Attack on the National Palace in Guatemala / Marguerite Perey born - October 19
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We're doubling up today with two events in history one for me and one from former host Tracy v will thin on with the show. Welcome to this day in history class from how stuff works dot com, and from the desk of stuff you missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the PODCAST. I'm Tracy v Wilson and effect Tober Nineteenth. Members of the military attack the National Palace in Guatemala on to stay in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four during the Guatemalan revolution. This revolution had started earlier in nineteen forty four as students and young military officers rose up against president. Biko he had been elected president in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty one and his early presidency included campaign against government corruption improvements to public health an overhaul of Guatemala's infrastructure and helping to stabilize the country's economy. But by nineteen forty four, he had gotten rid of all political opposition and he was governing as a military dictator. His policies had also increasingly favored elite landowners and corporations. Especially, the US based United Fruit company which owned a lot of the arable land in Guatemala, but wasn't actually using most of that land meaning it wasn't available for anyone else to use either he had also implemented things like decree eighteen sixteen, which exempted landowners from prosecution if they used violence to defend their land up to. Murdering, someone. He had also abolished a series of forced labor laws, but then replaced them with vagrancy laws that were very similar in these really amounted to indentured servitude and a lot of cases the so called vagrants who were being forced to work were from Guatemala's Maya. Peoples Ub coup also developed close ties with the United States in the United States was providing Guatemala with armaments and with favorable tariff terms this whole situation. Though, was not unique at all to Guatemala other nations in Central America had various similarly unyielding dictators and control with similar social and economic effects. Similar reliance on one food crop for the economy similar connections to the United States and united. States based business interests and one dictator Maximiliano Arnez Martinez was overthrown in neighboring El Salvador in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four this overthrow became an inspiration for a similar campaign. against. Yukiko in Guatemala. Not just inspiring the students and other young people to rise up but also inspiring in Yukiko a fear that the same thing might happen to him. So he cracked down on civil liberties he put people who were loyal to him in charge of the university. He basically tried to do what he could to ensure his own power. This had the opposite effect of what he wanted a series. Of protests followed with students at Saint Carlos University petitioning for changes to the university teaching staff and other reforms. Lawyers petitioning for biased judges to be removed from the bench teachers were demonstrating for pay increases and all these initial demonstrations were violent. They included things like boycotts and strikes the Guatemalan government responded to all this by deploying tanks and troops, and using tear gas on the demonstrators placing the capital under martial law. But the demonstrations spread even as the government was placing participants under surveillance and deporting foreign supporters of the movement. Finally at the end of June, tens of thousands of demonstrators were gathered at the Capitol, and because support was really eroding. He resigned July first nineteen, forty four and placed the government under the control of military triumvirate although he allegedly remained in charge, the National Assembly elected one of the triumvirate General Frederick Ponce Vitus, president he promised to their. Free. Election was going to follow but by October, it was obvious that it just was not going to happen and Guatemala was sliding farther and farther away from democracy. The protests continued students and teachers called for a general strike on. October. Sixteenth students and members of the military began taking control of the capital on October eighteenth. There was an attack on the National Palace by members of the military said at the top of the show on October nineteenth. Violence spread through the capital, the presidential guard rebelled and the general finally surrendered on the. Twentieth. This didn't put a total end to the violence or the unrest, but new elections did follow in. December and they were one of the freest elections that Guatemala had seen in decades a new constitution was drafted in one, thousand, nine, forty, five. This constitutional rule lasted for just less than a decade before President Kobo. Arbenz was elected in nineteen fifty one and he had been part of the revolution. He instituted a lot of land reforms including redistributed a lot of that unused land that United Fruit company had been buying up. The United States isn't like that the United States was also threatened by the fact that he legalized the Communist Party in Guatemala. So so the CIA helped overthrow the democratically elected government of Guatemala in Nineteen fifty four thanks to Jeff coat for her research work on today's podcast and Tar Harrison for audio. On this show, you can subscribe to this day in history class at apple podcast, Google podcast, and wherever you get your podcast and you can tune in tomorrow for a political purge. Hi. I'm Katie lowes and on my podcast Katie's Cribb I talk about the ups and downs of parenting no-holds-barred here a few of my favorite moments from Katie's crib presented by target. This halloween target has introduced adaptive Halloween costumes, parents a differently abled children can shop their collection to make sure their kids can express who they are and want to be for Halloween. It's all part of targets belief in good. We can all AFFORD VISIT TARGET DOT COM to learn more my girl Kristen Bell I said to my husband I. Don't want to do antibiotics. If we can get this out the baby is not sucking hard enough I need you to be a team player here and he was like gross he sits down nurses and it was a while I mean it was like thirty minutes. This is very gross. He started getting the block out he started getting his show because. It's Gooey, and then he had to get a cup. He was like gagging which I don't blame has been the the century Katie is now available on iheartradio apple podcasts wherever you get your podcasts. What's up everybody? We're comedy troupe, Obama's other daughters and we wanted to share one of our favorite moments of our podcast. You Don presented by target committed to offering an elevating `black brands including black owned beauty brands is all part of targets belief in good. We can all AFFORD VISIT TARGET DOT COM to learn more. shoot is one of my favorite moments. Were there any dates that really left an impression on you secure? What's yours I? WanNa know I guess I will go with my worst. This guy was like I'm so excited to finally GONNA stay He said he's GonNa take favorite place he picks me up to say me get fro the worst part is like I was trying to like not ice cream like I was trying to be healthy and I hadn't had dinner and I was like, weren't you hungry? Hungry, I was annoyed and I was like going to waste my time. That was one of the worst states I've been. That was the worst day you went on with a man secure frog. No. I'm just saying you live a life of privilege that sounds like that sounds like I would take it as my worst date. How everyone welcome to the show I'm eaves and you're listening to this day in history. Class. A show that uncovers a little bit more about history every day. The day was October nineteenth nineteen o nine. French nuclear chemist and physicist Marguerite Paret was born in Bela Mamba. France. A suburb northeast of Paris. Paret is known for discovering Francia M-, the eighty seventh element of the periodic table and being the first woman elected to the French Academy of Sciences. Paret was born into a middle class Protestant family as a child. She took an interest in science and wanted to study medicine. But her father died in nineteen fourteen leaving her mom to take care of her and her four siblings. Her mother gave piano lessons but the families still faced financial hardship and Marguerite could not go to university. She did however attend local. Law Technique Feminine a school for Female Technicians. Her education, they are qualified her to become a chemistry technician, and after she completed her studies, she became a lab assistant at the radium institute Paris where physicist and Nobel. Prize winner Marie Curie was Director Curie acted as a mentor to Paret. Radio activity the focus of parades work. Her job was to purify actinium a radioactive element that was discovered in eighteen, ninety, nine by chemist Andrea Gibson. Paret was skilled when it came to preparing radioactive sources and she eventually became curious personal assistant. After Kennedy died in nineteen, thirty four Andre. debbie-ann became the director of the Institute and Parade continued researching the properties of actinium. The spectrum of the radioactive elements Barium and strontium. By this time parades work in radio chemistry was well recognized by others in her field but the discovery she's best remembered for happened in nineteen thirty eight. Scientists were trying to find element eighty-seven on the periodic table. One of just a few elements that they thought were missing from the periodic table. In her research paret realized that the actinium she had purified was emitting unexpected radiation. After a series of tests, she came to the conclusion that she discovered a new element. One that was predicted by Dmitri mental as periodic table. It was element eighty-seven with an atomic weight of two twenty three. She initially called the element Actinium K., but it was later renamed Francia after her home country. Jan, Perrin announced the discovery to the French Academy of Sciences in early January nineteen, thirty nine. Paret began working on the chemical and nuclear properties a France and studying artificial radioactivity. She got a grant to study at the Sorbonne in Paris and in Nineteen forty six, she got her doctorate of physics. Parade went on to work at Francis National Center for Scientific Research and she studied the biological effects of Francia at the University of Strasbourg where she was made head of the Department of Nuclear Chemistry in Nineteen, forty nine. By the late nineteen fifties a nuclear chemistry lab she directed Strasborg. Part. Of a larger nuclear research facility. In nineteen, sixty two, she was elected as the first female corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences. She remained head of her lab in Strasbourg until her death. In her last years, she continued to receive awards and the press recognized her as a notable scientist. Unfortunately her story was also a cautionary tale about safety measures that are necessary when working with radiation. Paret was diagnosed with cancer in the nineteen sixties. After years of dealing with that diagnosis, which was a result of her prolonged exposure to radiation. She died in France in May nineteen, seventy five. I'm used up coat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. Feel free to share your thoughts or your innermost feelings with us and with other listeners on social media at T.. D.. H C, podcast. If emails, your thing send us. This Day at Iheartmedia Dot, com. Thanks for listening to today's episode, we'll see you again tomorrow. For more podcasts from iheartradio visit, the radio, APP apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows.