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Wrestling with Einstein


You can listen to add free. New Episodes of science rules only on stitcher premium for a free month of stitcher premium go to stitcher PREMIUM DOT COM and use. Promo Code Science. We all want to travel faster than light. We all WANna go to another part of the universe at another time instantly but so far. We still can't do it. Life Sucks and then you die. We're all science people. We know it's a good idea because it's lasted. We teach kids and they get it chemistry and the biology here. It's in whiskey. It's an ice cream. It's an who you fall in love with the recipe for success. We can make the world better four startling. Greetings greetings greetings. Welcome to science rules. I'm your host bill nine. This is the show. Where dare I say it science rules? It's a call in show so if you WANNA be on the show call in if you see what I'm driving at their Make sure to check my social handles. You know the kids use the Graham. The tweeter the The booking of face and We will get your question on the air and as always you can send your questions or comments to ask Bill. Nye DOT COM ask bill nye dot com altogether one word defied and I am once again. Joined of course. I know. You're all as excited as I am by science writer editor. And I'll just tell you. Dear friend Powell greetings corey. Oh Hello Bill. Always good to be here. I was thinking it'd be so cool if Albert Einstein. We're still around and we can have them on the show But last I checked he's not available but what we do have somebody who's one of Einstein's spiritual successors. It's very cool. I spiritual a sexual successor. We can even get into that those terms if we want because we are joined by none other than Ford Foundation Physics Professor and affiliate professor of mathematics at Brown University Dr Sylvester James Gates. But we we just call you. Jim Lee's plays and this latest book is Proving Einstein. Right a welcome to science rules. Jim Very excited to have thank you. Bill thank you thank you. You know you you talk about. Albert Einstein in that sense. Most most people do not know that I was asked to portray Albert Einstein. In fact it's on Youtube. I did it for the Jewish Museum of New York about five years ago. So hang on a second. What would you do in character vel so you know? I would be smoking with a tiny little bit of an accent and hunching forward a little bit more than normal for me and it was wonderful. Did you did you try to change your thought process to sort of think? How would Einstein? Bb Thinking in reacting in this situation. Why didn't have to change it because it turns out that in two thousand five weeks? Is this all over? The World Celebrated Albert. Einstein is something called the Einstein World Physics that year. I gave thirty seven talks on six continents about Albert Einstein. I had read extensively Albert Einstein Library so it wasn't that had to change my thought. I just have to remember what I read. So that's all it kind of jammed in your brain somewhere. It really is. It actually changed. My views profoundly of WHO and what Albert Einstein was wow so you had one view of Albert Einstein and it changed. What is it that changed? Yes so the first time I ever seriously engaged Albert Einstein was in when I was sixteen years old. I was taking physics course in highschool at the super tremendous teacher named Mr Freeman. Coney and I learned special relativity when I was in eleventh grade and so I was just overwhelmed. That human minds had the capacity to think thoughts like that so that went along for long time in my life that Albert Einstein was just this amazing almost superhuman superhero guy out here forging a path through science when I got to my thirty and forty S. I found on even more about the guy that he wasn't outspoken Representative for civil rights for African Americans in the forties and fifties long before anybody else was saying. Really very provocative things he was out there and saying them and the thing that I learned about Albert Einstein was he was incredibly consistent in the way he worked. You know we think of him as a genius but he had a methodology for how he got to be a genius his work in nineteen o five which were celebrating started in his mind. Ten years earlier When he was fifteen years old and so his greatest contributions all come out of this what he called a distillation of common sense and that was one thing the other thing I can't understand about him was he was not this this figure beyond humanity that he had his foibles I learned learned about his personal life. Which quote was quite messy I learned that what makes your personal life messy women in his case. Yes in this case very much yes yeah That start changing my view and then finally at the end of the day What just sort of happened is. I've been doing physics sense I got my pizza in nineteen seventy seven. I've known some of the world's greatest physicist I've interacted with Stephen Hawking for example for some met him one thousand nine hundred eighty at last time. I saw you got to meet you okay. I was a young kid. There's actually a picture that people often find online of me At Cambridge in one. Thousand nine hundred. I'm standing up right behind Stephen. Who's sitting in a chair? Yeah there's there's a lot of you on the Internet in a good way thank you but So at the end watching these great visitors of my generation and thinking about Albert Einstein. I started to get confused about things that other people are not confused about so for example. One of the things that I have been given to thinking recently is that genius is actually not a noun. It's a verb and because it's it's kind of complex set of interactions that define genius And all and genius is not a constant state of mind. There's some people can perform these extraordinary leaps of imagination tuition Sort of more than others. But nobody does it. So I'd love to hear your definition of genius or serve what those but this Mild Arm Yeah. So this is something someone sem maybe fifteen years ago. When I came up with following genius is the ability to To create order inform out of seeming chaos and ignorance and darkness and that ordering form can be not just in math or physics. It could be in dance where you have a genius performing sculpting space. Because that's what dancers do with their bodies as they basically sculpt the space around them you have music so genius is quite ubiquitous. It's not just about science so hang on this. I think we'll start right there. Oh and we'll take a question because I think this question will it's part of what you're talking about. Elijah. Are you out there. Yeah where are you calling from Lexington Kentucky Kentucky Excellent Uniform Beautiful Part of the world? What is your question for Dr Gates so I was wondering why you thought or knew why you thought Albert Einstein was draped a scientist or why he is overrated. Because I think he he's a good scientist however I just think he sh- a little overrated at the end of the day. Well first of all I don't I've never said I thought he was a scientist. But however I don't think he was overrated. Either if you delve deeply into what he was able to do. Because of Albert Einstein we know our universe had a beginning about thirteen point. Seven billion years ago in the time since then amazing transformations of matter energy space in time have Occurred get a part where the universe. I assembled atoms. When it's three hundred and seventy thousand years old the universe takes its own baby picture. We can see that to this very day something called the cosmic microwave background and yet and all this transformation of matter energy space and time and miraculous wonders the universe creates exactly one copy of you as far as we can tell that speaks to a kind of preciousness for every single human being no other scientists gave us such a view of our reality. Bow At the moment. So thank you thank you. That was a great question. So so what was it? That was so unusual about Einstein. You were touching on this before a little bit about what it was about. His thought process. That was different than the way other. Scientists were thinking. Well the thing that I think. All of us Who STUDIED HIM Put at the top of that list was his ability to use. Experiments thought experiments with sort of pure act of mine to become so into the Familiar with Mother Nature that you can see a pathway to explain questions that other people don't even know are bare but here's my understanding that Einstein was thinking. Wait a second. Let's say that the speed of time is not constant and then let's just do the Algebra. Let's just say this. This rate is not constant. Something that would never occurred anybody. I mean we have the expression time flies we have the expression time drags on but that it actually the rate at which it goes by could change is pretty love the image of like what happens if you catch up with the beam of light question. H Fifteen Yeah Oh man Bush's Rock and gravity also affects the the the flow of time. Say like the time on the surface of the earth time at the center of the Earth are slightly different and the time up where your GPS satellites that drive your navigation Avs Is Different. And that's something that he that had to be worked out if you're going to actually design the GPS so the practical benefit our science that we have all these navigation apps we have all everything but one of the things you talked about the transformation of transformative moment for me it was in my thinking about. I signed but a keen from looking other greet geniuses who were life now genius intellectual blind spots such as this. Everybody wants a name or is this. I don't actually know spoke but geniuses can have intellectual by the time I meet you. You might be exception. But I've spent time with Nobel laureate to these are not people you want teaching kindergarten. Generally not they're just a different skill. It is so go ahead. Genius Blind spots geniuses have blind spots and that's to me was an amazing discovery. I made quite young in my young As scientists and then I said Oh my good- let me. There's hope for me to be successful because I if I can get it. A blind spot. 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Changing is for free so tell therapies available through most insurance companies and employers so download the APP or visit Tele Doc dot com slash science rules to get started. That's Tell Doc T. E. L. A. D. O. C. dot com slash science rules. You're listening to science rails talking more about me. I'm mechanical engineer. We got three dimensions. We have we've four. We have time okay at work done for mental autopilots for a while. You WanNa get there when you're allowed to get they're not before all right but you guys and by you guys I mean Theoretical physicists. Have this whole other thing. We're going to add five six seven eleven dimensions. So what what okay. What are you talking about and reporting wire? We're trying to understand the nature of the universe. I remember being amazed as an engineer working in the early days of of integrated circuits and the whole thing was to get down to thirty molecules if you could make a silicon wafer thirty molecules sick K. First of all you have to believe in molecules to believe that there is such thing you have to believe that they interact. You have to believe that there's electrons and so and there's a lot of evidence for it right but then then you go for. The molecules are made of atoms and the atoms are made of nutrient protons. And they're made of quarks and the corks are made of the courts. Okay so what? What are you working on? What is string theory? Can you just with the show is only about forty minutes? Explain string theory in thirty seconds before so. I'm going to fall back explanation. All right here we go. You want to start o'clock thirty seconds starting now okay. So tickets. Taking your cut in tinicum pieces throwing Nike when you go. Long as yardsticks is something that is about the span of your hand take the Arctic. Cutting Technical Cubes Three Nike. When you can get down to the size of your thumbnail. Essentially how many times do you have to do that? To get to the ATOM THE ENTER TURNS OUT TO BE TEN. How many times do you have to do that to get the nucleus? The answer turns out to be fifteen. So we've been asking the question if you keep doing this process and get down to say thirty five times. Anything left in university reasonable. We think the answer is yes. We call them strings. They're like filaments. Oh there you go. Well thank you for listening. We've got everything answered now here. Just hang on. Yes a filament. Yeah so so far. I think a lot of people especially people listen to the show are all about particles. Yes right we have a have a molecule we have an atom we have proton neutron electron. And then we've got let's say quirks exotic things got photons and we got some town maisons all right so what? We're going to go from particles to filaments sure and the The so if you do the mathematics it's pretty straightforward however most people in the world don't do mathematics they think in other Other terms so let me try it this way. If you think about a filament is like a violin string what can you do with a violin string about plucking it if you pluck violin string you can actually produce many different notes so the particles that we see in fundamental physics are who the string as notes are violent seraing? They may the vibrations of the strings. That looked like particles to us so all the particles are made of the same essential thing. String the vibration mode that exit one thing. That's exactly but a filament. Burr a string of what a Lotta people get stuck because often people say oh a string as a collection as Philip perhaps a maid of energy. No that's not right because you see Since again what is it not it is not a is not energy. A string is not energy. Yeah which is a mistake. I often see in popular discussions of strength. There just seems intuitively like it would be well. That's because that's because energy is the output of the string not the input. And that's why you can't say that strings are energy their energies. What comes from string so you if you ask this question. What is a string? The only answer I can tell you as a I know it's a mathematical entity and be. It seems to have the property of describing the equations that we physicists. Have been going back and discovering back to the time of Newton. So hang on is Is Light Energy like is carries energy. And it's this particular vibration of a string and so a photon would be vibration of a string particular mode of vibration. Okay is it a string? Is it Qantas like that? Because one of the charming. Mazo thing speaking of Albert Einstein is That light is quantum test that it's in part discrete packets. We have been struggling with the idea of quantum string theory since its birth and guess what guys. We haven't succeeded yet. That's a relief. Because I you know I'm not in your league but I listened to it and I didn't complete the deepest question in string. Theory in this equation is so deep. Most in my opinion most theorist haven't actually figured out that question there only a couple of people in the world. I know who have been wrestling with the idea of quantum strings. One of them is Edward Witten at Princeton another is someone who's PhD thesis. I see revise a young. He's no longer so young but a professor Barton's Bach who was MIT And a few other people have worked on the quantity of strings but no one has a complete story there yet. Okay so hang on. Light is quantum I we can measure a packet of light. You can measure packet of carrot by full time so packet of energy carried by a vote. And that's part of what Einstein did in nineteen o five. Got Part of what he got into that. Yeah you can't get a Nobel prize for a theory. It has to be a discovery not for peace of mathematics so so hang on so we the Photon is a manifestation of something more fundamental. Yes and that more fundamental thing behaves in some ways like a puck. -able string the mathematics of objects are like the mathematics of applicable string. Now we're getting somewhere all right now but let me surprise you folks for this arrest this nothing you've said it's been waiting another manifestation of a different vibration string is space itself. Yeah so Okay well you know. We have a caller caller okay. I think we have Bryan on the phone Brian Are you there. I am Brian Excellent. Where are you calling from? I'm calling from Bangor Maine Bangor Maine here in the United States fabulous. I was just an Augusta about two months ago. Coincidence I actually yes I know so. Go ahead Brian. What's your question though? My question is is. This is something I've been thinking about since I graduated high school back in two thousand twelve. I've been told since I was a little kid. That space is a vacuum In space being a vacuum means you know to my understanding nothing can exist and there But Yeah we have. Many many particles explode supernova all kinds of things that happen out nervousness space so to sum that question up. Where does that material and matter go? It's a great question. How can something be nothing? There are two ways that we know that space is not one of the ways is actually Lego and gravitational waves because nothing can't make waves and okay grandma because it's very straightforward. You know we we. We know. But we're just asking you if you just to make sure actually I've been watching Lago since nineteen eighty five when it was just being developed. And it's been so lie go. Everybody is This is a interferometry gravitational wave observatory and it's a two giant facilities One Louisiana one in Washington state correct watches for the tiny ripples. Exactly that's what they were designed to do so That is probably the most forceful piece of evidence I can give you. That space is not a nothing but in fact the the Greeks actually knew this. If you look back and studied Greek philosophy. You'll see that one of the arguments about space being an absent is you can't move through nothing so it's gotta be something the other part of the answer. I would tell you is because of quantum mechanics. We know that even if you try to take all the particles out of a region of space there are quantum fluctuations and something appears there as if spontaneously perhaps an incredibly short time but it is not just empty so we know of no perfect vacuum in nature if you look at quantum field theory there. Brian is that is that helping. So space is is not the word. Vacuum is more of a laboratory. Idea is and it's typically army all the molecule. That's exactly issue about sucking the stuff out of a region that's where we talk about of vacuum typically it sucking air molecules region when when you go out and space like. I said you can't stop quantum mechanics so it can put stuff there when you're not looking Strings energy something energy manifested by something else that right now today we're calling string CETERA. Starting to say before. We got a gripper. Brian on the line. You were starting to say that. That strings might not just be creating particles but they might be creating space itself. That is correct so I feel like this is the time to start to understand what you mean by that. I meant exactly that that space and time since I signed teaches. Us issued the same thing. Those two are vibrations of strings and so the model of the string is that it is the ultimate author of everything in our universe including space and time before we get deeper into this E A science class science pass on the line and I feel like we need to have the science class on the show to. Yes yes I sorry to go off on a thing their science. I'm sorry I didn't mean to set you off. No it's I think it's part of the charm. Correct me if I'm wrong so Jason. Are you the science teacher I am? What grade are you teaching? Or what class are you teaching? I have eleventh and Twelfth Grade. Ap Students Right. So do they call you Jason? Or do they call you Mr something or doctor Mr Mr Dirty Mr dirty so Mr Dorothy and your class you have a question. We do I was actually going to talk about today with the kids. And then I saw your tweet about Einstein relativity so the question we came up with is like gravity waves. One of the last big discoveries. GotTa say we're trying to be disciplined. Its gravitational waves a night joking. You're talking about climate change and and Trying to understand the patterns that are seemed to make storms linger. Those are connected with what we believe what we're generally called gravity waves just like to get in the habit of gravitational waves take it. Yes Mr Bill and I actually halted the production of his TV show because somebody said just trying to say gravity waves so words include more than they leave out. But that's all right back to you and your question. Waves take it. I was just corrected by Bill. Nye Love it more than one of my dreams come true. We're just trying to get in the habit of not lumping the two things together go ahead go ahead gravitational as we know. That was one of the last major predictions that I'm signs. General theory of relativity had that had been left left to be proven still and I was even just a few years ago. Are there any other major predictions that Einstein's theory of relativity that we're still searching for that is fantastic? What a great question and we have V. Guide Answer. I'm not sure if I'm the guy the guy that Mr Doherty I sorry to in your class but as to my awareness that was the last big question. The there is one tiny question however which we have you not Answered and that is are these gravitational waves like light ways and carry energy in Quanta. Because Dad we don't know yet. Yeah are you guys put another way? Are you all going to find a graviton? That's exactly cool and bill So you know. I'm a star Trek Fan. It'll be like we have seen the gravitons they talk about Star Trek. And then if you see a graviton what will that tell you? Well first of all give us a lot of confidence that we're not crazy. Okay that's something you always have to do. A self check with nature and science is all about a conversation with nature in the nature so complicated. It's easy for humans to get it wrong so we need to have air filtration. So that's one thing. As knowing gravitons earlier we give verifications. The other thing then will be once. We know that it's going to be a really big push to say. What is the mathematics of these Quan ties energy caring gravitons because that mathematics doesn't exist completely right? We have no quantum theory have Aminov complete theory of quantum gravity. So what we have theory of everything yet. That's right we don't so Mr Dory's class who knows what the future is for you. All it's amazing. Stick around the more science rules after this. If you're like me Having the right answer is so satisfying so whether solving a problem at work or exchanging Trivia with friends. Knowing what you're talking about is this disc makes you feel great. That's why we have the great courses. Plus you can export everything from Egyptian hieroglyphs to life on Mars. If you sign up and I think you should. 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Hey we've got another caller on the line and you see who's calling We have Isabel Isabel. Are you there? Hello Welcome to the show thank you where are you calling from New York? New York The town so Nice. They named it twice. And what is your question so I was just wondering since we're on the topic of Einstein you know If you had any opinions on your contemporaries if you thought that there is like a modern-day Einstein or who the next Einstein is going to be well predicting the next. Einstein is a losing proposition Mother Nature and time and the universe and Providence. All these mysterious words that in that domain could when make predictions I. I can't predict the next album. Is that well? There's there's a question people ask is the way science is done today. Would could there even be another? Einstein is so complicated distributed. You think they're absolutely think they could be. Because if you look at the way Einstein actually worked his genius is not that he was a better mathematician than the people around. Because he wasn't there were people who far more Accomplished Mathematician Fach even his great theory of gravity probably was invented a few days or weeks earlier than he did by a mathematician. David Hilbert so that wasn't his strength. His strength was the was this crystalline perception of how the math and the reality could be tied together and that is an ability. That is almost like a someone who can do art. So that's what we need to solve our problems. Not Someone who's like a super computer who who can just go ahead and just take the math and bang on tables and get answers to come out. We need someone that has that. Act OF CRYSTALLINE clarity but is is there anybody who you talked to today when you when you when you're with them you think Oh. This person has some of that quality of mind. There are numbers of people. I know I think most people my community will tell you that the most prominent and distinguished mathematical physicist of my generation a man named Edward Witten who the public mostly has never heard of. You mentioned him earlier. I did indeed. I've known since nineteen seventy five He. He's a he's a friend A his family my family of done some things together when my kids were little in his little But he is absolutely his mind is just the first time I met it. I I was afraid I hit chosen the wrong business. It wasn't until I figured out. Jesus have blind spots I said I. I'll be okay. Because he was the one who who came up with some of the fundamental ideas of string absolutely. He is absolutely so we have another car. So thank you Isabelle. Someone's calling from overseas. Who is it hello? My name is Leeann from Belgium. Grow where where in Belgium in Belgium the best of the best food there is so yes. Take it it is. We do have good now. I saw your tweet on Angstrom and the greatest scientists and with regards to eligibility and our inability to see the speed of light. Are we going to be able to create a different type of abortion system that Sidesteps the speed of black restrictions such debts we can actually traveled to other stars in a human timeframe. Well that's a great question. Now you're talking now. That's a great question and I have to have to give you the answer that I've told people for years In order to travel fassi-fihri Flight Albert Einstein at some level going to have to be falsified because his math that puts at speed limit on us. The first person who finds the alternative version of mathematics that's consistent with the universe will That then go and say gee I can build a starship. That person is going to have to be working on something like the equations of string theory and since none of us have a complete picture even that I have no eventually question. What about wormholes? That's the sort of like the the handling answer. That always comes up in the science fiction stories. Is that a physically real thing. It turns out that if you look deeply in the mathematics of wormholes. There's this one sort of problem. It's negative energy. In order to create wormholes consistent with the laws that Albert Einstein gave us. You have to have the stuff. That's negative energy. We're we're not even sure what it is or we certainly don't know whether it exists. And so if you had some way to tell you negative Mitch Essay fine sign me up for your starship tomorrow. So hang on. This would be a situation where energy would not be there That somehow energy could leave a space or a space time. And there'd be a place in space time with no energy sort of it's more a little bit more complicated than that but the if the only the closest thing that general relativity give us that allows the construction rose demand form of energy. You know it's math right. It's just mad so you look at the math and you look at what it says. And you want this configuration of the wormhole you find out that the sign that you call energy has to be the one. That's different from our usual side. That's what we can tell you okay. So here's the other thing that comes up all the time in the science fiction stories tack Yawns. Is that a real concept that a real thing. I will attack on Israel. Math of physical theoretical physics cut math concepts. In fact it is in fact at the foundation of why strings are technically super strings came into existence. The first generation of strings were actually built in the sixties. They are mathematically inconsistent because they contain tacky on. So it's a real attack down as a particle that moves backward in time. A tacky on is a particle has. Who's mask when you square? It is still a negative number. Sure well sure right. Exactly right to sell so-called imaginary number so my whole world you know in control systems autopilots based on imaginary numbers. I have a whole imaginary life but we don't need to get into that so the so the point is that tax a real in in in the real sense of mathematics however if you admit tack Yanji Rented Orchestra Problems like probabilities might be negative or greater than one. So if you're gonNA say that quantum mechanics requires probability you don't want tack yachts probabilities Greater Than One. Yeah does that mean something to do with the New York Knicks losing because I don't know so tacking problematic in physics. Okay so I think we've sort of answered your question or at least we've answered your question as well as we can that that Time travel is not possible with physics. We know but we don't know what comes consul right. We all want to travel faster than light. We all want to go to another part of the universe at another time instantly but so far we still can't do it. Life Sucks Menu. Di- well actually glad that people are not going into my past and like a changing MSN salary. I'm I'm perfectly fine and that Corey. Do you see the clouds on the horizon I do. It's getting dark. I feel rain. I hear thunder. It's the lightning round. That's exactly right my friends so here we go Jim. Okay Jim are you ready for our dream is that we get a quick. Yeah that's our dream. Let's try here. We go when we see another relativity level discovery in physics. My guess is about a hundred years one hundred years one century. There we go. What's one thing about Einstein that most people misunderstand that Albert Einstein started his career talking about gravity by making an error by making a mistake? Yes and what was that mistake He didn't correctly predict how light would be bent around the Sun He predicted incorrectly. Yes but then this famous day where everybody goes and looks at Mercury. Hit a factor of two error. If I'm remembering things exactly right we have lower that in our book. Yeah Okay next question. What is one thing that noise you about? Einstein what bugs you the most annoying thing about Albert Einstein to me was his lack of consideration for the women in his life. What So he did not treat them respectfully. I respectfully at all nor you should go. Look for some of the things brothers about him and women. I mean this guy was in the modern ACURA. He was a dog a dog. Cab Do you have a favorite Particle Subatomic particle? My Favorite Subatomic particle is the super-partner to the w bows on. Its name is spelled W. I know the wine that's right. That's why it's my favorite and does it exist We don't know yet we could. We tried to find evidence at the Elliott. See so far. We've not seen so you've been looking around for Weiner's and you just can't find them. Unless there's a trace percentage do you have a favorite force physical force out there gravitation because it is a pathway to understanding the structure of everything us the universe? The whole thing are there implications for string theory right now that are affecting us in our everyday life. None that I know of bill really except you're looking for the next answer the next secret of the universe. That's the only effect that I can do. Well that is pretty good. I mean this is something that fills me with reverence every day and I really appreciate you taking the time to come talk with us. I have one last question. Sure I wanna ask you something about you okay. I look at Corey. Look at me. We are a product of just being born in the United States. I'm the dorkiest white guy you're ever GonNa meet but you are from a little different ancestry and your plan in the league with a bunch of other white guys did you. Were you working against or with a lot of racism and coming up in the world of Physics Bill? My life has been really extraordinarily weird by in the US Army for twenty seven years and that meant that I was born in Nineteen fifty so number. One kid you're a Kenya right. That means that I had a chance to grow up in diverse communities before the word existed because of the nineteen fifties the only place diversity existed was actually the military. It's something people don't know that's item number. One about the weirdness and you moved around by the time I was in sixth grade. I had been six different schools all in the US or overseas All in the US. I was four years old and living in Canada before starting school when I discovered this thing called science and became absolutely convinced that Asia. That's what I wanted to do with my life so it's very organic with me. It's not that someone pushed me into doing this on the first person in my family to go to college and I got to bachelors degrees in four years from mit and then a PhD. Four years later. I was a post doc at Harvard for three years and then I went to Caltech. I just flew in here from Caltech yesterday and I just found out that. Apparently I was the first african-american a post doc. In the mathematics astronomy and Physics Division. They ever hired accounting so for me. I try to tell people yes first of all. There's an in my experience of the United States The issue of races are has always been present Race was designed to this country to designate those who would receive benefits and those who would suffer degradation that was in our initial concept of race in this country. Now we've moved on to some degree although it's a struggle still but for me personally. I've always had this sense that there's something about the way my life was put together. That made me a physicist that made me passionate about doing physics and that there was a question out there in physics that had my name on and all I had to do is try to figure out what that question was and try to come up with the answer but I'm absolutely convinced that the reason diversity is important because different people are going to come up with different. Ideas is just like in music. I love classical music bill but also jazz and RB right and with how people thinking differently. We don't get Harvey so we Richard Musically. Because she knew that a very strong suspicion that science will be richer when more people like me practice it so I sell time have by way of example. Half the people in the world are women and girls. So let's have half the scientists and engineers be women for crime and the other thing that I mean I never dealt with what you have dealt with it but people are more alike than they are different. This is all I mean as different as we seem to be It's literally skin deep. And so I just think the future is bright but man. We have a long way to go. Is your leadership You were talking before about about blind spots and I I think first of all if you want to fill those blind spots you what people with many different ways of looking at the world as possible but also I mean raises itself a blind spot for a lot of people. Yeah but one of the marvelous things about science is that it tells us something. Philosophers have said for for Millennia. There were all election-related at we know this from our genome to me the fact that I know that you are literally a relative of mine. Yes this is just like mind blowing everybody we all have a common ancestor and a very everyone is very closely related. Yes like diversity of of the of Homo Sapiens. Tiny exactly so. We got squeezed through this. That is the Valley of death. There was a time when almost all humans on the planet died. Those survivors are ancestor. Here we are people. Hey let's make something good. Yeah thank you so much for taking this discussion is Jim has just been cool before we go. Let's promote your book. The name of the book is proving Einstein. Riot co-authored with Kathy Peletier a novelist. And it's not your usual science book. It's actually written to for every person not just for those of science. I don't think it's going to be one hundred years. I think you guys are not happen. Very cool string theory before that. So everybody thank you for listening The spin fantastic episode about string theory in the nature of the cosmos. I'm Bill Nye. I'm curious Powell and remember when it comes to the relativistic filament bound. Nature of the universe. Science rules if you like science rules and I hope you do. Please take a moment to rate and review it in Apple podcasts and on stitcher. It helps us out help. Other people learn about the shows that eighty two can turn it up loud. Thank you be sure to look at my socials. Are the gram the booking of face the tweeting for windy call into the show. I'm at Bill Nye on all those things. And meanwhile if you'd like to leave us a voicemail voicemail or more things give us a call at two zero one four seven two zero seven eight five two zero one four seven two zero seven eight five science roses produced by Claire Rawlinson and the very same. Glorious Powell. Our engineer today is Jared O'CONNELL Casey Hawford mixed this episode and composed our original theme music special. Thanks to Jordan Bell and Ashley Warren Greetings Daisy Rosaras. Our executive producer. Chris Bannon is the CEO the chief content officer at Stitcher and it. Stitcher as you all know science rules.

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