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US company trials coronavirus vaccine candidate in Australia
"Of the dozen or so vaccine being developed to combat the corona virus begins. Its first testing phase Novak. Us Biotech company starting trials in Australia with some one hundred thirty subjects being injected to check the safety of the vaccine candidate chief science officer. Dr Gregory Glenn. We wouldn't volunteers worst-ever before from at of millions of people around clothing. I sincerely lane. We have a vaccine. That is very good. It'd be licensed in addresses Glad says the testing is successful. The hope is for the vaccine to be ready to be deployed by the end of the year other labs mainly the US China and Europe are also in the early stages of testing or getting set to start since the teams are using different technologies. The odds increase in at least one might prove
Don't Call it a Brain in a Dish!
"Hi and welcome to the as Sixteen Z. Podcast I'm Hannah and in this episode general partner. Vj Pond Day. And I talk with says you. Pasha professor of Behavioral Science at Stanford all about a new technology we have for Understanding Brain Disorders. The Wild and Very sci-fi new frontier of brain organizes so what our brain organizes were they developed. And how can we use them? The conversation starts with the essential problem that we've never had real access to the tissue and actions of the developing brain or even living normal brain and the problems with all of our existing models for understanding it from genetic studies to autopsies to primates. We look at those models we've relied on in the past and what this new model of brain organizes now brings us allowing us to study the human brain both how it develops and what goes wrong in certain disorders with living human brain cells in a dish for the very first time we talk about what these organizations can do and can't what they're good for understanding and where that understanding becomes limited and. Wi calling these mini brains or brains in dish. Isn't the right terminology at all and finally how far this new tool model might be taken now and in the future and how it will lead us closer towards one day even perhaps understanding psychology itself on a molecular level. We're here today to talk about understanding brain disorders and some of the new tools were developing for how to do so. So let's start where we actually are in that. Are we actually anywhere significantly? More advanced than we were in the days of hysteria. You know thinking about things like labeling these sort of conditions idol conditions that we had no clue. Where are we actually right now? Psychiatric disorders are still behaviorally defined and there are very few biomarkers. That are considered reliable diagnosis. The truth is that our understanding of psychiatric disorders is actually quite limited. I often like to joke that I suffer from an Oncology Syndrome which essentially this deep frustration that you feel as you see just like how fast cancer research has has gone in the few decades from really like no treatment whatsoever to almost completely curing certain forms of cancers. And if you look carefully. Did you realize that one of the reasons for this? Incredible progress is that on college has really made use of the revolution molecular biology and it has done so because it actually has access to tissue to the tissue of interest we know almost nothing about how the human brain develops. Because it's it's completely inaccessible. And so again we are defining psychiatric disorders based on combinations of behaviors presence or absence or certain patterns behavior. We've made a lot of progress into classifying disorders and reclassifying them. But the truth is that our molecular understanding of psychiatric disorders of brain disorders more. Broadly is very limited And probably behind any other branch of medicine which I think is reflected in the therapeutics that we have And the complexity. I mean. It's fun to think about like you know in the eighties molecular biology. Was this hot new term. I mean you're talking about something. Almost like molecular psychology raking this big sort of emergent phenotype that is a behavioral and then trying to connect it noxious at the tissue level. Not just at the cellular level but all the way from molecular level. That is a hard thing to do. It's hard to imagine someone has schizophrenia or severe depression. What's the target to hit? You said something really interesting about just never being held back by not really having the tissue and you by that you know that we the first time we get to look at the tissue is after somebody who has suffered from a psychiatric disorder has died right that is our primary obstacle helmet. Yes and there are a number of challenges associated with studying postmortem tissue from patients. Of course the obvious one is the fact that the tissue is not a life. Yeah for me as a neuroscientist is really important to be able to record. Electrical signals from sells really look at hard communicating with each other. But at the same time another limitations actually the availability of tissue. I mean if you were to just think for instance evolved autism spectrum disorders which is very common one in sixty or so individuals and there is even an autism brain back but the number of brains that we have in a brain bank is really in the hundreds not thousands for disorder that is still and it's probably for adults to read it's right and other limitations actually age of this individual but very often also the cause of death because in most of the cases actually traumatic yes and most of psychiatric patients will take many many medications and other goal various therapeutic interventions across their lifespan. We don't know for instance. What is how is that influencing what we're seeing in postmortem tissue so you're getting a very small amount of information that may not even be accurate or very anecdotal. Yes and that's the only tool that you have at the moment besides behavior. Well I think of course are imaging studies that you could use. Mri and functional. Emory's problem with those studies is that you don't really get the molecular resolution. You don't get to really study. The tissue an alternative which has been using the last decade or so has been to model many of the disorders with animals. That has been quite an exciting field that was primarily accelerated by identifying genes associated with psychiatric disorders of. But I think we always have to be aware of the differences between Between species right even in how the brain the structure of the brain the fact that there are millions of years that separates us in evolution and the behavioral repertoire is very different across seas now. Of course they're the behavioral repertoire is much closer to that of humans but as you can imagine again the limitation there is. How scalable isn't that? How many primates can we really use this type of studies and who can afford to do this experiments on our scale? The truth is that most of the psychiatric those have a very complex genetics. It is very rare like one single gene or one single variant but often a combination of this. And it's not just obviously about the jeans but what are the cells and the circuits that are affected by this and I think that only once we start to understand some of the molecular machinery behind the psychiatric disorders. Can we as it happened in the cancer? Fueled Star thinking about therapies. That have been designed for specific disorders rather than identified by chance. Because many of the drugs that we have for psychiatric disorders today have actually been identified by chance
The Gendered Brain - Gina Rippon and myth shattering neuroscience
"It's Natasha Mitchell here. With science friction with a question. Are you a two headed guerrilla? Now I ask this question. Because in eighteen seventy nine the founder of social psychology so an important guy right. The scientists gust of Lebron right these influential words in the most intelligent rices. There are a large number of women whose brains are closer in size to those of guerrillas them to the most developed mile. Brian's this inferiority is so obvious that no one can contest it for a moment. Only degree is worth discussion. Without a doubt there exists sump distinguish women very superior to the average man but they are as exceptional as the birth of any monstrosity as for example of a guerrilla with two heads. Consequently we may neglect them entirely. Well that was iding seventy nine but so it is today. Also it seems because cognitive neuroscientist Professor Jane Rippin from Aston University in Birmingham digs into the history of scientists efforts to pin sex differences on the brain in her light is book the Gender Brine the New Science that shatters the myth of the Female Brian. And just before Australia. Waiting to lockdown and boards closed. She join me on stage at the Sydney Opera House for this is all about women festival. Thank you very much everybody. My Life's work has really been looking at what makes brains different any brains different and in fact book started much more about the exploration of how brains to be different because I am an autism researcher. And there's a great thing in the autism community that if you've met one person with autism you've met one person with autism so we really thought we need to understand the variability. Everybody's brain is is different from everybody else's brain and in fact. I WANT TO CALL THE BOOK. Fifty shades of gray matter but publishers thought perhaps air. I needed to kind of tone down the brains of areas I was looking at a bit more Gravitas so the book is called the gendered brain. And it's really about how brains get to be different particularly with respect to whether they're male brains or they're female brains and actually it turns out once I got into the research and really investigating this given. Everybody knows that men's brains different from women's brains and that's why men behave different. Trim women and men are from Mars women from Venus? All of those wonderful sort of tropes that we've all come across so I went back and I had a look at the research. I thought let's really get into where these differences are can get a handle on how brains and different and I saw thinking I think time looking in the wrong place because I really can't find that much evidence and so eventually when I really gone through the research up brains and behavior. I came to the apparently startling conclusion that the differences between the sexes. A much smaller than we ever thought even with respect to brains so the question. Have you got a male brain or have you female brain? My answer was actually. I think a we're looking in the wrong place and be with probably asking the wrong question so I would say actually having come to that conclusion and our will warn you this in case you feel the need to leave. It wasn't universally accepted. I came across this really profound belief that we really have to acknowledge that scientists like me just you know get a life get out into the real world. You really don't know what's going on there. He comes conclusions like that and the kind of discussions. I was getting from the press when I was saying enthusiastically explaining the similarity between brains for example the Telegraph Telegraph in the UK. Quieter conservative newspaper. When Christina? Doni said this theory smacks of feminism with an equality fetish so. I love the idea that if you're interested equality some kind of perverse practice say this is the kind of response. I got to mind futuristic. My finding but this is my favorite full of carp which. I'm assuming this mistake anyway. So if anybody feels the need. This is dangerous information. They're about to hear time to go. But let's just move on this. Of course it is a very old question. Are Male brains different from female brains? But we need to remember that. This didn't used to be a question more than one hundred years ago when this research started when I started to realize that brains were in some some way the source of all the kind of human behavior we were interested in and even human places in society you found that the researchers at the time who strangely enough for male a distinctive view about what they were looking at they looked at the society. They looked to the status quo and they said women have an inferior place in society which they were actually right because they didn't have access to educational financial independence or political of power. So they said what we is. Brain. Scientists need to explain is the fact that women's brains are inferior so this was actually the beginning of what I call the hunt. The Difference Crusade where scientists were saying men's brains different women's brains. Let's why another coach from the two headed gorilla man. Lebron women represent the most inferior forms of human evolution and are closer to children and savages than to an adult civilized man. So if you kind of harbor ideas. This was allies objective scientific campaign to measure differences between two different groups of people lead to bear in mind. Some thoughts bit later on the idea. This complementarity trump being a bit rude saying that women are inferior. What we should say is that they have these wonderful skills. Which will of course complement those of men who are going to be ruling the world so we must start with the realization. That's as much as women want to be good scientists or engineers. They want first and foremost to be womanly companions of men and to be good
Multistem A Stable
"Dr Van Dockland has served as chairman of the board of directors at Ather since August two thousand and as CEO since the company was formed overseeing the growth and development of the primary business operations of the company and the transition from a venture backed startup to nasdaq-listed Public Company. He also serves as chairman of the National Center for Regenerative Medicine. Doctor Van Lynn received his PhD genetics from Stanford University School of Medicine and earned degrees in both economics and molecular biology at the University of California at Berkeley. I'd like to start by asking. How regenerative medicine therapies are different than traditional pharmaceuticals and biologics? And what value can they bring questions? So regenerative medicine really consists of several different types of their include cell therapy gene therapy gene modified cell therapy and then tissue engineering approaches so those four different sectors. If you've will comprise collectively the the regenerative medicine space and regenerative general medicine is fundamentally different from traditional pharmaceuticals or approaches that have been used to develop biological their babies. Because typically those therapies are very specific entities or single agent therapies that hacked through a discrete well defined mechanism of action. Cells are different in. That sells can actually work through multiple different mechanisms of action so they're multidimensional in that regard. Gene therapy is different because gene therapy is not meant to provide a temporary fix or a specific problem or a specific. But it's meant to provide in some instances permanent you're or a long term cure by addressing the underlying defect that is affecting the patient in causing the condition or causing the disease so gene therapy and cell therapy or a little bit different from one another in terms of how they differ from pharmaceuticals and blogs but together they really represent a broad approach kind of a paradigm shift. If you will in terms of how people think about approaching the treatment The whole range of different diseases and conditions that are really not well served under current standards of care and that regard that really gets to the type of the value that can bring because you can imagine that in contrast the putting somebody on lifetime therapy of different types of medicines to help mitigate the damage specific disease or condition if you can actually offer up a specific intervention whether it be one or a series of administrations of cell therapy or gene modified cell therapy or gene therapy approach and affect long term durable improvement and even cure for many patients. That's a pretty exciting prospect and it also stated with a Bali now. It also creates some potential challenges. Because we're still trying to figure out. How do we establish a reimbursement? Framework for therapies. That might be single or a single administration. That could be cured. It have an impact over many many years. But there's actually been some pretty good progress on that front so both in terms of the way that these therapies work and also the impact they can have in some cases over very long timeframes. I think it's it's pretty exciting. I agree completely. I think it's really exciting. To think about cheers for diseases that have been managed or even untreatable up to this point and also What you mentioned about a new way to look at it is also really important. Because they're more expensive but you have the potential to cure or a therapy. That will last for a long period of time. And so it's exciting to think about these new therapies in along those lines. I was hoping you could share with listeners. In recent years what have been some of the most exciting clinical breakthroughs regarding regenerative medicine. Well it's actually pretty exciting in the sense that there's a growing number of things that either been validated through clinical development now approved by the FDA and other regulators on the cell therapy front. The Car T. therapies. Which are gene modified cell? Therapy approaches? Current therapies are actually tallahassee. You take cells derived from the patient themselves. You genetically modified those cells reintroduce into the patient to help fight the cancer that has in fact. By definition these are patients that have failed other forms of therapies other forms of intervention and the progress on that front has been incredibly exciting where we see several approaches. They've really had an impact. In terms of improving clinical outcomes in many cases for patients. They really had no other no other hope because they had exhausted all the available treatment options and then they were basically treated using these types of approach so those approaches are pretty exciting. I think bed some of the gene therapy there. Several gene therapy products that have been approved over the past several years whether it's Things from Bluebird or he'll chance Ma from onto partis or a vaccine which is the company that Nevada's acquired or looks turn up from spark therapeutics. All of these have shown very very exciting response levels among the patients that are being treated very very high levels of Progress Clinical progress or curative effects or demonstrable improvement in the primary clinical outcomes. And I think in many respects these just represent the tip of the iceberg. If you will in terms of things that are that are coming Recently actually just a few days ago out at the J. P. Morgan Conference in San Francisco the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine. And every year they do state of the industry overview and they present a lot of different data that really describes the phenomenal progress in terms of clinical development and companies advancing to the various phases of clinical development or seeing more more things in phase two and phase three and then also highlighting other things that are well-positioned or could be well positioned for approval. Within the next couple of years. I think all of the data that was presented this year really reinforces and underscores the fact that the regenerative medicine sector and community as a whole is making incredible progress that is attracting live investments a lot of partnerships and as making really good progress with respect to regulatory and clinical side of things. I mean we now have over a thousand programs that are in clinical development the regenerative medicine sector and I think that that really covers a lot of really exciting opportunities that that a lot of people have hope and optimism around in terms of how can change medicine as we know.
CRISPR Office Hours with Hamid Ghanadaan
"However presently the new thing in everyone's lives is over nineteen pandemic most of us are working from home and a distinct to this new non but we know it is difficult especially for scientists whose daily routine is to work in the lab and now they after transition to award from environment so in this episode. We're going to do something. Different can have a crisper officer session a platform to come together and discuss the impact of Covid nineteen on science and scientist Kevin Harlan head of signs at Santiago and additive empathy. Vp of marketing. It's Anthonio will host the session and our special guest is how Meka Don. Ceo of the Liners Group. I hope you enjoy this episode and feed supported by the scientific community despite being confined to homes right now so let's get started. Good morning everybody. We're all actually working from if you will but more likely in reality were trying to work in poem through a crisis pandemic so my name's Kevin Holding I'm the head of scientists go so hopefully this'll be the first of many of these weekly chats we can do. We'd like to engage you. The scientific community and people working specifically either genome engineering or maybe a working in a different area science just interested to talk to us and let us keep you company through this time so awesome. Thank you hi everyone. My name is Hamid Gone. I'm the founder and CEO of the strategy and insights firm. Linus and we are focused on the life science and health and wellness industry and we provide insights and strategy and innovation for this industry. And I'm delighted to be here with our friends at San Diego and to participate in this crisper office hours. I'm very passionate about science and looking forward to seeing what I can provide to help. Everybody get through this time. Great thank you to meet in elementary myself. My name is empty and I'm the VP of marketing Ago One of the biggest reasons why unbelievable scientific community is just the power to invoke change the power to really push humanity forward and while we are in a pandemic. I feel this is one of those moments where we can get together as a community as humans and make a difference so as we're going through this there's actually some interesting things that meet in. His team have done in this pandemic to really understand the community. What we're going through in. How can support one another? Do you WanNa take a moment to start off with. That means. Sure I'll just very quickly tee it up so as all of these stay at home. Guidances and shelter in place guidances. Were coming out in the early half toward the end of March. My team decided to deploy a global survey about what's happening in how the life science community is feeling. And so I'm here with the initial results of that to share with your ten season and going forward and Kevin is going to ask me some questions about it and we're just gonNA share some of the key findings with all of you and will go from there great. Yeah Actually Hamida difficult question. Actually I about Linus the company Wide You. Call it minus. Thanks for asking. So I'm the founder of blindness in the company is almost twenty twenty four years old and I was looking to pay homage to one of the great scientists that had influenced me and my life who is Linus Pauling. And there's a couple reasons why he really stood out to me as somebody who is really unique is that he is the only scientists to win two unshared. Nobel prizes one for his work in Chemistry and then the other one. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his anti nuclear proliferation. Work and also what's unique about him is that he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for a body of work that he had done not for a specific experiment and so he really struck me as somebody who is a renaissance person. And so I WANNA pay my loose on mosh to Linus Pauling and so and the name. Linus is easy to say. It's simple and I really liked it and so linus it is. I was hoping be Charlie Brown referencing there but I guess you know it's funny. You say that when I was doing research on the name it did invoke a lot of Linus Van Pelt. I think is the name of the Charlie Brown character and what I found is. I didn't know who this character was. I had to watch a whole bunch of Charlie Brown to figure out if this is a good person or not and I. I found him to be graded. He's he's a wonderful person. When people make that connection with Charlie Brown they actually remember the name of the company more and even if they've never heard of us they think they've heard about so. I thought it was all positive that that connection exists in even though that wasn't the original intention or the inspiration. I'm all very happy about it. Thanks for thanks for sharing that so I would say probably a lot of our audience. They're here most of them. I would assume are working from home. And they're not in the lab right now and so many of them actually will be genome engineers who are utilizing crisper for a bunch of different reasons in their research. Can you maybe tell us what inspired you to do this? Poll specifically now that we're entering this pandemic. Yes so my colleague and President Kristen Apple and I were actually on March twelfth on our way to a meeting here in Boulder and we received a call from the person with whom we were going to meet and that person decided to cancel the meeting and within a matter of minutes many of our meetings got cancelled and so we decided that we needed to find out what's happening within the life science community and to provide this information for the community for all sides of the community so the so that we can all understand and anticipate what's happening and more importantly for people not to make decisions based on panic or anecdote and so we want to provide at least some grounding on what's going on and what to expect so that decisions get made and better decisions get made and maybe even opportunities arise out of this. Pandemic that was the original impetus behind. We moved really quickly so I mentioned we had this experience on March twelfth. We launched a survey on March thirteen and we had an initial baseline so march thirteenth was a Friday and we had an initial baseline by the end of the day that Monday. And then we've taken to time points since then and we're going to publish the Knicks major time point at the end of next week so we're starting to look at how this thing is progressing within the life science community in what the community is doing. Great maybe when it started in and start talking about the work that you've done so we were able to gather just over a thousand respondents for what we're calling. The baseline study almost two thirds of the respondents were academics or working in university and then the remainder work in a variety of different institutions. Many of them private business like Pharma Biotech. Cro's and manufacturers of other
Moderna announces first results in early stage coronavirus vaccine trial
"Are up what it looks like no there it's not apparently there's that there's a positive report from biotech company Madera I don't know if I'm saying that right but they say that the early this morning they say the early stage trial of its coronavirus vaccine produced antibodies for covert nineteen and all forty five participants the medication over a month half long period it's the first time a company has released data about the results of a corona virus testing trial on humans the news was taken as a very positive sign and stocks are up that so you take a look at her now where is made or not I don't I don't it's a biotech company they very well could be right here right there right all my god that's amazing all forty five people who took this stuff for a month and a half at the end of it they had the anybody's right all my god screen that is really good news
A Rare Disease Drug Hunter Turns His Attention to COVID-19
"As a medical student divvied Feigenbaum nearly died from castleman disease. A rare autoimmune condition he would suffer recurring bounce that carried him to the brink of death but was able to push the disease into remission by discovering drug. That could be re purposed to treat the disease. Feigenbaum co-founded the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network and developed a unique approach to research. That's now being adopted by other rare disease organizations. He tells the story in. His book chasing my cure when the Kobe. Nine thousand nine outbreak began vagabond recognized that the deadliest aspect of the disease hyperactive immune response known as a sign of kind storm sharing a common link with castleman disease. He hoped a researcher would apply his approach to finding a potential drug to repurpose to treat the virus and soon enlisted his own team to do so. We spoke to Feigenbaum Assistant. Professor at the Promo School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Co founder and Executive Director of the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network about his own experience. How it led him to. Cova nineteen and his effort to help researchers and clinicians track all of the drugs being tried to treat the pandemic virus. David thanks for joining us. Dan thanks so much for having me. We're going to talk about the covert nineteen pandemic your research efforts. And how you're trying to do for Cova. Nineteen what you did for. Castle Man's disease listeners. Of our sister podcast rare cast will be familiar with you and your story but before we talk about covert nineteen and the work. You're doing there. I think it would be useful to start with your own experiences with Kasim's disease. This is a store you telling your book chasing my cure doctors race to turn hope into action which I recommend to all listeners. But let's start with you becoming ill in medical school. What happened so I went from training to become an oncologist? I had lost my mom to cancer. Just a few years before and wanted to exact revenge on cancer and I went from training to become an oncologist and being a healthy third year medical student to experiencing multi organ failure. My liver my kidneys. My Bone Marrow. My heart and my lungs began to shut down for an unknown reason. They hospitalized me and quickly sent me to the intensive care unit where I had a retinal hemorrhage that made me blind in my left eye against seventy pounds of fluid and I drifted in and out of consciousness for for months at a time I was eventually diagnosed with ideographic. Multicentric castleman disease. Which as you mentioned is a rare and deadly immune system disorder which unfortunately at the time had to be treated with chemotherapy. Because there were there were no other options and thankfully. Chemotherapy saved my life. But I was actually so sick right before. I received chemotherapy that I actually had my last rites read to me by priests because the doctors didn't think I would survive and really considered that moment to be the start of my overtime and time that I didn't think I would have but thankfully I survived with Chemo but unfortunately I would go on to have relapsed after relapse after relapse until I eventually found a drug that could save my life well listeners. Who Want to know that story in greater depth can go to the rare. Cast podcast and find the edition. We did with you. But what exactly did you do to find a drug that could be re purposed to treat castleman disease sure after the fourth time that I nearly died battling this disease and while I was actually on the only drug that has ever undergone randomized controlled trial for my disease in. That drug did not work. I realized I could no longer hope that some researchers somewhere would figure out a drug that could save me at this stage. I was a third year medical student so I I'd dove into the lab and I started doing laboratory. Experiments asserted foundation called the CASTLEMAN disease. Claver network and when I relapsed again about a year later I was in a position to collect samples on myself and store them so if I survived that I could perform experiments on those samples and thankfully chemotherapy saved my life again and I survived and I performed a series of experiments in the lab and looked at a number of data sets databases to be able to try to put together a pattern that I was observing and eventually found a particular communication line called the M. Tour pathway. Which is really important for Many cells in your body particularly immune cells to communicate with one another. I found that that was in a hyperactive state. And I thought well maybe if we can inhibit this particular communication line. Maybe that could save my life and There's a drug that's already. Fda approved that is called Sierra Lima so we began testing on me. And now it's been over six years that I've been in remission and this concept of what's called drug re purposing is a concept that's become Pretty widely recognized recently with Kovic nineteen. It's the idea that you can take a drug approved for something else in. It may have activity against a disease that no one ever thought was possible in in in this case. I'm living proof I'm chatting with you today and alive because of a drug those dog for completely different condition.
The Second Plague: Murder Hornets
"Welcome to you. Did what now a podcast where we discussed stories in science and tech that. Make us ask exactly that everyone. Thanks for listening on your host. Stephanie Educator Aficionado and Michael Programmer took a good afternoon. Stephanie how are you? I'm fine and we are surviving? How about you the same happy Cinco de Mayo? Time are listening listening to this. It's probably probably already celebrity. Cinco de Mayo having a Margarita. Anyway he's actually what else you got today. How many people are making tacos tonight for dinner? We taco Tuesday in single tomorrow. This is the thing right. Everybody's Yeah I don't do. I've talked to us. I should make tacos anyway. So lots lots going on in the world. I guess I I saw this recent start like before we we hit record. I noticed the story of the tweeted through the Times which all the coronavirus stuff is supposedly ray me seventeen clicks to get logged in. And let's see a but the title is with Crisper a possible quick test for the virus it looks like they're using crisper to test for for carnivores for covert ninety. I noticed something about that. I was looking into that and Yeah I think there's a lot of different applications for using crisper. You can test for different. Antibodies are you. Can you can engineer a a a gene. That will basically glow under simplify. It'll basically glow if it recognizes the One of the antibodies from Corona virus. And so it could be a really simple way to get that test out there and have it be more accurate than maybe what they're dealing with. Now Sarel yes that's exciting. Everybody's YEAH SPURT UP CASPER AT RYAN. Exactly the kind of a bad rap for all of the different weird types of things that is trying to do but it could prove to be very useful in the coming months ahead. Yeah this was. His name was Zang. I guess he's He's at the broad institute in Cambridge Massachusetts. And he's apparently one of the pioneers of crisper technology or whatever he said it up with a pregnancy test and they got like a little violent stuff. You make something. Put The little drop in and reacts and then you dip the paper in two two lines means you you have in nineteen or or. Don't get the two tests confused. Rather what would you rather have at this moment? Which you find out that that your wife is pregnant or that. She has corona virus. Not Sure Enough I. Let's let her have. She's actually having grown admires test in like an hour. Oh okay well. I hope she doesn't have any sentence now. She just works. Used US going to the office in a lab. So they're just they've they've gotten some tests so they're just gonNA have everybody take a test every once in a while acting so. Yeah so what else are we talking about? No more carnivorous onboard board occurred something else out there in the world. There's a the world is fine. No you know as Americans. We always it. Seems like we always have to have something to panic about. If you you look back in the past year comes in a cycle of about every every couple of months. There's a new thing that we must immediately panic about and shut down everything and of course you know in Corona virus head and we really did have to everything and so now America's kind of getting tired of that so Let's move on. Let's introduce a new I something else about Introduce the murder Hornets from Asia. Great Murder Hormone that. Just this is what third play the fourth leg. I'm not up on my Bible. Yeah I know that's kind of what I was thinking. At what point do I need to let lambs above my above my doorway to prevent my starter? I got a robust Saturday. It will repel mortar murder Hornets. I'm sure yeah. So why is everybody concerned about the murder Hornets? Is it really a big deal? Is this just something else that you know. The media is pushing us to distract us from whatever else is really happening. Should we concerns? So what have you heard about murder Hornets? So far I honestly. I've tried not to read it up hundred Hornets. Because I wasn't really looking for more in my life I'm spending so much more time outside now from omb and like normally all you'll be going trip or visit grandparents or we you know indoor soccer whatever it is. We're doing now slow. Go play in the backyard so the kids get actually retired for bedtime. So you're telling me there's more murder Hornets there. Yeah I'm sorry to burst your bubble but now now we've gotta worry about the Asian Murder Hornets so don't get too Scared about it yet. As of right now they're reported sightings are all the way on the other side of year and We started in in Vancouver and now in Washington. There was a beef farmer. He had a nest and back in November. He went to check on his honeybees and discovered that his entire very healthy beehive with completely destroyed. They were healthy the day before then. He went to go check on the next day and basically he started looking at them and all of their little beheads were cut off his head on Teamer Hornets too. Yeah they are murder. Hornets necessarily because they murder humans. All this is this is violence. I don't need to worry about right. Yes well you know you definitely would not enjoy getting stung by a to inch long Hornets. That is not something that you want to have happen to you. Although scientists from the nineteen th century right. I'm not just out there leading. Bees and spiders stigma right. I guarantee you. Some people are out there trying to test it. I think there's a guy on on youtube somewhere. That has already films himself. Getting stung by a murder Hornet. Just see what would happen surprise. It hurts jackass movie this year. Isn't there Jack Ass movie coming out this year? This isn't this isn't related to that right now it might be. It could be a completely. You know publicity stunt for there are no hornets. That's just the jackass movie. Yeah they're murder. Hornets not necessarily because they murder humans but because they murder other bees and so they can take out an entire hive of bees. In just a few hours they They go in and they. Yeah they basically decapitate all of the bees and take over their nest as do they parade around them ca carrying their heads and spikes put them a little little Little twigs and stuff outside of the. Yeah Yeah so they're pretty. They're pretty deadly. Each Hornet can kill one. Be in every fourteen seconds using its powerful. Amanda Bowles to decapitate decapitated its prey. Oh and I guess so. Those beer are these are we. Arming these BS. How we find him back. How are we protecting the goodies for Hornets are pollinating? Hornets are not pollinating. So yeah this is. This could potentially be a really big problem. This is more more concerning than actually getting stung by the B. Is what effect will it have on the honeybees here in the United States who are already struggling to pollinate all of the things that we need? Pollinated your I already. We already had anxiety about the honeybees. We don't even more right. Yeah so yeah. So what are we gonNA do about these honeybees Years so you know there it. These these murder Hornets come from Japan. And so the problem is that whenever you have an invasive species come from one ecosystem into another ecosystem it's not bringing necessarily its natural predators with it
The Big PhD Pause - postgraduate students, COVID-19, and the next brain drain
"Across Australia graduate students are always on taught deadlines to deliver a major work of original research. But now they're all important. Experiments are suspended or hanging on a precipice locked out of their labs or unable to travel to their field research sites. Many of lost the part-time jobs that pay rent or feed their families and some now also wondering what the future is for jobs in science in a post pandemic world. Could this pandemic trigger a as next GEN? Brian drying something that people don't realize about a PhD is that it's very isolating. You're like your. I'm in an office with other people for sure but we're all working on very different things and very niche things. Yeah it's really hard to to not feel learn in this when you've got that initial stress the initial problems that come with doing a PhD and then you wack pandemic on top of this is really Problematic for most of us being in a PhD being so isolated in this line of research. Which is why we get into it. We want to be independent research. Is We want we? It's our own body of work you know it's professional but it's personal and emotional. It's this thing that you divide basically three or more years of your life to and the idea of more isolation. I wasn't immediately helming but as as the month of gone on it's been it's been quite difficult. Scientists get this ID. We have the stereotype of being quite stoic and emotionally removed. It comes from the idea that we the work that we do is at. Its core unbiased survey of the world around us. Become at anything bias. What you're observing. What you're experimenting on So in creating a dialogue around it being okay to tell people what. You're feeling personally without letting gory. This old preconceived notion that talk about your feelings as a scientist today passionate young scientists open up it is a well established fact that went into PhD Students. Experience distress and one in three are at risk of a common psychiatric disorder. The focus the hours a PhD demands a damn hard at the based times. But how are post Grad students holding up in this pandemic and what Judy of k? Do strutting universities and the Australian government have to support them. I stepping up really daunting and obviously now during this pandemic when there's a lot of uncertainty facing aspect dot mental health issues just getting worse Ramana Ri- abuse of each is doing her. Phd At Curtin University investigating molecular mechanisms of aggressive pancreatic cancer to help develop more effective treatments like many students who crucial lab experiments have been halted but she also has the needs of the entire nations post. Grad students on her plate as national president of the Council of a strategy and Postgraduate Associations. Capa but I cannot believe that I inherited the Cup national president's position during a global pandemic. Got It thinking. Forty Years COUPLA existing. They has ever been a pandemic like this. They're doing pay is not like an Undergrad degree. It's MOLUCCA A job. It's the crucial foundation for your career. In Science. In fact it's the stage when many Nobel Prize winners of done some of their k. Work but this pandemic is already forcing Grad students to make really tough urgent choices. The thumbs students have already withdrawn and as a result some international students have already gone back. Herm other students Yet is T-o-n how long this situation will continue. We have a situation now. graduate Looking at what's enough or day. Students circumstances are so different depending on the project. They're doing what they're up to in the three and a half years I've got to finish. Universities are really going to need to respond to this crisis case by case Taylor roads and I'm a third year each student at Latrobe University. And I'm doing my PhD. In a lab that focuses on Christie says over blindness which is a neglected tropical disease caused by a worm. Basically this illness is found in sub Saharan Africa and it can lead to blindness in its worst kind of bombs. Epilepsy developmental delays. It's really a bad thing to how high low is genetically analyzing samples of the parasitic worm. Take him from African communities to understand its evolution and spray it we found the transmission radius is actually a lot larger than what the W. H. Pat originally hypothesized answer. L. Analysis is kind of informing the carrying out of Mass Drug Administration throughout Africa and all these areas to actually eradicate the worm or even control it. What is this pandemic donning? In terms of what you can and can't do. Now I would have been sequencing more ones to get at bigger sample size for some of the analysis. I want to publish at least in the state of Victoria we on able to go into a facility and US out lab facilities. My University universities very strict on this. Or you have to prove that the work you're doing is absolutely essential. Anton sensitive in my work doesn't come under the umbrella. Sir. I'm not able to access the lab and I'm not able to access my computer in the office but I have my laptop at home with me so I'm able to do some work on that right now. I'm just coming through the daughter. I already have and seeing. What kind of story I can make with that Dada? I've it in a publication which is your pending. More daughter Nell yes. I'm Kinda just trying to fill time with whatever I can do. That will be somewhat productive. But I wasn't the merced affected by this. There are people who were on a really long time course. Experiments with moral animals hats euthanize. All the animals basically just pick up and pack up and Gar in the middle of a three months costs which would have been terrible sir trying to keep my inconvenience in. Context
Non-Animal Origin cell culture supplements and manufacturing aids for biologics manufacturing
"Welcome TO THE CELL. Culture dish podcast. Non Animal origin cell culture supplement in manufacturing AIDS for biologics manufacturing. I'm Brandy Sergeant Editor of Cell Culture Dish joining me. Today is Dr Tobias Hurtig Regulatory Affairs Manager and Dr Tillman Product Manager Supplement in manufacturing and both with mark. Kgi Darmstadt Germany. I wanted to start today by asking if you could give us. A definition of non animal origin. Is there an industry wide understanding of the term? I would love to give you a definition for anymore origin or industry-wide definition of for anymore origin. Free or non anymore origin. Unfortunately there is no definition and there is no useful or clear. Definition provided by the regulator switch rate. Cipolla provide you a definition for animal origin. But not for non any minority with that in mind. What are the distinctions between primary secondary and tertiary levels for non an origin? So these determine partners attach level non anymore our Chin or animal origin. Free these terms are used to what people try to distinguish how far away they believe. The actual origin is for instance primary non anymore. Origin would mean okay. Something which is not directly derived from animal secondary on animal origin would be used when you want to say okay. He has something for instance last week. Produce Feminization and dissemination media did not contain any animal orchard material for instance recumbent insulin produced by bacteria. And if I may use the recumbent intimate as an example for tests and that could be used when you want to say okay. He is pro instantly which needs kieft into instantly by an enzyme. And this enzyme that I'm using a knot of animal origin and be also is not coming out of feminization which an arched material in media. These terms are not fully defined. So if you read about these terms you want to make sure that you really understand what the author or the user actually wants to tell you. Thank you for that. That's helpful as a basis for discussion. I was hoping you could also clarify vice for for listeners. Why is animal origin? Such a big concern in the cell culture realm let you start with why Edema or a Chin a concern. Animal origin is concerned. Typically with the from sound are adventitious agents coming with that animal material Dr However other concerns for instance dictate religious concerns halal kosher concerns around the origin. That could be lifestyle concerns that you think but we can waive alleged. Cheese are CO ever. These could also allergies. Ause topic focuses planned to proteins but they major issue are adventitious agents which could be so Nautica so they could cross the species barrier from the animal to human to the patient and causes disease with the patient These competitions agents might be viruses for instance sonars. A rabies are viruses that I've known to cross the species barrier or a protein protein-based agency like There the priors causing TSE pse. Other concerns are related to the supply situation so getting animal origin raw material. Importing that into your country could be associated with restrictions likewise she ever media produced which contains unlimited died might be import-restricted into the country. Where your customers sitting with the got to the Cell Culture? There is a another concern. And that is these the celts. The mammalian cell Kasha might be susceptible to such viruses. And if you OUGHTA robbing a nephew witcher on a bio rector unachieved g conditions. You need to tightly control your by tour and a virus might have a whatsoever effect to yourself. Kasha and from that point on your cell culture would not be regarded as p compliance. We talked a little bit about the fact that there isn't a regulatory definition of non animal origin. But I'm hoping that you could share with us. What the regulatory view on animal origin components is the regulatory few on Non Amel components is of course that this is the preferred As a regulatory person you would like to avoid any more mature whenever possible or you would expect that any moment you to comply with all the Pantin interrelations with regard to non animal materials and Lesser Regulatory Person. I feel that as much as I appreciate it. I always cautious because I don't want to end. Wishful thinking and due diligence is always required. Are those non animal materials. Don't get blind folded around the the documentation truly want to understand why this material is known in origin. So keep your eyes. Open your mind work with your suppliers as close as possible to truly understand when they talking about nine non anymore origin. Is that exactly what you want to half what you think? Non Animal Arjun is to avoid any ambiguity and confusion and at the end natives disappointment. I also feel like Worthwhile when you're auditing your vendors to question the the animal or non Hemel origin situation and to make sure that you're suppliers are in fact producing S. You wish to
3 Ways to Catch and Turnaround Our Brain's Negativity Bias
"Hi everyone drew proud here. Today is big idea Tuesday where I come to you with a fought a distinction an idea. That's radically transformed my life for the better. I love these episodes because their opportunity for me to come to you with something. That's genuinely made a difference in my life. Some way that I think about things so every Tuesday we do these big idea episodes and every Thursday is when I put out my regular podcast now Thursday episodes I interview experts in the field of neuro. Plasticity biohacking functional medicine and those episodes are great because I get to hear their thoughts recommendations and ideas that they have for you and I love hearing about Diet and I love hearing about mindset and I love hearing about so many different topics but these Tuesday episodes are near and dear to my heart. Because they're really about how think differently and how to become more aware and honestly found in my own life if I could graph and measure average daily level of happiness. My happiest that I'd become is not when I finally figured out the perfect diet way to eat. It's not when I get that. One tip of which supplement to take the happiness and the joy that I've created my life when I see the biggest peaks. It's one I've learned to let something go. It's one I've learned to look at life differently. It's one I've learned to step into gratitude. It's one I've learned to shift how my brain thinks about things and maybe my external world didn't even really change that much but my internal world changed. And that's what these episodes are so let's jump into it today. We're talking about three ways to catch and turn around art brains negativity bias. How to catch it and how to turn it around the brains negativity bias. Let's start off with the basics. What is our brains negativity bias? And why does it matter what I'm going to read you a quote? That's a great summary of what the negativity bias is. An article called. What is the negativity bias by very well mind you can find in the show? So quick little paragraph the negativity bias is our tendency to not only register negative stimuli more readily but also dwell on these events also known as positive negative a symmetry this negativity bias means that we feel the sting we feel the sting of rebuke more powerfully than we feel the joy of praise you see when we have an all of us have it when we have or stuck in negativity bias. We're much more likely to remember negative events rather than positive ones you know. There's that classic story that a lot of people that are in this field of psychology and study negativity bias. Talk about which is Think back to where you were on September eleventh when September eleventh happened nine eleven. Where were you? What were you doing and often for people who are even from a generation prior. You'll often hear the phrase of where were you when Kennedy got shot. We know exactly. Most people can tell you exactly if they were alive during that time. They can tell you exactly where they were what they were doing. Maybe the smell in the air what they were paying attention to because when we experience native things when we experience some version of emotional trauma our brain higher hard wires that into our system a more simple version could be. Let's say you come out with a new idea or you write something or you put a piece content on social media or you share something exciting with the world. You can tell ten friends and nine of them say. Wow that's a great idea or that's cool or you're up to something amazing but then one friend or one commenter whether you know them or don't one friend one commenter could say something negative or what's perceived as negative and that will be the comment that sticks with you. Somebody could tell you. That's a stupid idea. Or why would you waste your time doing that? And that standing sits with us now before we get into how to turn around we I have to understand. Why do we have a negativity bias? And how is it that it's gotten out of control with the modern society that we live in well as a really great paper that I'm linking to here in the show notes that's found on mad that was originally published through the NIH? A group of researchers are writing writing a summary paper about the title specifically is not all emotions are created equal the negativity bias in social emotional development. So this paper really helps us understand. Why is it and how early do we see a negativity bias? Why is it that we have one? And how early do we see it in human evolution and with kids and infants? So I'm GONNA pull a little quote from this paper. That's contextual important for this conversation and the quote says infants attend to are more influenced by and use a greater degree of negativity rather than positive facets of their environment we propose this is the authors of the paper we propose possible onto genyk which is just means related to the evolution and the maturation of of an animal. We we propose possible onto genyk pathway for emergence of negativity bias and we argued that this bias serves an important evolutionary and developmental functions. So why would our brain be more programmed to be negative and look for negative things rather than positive while the researchers in this paper and you can read it for yourself? It's a PDF linked in the show. Notes propose a whole host of things that are out there but that it's very important for an infant or toddlers development for them to pay attention to for their own safety things that are negative experiences because at the end of the day. Our jeans. If you've ever read the book the Selfish Gene. You know that inside of there are genes goals is to preserve duplicate preserve and carry on the legacy of the genetic information that's inside their DNA and negative situations are more likely to be a threat to get in the way of it now growing up on the plains of Africa or in these villages that we all came from negative experiences were not as frequent as we experience them today but when we did when we would experience negative experiences there'd be much bigger and much more traumatic whether the classic sort of alliance chasing you were a cheetah or whatever it might be negative situations were less frequent so when they happened we really need to pay attention and they were often direct threats that we would experience something that was related to our survival. Today you've heard many experts on the podcast talk about how the fear that most of us deal with today is perceived threats rather than real threats so a perceived threat is. I have to go in and have a conversation with my boss about something. I have to go have a difficult conversation with my partner. I have to tell somebody that I no longer want to work on this thing that I promised to work on them for. I have an interesting idea or video that I wanna make and I WANNA post online but I'm worried about what backlash I would get if people don't think I'm good enough so those are all perceived threats. They're not actually related to our survival and they're not actually related to our physical wellbeing but it feels that way we feel it fully in our body that these perceived threats are related to our survival
Collaborating to Cure Dementia
"Many of us will have to deal with dementia at some point in our lives whether as a patient or caregiver this terrible range of conditions affects five to eight percent of the sixty and older population at any given time. According to the World Health Organization the Dementia Consortium of Private Charity Partnership that Charles River joined last year is one of the organizations leading promising research on dementia treatments in order to discuss this condition and the research to treat it. I am joined by Sarah Almond Associate Director of integrated biology. Welcome Sarah Hi. Can you explain the purpose and organization of the DEMENTIA CONSORTIUM DEMENTIA Is SETUP BOY A? K. or outside research she k. Is a charity that focuses on. Alzheimer's disease it brings together. Active research is Pharma partners. Sarah's including Chelsea River in order to bring forward novel treatments dementia including outlines disease outside reset she. Kabc this research is invited to come forward with ideas for novel targets in Europe. Degeneration Your Inflammation Way. Them work with them to put together. What packages the funded by the partners? Anti Kate to prosecute he's talk and hopefully lead to novel treatments for Dementia. What do you think of the way? They've set up their organization. I think this is a great way to stop the organization because it brings together such a broad range of experience From academic researchers may have spent years really understanding the biology of targets to pharmaceutical companies. That know how to bring targets three two treatments actually effective in the clinic and also is a CRI where we have a broad range of so biology and chemistry capability so we cannot provide the word packages also have extremely experienced. Research is catchy. Help develop the molecules to treat these young coupled with the charitable input of the Vale Uk. He Project managed but also do so much to bring forward research in this area. Yeah absolutely cut covering all the bases. So what is Charles Rivers role in this group? You mentioned a little bit and you go into a little more detail. Charleston is WANNA to Communist with capabilities and drug discovery expertise. We provide strategic input into plans to de risk these targets and how to generate tool molecule suitable testing the hypothesis. We went with Alzheimer's Research K. And the principal investigator to proposals together. That income dreams that executed by then the appeal and US working closely together. They may do the basics. Hogging island allergy and we bring medicinal chemistry or HD CAPABILITIES. That actually will enable us to find a joke against that tailgate. We meet with the foul partners to finalize plans. And then once funded. We actually execute the work. Okay awesome I understand that a couple of research projects from the consortium have already been green lit Can you explain those proposals? She'll you're correct to Russia in progress of the two targets. One is fine as the Scott appears to link to Tau Accumulation ear inflammation. We aren't sure whether we need to be selective over a closely related kind as the. Pi is looking at whether ACHSAF. You've reduced this target. That doesn't indeed impact Taufel are. They should be China in Vivo. Mostly of onto molecule and vacation and which is a specific type of dementia or Alzheimer's. Or is that just a general Assignments towel face but particularly Alzheimer's disease at the eventual Gulf one is to the impact of the tour the killer produce on time phosphorylation. In an in Vivo model than the second project is two gene mutation I l s from tempo dementia the courses of pathogenic Rene to be produced. And we're aiming to block the expo this RNA. By targeting his with the protein takes out the Chris into the cell. When this new mix and Rene is exploited toxic repeat protein produced which then up today so responses and Kohl's neurodegenerative disease so the talk if allegations. This is actually already fairly strong. So we'll focus on producing told molecule capable of testing the hypothesis drug ability in Viva. And this is quite interesting that uses Zebra Fish Assay which is as a Pi Out Annika's scrap. The compounds can reduce the interaction between the protein. And the mutant. Aren a over So vice projects Charles River going to rub in Asia screen and then performed medicinal chemistry. Touchy try and get the molecules to kind of test with the viable targets. So how exactly is the consortium supporting this work on on these two proposals? So the consortium consists of Pharma Partners K. And they weren't. She formed kind of equal partners within that and they provide funding the project so they've also provided their expertise in kind of defining the key risks that we need to address in our plans and also technically hurt entice for example as I was research to see progress against small Stein's out payroll Consult here as a whole. I understand our work on dementia has increased substantially over the last year or. So is this because of a higher demand for treatment or is it more promising research avenues. Or is it both. I think by This been advances in understanding of neurons. Lemay tion in particular so this is triggered research projects. But also there's a shift away from the amyloid focused approaches for outside disease due to a lack of clinical success but equally dementia is still highly prevalent in and loss of US. Know people that'd be personally affected by this August. Just it's very hard Eric Tree but not one which people are going to give them. What is the importance of collaboration for researching these neurological diseases? They understand that. Probably the REAL STRENGTH OF THE CONSORTIUM. I think just touches found that there are Kiama nays area The SIS for those lost focus hasn't been successful in the clinic so it's clear that novel therapeutic approaches and needed and this takes time so rarely. We need different people to work together. Different functions work together so farmer actually reduce what they do in house and choose to those complex in return. Viva studies take years to fully establish in Zeros and so when academic academia follow charities and see arose all have complementary skill sets the they they research can be three to benefit the patient in the minimum time possible. Is it also a matter of the fact that CNN diseases are so complicated? And there's so many different factors going into the Mike. No one can be an expert in enough of the different areas of research to really do absolves ex exactly not. Yeah you know. And and so just by the nature of scientific institution you may get more time to focus on specific disease mechanisms. That PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY. Just doesn't have the kind of time to dedicate starved to really building that level understanding but they may have a much broader range of complex models. That can actually help advance. This yet come has been unfortunately so we can you tell me about the psychiatry consortium which I guess is kind of an offshoot of the dementia consortium. Yeah it's it's basically has the same structures dimensions. Timonen is formed in consultation with a K. Who a kind of had a stake in his on. Psychiatry example schizophrenia or autism and this is obscene medicines discovery cats who are not for profit and are there the cats ponant which was set innovate UK to support innovation and use by UK business? So the psychiatry console is one of the indicates which is accelerating drug discovery and psychiatric
Treatments from Gilead and Regeneron Move Forward in Battle Against COVID-19!
"Some glad to be back and have a good show for everybody. We're GONNA talk about a few interesting companies. That had some good readouts this past little while as well as ones that are upcoming. So we're going to start by talking about axiom. Therapeutics and their readout in Alzheimer's Disease Agitation. Or then GonNa move on and talk about Gilead add in all the updates. We saw their Endesa of your trials. Never GonNa talk about another company. That has some. Kobe related. Work going on which is regeneration. And I usually don't talk about mid large-cap biotech but regenerate is is an interesting one. Especially because I've touched on their main compound lia in previous videos so I thought I'd do kind of a deeper look into them and we're GonNa talk about that in big detail so with that. Let's just get ready to it. And the first topic I want to mention is acts on therapeutics so their company that saw a huge runup in twenty nineteen with the development of their drug. Axs Zero Five. Which is a combination of Dextrathoraphan and Wellbutrin and they've already seen positive readouts in major depressive disorder with this compound as well as a couple of other ones and they saw mixed results with treatment resistant depression. But I think they're going to move forward with some trials any way to confirm that data but what they also wanted to to look ad. And this is the data that in presenting here is the effect of access zero five in Alzheimer's Disease Agitation so one of the symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease is this agitate that comes along with it and it occurs in around seventy percent of all patients so that works out to six million people in the USA. So it's a pretty huge indication in one that I didn't really look at in serious capacity before I took a position because it was originally planned for that treatment resistant depression but I think the stock had a lot of potential. Besides that so. We saw a readout this week. That showed a significant improvement in this. Cma I total score in patients treated with excess zero five compared to both be appropriate riches or placebo and view pro free on its own. Didn't have a substantial effect on Alzheimer's Disease Agitation. It was only when it was mixed with desperate dextrathoraphan in excess zero five that it saw this improvement so this is very beneficial for the song. I think it opened on that day you know upwards of one hundred and change and then it fell back down. I think it closed this week at ninety but very positive for the company and they need to discuss with the FDA how they're going to move forward and whether or not this is GonNa be considered a pivotal trial for them so we might see some insights in their Q. One earnings call which is taking place on. May eighth but is definitely impressive for the company and this molecule is going to be a huge revenue driver for them once they get those filings through and get approval. So that's excellent therapeutics and I'm still holding onto the thirty shares that I bought so let's talk about Gilead and their drugs death severe. That's been investigated right now for the treatment of Cova Nineteen and the importance around rim of your has less to do with Gillian specifically and more to do with how it's going to be implemented in the hospital system and prevent them from being overburdened as states kinda revamp up their economies again because if from desktop here has an effect in it lowers the time in which patients need to be in the hospital. The chances of the hospital system being overburden reduces substantially since we can you know get these patients in and get them out quicker. So that's why remm desperately is so important and we saw originally that Gilead published a study with regards to the compassionate use only remedy severe and that was only a single arm study. That didn't have really great conclusions to be drawn from but since then we've seen results from four studies and I'm GonNa talk about these in some detail because we heard that Dr Bounty announced that there were significant results in that they're going to move forward and approve rendez severe for Cova Nineteen and we also heard on Friday that trump is going to announce the approved use of reinvest fear for this so the four studies that we got results for our this China study that was published in the Lancet and this was an underpowered study so they weren't able to find patients who enroll in this study so they just took the data can the study published in The Lancet. The next one is this. Niaid study that was also a randomized placebo controlled trial and then there were two phase threes. That Julia did call the simple studies. And this is to compare the ten day treatment versus the five day treatment and the reason why they did this I believe is because they don't really have the commercial capacity to produce unlimited rendez severe. So if they can show that the treatment of as severe works just as well with a five day treatment they can save more doses for more patients. Let's first talk about the China study which was published in the Lancet a little while ago and this was a randomized placebo controlled trial in Severe Cova nineteen patients and just to note that this was underpowered. Despite the fact that they did statistics on it there weren't enough patients to really get the power that they were looking for from the outset. And what we see here is that patients treated with Rendez. Aveer were more likely to die if you look at this. Kaplan Meier curve and the hazard ratio was one point two three. Which means that. If you were treated with reservoir you had kind of a twenty. Three percent increased risk of dying the other attract that. I'm showing here is the viral load. So one thing that I was hopeful to see is that Rendez released had an effect on viral loads and the one thing to note though. Is that these samples were taken only from the news. Affairs in the oral faring. So that's kind of your nose area and your throat but not your lungs. So there's a chance that there would have been a significant difference if swabs were taken or if they did some kind of leverage to get samples from the lung and see whether or not rendell spearheaded effect on viral loads. In in that capacity the study also looked at length of hospital. Stay in that was also not significant in this study although the safety was actually okay. So that's one positive outcome from all this but given that this study was underpowered. We need to take these results with a grain of salt. But it's not super encouraging. That REMM has no profound effect in these patients specifically but they also went ahead and did this. Niaid study so we look at bat study. They looked at one thousand sixty three patients and these were hospitalized. Kobe nineteen patients so still in the severe range. And here's what the press release said preliminary results indicate that patients who received rendez severe. Had A thirty one percent faster time to recovery than those who received Placebo and the P value here is less than point zero zero one specifically the median time to recovery was eleven days for patients treated with severe compared with fifteen days for those who received. Placebo results also suggested a survival benefit with a mortality rate of eighty percent for the group receiving Rendez severe versus eleven point six percent for the Placebo Group and the P value here was point zero five nine so this is the study that I think Dr Found. She was referring to saying that there was a significant benefit to rendez severe treatment. And I definitely see a benefit if this is the difference in the time to recovery. The survival didn't have a significant effect. But even if there isn't a significant survival benefit if there is a benefit to the time to recovery. I still think that is profound and we'll be able to help the burdening of the hospital system. Which is what I was referring to earlier in talk so we still haven't seen a lot of details in this. Study some stuff that I'd love to see. Our viral loads led to look at the safety to see more details in in the effects. Endesa there had so. We don't really know exactly what's going on. But this is the study that I think the. Us government is looking at to say whether or not it is a drug with an effect that will be rolled out in the country and it looks like that's going to happen even before we are going to see the details of that study but it is what it is and then the last studies. I wanted to talk about. Are these simple studies from Gilead and this is an open label trial that looked at a five day treatment or attend day treatment and the results are that the study demonstrated that patients receiving a ten day treatment course of Amdex aveer achieved similar improvement in clinical status compared with those taking five treatment course and the odds ratio here is point seven five with a ninety five percent confidence interval of point. Five one to one point one two on day fourteen so this is good news. It shows that they only need to treat rim desperate for five days and it's GonNa be not significantly different than they treated with ten days and we've been seeing a lot about Gilead having around a million doses of rendez severe before the end of the year so given that only five day treatment is needed. They're going to be able to save rim desperate for more patients. And that's a good thing because like I said I don't think Gilead expected at the beginning of the year have to roll out the commercialization of severe. But they're gonNA have to do that. Some capacity and in this way can be able to save some doses for a lot more people and I I put a little note here about the safety so breathe three or higher liver enzyme. Lt Elevations occurred in seven point. Three percent of patients with three percent of patients discontinuing rimmed as severe treatment due to elevated liver tests. So this is kind of a negative thing that is going to affect a decent number of patients because I think a lot of the comber abilities of Cova nineteen patients are issues related to their liver
An Integrative Approach to Cancer with Ralph Moss, PhD
"Here host the Bergman podcast.
NASA Looking to Repurpose Space Station Trash for Power and Water
"Astronauts don't WanNa sit in their trash so a team at NASA is working on a solution. They Call Oscar this innovation now. An astronaut crew of four on a mission to the Moon Omar's will generate over five thousand pounds of trash in a year. Here's any Meyer. A chemical engineer at NASA Kennedy Space Center to talk trash so some of the items that actually get turned into waste include food. So there's the food packaging. We also have things like hygiene items. So we have hygiene wipes tooth. Pays you know bristles from the toothbrush any type of wash cloths since. There's no showers and we also don't washing machines on spacecraft at the moment so all of the crews clothing become trash and there's also things like nitrile gloves duct tape Packaging material so these are the types of things that we put into our reactor to convert it into the guest. Nasa's orbital Sin Gas Commodity Augmentation reactor processes small pieces of trash in a high temperature reactor effectively turning trash into usable resources
The astrophysicist and immunologist who've dropped everything for COVID19 - Science Interrupted Part 2
"So most of what I did was a combination of data software and statistics. This is astrophysicist. Dr Sam Hinton from the University of Queensland in January Hey submitted his PhD so I worked on Supernova cosmology and that's essentially taking exploding stars somewhere in the universe and using that to figure out how far away they and once you figure out how far away something is and how bright it is you can try and map out the history of the universe. Obviously things that are further away are further back in time because it takes time to get to us so the idea was if we can map out the last fourteen billion years of the universe ended expansion that hopefully we can try and characterize the nature of dark energy and dark Meta. That's my main eight right and obviously that's a problem. That's all about modeling and Statistics. So I created Asian hierarchical models and other sorts of models try and encapsulate all the nitty gritty details. That happened in the universe. In some statistically robust way so just a little way project just a tiny one that managed to consume years of my life. And whether that's because I just wasn't smart enough or whether it turns out that the Hamid actually really is complicated. Well I have opinions on both if only I was smarter. And if only the universe was simpler okay so taking on the entire history of the entire universe right there. So how is this? Astrophysicist and software engineer now suddenly found himself working on another big but totally different problem. The cove nineteen pandemic today on the show too young scientists who have had to rapidly retrofit and translate talents in an unprecedented moment in history. Sam Foreign doesn't shy away from a challenge. If he's name sounds familiar to you. That means you might be a fan of this stamp. Tonight's GonNa play out that I wanted to crunch the numbers for this other man to do it. There's computer I don't know if he's going to go hunt. I didn't even know. Cross was going to play his idol. New Sam was a popular contestant in the twenty eighth season of survivor Australia but bravado aside what use is an astrophysicist in fighting a global pandemic after all as far as we know now corona virus has made it into space yet and that's a relief as poor people on the International Space Station. There's no ICU. Up there what essentially happened was once I started getting serious. Everyone just put out feeling the same. We need help looking at a whole bunch of these tasks and this happened at Uku. Enriches where I work and through the grapevine. People said. We're looking for someone with all these skills and then Sam supervisor happens to be the acclaimed dark energy astrophysicist and TV presenter Professor Tamra Davis She's also passionate about astrophysics people using their research knowledge and skills in non astrophysics domains. So Tamra put Sam's name Ford The first thing was surely there are people that are better suited than me and salmon just accepted a job offer in the US at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. That's a big deal. But when Sam was told more he went back to Tamra and said. Are you all right if I just take months off from my actual normal astrophysics project to work on? This and her response was absolutely fine. Don't worry about it. We'll figure something out. Get on the project and do what you can. It was there was no chance that I was telling this down. It was a way to make a real contribution and astrophysics You know we don't make significant contributions every day to society we may every now and then invent something like the digital camera and was like yes. This is amazing but covet is a right here right now. One hundred percent immediate problem so there was absolutely no hesitation jumping into it so just like that. In a matter of moments Sam's life has suddenly turned upside down. Oh yeah if I thought I had long hours before. There's nothing like the current hours that we have to deal with. Sam is now the lead daughter analyst on a really crucial international project rolling out in real time in intensive care units across the world during this pandemic. And if you've seen the footage coming out of those units you'll know that this is a hellish frontier and what we need damage. Dice seeing young patients patients people of all age ranges. Who are just incredibly sick. And you can even hear now as. I'm walking through patient rooms in the hallway. It just your oxygen the sound of the pulse ox this ventilator later. Dan has joined. What's called ECO car? The global project headed up by trail-blazing intensive care specialist professor John Fraser from Prince. Charles Hospital in Brisbane AIKMAN COD is a mighty Akron Rod. It stands for Extra Corp. membrane oxygenation for twenty nine thousand nine novel Corona Virus Acute Respiratory Disease a card so when your heart and lungs can't do the job of oxygenating your blood and it. Komo machine allows that to happen outside. If you body. We want to know essentially. How can we best help as many people as possible? So we have very finite resources with this outbreak. We don't have an infinite amount of nurses doctors and ventilation equipment that we can just put everyone on so we need to know. Hey if if patient x comes through the door and they look like this but is the best sort of ventilation can give them if we just give them a mosque. Are they going to be fine or is this a patient that needs something more severe because a nurse can generally do around ten c-pap mosques so the very easy ventilation but if they have to actually mechanically ventilate someone help out the longest mechanically and it's essentially one nurse per patient and we don't have that many nurses when we have so many patients coming in so we really want to be able to say when someone walks in the door that they're probably going to need this outcome will be x? Y. Depend however retreat them. So when someone comes in we take the age we take their weight and then we need to know what other things do have do. They have high blood pressure Do they have diabetes? Are they smoke I? What is the condition of their lungs? There's so many things so many different data points that you can gather in the medical world ten thousand different questions that you could ask but what we have in our data time series so for two weeks after people. Get to the ICU. How are they red blood cells evolving? How of their platelet counts doing what we want to do is compare their outcomes and Dan data with other people other healthy people or people that have different afflictions so that we can say this is the thing that's unique about Karina buyers. This is one of the predict is here. That's different from anything else. And it's very hard to get that sort of time. Series data doctors and nurses are working around the clock to keep people alive. They're exhausted so around the world. Medical students are stepping up and being recruited to help collect the data every day. You need to be updating the data. And that's why we need for example medical students to come in because it is such a large burden if anyone is trying to also treat patients on top of that. We have around five hundred different variables from the different patients. And about a hundred of those we have information hopefully essentially every day that they're in ICU. So that we can see how they evolve over time. I can't say too much mall because whilst I have a huge list of variables in front of me things like pro calcitonin. I don't know how they used in a medical context all that I can do generate the reports and then worked with the clinicians in real time to say. What do you want to see? What would you expect to see? And how can I best present these models and this information to you so that you can draw conclusions from it? The urgency of the situation means. This is being taken very seriously. Clinicians are working in the dark right now with this new virus so they'll benefit from a Biegel clearer picture of what's happening for patients around the world. Oh Yeah it's absolutely unbelievable. I've never been involved in a project this lodge and especially in the current predicament. All the usual blockades and the bureaucratic slowdowns that you encounter have just been removed. So we have fifty countries now from Estonia to Kuwait to the United States is coming online the UK Italy Spain strategies coming online now two tons of countries and then each country also has all the hospitals in it. So we've got around two hundred fifty hospitals and that number grows every day.
Making of a CRISPR Film: Behind the Scenes with Producers of Human Nature
"Highly one. Welcome to crisper cuts. I'm super excited about today's episode because today via celebrities on our show yesterday said I goodwin Elliott Kirschner their producers of the human nature. Movie for those of you. Who Don't know what this movie is about. It basically covers jody of crispell onto joining us today on. This show is given Holden head of science at San Diego. So this is GonNa be a great episode all adjoining Menu Today on the Chris Cast so as me as well food we get started. Can you just introduce yourself and give your background before you became producers of this movie? My name is Sara Goodwin producer at Pfizer. My background action is in Science. I teach the UCS and the I turned into a science communicator. Joining and leading an organization about project called I biology which has an initiative area cocoa butter collaborates at produced. This felt and so that's how I got. Involved Elliott leaks elected project to it which is great blog. Si- thank you. I'm Elliot Kirschner. So I came to this project after many years working in news and documentary film back shake round side poverty the scientists but I really sort of more general reporting but it was always interested in telling the stories of science while find ways those little bobble and interesting ways that could challenge conventional wisdom's sites. Could be and so. We were looking for a topic to really make a big film to just tell an important story in ways that we would be different end. Hopefully engage audiences in new ways. And so I've secret spurs such huge story touches almost every aspect of the biomedical sciences but also exchanging meaning Dmitri society all that so when we decided on this topic we really washed and built a team of filmmakers and scientists together to make a documentary. That sounds great. So basically you kind of briefly mentioned how the idea of doing a film on crisper about but still there seems to be a lot that needs to be figured out. Even you know what basic topic you're going far. So can you tell us a little bit about behind the scenes of how you decided you know right right makes off researchers and patients and how the story would flow and not just make it like a scientific presentation but more like a movie by itself that we knew going in we want it to be so and we know it to be a story that would appeal to a general audience so that was the directive from the very beginning. We didn't WANNA make quote unquote educational video. We also wanted to make something that felt cinematic. I mean there's a wonderful rich history. A science explainer television that kind of stuff that people any think tank stock entries the short length of one hour television affair with a heavy raider voice. That kind of thing as well. That wanted to do something that would play on a big screen. That would make the decision. We didn't want it narrator. We wanted to let the scientists speak for themselves. Who wanted to film this with a cinematic spoke? Mind musical score all that we WANNA make a film so that was sort of the original directive that we give to ourselves once we got there. The question was okay. What is a science film there if you go to sundance or we premiered at South by southwest or the major some festivals. It's not like there's a lot of science programming a lot of science documentary and so we sort of had a lot of leeway. What is modern science stone-built look like but that's when the decision making came in about what the style would be. But as for the substance we also knew we wanted to work with the very beginning to sort of develop a story line or story lines that were true to the Science. Not only the facts of the science but the ethos of science idea. What is scientific discovery? How how did serendipity and the search for knowledge or basic research play into the story and then what are. These are more broader societal issues so those are all pieces together but I think one of the key things early on we had a meeting at woods hole. Report the film team. And we brought in George Church George Staley Jennifer Dowd Or All your own rights leaders in this field and we just had the two days of brainstorming about what they thought the story was and where they thought the scientists building and that really sort of helped direct the editorial in obviously Sarah being trained scientists being on this very beginning really helped shape bet as iterative throughout the process and this this film many many different forms over the course of its production as we try to tease out what science metric would be. And I'd say one thing that was really. It's worked to us from the beginning to make sure we told the story of the discovery of crisper and turning crisper to technology which is a story. That's off the told when crisper is talked about because it's actually a fascinating basic science research story of we really wanted to show. Elliot said you know how the process of sites works. How knowledge is created. And so as a scientist you know is able to really go back to the literature. I read you know as much primary literature as I could around the crisper discovery. And he's together as best they could also used reviews that were out there. This summit really helped a lot but it really helped us kind of have a deep understanding of the steps that it took to really understand what crisper was and decide who we wanted to interview might actually ended up interviewing or people than even made it into the cell because they were hardest story. But you know at the end of the day we wanted to have a film that was around ninety minutes of you. Just can't include everything that you want to. And so that was interesting viewpoint. Make us a kind of behind the scenes. Look when we were editing as to what should be in on should be out especially for me coming more from the science side of things which dirt's look really vital to have Sarah's voice project I think that was one of the real unique elements that we we built into the production framework in that throughout the discussion of who'd interview with talk about what's the balanced bill. There was constant discussion between still making team and science group that were just challenging our own assumptions pushing in different ways and I think that dynamic process really led to its own that is it relates that scientists in a way that it's not just about what we say on exerts absolutely right. We tried to all the Discovery Story. But just the way the scientists are allowed to speak the decisions made about what to include what not to include. I mean this was really dictated throughout by I think very nuanced understanding of how science works and I think that that hopefully shines through that when scientists watch at the dotted understand world and. I think that that is is really important to try to convey in film the impression of Palestine Science work as well as the actual facts over trying to convey right. Yeah absolutely does shine through. I love the myself so they can thank you. I just wanted to ask you guys. So I'm sorry. You mentioned some of the people that you interviewed for the film curious. Do you have any particular anecdotes funny or like most surprising moments came out through so making process in the interviews. People talk about a great question. I mean I'd say the first thing that comes to mind is actually what a treat it was to be Cisco he goes. Who's early crisper researcher at the University Valid? Kante got to go to Spain and meet him and be in his lab and he showed us a lot of Israeli shells. Found THE REPEATS. A very special time to be serving. Someone who usually isn't spoken about when Christopher is talked about but in general like say what was a real treat for me as a scientist is a lot of the people he's interviewed. I L about their science at baby. Give a research talk. But I've never really got to hear them talk about kind of the more ethical. Societal implications of the crisper work and Atta did most interviewing I think did a wonderful job really probing people trying to get you know. They're on his thoughts on something as science discovery. That is really going to have an impact in so many different ways throughout the world to end the scientists were really wonderful in be sharing their thoughts with us. I think you know included a lot of that on. I think makes a lot richer because it shows how scientists are people to beat other families. They have a lot of thoughts about how science works and technology is used and it was really nice to be able to hear a lot of that and then of course you know getting these really wonderful. I mean so make it of course offered was a key researcher for comment DNA. Which is the topic we cut off. But you were going to go much forgotten. Just cut it Due to time and really trying to make the story as clear as possible but he's just just a wonderful person and getting to meet him was just a really special
Gilead's Remdesivir Efficacy Still Uncertain! Is Stemline Therapeutics a Buy?
"So I'm glad to be back and I have a great show for you all today. We have some real spicy stuff to get into. Some of them have commented on twitter. But yet it's it should be good so I'm GONNA start off today by talking about some biotech news. Some little updates that we got some press releases and then a follow up by talking about Gillian ads at Rim decively data. We're going to touch a little bit. On the New England Journal. Medicine study that they published followed up by a report that was provided by our friends at Stat News. So that's going to be good and then the final topic. I WanNa talk about is stem line. So you know. One benefit of being in this volatile environment is that there are buying opportunities right now and one that I do see is a company called stem line. So we're GONNA talk about them and why think thereby right now so with that? Let's get to some of the news that we saw this week and first thing I wanted to touch on his after sys mostly because I just talked about them in the last video but we saw actually in the last couple of weeks that the FDA has authorized after says to initiate a pivotal clinical evaluating multi stem cell therapy in patients with Cova nineteen with induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. So some of the stuff that I talked about in my previous video was that I wasn't sure if the face to that. They're currently undergoing with their collaborator. In Japan was going to be a pivotal study. And it looks like it will be for the Japanese system and then this study that they're launching that they launched in the last couple of weeks is going to be the pivotal study for them domestically here in the United States so the primary endpoint is ventilator. Free Days Through Day. Twenty eight and they're beginning to open sites this quarter so I'm not sure exactly what that means in terms of when we can expect data. I would think maybe late Q. Three probably in Q. Four we'd see some data for this which could be a big boost for the company. Also what we learned in at the risk of opening another can of a drama this company they announce a public offering a twenty two million shares at two dollars and twenty five cents for about fifty million dollars in proceeds. I did say that I was expecting them to announce another offering and that is what we saw earlier than I expected. I really thought that they were GonNa wait until maybe later in the year to do this but while the songs doing okay I guess it's a it's an opportunity to do so so with another fifteen million dollars in cash. This should give them another six months or so and you know if they do see some good data from this pivotal study it would likely boost the stock quite a bit more before they have to go ahead and raise money again. So that's after says. I'm still saying on the sidelines. I'm still not super confident. In that data we originally with their phase one so I have no real sense on whether or not I think the date is GonNa be positive but I hope it is that this can get rolled out and it can actually start helping patients that have covert nineteen and areas going to move quickly to immunogenetics which is a company that kind of fell off my radar ticker symbol. Is I m you? They have a compound called says a to Mab Guven Akin and yes. I did practice. That's all I can say. A properly for metastatic triple negative breast cancer and I kind of talked about is the potential for this drug. It's it's a unique formulation so that they can really target the cancer cells and hit them with this tailored that is toxic to all sales. But because it's tethered to something that specifically targets cancer cells it would primarily affect them and kill them so the primary indication they're looking for is triple negative breast cancer and they had done in a sense study to confirm their previous face through results and there was some concern with safety but the sense that he was actually stopped for compelling efficacy. So that's great news for them the PDF date is June. Second of this year. And we'll see if the FDA is going to go ahead and approve the drug so that they can search treating metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients. They have a plan readout for your cancer in the second half of twenty twenty and they're also still enrolling patients for positive her two negative medicine breast cancer so I think that that trial read out is going to be particularly important for the company. And I'M GONNA keep them on my radar and pay a little bit better attention because I think that if they do see positive data there. The company has a a much larger patient population. Go after so Yeah so it's good for them and hopefully they'll see a positive result at the PDF eight anime. Keep an eye out for that trial moving on. I WanNa talk a little bit about Amarin. Because they had their earnings report while ago and what we learned is that they're cute. One Twenty twenty revenue beat estimates at one hundred and fifty million dollars and I had said previously that. I thought their estimates were sandbagged in anticipation of better results. And that is what happened but unfortunately none of this matters because they do not have pan protection in the United States given the ruling that we heard a little while ago so regarding to the appeal and the generics the CEO is not expecting at risk launches. But they are willing to file an injunction. I've talked about that in the past. This is not new news but they did also say that. In the event of an appeal loss Amarin would be willing to launch a brand engineering version. So this is an interesting strategy in order to allow them to maintain market share in the space because if they launch a generic version immediately. You know by the time another generic comes to the stage Amazon's already going to generic Kinda solidifies their position in the markets. There's not going to be really an advantage to patients taking a another third party. Generic other than Amazon's now the only issue with this is that the generic price is going to have to be competitive with the other companies. That launched generics as well. So in this way they're gonNA lower the amount of total revenue. Get but there's a lot of uncertainty in the company. I'm still not sure what I'm GonNa do with my shares. The stock has bounced back a little bit. But you know if they don't win appeal I assume they're gonNA see further downside until we actually start to see the kinds of numbers that start coming in given the new pricing of generic version of Amarin. So we'll see we'll keep you posted on what I do. I'm tempted to buy a little bit more and lower my cost basis by I'm I don't feel great about that either. So we'll see all right. Let's talk about Gilead. Everybody so first thing I want to touch on with Gilead is this New England Journal. Medicine studied that they released regarding the compassionate use of Rendez severe for patients with severe cove. In nineteen so Gillian been at the forefront of the media when it comes to this rendez severe drug that they're hoping to get approved and they initially had rendez severe offered only as compassionate use for patients as is still undergoing phase. Three trials right now so some people who are really severe severely affected by cove nineteen could apply to to take severe and what they did is they published a study with fifty three patients who had taken it under this program and really it wasn't a placebo controlled trial so for me. There's no real conclusion to be drawn. They said that a majority of patients were discharged. But because there's nothing to compare it to doesn't really mean much Another thing that's worth complaining about for the studies that they didn't even measuring viral load. So we don't even know if patients that were taking Severe head lowered viral loads in. You know we could figure that out by comparing baseline to treat a data. But they didn't do that so it's Kinda left in the dark here. The company itself has terminated a study in China with severe patients because of low enrollment. And they're awaiting the publication of these data to announce in-depth review the result. So that's one thing that we can also look forward to see is the data that we're getting from this low enrollment patient population in China. And they are doing a mild to moderate disease study in China. So that's still ongoing. Takes been seeing on twitter. Pretty disappointing a lot of people complaining that the New England Journal of Medicine shouldn't publish the study given that it was you know. There's a conflict of interest and there's no placebo and you're not new to academia. You know it's a cartel. The big name journals really only published stuff. That's like really hot off the press type thing. So of course there's huge problems with this study and Gillian's not even shy to mention them in the discussion so they clearly outlined limitations of the study. And everybody that I've seen on twitter isn't really taking that into consideration they think Gilead just willfully blind to the fact that there's no control. Obviously they know that. And if you want to throw the New England Journal Medicine under the bus or publishing this year but throw the entire institution appear review under the bus. It's a horribly flawed system as somebody. Who's coming from academia? I've seen this all the time you know. These journals are a cartel that gate keep science. So that unless you know people or your science is so particularly compelling that they'd be willing to publish it but if you WanNa talk about the academic system and publishing. Let's have that conversation but to call out this study in particular is being. The true hope written the true problem in the world of publishing. This is not the one for you
Science, Interrupted - lives, loves, labs upended by COVID19
"Welcome to science friction on the Tash Mitchell and this is science interrupted and possibly radio interrupted because I have a puppy snoring very audibly and loudly at my fate right now working from home folks. It's tremendously difficult to think of not of not finishing the work. It's tremendously difficult booking with. Todd's is always a race against time as your money formation but the majority of the information are actually Mike. God really this pandemic has swift in Lancaster. Nami hasn't gotten caught us. All by complete surprise wherein collective state of shock really and for many scientists so much at stake use of experiments field work results. Clinical trials patients students the lives of lab animals the consequences for so many Deeply personal and in some cases could affect the lives of thousands of others and other species too so today on the show. Three scientists with three. Clemson's how are you? How are you going? Yeah yeah good bevy. What's been over and I met this morning by spin. Had this zone call with a bunch of other people from Perth and she was basically lap. Hold us on. He's a roller coaster. Look to Paula. Magni won fame lab Australia competition last year. And she's a senior lecturer in forensic science at Murdoch University in Perth at my husband across line pharmacist in Perth so possibly meeting people affected by Kobe. Nine hundred every single day but right now Paul easing Singapore where she also works as deputy dean of Murdoch University's campus there. Her baby daughter with her and Shayna husband don't know when they'll be able to be reunited. He was going to be concerned. Who are going to be concerned as well but this is probably the best option for the moment. We hope that these are going to be only for a while but for the moment it is what it is and not say his daughter for very many many months. Yeah so they can see each other only by by video call. That is a huge gift. Imagine these happening ten years ago or more could be better than years ago but the situation is changing. So much isn't it? It's still very unclear what's going to happen with international flights around the world. Yeah absolutely impossible to make any predictions at the moment. Also because Australia is getting way better especially Western Australia. Because he's very much aware from every everybody else. Singapore is experiencing a second important peak of cases compared to other countries. We are leaving this situation pretty pretty well. Syncopal learned a lot from this SARS situation and we didn't have many cases at all until a few weeks ago when they borders. Were going to be closed. Many people from all over the world wanted to come back to Singapore and they came back or seek your Italian and the saints. Coming out of Italy of Bain very very distressing during this pandemic rot from early on. What does that make food for you and your family in Italy? I speak with them every day and I make sure that they have everything they need. I've managed to the to do online shopping for them from Singapore to have them home. My grandmother she turned ninety seven last week. And the she's safe and sound in a healthcare facility but this is the first time in live in which he doesn't see my mom my Auntie for more than two days in a row and they edge facilities at being locked down so yeah. It's an interesting learning curve for for the family and there's also a big exercise Of Trust for the words day in the facilities Singapore has now gone into a lockdown and polar and colleagues having to move really fast to put their university courses online. She's also supporting students around the world with their projects now influx and Maija grant application processes of import on pause to then this Horon Research. You'll work as a forensic scientist into an expert on many crime scene investigations in Italy. You're now doing forensic science research here in Australia. And you shared this curious photo with me of what you describe as your babies back in the land in Perth in Western Australia. And it had me totally intrigued. What is it a fraud all? So my baby's baby Bob Nichols not people say barnacles as babies about Research I USED NICHOLS FOR CLEVELAND. Investigation when aboard US found in a in aquatic environments in the Ocean. So because bunny goes at annoying. They attach on anything that he's flogging. It is underwater and they stuck on that we can identify what they Ya. So where is the body confront? From how long the bodies in water and also the journey the talk the body from the primary campsie what was dumped in the ocean to the place where the body was found so they can be very interesting but it is not that to do this kind of research. We need to have colonies of Barnacles in in the lab so we keep having them in in Aquaria but the they eat small because Kobe algae so we had to grow the algae as well. You can now go to the supermarket and Buy Balaji and beside that. I work input on seeking to. Malaysia is whether it is the study of insects and we have colonies of flos is in as well is very difficult to keep up with them with the colonies at the moment when a when they laboratories have been shot because often of the issue that is going on. It's incredible work so you've got. These baby barnacles back in the lab in Perth. And will they die because the I guess? Barnacles barnacles one concern but there are labs all over the world with experimental animals of all shapes sizes and varieties and species from Retz to mice and onwards barnacles to that possibly going to be compromised or cold. Because of this global shutdown. I will say maybe the research would be compromised. The life of the of the animal is probably not because all the university have the ethical necessity of looking after all the animals that they have so all. The university have in place measures to look after all the animals in the different labs. I was a bit dramatic because I miss my babies. I guess when I think about my Banoco sometimes you feel like what he's the. Utd All my job in the big scheme in the big picture of things really for researchers. Like me probe's is a big wakeup call about the the importance of your search but at the same time that the world is big and many other things are important on a different scale. So I remember the first had with Bundy cars and the head. The mother of this guy that was found on the shore there was crying on this loss and I was the only personal gather information that could give a piece bring justice to this family bring closure to the victim so these another victim. He's not a cove in nineteen victim but my research he's
NASA science and technology continues from home offices, aiding in coronavirus response
"Many organizations NASA has reduced the number of on site staff going into work each day but thanks to remote technologies NASA is moving ahead with everything from space exploration to Earth Science Research and some of that Nasa know-how is being used to help policymakers and medical professionals address pressing science questions. Nasa Jet Propulsion Laboratory is using artificial intelligence to extract current medical data from huge numbers of publications Nastase. Ames Research Center will use its supercomputer to crunch high. Volumes of complex data in shorter amounts of time NASA employees can submit ideas for solutions relevant to the pandemic via an internal crowd sourcing website and biology research data continues to roll in from the International Space Station from managing missions to conducting research. The NASA workforce will keep working for the nation leveraging technical expertise and technology from wherever they happen to sit for
If we can mobilise around a pandemic, what next? Meet two revolutionaries already flouting the rules
"You've said at one point that you think. Weist is beautiful. This zero philosophy is in a sense in practice for you. Isn't it one thing really like my life is just one big experiment you know. We had all sorts of experience. Guy On knock Ou- out offcuts of Broccoli with given to a Guy. Campbell had crickets growing. And he's and he's building and and there was a transaction. We paid him for the crickets. And what did the cricket stay ate the Broccoli yes. I'm quite obsessed with a nutrient density as well so fat soluble vitamins. How do you get all your vitamins? And crickets are a great source of that. And then you know. There's a lot of food that can be composted what about intercepting it. Before it gets composted and getting the most out of out of them and yeah we had them on the menu and we roast them and look like really a little bit like prawns in a sense. It's whatever you garnish them with. So we had salt Bush dehydrated and then mixed with salt and pepper and then some kelp dehydrated. People loved it. Okay so almost no waste zero. Yeah I can honestly say that we had zero waste and even the table was made from reconstituted plastic that came from Adelaide which company that makes bump recycled bumper bars. And we Lebron's I love the fact that out rubbish bins because there wasn't a rubbish bin in the place that's right. Yeah was any of these economically viable. I mean when I think about the restaurant and food industry. It's all about cost cutting isn't it? Food costs a very low but me because very hard. Because you're making butter from scratch making your grinding your own flour to make bread. You were making money yet. We were and then headed the council respond to you. How did regulate is and the Health Department released on? Ta The interesting thing we saw was counseled loved it and support it but it was relying on an invisible imposter. A Korean investment compost machine which took one hundred kilos plus of waste a day and would through bacteria and hate. Turn that into ten percent of volume pretty much overnight so this is like a loop yes. I would take it back and put it on my phone and grow more food. That was that was the idea. Originally four really beans and my goal was to get all the surrounding cafes to supply as well. I wanted to get that whole line way. Basically organic waste free and at just over one hundred twenty miles. It went on for years and Indian I just had a full and then it just got to a point where the threaten the V. Cat and my lease was up and decided enough's enough is enough. I it needs to be on wheels because it's crown land so wheels on it but then you've got it on wheels but it's plugged into the wall so it's technically building just went on and on and on and people at the city will argue that. It's not the case but I went to so many meetings own it went on for so long the Iraqis at the best year yet so it was just a wonder two. We've got a very different men now. I wonder if I would open it today. I think sally would be very different. And make sure that the people down and it wasn't their fault. Either this is like a law. That's one hundred years old. You go at bureaucrats but food safety is a wonderful thing. I'm mighty glad that I don't risk my life. Well I probably do. But you know the bugs extensively. Don't get me and don't kill me thank penicillin for that or thank medicine for that. All thank food safety laws and regulations that so these things are set up to Cape as well and healthy as well. The for the right reasons. I mean the reason why faces in European killed people in the during the gold rush. The contaminated water was killed people. There's a reason why these laws exist. Yes if you want to go carbon and look out of your lovely hotel room that you're staying in at at the river flowing underneath and the kids playing in it and then guide hospital. You'll find out that about half the hospital. Bids are filled with children. Who have drunk the water and the system doesn't work what we call the great centralized system of taking water from well outside the city using it and getting the pathogens as far away from the people as possible has worked for a very long time. So it's a good system but it. It's not a sustainable system anymore. It was a great system when it was invented. It's no longer a great system. The laws about keeping the pathogens and the chemicals away from the people still great laws. Yeah we just have to reinvent here we do it so you want a radical rethink of how we think about waste about how we think about water. How we think about sewerage. What would you like to see done differently? And why I believe we could have enough water in the city for twenty five million people currently when we get to eight million. We're going to have to build a new diesel nation plant. We have taking salt water and making it. Fresh is very expensive way to do it and it. It perpetuates the model that we will go and find new water rather than fix up the water that we pollute every day and throw away. The problem is that we would need to exploit that. We would need to move to a distributed model. Not Unlike a an energy model an engine model would say we'll generate half my electricity in my house and it might not be the most efficient thing to do might do it at a precinct scale and dealing with wastewater is not something I would recommend the public does however at a precinct scale. We could create a new suburb was sustainable. In terms of its water us so we have a wastewater treatment plant and WOULDA treatment plant. That are the same thing so it would just be a water treatment plant. It would take at polluted. Water would take watering from sources. That may or may not be polluted and in Australia. We spent a lot of time protecting those sources but around the world on average we still use that model in the sources on predicted working Sarabhai or any new Asia with river that supplies the water for the city is twenty times more concentrated in wastewater than what we dispose of this wastewater. Wow here and yet die. Beehive as though it's a clean water source in terms of the purification process if they just accepted that distributed model it said it is polluted wastewater with clean it up as though it was wastewater. Let's do it properly. Let's produce gripe water in in actual fact. That city could change very radically if they try it as the centralized piece. It's very difficult. You've got to build huge sewage. You've got to build reservoirs you've got to build a whole range of things if you do it. As a distributed system you could actually stop tomorrow and so this model in a Harvard sense for a Melbourne. Where new suburbs could be like that but for other CDs with his saying. We're GONNA put in sewage system. I say why would we do that? I mean th th thinking about that Indonesian example. You climb that we can process. We produce water that is cleaner more pure in a sense than tap water if I look at the waters of the world and we do that for a living and I look at what we can produce out of recycled plant currently in Antarctica by any test chemical biological any taste. You WanNa do. We are far cleaner than any tap water in the world
If we can mobilise around a pandemic, what next? Meet two revolutionaries already flouting the rules
"This ovid nineteen pandemic horrifying as it ease. Ease making us old. Think deeply about what comes afterwards about what out. Society will o'clock about what sort of society we? What's been really incredible? He's seeing how quickly the world can mobilize when it really needs to not quickly enough. Shore and the economic consequences are already devastating about four a behemoth of Planet. We have found a common purpose. Eradicating the pandemic. It's Natasha Mitchell joining you for science fiction and given all that. What could we mobilize around next if there was similar will mitigating climate change? What about the mountains of waste we generate as a species we flush freshwater Dan at Danny's landfill is piling up Arandas? Chana doesn't want out rubbish for recycling anymore and we throw out perfectly. Edible food by the ton make sense. No not really so I want you to meet to revolutionaries who have been well breaking rules to change. The world to me is a reflection of in particular in urban our society. That's not working. The fact that we twelve thousand years ago there was four million people on the planet and you sort of think so we take Melbourne and we better data across the planet and they probably created waste but it was Beautifully by the planet putting on being people on the planet and the same model. We exactly the same model now. It's clearly not an appropriate model anymore. We have a million tons of waste water a day in Melbourne. And what we do is we clean it up enough or we put it in a hole. We'll put it in the air or put it in the sea and we say our hope. The planet just fixes that problem and at some point probably when we hit a bad abi and people the planet's wasn't able to fix that problem anymore and so the model of waste that says that we can just put it out there and the planet will assimilated hall or in the Sea. He's finished so for me. Waste Rip presents a problem that we have to solve. That goes back a very long way. So it's hard to solve. I want you to make precipitated scales a chemical engineer and director of the particulate fluids processing center at University of Melbourne. He's a problem solver an inventor a makeup from water reuse and recycling to enormous batteries powered by your piece. Joost Becker is an environmental activist. Experimental End Artists to in two thousand twelve opened. The world's first zero waste RISTORANTE SILO BY JOOST. And they join me. As part of an event at the science gallery. Millwood's last pop-up exhibition called disposable. I want to talk about what happens when you try to challenge systems as they are to cleverly rethink how we use wise because what. We've got here people who do that and joost. You decided early on that you were going to respond to the the whole West Challenge and goes zero waste and not only that trying to open up a restaurant that was wholly zero waste. So what did that look like what most people do is? They see the waste product and then try and work out what to do with the waste product. I go back and look at the system if the system is generating something that is now used in the system needs to change. And so. That's what I did basically just change the system so the milk I spoke to a dairy fabric supply me and stainless steel cake so we developed like tap system we ground our own flow because we we have our own flower roll around oats. We spoke to winemakers about putting wine in kegs. One on tap might our own data everything that kind of generated waste but an even does myself. Yeah but this is much that has has come from that. I mean that was a forty two square meter cafe and it has caused ripples across the world is stuff going on in New York and in London in China and in South America. That has happened because of that cafe. Today I was sent an image of a Steiner Steel Keg and the farmer has worked for four years with the health department to try and get his keg approved now. Just my little cafe was like you know quarter of a million milk bottles or some crazy amount of milk bottles that we didn't need to buy that. My dairy farmer didn't need to buy that went didn't didn't need to purchase them and then I didn't pay someone to come and collect them and that plastic really copy restocked because he's got a fat coating from this animal fat on it. Which makes it really difficult to recycle it. So you know there's so many things and then in two thousand twelve the year on Harvesting was that was completely illegal but like my main sponsor was the city of Melbourne and had the city of Melbourne. Lago all over it and I thought if I'm going to get a crack at this I'm going to do it now. Okay so you're on harvesting in a commercial restaurant space. What were you doing because you're pushing the boundaries in all sorts of directions in this cap so people will come in and inspect building and go on my God. We had no chemical us. We had so much stuff this allies of things going on that for for people that were you know from the council checking to see you know. I had no plastic chopping boards and I had electrolytes water so water that came from was invented for surgery to clean hands and clean surgical tools in Japan. Twenty five years ago. It's basically water with salt and electric current goes through it and kills bacteria instantly us. Four billion gloves every single day that get thrown away which ended up in landfill which copy recycled and now here nets. No nothing so no bins no rubbish. We had like a little jam jar that showed there may capstone came on the kegs so I had to work to say. I don't want plastic cats on paper caps so they can go into our invisible composter so you can imagine how if you don't have been you've gotta work it out because you end up being left with stuff you know. We ended up having this board. That big of rubber bands because everything on the veggies and stuff in rubber bands but work with we were just talking about a with. Kerama on unlike a twin ball toilet so that Iran could be separated and stuff toilet applies to boys. Talk about in the toilets. Okay so so the so. This is the Iran harvesting story in this cafe. What did you do? And how did you challenge the health authorities big time? This was instilled in me by my dad. Probably account remember how it was maybe three or four years old so we were living in Holland and I used to go with my dad so he's veggie patch and be little like delft. Were little bottles. It'll all these little things coins I'd find one that had all this stuff come here in the solar we miles away from any any city or and he said we'll hundreds of years ago. Farmers would go to cities and shovel the human manure of the trenches to re fertilized their soil. Because you can't just keep pulling from soil so became caught assist with that idea and knowing that you know I don't know what it is some safe. Three percents is seven percent of the world's gases used to create a fertilizer a synthetic fertilizers. And I must say that. That fertilizer isn't even a good fertilizer because it doesn't actually narcisse soil properly. What we're doing is with mining soil. And we're not putting back what we've taken out so for me. It's like logical that we can't solve this problem unless we start looking at putting the nutrients that we've taken out back in. So what did you do with Iran in the restaurant so we use it on grain crops so use it to fertilize mustard crops in thousand and use it as a herbicide that we did all sorts of trials different levels to say what kind of facility was brought back to soil? We ended up with three and a half thousand Litas from a five-week pop-up.
Controlling the Activity of Cell and Gene Therapies with Precision
"One of the challenges selling gene therapies pose is how to control how much and when a desired protein is delivered. Obsidian therapeutics has developed a platform that allows a small molecule drug to control with precision the and level of protein expression from these therapies. We spoke to Paul Wotton. Ceo of obsidian Therapeutics about the company's platform technology. How it works. And how it may improve the safety and efficacy of cell and gene therapies. Paul facts for joining us. Pleasure to be here. We're GONNA talk about obsidian its platform for creating controllable cell and gene therapies and the implications of this technology. We've seen the emergence Cell gene therapies in recent years particularly in the area of cats are. This is come in the form of Cartesian therapies. What would you say? The challenges these therapies face today. Well I think the challenge which we've identified and addressing at Obsidian is really about how to provide physician control over both cell and gene therapies and That would include card Z's so today if you get a prescription from a physician you go to the pharmacy and you get a prescription that is written for a particular drug Given that particular those in terms of quantity and then taken once a day for example when you get a gene therapy The physician that she doesn't know precisely what those is. GonNa take the facts and more importantly conradi control it will I need to do is to be able to provide Precision control over both selling gene therapies and their ability to express proteins by using what we call signs of drives here at Obsidian. Well obsidian platform allows the physician to control the the expression of protein and terms of the clinical studies behind these therapies. How much of a therapeutic range is it? Is it a safety issue an issue so The very question the technology itself was derived from a platform that was invented at Stanford University Cocco professor homeless. And and what we do is we were able to instruct cells to produce what we call truck responsive domains refused to proteins of interest and those truck responsive Mainz then controlled by the Ministry of a small molecule drugs and the expression of the protein is directly proportional to those of the small molecule. Drunkenness given those little molecule truck that we moving into the clinic Cuidad cells in the next eighteen to twenty. Four months is actually a drug test. It's very safe. Drug Sweat established it was originally approved for using humans in the nineteen fifties. So it's very whether stop this track record. Today is used to treat altitude sickness in some people. So we're GONNA use that as a truck that we control protein expression with using technology. The most thing about this drug is very wide dose range. So there's a lot of points on the dial that will enable us to provide precise dosing of sides of cons and proteins For both so I'm gene therapies. So how does this work? You just attaching a receptor to the south as if that's a great question so what we do. Is We genetically engineer? So manufacture a fusion protein in actual fact and that season protein is structured in such a way with the cell produces all the time but it started in such a way that against concert off to the precious time in the cell and which is effectively the sort of sash container within a cell recognizes proteins to the slightly misspelled it and when we give a small molecule drug. Su Hyphen talks to sell. We'll happens is drug responsive to Maine on that fusion protein changes its structure and that means now that the frozen does not get carted off to the proteas son and plenty the road. We can control the amount of drug This given into the system also means we control the amount of protein that does not get off to the concept of the process. That's why we can vary the level and also the timing of which proteins are expressed by by cells. Are you able to use the same drug across targets or does the particular protein? You're trying to act on affect the drunk. You can use for that domain. Actually the technology now is that we can control Multiple proteins using this one single truck. We have also develops The technology using different drugs that we like you said there's all the reasons I mentioned earlier that we've been able to control of variety of proteins from membrane bound proteins overweight through to transcription factors which can produce. Proteins can be secreted by cells. So we really have found dates approacing that we haven't been able to regulate now using a substance and this was a breakthrough company about twelve months ago identifying that particular drug and the associated. We'll be their main roads alongside it in order to be able to control protein expression of numerous sites. Kind things I'll to I l fifteen. I'll twelve as well as various transcription factors. We worked on this well. How precise actually riddick sergey have precisely? Are you able to control a gene or cell therapy with this approach? Actually that's amazing precision because the approach that she looks at the protein expression in response to those of the drug that follows the type of ESCA that you've signed with a typical pharmacology experiment from decades ago. Which is very well defined. So we've been able to really regulate expression in terms of quantity Very effectively and also the timing of it can be controlled tightly as well. Typically control protein expression. I want to remove the drug because back down to normal levels within six to hours. And can you fully modulate the activity with this approach? Can you up and down regulated or shut it off it will? Yeah that's that's your question Nelson's both so The you mentioned a military things like kill switches for protein expression We don't have just an on off switch but it is also nothing down switches. Well so the more drug you would actually give it to somebody. The more of the sexes logic. Here's somebody for example The mall protein expression you get as a result and so those dependent way of being able to control protein expression and to my knowledge. There isn't another system out there that she's able to do that. There are companies using synthetic biology to kind of do the same thing as a synthetic biology approach. This is definitely that policy platform that we have here. It's one. That is interesting for me to come into the stage Mike Trick. I grew up in the small molecule world initially and Gravitas talks by attack was saying today is really a fusion of traditional small molecule pharmacokinetics combined with tossing edge technology in biology which is where the industry is heading.
COVID-19, Chinas wet markets, and bats - is it US not THEM?
"And now we see Larry's outbreaks in the last few decades that are related to animal eating in China. What happens in China? What people do to animals in China how repercussion beyond Chinese border? Let's Professor Deborah Jar. She's author of animals in China Law and society and we're going to take a close look at the animals that find themselves in China's wet markets today and into the curious origins of this Almighty pandemic. I have to side. It's beyond anything that I could have imagined. It really is at bats. Worst CASE SCENARIO SCOTT AS FAR as I'm concerned and that's from someone who's worked in the area and someone is trying to increase the awareness that this kind of thing would happen. It seems to have happened so rapidly and we seem to have been totally unprepared for it. She infield he's with the echo health alliance as their science and Policy Advisor for China and Southeast Asia regions eventually and environmental scientist. Hey knows he's infectious diseases. And he's Bet Corona viruses. He's an international authority on them which is why he is quick to discredit conspiracy theories swirling around about the origins of the SARS Cov virus. That's caused this cove. Nineteen pandemic one being that it came from the Wuhan Institute Veraldi Attain Hayes. Worked closely alongside. There was a big a lot of discussion about conspiracy theories either about manufacturing losses biowarfare about escapes from large raise. Excetera truth is trying to fiction. We we don't need to manufacture this far as it exists in Niger. As is from my scientific point of view that argument that it's manufactured bars has been tightly discredited winsor Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome first appeared in two thousand and two in China human was part of the international team. That did that hard. Detective work the years to trace its origin back to a corona virus in beds and the team's been surveying and identifying Bet Corona viruses across China saints. The size called to virus is ninety. Six percents SIMILAC genetically to about corruption virus working with Salads and with colleagues in China. I had the opportunity to see how intelligent how how technically skilled however principled. My colleagues in China were Humza signatory to erase it later. In The Lancet Medical Journal expressing solidarity with China's scientists and concern that conspiracy theories are threatening the rapid open and transparent sharing of data on the covered nineteen at break on people. Say yes but it's Johnny's system which autocratic I can be my to do it etc I nine principles about fats. Those people in that lab at on. We'll be working flat out around. The clock does manual. It comes with his ours. You know you've got to start from scratch stopped from nearest point of knowledge songs develop diagnostics tried to treatment methodologies. That'll be working flat out getting pulled in every direction. Trying to get on top of this thing. That's ahead stop. But where the virus got. It's real headstart. Perhaps OVER MILLENNIA. Ease in bats and scientists have benches with bats have taken him all over the place. All over Italy David Heymann is professor of Infectious Disease Ecology at Massey University in New Zealand. And Yeah some people selling hundreds of back carcasses who to Yeah people wearing Jin as a libation. A bill offering to the bats in a cave. And there's no doubt about it is that's the galling but what I want to know is why beds in particular how the so many viruses that are so deadly to us and yet not to them and to do that. We need to get denied. That's a bit better which Mike Up About. A fifth of the world's Mammalian species the phenomenal mammals. Actually they're the only mammals that truly fly the evolutionary. Oh they've been around many tens of millions of years from fossil records. Basically they live live everywhere on earth really apartment article so that enthused New Zealand out here Hawaii three to take so they're very well adapted the lots of different spaces and the really good for the environment. So for example predation pests. They prevent crop and forest damage. Because I eating insect predators suck the hugely ecologically important. Certainly the the fruit eating bats are great seat disperses Italy to see elite fruit the C. Pass through the bat schedule intestinal system and then it puts it out in a new location. So that helps maintain I. They also pollinate Important crops because revolved for so long. There are many plants for example rely on best to do the pollination and all the seed dispersal for them. David Hyman Ward. Mike's bats such a distinct. Such prime reservoir for novel viruses that can then subsequently crossover and infect other animals than they known to humans. What is it about the laugh of bets and better species so there are many hypotheses one is just the sheer diversity of bats around the world so therefore they have a diverse range of ours is and we think that they've been around for a long time cheaply long lived species relatively speaking and I will live for years and tens of years. Not like rodents that live within a year. They're gone. They will like humans in cities. I mean they form very dense colonies with thousands in a small space so that's ideal for infection spill to transmit from one individual to another Peter Virus Heaven and what's more abet colony might contain multiple bat species so viruses can adapt and crossover between them. He catching a ride when the bats migrate onwards so then they concede infection into new columnist. These multiple networks and communities about spending vast lots of different viruses between them probably lead to them being great host for these viruses. You look at the things I well I if Laras then this is way are would do well it. All of this going from built the interaction. The numbers I felt the citizens either Tom etc etc and the range of viruses bets carry all that originated in bats is mind blowing. Yeah there's extra diversity and it's not just trying of ours. Is that seems to be the same for paramedics of our season. Rabies probably had bats and even things like measles and canine distemper virus. Which we now and paper will be familiar with. Lissa viruses herpes to ebola influenza. A Hendra Nipah that most viruses. That bets incubate don't seem to make bets seek rabies. Seems to be one of the notable exceptions. Why don't they get seek? You didn't quite a really hard to study some of the hypotheses of that because bats have evolved to repair the muscles for example that the tissues that damage during his flight is really intensive. They vote repair. Mechanisms enable them to repair cells for example and versus damaged cells and. There's lots of consequences to that. That doesn't tell the entire story. They ran the immune system. That means that they. They seem to have constant arts they. Immune system switched on during the dice and also they. They fly everyday that I get the core body. Temperatures are effectively. What we do if we're sick and feverish so if you can imagine that we as mammals we have to similar response when rail one hypothesis is that when we do our normal response to viral infections. Then actually these viruses evolved in that sort of environment. And they don't mind so they carry on replicating the things that we do to suppress viruses don't suppress the bat farces. But that's just one. Hypothyroidism is a few others clever little biological systems in a molecular clock analysis that said that Corona viruses and bats had been coexisting for at least ten thousand news probably hundreds of thousands of years and possibly millions of years so these are very robust and sort of long term. Evolution are of these farces within spats and the issue is not about changing to become infectious. Hatha generate to patriots getting from bad to the purse on Wallis taking him. Bats doing their own thing. There's no pro-woman's each bridge what we call an epidemiological bridge wants that bridges. Creator so the agent can get from the reservoir to the purse. So you pay. That's when the trouble starts and there is a perfect place for that Epidemiological Bridge to be built.
Disease patterns and planetary health
"Sars and Moore's Ebola in now corona link with animals what we call zoonosis. It's more complicated than animals simply spreading viruses and pathogens to humans. This bread is often less direct and can involve intermediate hosts and behaviors. But as I've talked this week with disease ecology experts they have increasingly blamed humans for our destruction of biodiversity this then creates ripe conditions for pathogens to come into contact with humans building roads deforestation mining logging farming with heavy water use population growth exotic vacations and heavy hunting have all played a role in these emerging epidemics around the world. Densely packed populations increasingly live in close proximity to bats and rats and birds and pets. This creates new opportunities for interactions for things to move from one species to another so does our tendency to capture exotic animals and put them in cages and ship them around the world to be used as pets or sold in wet markets and eventually be consumed as food all these activities disperse viruses that have existed for eons in one species often in one location and then spread them globally. Dr Brian Bird is a leading veterinarian. Epidemiologist and the associate director of UC Davis is one health institute he has worked on the front lines of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and other epidemics around the world. He has thought a great deal about these emerging epidemics at it quite clear that land use change and changing the environment chopping forest to plant crops. Things things of that nature are one of the leading risk factors for spillover buyers spillover of viruses from one species to another is increasingly common the CDC estimates that three quarters of new or emerging diseases that infect humans originating animals. It's not just exotic diseases like Corona Ebola and h one n one look at how we've destroyed forests to build American suburbs. This development disrupts the ecosystems enforces deer and rats and other animals to live in more densely packed areas or to venture outside of their normal habitat. This means that insects like ticks can more easily passed between animals. And then the ticks spread the bacteria borelli A- Bergdorf Ri- and there is a huge increase in line disease. Dr Bird reminds us that these changes have been going on since the industrial revolution. But he says that. Our interactions with that risk must change. We have to start to recognize that what we're doing as humanity in these wild areas is detrimental or taking the system out of balance into viruses. That all the other wildlife live in that ECO system and a sense of balance. It is this balance that has been ignored over the longer term solutions will start with awareness and hopefully that will lead to reason to action and more careful