Listen First! DICTATORS, A Parcast Original Series!
Do you love a good story about a real bad guy. I'm talking talking about the worst of the worst. If so I have the perfect Hong Kong show for you. It's cold dictators. And you can hear new you episodes every Tuesday. Heroes Caitlyn Richard to tell you more. Thank you every Tuesday in our new show dictators. Richard sure deny examined the reign of a real life tyrant exploring the unique conditions that allowed them to seize control. Hear more about the men who claim to love their country but were intricately responsible for killing millions of their own people in this special clip from our first episode. Learn about Benito Mussolini's transformation from Italian Superman to despise despot. If you want to listen to the full episode followed dictators free on spotify fi over. Ever you get your podcasts. When the Great War ended in nineteen in eighteen it ushered in a global depression both economically and socially the soldiers who survived came home two countries entreaties? They didn't recognize countries with new names and new borders racked by new fears even for the victors. A return turn to stability seemed impossible. There was a sense that everything was broken. Democracy had failed capitalism. I'm had failed. Socialism was failing to nihilism was the only philosophy that still made sense in Europe. Up The young people who came of age during this time were called the generation of nineteen fourteen. France called them the Generacion. Defer the gunfire generation in Britain and America. They were known as the lost generation in that kind of mass desperation. Peration certain things can slip through the cracks. The people let their leaders consolidate power. Let them blame. Foreigners let them do away with a civil liberty or two may trust it in despots because there really wasn't a better alternative until till before they realized it. The apocalypse they were trying to avoid was right there. On their doorstep those are the circumstances him stances that led to the rise of totalitarianism after world. War One to the rise of dictators. Welcome to dictators a new podcast original. I'm I'm Richard and I'm kate with this series. We want to go deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. We all know. Oh about the atrocities committed by the likes of Hitler and Stalin in the United States were familiar with longtime American adversaries. Such as Fidel Castro grow and Kim Jong UN on dictators will trace the psychological cultural and spiritual influences that transformed and these individuals. Either they were born psychopathic or they were hardened by circumstance without fail each went from wanting to save either country to destroying it. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other podcast originals for free on spotify or wherever ever you listen to podcasts to stream dictators for free on spotify. Just open the APP and type dictators in the search bar podcast. We are grateful fool for you our listeners. You allow us to do what we love. Let us know how we're doing reach out on facebook and Instagram at park asked and twitter at podcast or cast network. And if you enjoy today's episode the best way to help us is to leave a five star review. Wherever you're listening? It really does help for our the first six episodes. We're starting with a bang as we explore the lives of World War. Two's three worst. Dictators Benito Mussolini Joseph Use of Stalin and Adolf Hitler today we'll see how Mussalini harness disparate social elements such as socialism. Nationalism Awesome and future ISM to forge a new belief system. Fascism this hateful ideology would be his chief tool in portraying portraying himself as the ideal Italian man and it would go on to inspire an even greater evil next week. We'll see how an alliance with that Greater Evil Nazi Germany led to Mussolini's downfall Mussolini lenient often thought of as Hitler's incompetent lackey his fellow fascist. Who Lost the war in Italy and died a day earlier on April twenty the eighth nineteen forty-five is body hung in a square and spit upon? But that is the modern perception in his time. Mussolini was considered a swashbuckling heartthrob a master politician. He rose to power in Italy years before Hitler became the face of totalitarianism despite destroying civil liberties in his country and exiling thousands of Italian Jews to concentration in camps Mussolini's people loved him and some still do. But how could the people of anytime view a monster on stir in such a romantic light and how has his global reputation fallen from that of the ultimate leader to the ultimate stooge in order to answer these questions. We must trace Mussolini's time as a socialist agitator in Switzerland to his years as a newspaper man to his craft. After you rise to Prime Minister Mussolini's entire life was a self defeating journey to fulfil a masculine ideal. He was born on July twenty ninth. Eighteen eighty three. His Father Allesandro leaney was his first role model. According to Spartacus Focus Educational Mussolini once told a reporter I come of peasant stock. My father was a blacksmith. He gave me strength. A A young Mussalini would work the forge with his father. Sweat dripping sparks cinching. His skin researcher Andrea Santio. Vanni describes describes the traditional image Italian steelwork as a completely masculine world where the natural characteristics of man string link courage leadership honor aggression our praise to excess Mussalini picked up on this learning to be strong to the full to express only the most dominant part of himself. He was taught that a man worked hard that he and his father were. The laboring peasantry has injury and across the country in Rome. There was a king and a church that reaped the benefits of their labor and didn't work at all even worse. There were Austrian kings to the north. Who ruled over land and people that were rightfully Italian Young Mussalini imagined these rulers? There's like fantasy despots almost inhuman every day at the forge. His father filled his mind with ideas about a revolution of workers. Just like them. Men like them strong workers who made up the real Italy who would one day inherit the earth Mussalini Mussalini loved his father and he wanted nothing more than to live up to these ideals. This belief system socialism with a little bit of nationalism nationalism would entrance and beguile him throughout the rest of his life but as much as he admired his father he was also confused by him. He talked about strength and honor but Mussalini gradually became aware that allesandro didn't exactly personify those those things. His father's main focus in life was not on his work or his family but his mistress who we often spend money on and while Mussalini has two siblings and his mother lived in a small home eating very basic meals this engendered a toxic dichotomy within within the young boy. He had a father telling him how to act like a man but had no strong male role model to actually show him what that looked like and and so he would spend his life trying to decide for himself how a man should act while nursing a selfish streak that would topple a republic because of his own father wasn't going to look out for the young Mussalini. Then who would. His mother noticed. STA growing anger inside of him in eighteen ninety two when Mussolini was nine she sent him to Catholic Boarding School in the hopes that the priests would be able to calm him. The opposite was true. The Catholics were largely anti-socialists. They took out their political beliefs on Mussolini. The son of a socialist is included withholding food from him and forcing him to sleep in the dog. Kennel his selfish streak deepened. As he felt that truly the whole world was out to get him at the same time some of the masculine ideals he had picked up from his father were being reinforced. Catholic doctrine emphasized the differences between men and women. How men were meant to be masculine leaders and Women Feminine in Mothers? This idea was driven home by the simple fact that it was an all boys. School with male. Only Teachers Mussolini's growing toxic. Fox's masculinity famously boiled over one day in the school yard when Mussolini's stabbed a classmate in the hand and so his picture of the I deal man continued to fill out the ideal man was a strong hard worker like his dad had taught him but as he had picked up from Catholic Catholic school aggression was a vital piece to the puzzle. He would never forget how the anti-socialists priests at treated him their pettiness. There need to exert control over a child was anything but masculine. He figured that his father's disdain for the church in Rome was as well placed that the Catholic Church leadership was just as weak as the priests at his school and so he decided that whatever the ideal man man was he wasn't Catholic. Mussolini managed to Survive School in fact he excelled at it. He could now express express his burgeoning ideals through scathing treatises and impassioned speeches in one thousand nine hundred at the age of seventeen. He was about to finish school. When he and the rest of Italy learned of the assassination of their King Umberto the first the king was killed by an anarchist socialist? A-LIST member of the working class. This would have inspired the young miscellany. His father's worldview was being validated. The real men. The working working men were rising up against the parasite upper-class King Umberto was only the second monarch to rule over a united Italy. He was hated by working class. Italians for his support of violent worker suppression. He had also embroiled the country. In wars of conquest in Somalia Malia and Ethiopia the latter of which ended in failure on top of that many Italians hated Umberto for his support of the triple alliance which was a military alliance with Austria. The country's former enemy the failure and ultimate murder of this monarch confirmed for Mussalini that socialism was the right philosophy but just because they were right didn't mean they had power a new monarch was crowned Victor Emmanuel. The Third Umberto Son Mussalini worried that he would be drafted into the army and forced to fight in some war driven. In by this new king he would not die for someone. He didn't even consider to be a real man. And so in nineteen to after about a year working as an elementary schoolteacher. A nineteen year old Mussalini fled to Switzerland hoping to find other Socialists. Other real men. This separation from his country ironically allowed him time to consider what exactly it meant to be Italian in Switzerland. He saw many of the same problems as at home. That country was already the location of many of the large banks. It's famous for today and there was a large lower class that saw none of that money. Switzerland was thus a hotbed for socialism. Mussolini met with Socialist. A-LIST leaders wrote for socialist newspapers and clashed with the police. This playground gave him enough distance from Italian politics to think about them objectively. The country had been united in eighteen. Sixty one under a new monarchy and with the prime minister and parliament. It was supposed to be a new dawn for Italy. Even a return to the days of the Glorious Roman Empire Fifteen hundred years before but this unification the creation had meant nothing for the average Italian they still have to toil in factories others in fields and mines and in Nineteen Tino to a majority of Italian still weren't even allowed to vote clearly unification. Just meant that the top one percent now oh centrally controlled the labour and product of the working class in Switzerland. Mussolini learned from leaders of Socialist. Thought men like Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky to founders of the Russian revolution and Devout Marxists. They helped him hone the idea of what Italian socialism awesome should look like. They're awards of Italian Labor in the hands of Italian workers and no one else not the king not parliament not the Australians. But while men like Karl Marx were calling for self rule. Mussalini never seemed to settle on an exact prescription description for what a modern government should look like. His belief system was heavy with contradiction. He wrote that socialism. Socialism means the elevation and purification of the individual conscience and achievement will be the result of a long series of efforts. This seem to suggest that he believed in the combined efforts of society as a whole rather than the triumphs of the individual but he also admired the idea. Yeah of the best and brightest pushing to the top Mussalini read Darwin and absorbed his message of struggling against tradition authority. Be Dogma. This was survival of the fittest philosophy. The idea that people in power are in power because of certain traits. What's that make them better suited for it? Mussolini couldn't believe in both the collective achievements of society and the survival of the fittest. History would tell which side he leaned toward his racial politics were similarly convoluted Mussalini. Hated the nationalist first racist philosophies arising in Germany but at the same time he spoke of an Italian soul and was dismissive of their Slavic neighbors burst to the northeast so he didn't like an emphasis on national identity unless it was Italian national identity and he didn't like racism assume but he had certain racial prejudices it was almost as if the masculine ideals instilled by his father and sharpened in Catholic. School would never release their hold because as much as he admired. The worker focused ideals of socialism he also seemed to find socialism elitism somewhat feminine. Many socialists preached the idea of a global society free of borders. Where everyone was equal this this sounded like fanciful nonsense to him? Italy needed to become a world power. That was the only way for him to show the world that the hard lieber ideals of his youth were superior the only way to show the world that Italians were true men that he was a true man Dan his image of the ideal man was now the image of the ideal Italian man strong aggressive not Catholic flick socialist but only in so far as you maintain a sense of masculinity and national identity in nineteen. We know four a twenty one year. Old Mussalini was expelled from Switzerland and forced to return to Italy after inspiring multiple riots against police ace and falsifying documents. He returned to his home country with a New Vision. He would inspire the rural working class that he had been a part of love. He would do this by playing on the masculine ideals of hard work and painting the ruling class as a feet out of touch parasites he would paint the Catholic Church with the same brush and his fellow Socialists. Well hopefully they would go along with his emphasis on an Italian identity. Italian product in Italian hands not a part of some larger European collective that exploited their labor just as the king was currently currently doing his goal was to inspire socialist revolution in Italy but by the time he was done there would hardly be an Italy. Left at all to find out what happens next. Listen to dictators free on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts Parkas listeners. It's Alistair if you love con artists. We'd love to hear from you. By taking a quick survey your feedback will help us. Continue Making your favorite shows better than ever please visit podcast survey dot me slash con to answer a few short questions. It may seem small but your input really matters. That's podcast survey dot me slash con. Thank you for your continued support and for listening.