosopher cannot be his name he said these three things that are important be kind kind be kind and the those are like the tenets of what how we manage working with each other because it's very easy to get snap When you're under pressure so that's one of the things that we really try to apply. The other thing is. We don't let the sun go down on any irritation or whatever you deal with the yield on the spot. And i know it sounds really funny. But the system developed for managing mind. We actually apply it elected each the during your cycle. You know get to do that via so we'd train ourselves to actually love in this mode honesty. We it really helps. Just recently added a parked car sexually with dominic dominic mark producer. And we wanna way to be always do our inch series together. We do faucet workouts workouts to two inch. Siri and i happen to wake up in a bit of a mood worrying about something a couple of weeks back and we get to the other way to orange theory. She asked me some but it was the way she said it so i ended up getting turkey. Irritated shares his mother. Who understands mind and all this brain stuff and here lost at irradiated. We in having this really stupid arguments just before we got into inch siri and we got baby stormed into orange syria but immediately started applying the principles for moment be forgotten and then as soon as we got into orange syria both apply the first of all transferring negative energy. To exercise is always a great thing that some little breathing exercises and then went through what us on the treadmill pounding the treadmill i was going through the concepts your cycle thereafter billups just going through the process to work out and why was dinette. And why did i get there. What can i do about it. Basically managing the situation with my mind and transforming the neural circuitry before got out of control and she was doing the same thing and as soon as we go out of our series. The first thing we say. I'm so sorry that's it really seen example. We do blow up but we do. Apply the principles of my management end. It's it's kind of a rule and that helps so proud down with neuro cycle news and you'll take us through the process and every absolutely think the team that i'm really getting from that sharing thank you for opening up. I know it's difficult. And you've mentioned this in your podcasts. In the past difficult for especially therapist and people who have worked in mental health to open up about themselves. And so i see you sharing stories from your life and that can be tough. And you're working against sort of trained behavior where you're told not to open up to exactly but i do find that with listeners on this podcast and i know me as a person it humanizes this experience because even somebody like you who teaches it when people know that you have to practice it as well. Then they're like okay. I don't have to be perfect nor should be perfection. The goal of things that life events are going to happen as long as i have the tools and they continue. You can dip into those tools than it's all about just continuing to do the work. I totally agree with you and that is so true minutes.
280 Greenpeace Beginnings, and Golden Rice
"And medicine with an emphasis on biotechnology. Some of the good things that can do four people and the planning. My name's kevin volta. I'm a professor a podcast host and someone who worries about science communication. How kit we're connecting our innovations for the public that needs to know about them and today's episode will be awesome. Since the beginning six years ago. I wanted to talk about golden rice. And it's a topic that is so critical yet has so many important edges and i was able to few years ago See patrick more. Give a talk on golden rice. It was more than a talk on golden rice. It was a talk about his beginnings in activism and how that eventually led to a very strong advocacy for the food insecure. So that's what we'll talk about today. So i'm speaking to patrick. More he comes from british columbia A so welcome to the podcast. Patrick good to be with you kevin. Nice to nice to hear you again. Yeah that's really really great. I'm been looking forward to this for a really long time and the thing that I'll i'll tell you when i saw your talk. I always appreciated you because of your very at and maybe it's changed a little bit recently but very aggressive position on golden rice and something. I really feel strongly about too. But when i went to see your talk i thought i would hear about golden rice the hallway through but it really started with your role with greenpeace. And you showed some pictures where you had a lot more hair. And maybe i don't know maybe in your twenties but can you tell me a little bit more about that time and You know what your work was is a founding member of greenpeace and some of the issues you took on. Yes kevin will. I was really fortunate to be born on. The very northwest tip of vancouver island in a floating village was no road to it and went to school by boat every day for eight years so it was a bit of a unique situation. Kind of like on the east coast. We have the newfoundland reports which were similar villages. That had no road to themselves. Boats were the main means of transportation. I grew up in the in the rainforest of the west coast I grew up in nature playing on the tide flats and in the forest and out in my wrote and eventually got a two horse. Power johnson on a little row boat when i was twelve. So that's how i started. Life at the school only went to great there. I had to be sent when cooper to boarding school where i excelled in science. I'd i'd already been very interested in science as a as a young boy and Science became the center of everything for me I entered the university of british columbia to do an honors bachelor of science and the and some forestry to the science side of forests and entered a phd. Now this was in the late in the late. Nineteen sixties the word. Ecology had not yet been seen in the public press. No one knew of that word except for very small group of scientists and yet environment was now being discussed a lot and i decided as a phd student. I'd like to do something about the situation. Than which was the height of the cold war and the threat of all out nuclear war the height of the vietnam war and the emerging consciousness of the environment and i joined this little group in a church basement called the don't make a wave committee and we became greenpeace. I sailed on the first voyage of greenpeace from vancouver canada to alaska against the us. Hydrogen bomb testing in the aleutian islands. And we made history and that was the beginning of fifteen years full-time after i got my phd. I didn't go into a normal job. I stayed with with green tea's as it grew from a group of volunteers into a multi national organization by the time i left in nineteen eighty six. And that's a lot of stories in between and a whole nother story about why i had to leave. Yeah but one of the things that is really important. That people need to know that they don't know about you and really it. Just it just gave me mad. Respect through the roof there was a slide. You showed of you in a with some other guys in a little inflatable dinghy like got zodiac positioning yourself between aweil and japanese whalers. And you gotta. I mean for me to think about that. It gave me chills. Here's somebody who's putting themselves in this position. You know these wailers could just as easily shot that wrath and no one would've ever known and you know how how. How did you take these things on. And what was it like to be taking on something of that magnitude. Well i would've known because we actually had a few more rubber boats with movie cameras and still cameras documenting the whole thing. And that's what actually blue green tea's into an international organizations was that confrontation with the russian japanese whalers in the north pacific beginning in one thousand. Nine hundred seventy five four years. Voyages i was on into their leading two of those voyages and eventually we stopped factory whaling which was killing thirty thousand Big whales in the high seas at that time and it was as because of our campaign was basically reduced to virtually nothing.
#141 Stan Crooke on Ultra Rare Disease Drugs
"He founded another pharmaceutical company and law room which we are diving into on this episode is part of our rare disease month celebration. So thank you so much. Dr kirk for coming on the show. I'm excited to talk about rare diseases. Today gloves. glad to be joining gave. Thanks so i thought we could educate people that may not be familiar with rare diseases that it affects less than two hundred thousand people in the us but taking this a step. What is an ultra rare disease. Well there's no generally accepted definition but at If we We defined it as having one to thirty patients in the world who have precisely the same mutation and so this is much different than just like one in two hundred thousand. You're talking about a handful or thirty people in the world. So that is where we're setting the scene for ultra rare disease. That's exactly right and it is exactly the number that matters because it's the numbers that caused the challenges that are unique to this patient group and what are some of those challenges and treating patients with ultra rare diseases that have ultra rare genetic mutations well of course it all stems from the numbers typically these mutations produce severe a manifestation of the mutation sometimes very rapidly fatal an f. A patient is lucky enough to survive. Typically they'll spend many years Seeking a diagnosis. And then if they're lucky they'll get to a facility that can genetically characterized that the mutation and even a neck case typically what they have to be told us. There's no treatment and it's very unlikely there will be the treatment and it that aspect of lack of treatment then warm was founded to try to meet the try to manage and for people to better understand. I mean what is the standard process for drug development so that we can compare it to how yours differ so vastly the standard process for drug discovery and development of course is highly regulated cars great many studies in animals and then numerous proofs of of value in you bins and a commercial entity also has to advertise all the failures against the few successes.
Episode 148: Akshay Sharma on gene therapy's setback, biotech's brashest VCs, & the FDA's future
"Two thousand eighteen and a refocusing attention on whether there's a causal link with bluebirds gene therapy while bluebird investigates there's rising concern that these cancer cases could have a broader impact across the gene therapy field. We're going to discuss some of the implications of that and one under appreciated aspect of gene therapy with an expert later on in the show but before we do adam. Can you tell us what we know. So far about any link between bluebirds gene therapy and these cases of cancer. Yeah you know. We don't have much definitive information right now. Because bluebird has only learned about the two new cancer cases and is still investigating them. But here's what we do know. So one person who received bluebirds gene therapy five years ago and again. This person received that gene therapy because he had sickle cell disease up but that patient was recently diagnosed with a form of leukemia. Now the second case involved a person who received bluebird therapy more recently but then rather quickly was diagnosed with mild as plastic syndrome or md s. And that's a cancer like disease. That could also progress to leukemia now. According to bloomberg there is no definitive evidence collected yet which points to its gene therapy as the cause of these cancers but at the same time the company can't disprove that link So now it's clinical. Trials have been suspended so maybe just step back for a moment and explain at least theoretically how gene therapy might cause cancer so let's step back even further and kind of go over what gene therapy is right. Gene therapy is a procedure in which a damaged disease causing gene is replaced with a healthy gene. That functioned normally now to do that. They use viruses. These viruses are engineered to be harmless. And they're used to deliver the healthy genetic material inpatients because viruses are very adept at infiltrating cells. Now however if that virus shuttles that genetic material into the wrong place. On a patient's chromosomes it could for instance switch on cancer causing gene or it could disable a gene that prevents cells from turning into cancer so the cancer risk associated with gene. Therapy is really small but still it's enough that companies put in place safety checks to make sure that these viruses don't miss the liver that genetic payload and still the these safeguards how are like. They're just not foolproof. So figuring out the root cause of these cancer cases we talked about is obviously deeply important. For bluebird in the short term but as mentioned earlier there are potential repercussions for the entire gene. Therapy field right. Yeah that's damian. So this bluebird gene therapy uses a particular type of viruses called a lengthy virus to deliver those healthy genes into patients. Now lentiviruses are particularly adept at integrating into the genome of target cells. Which makes them effective delivery vehicles for gene therapies that target cells that divide or turnover rapidly. So that's true with sickle cell disease for instance which involves red blood cells Now if these lundy viruses are found to carry an unacceptably high cancer risk you know. That's obviously a big problem. For bluebird but also for a host of the other companies that are developing gene. Therapies that utilize lenny viruses as delivery vehicles. So we should note that. It's entirely possible that these cases of cancer have nothing to do with the lenghty virus component of bluebirds gene therapy. And a rather stu random chance however it's also possible that the culprit is a decades old. Chemotherapy called butyl fan. That is used to prepare patients. For gene therapy. This is one of the more underappreciated in less discuss aspects of gene therapy so to help us understand what's going on with the situation. We're joined by dr shave. Sharma a bone marrow transplant expert at saint jude children's research hospital. Welcome to the podcast. Thank you so much damian and thank you for the opportunity to speak to all of you today. we'll maybe let's start with your thoughts on kind of the situation overall. When you saw the news what do you think might be going on. Here honestly was a shock to many in the community both providers what taking care of patients as well as the patients Off spectacle cell disease. Something that we all need to be aware of and should be obviously looking out for is that there may be multiple mechanisms which are involved are multiple risk factors which may be involved. I am aware that many in the field and lay public are definitely concerned that this could be related to lend viral vectors as we just talked about that is obviously a factor that is under investigation and a point of concern but lengthy viral vectors. Not unique to sickle cell gene therapy lengthy viral vectors off. Some kind have been used in over ma many hundred patients so far for multiple diseases. So that's one aspect that needs to be investigated but many people don't know that sickle cell disease by itself is a myeloid leukemia. predisposition syndrome. There was a study published a couple of years ago from california where they found that the risk of myeloid malignancies in patients with sickle cell disease was very high in fact it was almost four times higher than the general population and patients of had severe sickle cell disease. And then of course. There is the question of exposure to milo toxic agents such as butyl fan which was discovered to be the case in the previous patient that was described almost two years ago so i wanted to zoom in on the fan aspect in particular. I think people might be surprised to learn that. Chemotherapy is a necessary step in the gene therapy treatment process. These patients are seeking treatment for an inherited disease like sickle cell disease. They don't have cancer. So why are they. Getting chemotherapy damian. That's a very good question in fact that's something that i'm asked all the time. When i i meet with patients who are want to undergo either transplant gene therapy. You know people normally assume that. Chemotherapy is only used to treat cancer. But that's not absolutely true. We do use milo toxic. Our agents are drugs which are which stem cells in order to create space in the bone marrow so that then we can put new stem cells. Either from somebody else as happens in the case of aboard marrow transplant or genetically modified stem cells from the patients themselves. Back into their bone marrow. So right now. Chemotherapy is an essential part of just gene therapy. But all types of transplants that we are doing for inherited disorders of the hemorrhoids system. Not just tickled disease. But palestinia certain bone marrow failure syndromes immunodeficiencies et cetera. Is there an established link between the use of fan and an increase risk with so-called secondary cancers even even years later so we know from you know giving chemotherapy to patients Over the last several years that data is a data connection of some milo toxic agents and development of second cancers down the line what i mean by second cancer as most of the times.
#194: Could This Simple Hack Reduce Anxiety and Panic Attacks? with Dr. Kristen Allott
"Your body's like having a three year old with you all the time and if you feed three year old and get a three year old enough sleep and take the three year old outside to play and they can actually pay attention for long periods of time and self entertain for long periods of time. But if you don't see them and you don't have a schedule and you don't tell them what's going to happen. They are going to make your life help at our body does like our body when we're uncomfortable our bodies trying to say. Hey you miss something. That i actually needed. I hear host of the brooklyn rain podcasts. Today we have a fascinating conversation with. Dr kristen allitt naturopathic doctor was decades of clinical experience in curbing anxiety and panic attacks with a simple hack. No click bait is actually a simple hack that she came up with over the years through her clinical practice that actually work with her patients and it could potentially work for you to a little bit about dr kristen alec. She's naturopathic physician. National speaker and pioneering advocate for the use of whole foods nutrition in the treatment of mental health disorders. Dr is passionate about achievable results. With more than a decade of clinical experience. She has redefined her expertise. On how to promote increased mental health functioning by treating the physical causes of mental health fatigue and sugar cravings dr alad regularly presents at psychiatric nurse practitioner conventions and non pharmaceutical interventions for mental health additionally she consults with the court improvement training academy in washington state to develop the protein for all project to optimize brain function in the high stakes environment of juvenile and family court systems in the state of washington. Stay tuned for our conversation with dr kristen out this episode of the podcast is brought to you by bio optimized for so one of the reasons. Of course i started this podcast. Because i love helping people learn how to optimize their health and many people are okay feeling just okay day to day but with a few simple changes
Podcast: Greedy factory farms? Milk without cows; Vaccine for melanoma
"Fulda professor who cares about science communication. This is the weekly show where we discussed the biggest stories from the genetic literacy project to keep you informed about groundbreaking developments from the worlds of science and medicine and of course help you separate facts from fallacies as you read the headlines everybody. Welcome back to the show. Cameron and kevin here kevin. How are you what's going on doing great little bit nervous. Because it's the first time. I realized the toilet water in my house goes down backwards and i think that we just i. We may have had a polar inversion or something or australia. A i don't know if that's true at the corio coral. It's thing but i. It was the first time i've ever noticed. I've been in this place fi three years or something and anyway just i. I'm i'm a little bit disturbed today. For some reason. I th. The picture i got was coming out of your toilet. Oh swirling around the wrong direction. I know but it just was funnier. That were. I wanted to jump in because of a former start. I wanted to bring the attention to That that happened this week online. And i'd really like people to look at this Dr sarah beltran punt say or ponts She's a physician who is in her fourteen. Th week of pregnancy and she went received the covid vaccine and like so many physicians who are making very careful informed choices about their desire to vaccinate. She wanted to put this online and was excited to share her willingness to do this in the interest of public health campaign. And she did this. In six days later also revealed online that she had miscarried and the anti vaccination movement descended on her vultures. And i would love for you to follow up on this and you look on twitter. Look on social media and and see two things if you're into vaccination understand that this is what we're up against in terms of pushback if you're someone who is on the fence keep in mind that this is how horrible and hostile they are towards this mother. In this family that just underwent a loss. And if you're someone in the anti vaccine movement understand the horrible optics of this you know you even if you are against vaccination have compassion You know i it was. It was one of the saddest nights. I've had a long time to see how this physician was being. Berated torn And as a survivor of such things. I've actually sent her nice card Personally because i need to know her voice is welcome and important and needs to be there Especially when it's adverse so. I just wanted to get that off my chest today. Yeah yeah it's really thoughtful and i. I remember reading that thread. And i think at one point someone in there said to talking to me but i directed at anyone. That's that's vaccinating and they're pregnant. He said well. Congratulations on experimenting. On your unborn. Baby you must have a lot of trust in big pharma or something like that and it was just really outrageous. You know i get that people are scared of taking this new vaccine because it is i mean the technology's not brand new but the vaccine is relatively new so i understand. People are are skittish about it. And i don't fault people for not doing it and i think most most healthcare people will say that you know you can take it but you don't have to because we don't have all the data so we understand that But to to accuse someone of experimenting on their child because they have to choose between risking getting infected or taking a vaccine that may pose a risk. It seems very unlikely at this point. But it's a hard choice. So for you to accuse people of that. I think is just really over the line. Yeah because the time course doesn't match either it's not like she had a response the next day or something like that either days later. And if you were vaccinate A a thousand women in their pregnant during pregnancy or you gave them sweet potato fries or gave them chanel number five. Some number of them are going to miscarry is a natural consequence of of what happens.