Oklahoma City Bombing | 19
Hey I'm Eric docker and I'm the host of wait. There's more global twenty minute Daily News podcast this week. We're dedicating all our episodes to the corona virus pandemic. We're talking about it from a variety of different angles from basic health questions to the impact. This is going to have on the economy. We release a new episode every afternoon. And you can listen wherever you got your favorite podcasts. On the morning of April Nineteenth nineteen ninety five an ex-soldier and security guard parked rented Ryder truck in front of the north side of the nine-story. Alfred P Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City. The truck was packed with nearly five thousand pounds of explosives a meeting. That was being taped building across the street captured. What happened at exactly nine? Oh two morning regarding one hundred and sixty eight. People including nineteen children were killed in the explosion and five hundred more were injured. I'm Catholic and this is the history of the nineties. A podcast about a decade. That changed the world in this episode. We're taking you through the devastating story of the Oklahoma City bombing with the help of someone who survived the blast as we try to understand the day that changed the face of terrorism in the United States forever on that day in one thousand nine hundred ninety five. The heart was torn out of America's heartland the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest. Us bombing since Drawn carriage packed with one hundred pounds of dynamite in five hundred. Pounds of iron was detonated outside the headquarters of J. P. Morgan Bank on Wall Street in Nineteen Twenty and until nine eleven. It was the worst of terrorism in. Us history. The media was quick to speculate that Islamic fundamentalists might have carried out the attack. There were similarities with two other bombings where Islamic fundamentalists were involved. One in one thousand nine hundred eighty three at the US Marine Corps barracks in Beirut and the other in the underground garage of the World Trade Center in New York two years earlier in nineteen ninety-three but Americans were shocked when they learned it was one of their own who committed this unbelievable act of terror to really understand what happened. Let's first look at the events as they unfolded seven. Am April Nineteenth. Nineteen ninety five. Timothy McVeigh a decorated. Us military veteran woke up and drove a rented. Ryder truck packed with thirteen barrels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and racing fuel to Oklahoma City. A few minutes before nine o'clock mcvay pulled over near the Alfred p Murrah building and lit the fuse he continued driving then stopped at a light and lit the second fuse nine. Am McVeigh pulled into a parking lot in front of the Federal Building? He turned off the ignition. Set the parking brake and then drop the key behind the front seat. He then got out of the vehicle and locked the door behind him and calmly walked away. Cross the street into a parking lot and then down an alley. Then he started to jog. Mcvay turned down another alley and when he was about twenty feet into that Ali. The bomb went off. He took out the earplugs. He was wearing and kept going. He passed several people talking to at least one then. He got into the getaway car he had left in place earlier. In one thousand nine hundred seventy seven mercury marquee that he bought for two hundred fifty dollars five days before in Junction City. Kansas and he headed north on the I thirty five at around ten. Am He was pulled over by state? Trooper Charles Hanger. Because the getaway car didn't have a license plate. It was like he wanted to get caught. During the stop. The trooper also noticed that McVeigh was carrying a concealed gun. A Glock semiautomatic pistol when McVeigh was arrested and taken into custody. The Tall Skinny Twenty six year old with a short brown brush cut was wearing a t shirt with a picture on it of Abraham Lincoln. It also had on it. The words shouted by Lincoln's assassin. John Wilkes booth SIC semper tyrannus which translates to thus always to tyrants. You can see the shirt and McVeigh's now famous mugshots. On the back of that shirt was a quote from Thomas Jefferson. The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of Patriots. And tyrants he was also carrying an envelope with various pieces of paper and clippings from books and newspapers. There were pages from a book called the Turner Diaries. This book is a favorite of right wing militia types. It's a fictional book about an attack on a federal building by anti-government Patriots using a truck bomb and McVeigh had a piece of paper with the quote when the government fears the People. There is liberty underneath it. Mcvay had handwritten. Maybe now there would be liberty meantime back. In Oklahoma City. The scene. Immediately after the blast apocalyptic the federal building which took up a full block was bisected like the front half of the building had been ripped off as it was blown away by the truck. Bomb the complete north side of the building was just gone. Those working in the front offices of the nine-story building tumbled to the street below the devastation and loss was hard to comprehend. The blast could be felt over thirty miles away and blew out the windows in nearly every building. Within a five block radius there was glass and debris scattered everywhere cars on the street. Were incinerated a woman. Getting out of her parked car at that exact moment was burned to death. Survivors ran from the scene. Some with their clothing blown off glass and PLASTER STUCK TO THEIR BODIES. There were trails of blood for blocks. Rescue efforts were instantaneous. And massive triage centers were set up all around the Murrah building to treat the wounded hundreds of doctors nurses medics and volunteers reported to the scene of the explosion and at local hospitals the tragedy affected so many Rebecca Anderson thirty-seven-year-old nurse rushed to the Murrah building to help. She was hit on the head with a piece of falling debris initially. She said she was okay but within minutes she collapsed and she was rushed to hospital where she died. Four days later more than five hundred federal employees worked in the Alfred P Murrah Building. It housed offices for several federal agencies including the ATF. The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms along with the Social Security Office Veterans Affairs the DA which stands for the Drug Enforcement Agency and Housing and urban development. There was also a daycare center on the second floor. Forty-one children were enrolled at the center and on any given day about thirty of them attended when the blast occurred. Parents were just dropping off their youngsters after the blast the daycare was completely gone when the smoke cleared on the first day. Emergency workers tag the feet of at least a dozen children two were burned beyond recognition bodies of the rest were mangled emergency workers dug through piles of wall panels carpet brick steel girders concrete floors and office furniture to reach survivors buried beneath the rubble very slow tedious process of removing debris and extricating doughty's searching for survivors. You hope and you pray that every time you turn stone they'll be a survivor. Someone get hurt deep down why someone would do something of this magnitude. Just Terry. Tally worked on the third floor of the Murrah building at the Federal Employees Credit Union. She had just sat down at her desk. When the bomb went off by the time she stopped falling. She was in the basement. Trapped under piles of debris Terry says when she came to the first time she thought it was a terrible dream and I thought this can't be real. I mean we've all had dream like that know. This cannot be real awful awful with really loud. I didn't hear the bomb. I didn't I don't know if you close or at that time. It just wasn't real to me. I don't know it was really really fast. You know so I really can't say I just know when I came to my God. This is during in. Of course I said you know I'll just go to sleep and when I wake up everything will be okay but of course when I came to a second time. It wasn't the next time Terry came to. She thought she must have been in a car accident. She was buried in concrete and granite and she couldn't see or breathe very well so she couldn't even call out for help. Someone nearby was screaming for help. So Terry hope that when rescuers for that person they would find her to retired firefighter. Rowdy Baxter who was near the Murrah building when the bomb went off rushed to the scene and began searching for survivors actually passed me up. The first time he saw he saw me but basically he said. I was in the wall of concrete and granite and just a little cold the little party showing and I had were houndstooth. Check as so. He thought it was a couch cushion so he yeah so we just passed me up they gonna and then he said. I don't know something just kind of made me WanNa go back and check and I'm thankful because he he did detached me and I get me out of here. Rowdy called for help and other rescuers joined him as they frantically dugout Terry before they could get her out. All rescue workers were ordered to leave the building because authorities thought they had found another bomb. Mike I did not leave which was awesome. My first that first guy that had come up to me felt that if they were to leave I would make it so they stuck out with me. There weren't too many that stay behind that he told the others who are just. Don't want to leave her. And so a are just working harder. Finally two hours after the explosion Terry was free from the waist. Up worried about the possibility of another bomb. Rescuers pulled her free from the wreckage breaking her ankle in the process but she was alive unlike so many others. Eighteen of Terry's co workers died dot day while Terry's dramatic rescue was taking place. Others were frantically trying to save twenty year old Dana Bradley. Who just happened to be in the building that day to get a social security card for her four month old son she was pinned beneath a concrete wall in the flooded basement and was buried under so much debris that it took rescuers ninety minutes just to get oxygen and a blanket tour. Eventually doctors made the decision that the only way to save her was to amputate her right leg below the knee but she had lost so much blood that doctors were unable to find a vein to give her proper anesthetic so they gave her an intramuscular painkiller which is about fifty percent as effective working by the light of a generator a surgeon and another doctor lying on their stomachs. A couple inches of water took ten minutes to perform the amputation. They tied off her leg with a nylon cord. Then with a scalpel and eventually a pocket knife. The doctors removed her leg. That pocket knife is still on display at the National Memorial Museum. Dana lost much more than her leg that day. Her infant son with her three year old son and her mother were killed in the blast. They had all gone with her to get the social security card for the newborn. Shortly after the blast a twenty five year old bank employees in the area started taking photos of the horrific scene he quickly went to Walmart to have them developed and the photos he captured caused the three clerks at the photo desk. To start weeping you probably remember the images snapped by this amateur photographer. Like the one of a police sergeant who pulled a baby out of the rubble handing her to a firefighter or the one of a firefighter carrying the limp body of the blood soaked baby girl at his arms within hours. Those photos were transmitted on the associated. Press a photo wire and by the next morning they were in newspapers around the world. Those images became a grim symbol of the bombing and some of the very first images that the world saw of this horrible event. The baby in the picture was Baylee Almon. She had turned one just the day before on April eighteenth. She didn't survive. She was pronounced dead at the scene and the days that followed the photographer. Charles Porter said he wished he never took the pictures and he couldn't even bring himself to pick up his camera again. He was worried that the photo had hurt. Bailey's family but soon he was introduced to the baby's mother and she said the photo had actually helped her. Aaron Allman said that she never would have known that her baby was treated so well. If those pictures hadn't been taken when the Sun came up on April Twentieth Downtown Oklahoma City still looks like a war zone. Every single street was littered with broken glass. A one story building two and a half blocks away collapsed after being weakened by the blast at least seventy five. Downtown buildings were damaged beyond repair including some of the city's oldest churches at the bomb site. The search for survivors had slowed to a hopeless crawl station. There's there's no semblance on any of the floors that remaining to the office environment Then you might make a semblance of a desk or foul cabinet. Best Gear sucked out from the team. This morning was After putting their heads together through the night and looking at it we're probably looking at four to six days before they can give meaning. High percentage of the assurance. Building is clear. There were still some unexplored. Cavities that might support human life. But there was little hope of finding anyone alive on the lower and remember. The daycare center was on the second floor inside the wreckage. The stench of decaying flesh had become so strong that firemen and medical examiners had to wear masks and smear vicks vapor rub or oil of winter green under their noses bodies were visible but they couldn't be extricated from the debris at the medical examiner's office authorities were using dental records fingerprints and birthmarks to identify the dead medical authorities. Said the first seventy two hours would be critical in the search for survivors and when that deadline passed without finding anyone else alive in the rubble. Weary firefighters continue to search anyway vowing to stay on the job until they had explored every cavity might sustain life. The search was a painfully slow version of an old fashioned fire brigade one bucket out of time. Rescuers cleared the rubble bypassing. Plastic buckets along human chains that snaked back to wheelbarrows at the end of the line the FBI agents waited to sift each load for possible evidence as they burrow deeper. They began finding limbs pieces of bodies and clothing while search and rescue operations continued. An intensive hunt began for whoever was responsible for the bombing unaware that he was actually already in custody in Perry Oklahoma following that traffic. Stop on thirty. Five state Governor Frank Keating couldn't comprehend who could commit such a horrible act of violence the vicious animals that did this. Their crimes are unspeakable. They're against humanity their unforgiving. This is a what is behind us is a is a is an act wasn't active unspeakable horror and tragedy in Washington. President Bill Clinton learned about the explosion from his press secretary at about ten thirty. Am on the day of the bombing. Just as the president was beginning an Oval Office meeting with the Turkish Prime Minister. The White House Chief of staff left the meeting about a half an hour later with instructions from President Clinton to call Attorney General Janet Reno and make sure that federal agencies were coordinating their responses and had all the resources they need it proceeded on the theory that it was a terrorist attack against the government and Raya Federal law enforcement officials emergency management personnel and military forces were dispatched to Oklahoma City in an operation that constituted one of the biggest responses to a crime in American history. The Firearms Bureau said national. Emergency teams to coordinate the examination of the bomb site the analysis of the explosives and the search for fragments of the vehicle in which they believe the bomb was planted. The FBI sent four special agents to manage the investigative operation and a twenty four hour. Fbi command center with four hundred telephones was established in Oklahoma to coordinate the work of explosive teams. Bomb technicians and portable scientific gear. Used to analyze chemical residues. The president later dispatched the head of FEMA to Oklahoma City on the afternoon of the attack. President Clinton left the Oval Office periodically to watch news reports from the scene on TV in his secretary's office. He was troubled by what he saw especially the pictures of children. Who'd been killed? He also discussed the situation with Oklahoma's governor and members of the state's congressional delegation later. He wrote remarks in Longhand then went to the White House. Briefing Room at about five fifteen pm to deliver his remarks to the waiting reporters the bombing in Oklahoma City was an attack on innocent children and defenseless citizens. It was an act of cowardice and it was evil the United States will not tolerate it and I will not allow the people of this country to be intimidated by evil cowards. He was joined at the news conference. By attorney. General Janet Reno who was grilled by reporters over who might be responsible for the attack twisted. That happened on the second anniversary of the pursuit again. We are pursuing all leads. We cannot tell exactly what happened or who is responsible and it would be better not to comment until we can conclusively talk about it. Does anyone called to claim responsibility for this? Any credible group again. I don't think that I should comment on the evidence because to do so would hinder the investigation. And it was a car-bomb again. I cannot confirm any evidence. Entry leads that we're pursuing. Because I think that would hinder the investigation mother government or governments or would military retaliation the appropriate media. I don't think that we should deal with what ifs I think. We should make sure that those people who are responsible and pursued and brought to justice at this point authorities simply didn't have any solid leads or suspects so investigators considered two possibilities. The I was put this bombing in fact be linked to the WACO seizure since the blast occurred on the second anniversary of the fiery ending to that siege if you're not familiar role in nineteen ninety-three local ATF. Agents attempted to raid the compound of the branch Davidians in Waco Texas looking for illegal explosives agents ended up in a gunfight fight with members of the cult then following a fifty one day standoff the Fbi tear-gas the compound and the Davidians set multiple fires more than eighty people were killed in the flames including twenty two children. The aggressive response by federal agents triggered criticism from right wing militia groups and other anti government factions. Some law enforcement officials. Thought it was possible. They had something to do with the bombing in city but others disagreed. They thought there was no way. The branch Davidians or militia had the technical expertise to build such a massive bomb. The second possible cause focused on the chance that the attack had been the work of Islamic militants like those who bombed the World Trade Center in February nineteen ninety-three but if that were the case it was unclear why they would target Oklahoma City. Some middle groups held meetings there and the city was home to at least three mosques but of the estimated five million Muslims in the US in one thousand nine hundred ninety five very few actually lived in Oklahoma City several news organizations including CNN reported that investigators were questioning several men described as being Middle Eastern in appearance to in Dallas one. In Oklahoma City and another in London England some Arab American organizations expressed fear of backlash and said it was unfair to implicate Muslims without any evidence in the confusion following the bombing. Investigators really struggled to find a solid lead. Then they got a break would eventually take them down a completely different. An unexpected path more than a city block away from the Federal Building. Investigators found a rear axle. That they believed was part of the truck that carried the bomb. The force of the explosion sent two hundred and fifty pounds of twisted metal rolling through the air it landed on the hood of a parked car narrowly missing three people that. Axel was stamped with a vehicle identification number so investigators were able to quickly trace it back to a Ryder rental agency. Two hundred and forty five miles away in junction city Kansas agents race to that shop but found the license used to rent. The truck was a fake but the owner of the writer agency was able to provide enough of a description so that composite sketches of two suspects were prepared on April twentieth. The sketches of John Doe Number One and John Doe number two were released to the public and authorities confirmed they did not appear to be Middle Eastern and the owner of the writer. Agency said they didn't speak with accents. Attorney General Janet Reno announced a two million dollar reward for information leading to arrests in this case investigators in junction city. Kansas interviewed everyone in town. Hoping anyone else had also seen the two men they went to the dreamland motel and asked if anyone matching the sketches had stayed there the manager remembered a man who looked like John DOE Number One. They checked records in this time. John DOE number. One had not used an alias. He signed the Card Timothy McVeigh. Meanwhile McVeigh was still sitting in Noble County jail in Perry Oklahoma and he was just hours away from a scheduled arraignment that could have resulted in his release on five hundred dollars. Bail for the gun and traffic charges but before that could happen the FBI traced mcvay to the jail cell in Perry and contacted authorities with instructions. Not Release Him. Attorney General. Janet Reno broke the news to awaiting nation director. Freeh and I have just spoken with the president and I am pleased to announce that one of the individuals believed to be responsible for Wednesday's terrible attack on the mirror of federal building. In Oklahoma City has been arrested. Timothy McVeigh aged twenty seven who we previously call John Doe Number One. The man with the Light Brown crewcut was arrested by local authorities on a traffic violation about sixty miles from Oklahoma City on Wednesday morning. About an hour and a half. After the explosion occurred at the time of his arrest. He was in the possession of a firearm. He has been in the local jail since the arrest he will be taken into custody by the FBI searches are being planned and executed at several locations around the country this afternoon. I remind everyone that John Doe number two remains at large. He should be considered armed and extremely dangerous. There is a strong likelihood that other persons are involved in this tragedy as well in the county jail and Perry Oklahoma. Fbi agents arrested McVeigh. He was transported in handcuffs and leg irons from the small jail to a waiting van. That took him to a helicopter that would take him back to Oklahoma City for an arraignment when he emerged from the courthouse in Perry Oklahoma. It was the first time the world saw the face of the man accused of this horrible act of terrorism. He was dressed in is orange prison jumpsuit and showed no emotion as a crowd of at least two hundred fifty people booed and shouted baby killer and bastard as he was led to a waiting van when McVeigh registered at the Dreamland Motel in junction city. Kansas five days before the bombing he gave a home address of Decker Michigan. That address led agents to a farm belonging to James Nichols James. Had a brother named Terry Nichols who used to live on the farm as well but had recently relocated to Kansas? Both James and Terry had links to a paramilitary group called the Michigan Militia. The same day McVeigh was arrested. The Nichols brothers. Were also taken into custody for questioning and held as material witnesses before we continue with the story of the Oklahoma City bombing. Let's take a second here to talk about. American militias there at the center of this story and these extremist anti-government groups were a growing phenomenon in the US. In the ninety s I already mentioned the deadly raid by federal officials in Waco Texas in Nineteen ninety-three but there was also one in Ruby Ridge Idaho in Nineteen ninety-two in that case things went horribly wrong when ATF agents and US marshals went to arrest right wing activist randy weaver for selling illegal weapons weaver's wife and fourteen year old son along with a US marshal were killed during an eleven day standoff at the family's remote cabin weaver eventually surrendered but the actions by agents at Ruby Ridge along with the deadly siege at Waco outraged fringe segments of society which included militia groups members of those groups fervently supported gun rights and many had a burning hatred for the government. They call themselves patriots. And we're prepared to defend the country against its own leaders among their concerns was the belief that the government planned to wage a war against citizens who refused to give up their guns the Michigan militia. Who the Nichols brothers had been linked to was one of the most prominent of these groups and during the nineties reportedly had up to ten thousand members on April. Twenty third four days after the bombing. A ninety minute prayer service was held at the Oklahoma State fairgrounds about two and a half miles away from the blast site. More than twenty thousand people stood in line for nearly three hours to pray with President Clinton and the evangelist Preacher Billy. Graham for the victims of the disaster the massive crowds spilled from the state fairgrounds arena to an exhibition hall and a Baseball Stadium. Where the prayer service was broadcast loudspeakers the anger. You feel this valid. But you must not allow yourselves to be consumed by it. The hurt you feel must not be allowed to turn into hate but instead into the search for justice after the service Clinton met with the mother of Little Bailee Almon. The baby who was photographed being carried out of the building in the arms of a firefighter. Clinton told Aaron Almond that he was sorry. His eyes brimmed over with tears as he hugged her. The next day Bailey was buried in a tiny white coffin covered with pink carnations white daisies and a pink ribbon. That read Miss Bailey. The stories of the dead. Children were absolutely heartbreaking. Two little brothers aged two and five. Who were buried in a coffin together? Because their family couldn't bear the thought of them being separated a four year old girl who was killed in the blast. She was at the building with her grandparents. Who were at the Social Security Office to fill out some paperwork? Her grandparents bodies were missing in the rubble. A mother who ran to the scene and frantically searched the area for her son. She had dropped him off at the Daycare Center that morning. She climbed the pile of debris in front of the building until rescue workers. Begged her to leave when our son's body was found and sent to a funeral home. Funeral director persuaded her not to look at his body. Because it was too badly mangled. After the prayer service rescuers continued their work using jackhammers and chainsaws to remove a three meter. High pile of rubble pancaked on the area nine floors of concrete steel rods air ducts. Electric cables and furniture were telescoped into an area of the basement. Now called the pit by firefighters as they got closer to the rubble from the daycare center. They began to uncover children's shoes pieces of clothing and coloring books. With every step rescuer stumbled and fell. They wore through kneepads and boots during a two hour shift as they cleared one area they race to shore up leaning walls and collapse ceilings with huge pieces of timber and steel girders. It was a massive task that seemed never ending and with every new discovery. More Soro on April twenty fifth two days after the Prayer Service on the Oklahoma State fairgrounds investigators charged the two nichols brothers. Terry Nichols and forty-one-year-old James Nichols were charged with plotting with McVeigh to make explosive devices in Michigan in Nineteen ninety-two in one thousand. Nine hundred four but these charges were not related to the Oklahoma City bombing. It was revealed that Terry Nichols and McVeigh were army buddies and both had been stationed in the late eighties at Fort Riley Kansas which is near junction city where the Ryder truck was rented. Fbi agents confiscated thirty. Three firearms. From Terry Nichols home in Herington Kansas. They also found an antitank rocket and devices that can be used as blasting mechanisms. The affidavit used to charge James Nichols said that police found twenty eight bags of fertilizer and a drum of fuel oil on his farm in Decker Michigan similar substances. Were used to make the Oklahoma City bomb in the meantime vapor fuse to talk with authorities claiming he was a political prisoner. He refused to disclose anything more than his name. Rank and serial number eventually the world learn that McVeigh earned the bronze star in the Persian Gulf War for years prior to the bombing in Oklahoma City. He grew up in upstate. New York and after high school joined the army he first went to Fort Benning in Georgia. And that's where he met. Terry Nichols they served in Fort Benning in the same platoon. Before they were both sent to Fort Riley. Kansas while in the army mcvay started to develop a dislike for the federal government. He didn't WANNA pay taxes. He didn't want laws that curtailed his right to own guns. He became obsessed with the book. The Turner Diaries which I mentioned earlier. The one that tells the fictional story of a group of well our men and women who call themselves the Patriots. They want to overthrow the federal government by use of force and violence and they do so by making a fertilizer bomb and placing it in the back of a truck that explodes in front of the Federal Building in downtown Washington. D C. Mcvay carried the book with him everywhere and gave out copies to his friends and family and urge them all. Tarita when the siege occurred in Waco. Texas McVeigh drove down to the compound to show his support for cult. Leader David Koresh and to sell anti-government bumper stickers after the fiery conclusion to the siege McVeigh grew more and more outraged with the government. He developed a burning hatred and he blamed the government for intentionally murdering the branch. Davidians on April Nineteenth nineteen ninety-three he described the incident as the government's declaration of war against the American people so mcvay decided he needed to strike back for the next two years. He educated himself on how to make a fertilizer bomb using ammonium nitrate fertilizer and racing. Fuel with the help of Terry Nichols. He gathered the materials he needed to tons of fertilizer fuel. Detonation courts and barrels they stored the materials in rented storage lockers in. Kansas McVeigh pick the federal building in Oklahoma City because he believed ATF an FBI agents responsible for the Waco tragedy had their offices there several of the ATF. Agents involved in the initial raid at Waco did in fact work in the building but none of the FBI agents involved in Waco had offices there mcvay also picked the Oklahoma City federal building because he thought it was an easy target. It was also convenience. The building was close to Kansas. Where Terry Nichols lived just blocks away from the interstate highway and there was a perfect parking spot in front of the north side of the building. He picked the nineteenth of April because it was the second anniversary of Waco but also April nineteenth. Seventeen seventy five is the day that the American Revolution is reported to have begun. That's the day the opening shot was fired. In the battles of Lexington and concord which marked the beginning of the American Revolutionary War Against Britain? That day is known as Liberty Day or Patriots Day. And it's become sort of a high holiday for radical right groups who believe they live under the thumb of a tyrany back at the site of the bombing. Rescuers continued to search the building until may fifth sixteen days after the blast. It was finally called off out of fear that part of the federal building would collapse on rescuers all but two bodies were recovered. The bodies of two women who worked on the third floor in the Federal Employees Credit Union were never found. Bagpipes played amazing. Grace as rescue workers held an emotional farewell ceremony at the site to mark the end of the grueling. Search During the twenty minute ceremony officials placed a wreath in front of the building. Rescuers joined with their families and other onlookers who red roses onto the rubble. As the workers filed out industy hard hats and uniforms. Hundreds of people applauded for ten minutes. Workers kept their eyes downcast in some wiped away tears. Two and a half weeks later what remained of the Alfred. P Murrah building was demolished. Brought down by two strategically placed charges. The Oklahoma bombing shook the very foundations of security in America and things changed after that day on May Twenty First Nineteen Ninety five in response to the bombing. Us President Bill Clinton permanently closed the White House section of Pennsylvania Avenue to cars and trucks previously. Twenty six thousand cars a day pass by the White House. America's main street had been open since the beginning of the US Republic through four president assassinations and multiple wars. But not anymore to improve White House. Security eleven steps were taken including putting in more bulletproof glass in the White House. Windows and traffic behind the White House was also blocked off. Meanwhile the search for John Doe number two continued for about two months after the bombing. People were scared. What if he was planning a second attack? Many false alarms of someone being questioned or arrested were reported by the media the F. B. I. received over fourteen thousand tips. A second more detailed sketch was released. In some speculated that it might be Terry Nichols Husky twelve year old son but then in mid June two months after the bombing the FBI quietly announced that John Doe number two had been found and they concluded he wasn't involved in the Oklahoma City bombing. John DOE number. Two was actually an innocent army private from the nearby base at Fort Riley. Who just happened to be at the Ryder truck rental at the same time as McVeigh but there were other people who would be implicated in the tragedy during the two years. That McVeigh plan the bombing. He visited several times with another army. Buddy Michael Fortier and his wife Lori. They shared his anti-government ideas and on more than one occasion mcvay described to the forty years. What he planned to do they didn't help. Mcveigh like Terry Nichols did. But they did nothing to stop the attacks or warn authorities. Mcvay also wrote a letter to his sister just before the bombing warning her that something big was about to happen. She two did nothing to intervene. Jennifer McVeigh and Lori Fortier both received immunity in exchange for testifying against McVeigh at his trial. Michael Fortier also testified against mcvay in a plea agreement. He pleaded guilty to gun charges and received a twelve year jail sentence fortier admitted he transported stolen guns with McVeigh that were sold to finance the bombing forty or was released from jail in two thousand and six after serving. Ten Years Terry Nichols was eventually charged in connection with the bombing and in December nineteen ninety-seven following a federal trial. Nichols was found. Guilty of conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter. In the deaths of eight federal employees. He was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole Nichols was then charged on state charges of murder in two thousand four. He was convicted on one. Hundred and sixty one counts of first degree murder but the jury was deadlocked on whether he should receive the death penalty and so he was sentenced to one hundred and sixty one consecutive life sentences with no possibility of parole. On June second nineteen ninety-seven Timothy McVeigh was found guilty. On eleven federal charges including conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction and eight counts of first degree murder. He was sentenced to death. The victims of the Oklahoma City bombing have been given not vengeance but justice and one young man met. The Fadi chose for himself six years ago for the survivors of the crime and for the families of the dead. The pain goes on final. Punishment of the guilty cannot alone. Bring peace to the innocent. It cannot recover. The loss or balanced scales entered is not meant to do so today. Every living person who was hurt by the evil done in Oklahoma City can rest in the knowledge that there has been a reckoning June. Eleventh two thousand and one. Mcveigh was executed by lethal injection at a federal prison in Indiana. He spent the final hours before his death watching television sleeping and eating two pints of mint chocolate chip ice cream which was his final request. Ten members of the victims families and survivors of the bombing. Watch the execution from a room. Beside the death chamber other survivors and family members of the Victims Watch the execution through a closed-circuit television feed more than six hundred fifty miles away in Oklahoma City McVeigh didn't make verbal statement before the execution but in a statement he quoted a section of the poem invictus which reads in part. I am the master of my fate. I am the captain of my soul. This poem was written in eighteen. Eighty five and it's been quoted in the past by world leaders such as Winston Churchill and recited by POW's the Vietnam War and by Nelson Mandela. While he was in prison on Robben Island it has inspired many to remain STOIC invoke self discipline and fortitude in the face of adversity but mcvay twisted it to mean something much more sinister The horrific bombing in Oklahoma City brought the threat of domestic terrorism into stark relief. In the aftermath the FBI added many more agents to work domestic terrorism cases an Attorney General Janet Reno Created Special Task Force to investigate domestic terrorism but not surprisingly after nine eleven the dominant business of the FBI as well as every other federal law enforcement body became international terrorism for years after the September eleventh attacks. The supposed threat posed by al-Qaeda and other Muslim groups continue to drive policy and yet according to a twenty nineteen New York Times article as the machinery of government has focused on fending off threats of violence from the Middle East Pakistan and Afghanistan at has not been paying attention to threats from within and in this atmosphere of willful indifference. Possibly deadly movement has grown and metastasized an FBI agent speaking in front of the House Homeland Security Committee in May Twenty nineteen revealed that since nine eleven more Americans have been killed by domestic terrorists motivated. By far right ideology including white supremacy anti-government an antiabortion views then international terrorists. These include the August Twenty nineteen attack in El Paso Texas that killed twenty two people. That's been called the largest domestic terrorist attack against Hispanics in modern history in two thousand eighteen eleven worshippers were killed at a synagogue in Pittsburgh and who can forget the 2017. Horrific attack were fifty eight. People were gunned down at a Las Vegas outdoor concert. As for ninety style militia groups will according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. They too are on the rise almost a decade after largely disappearing from public view right wing militias ideologically driven tax. Two fires and sovereign citizens are reappearing in large numbers around the country. They employ paper terrorism. The use of property liens and citizens courts to harass their enemies and once popular militia conspiracy. Theories are making the rounds again. This time accompanied by nativist theories about secret Mexican plans to re-conquer the American southwest. The Southern Poverty Law Center says that authorities around the country a reporting a worrying uptick in Patriot activities propaganda on the centers website. It says this is the most significant growth. We've seen in ten to twelve years. All it's lacking is a spark. It's only a matter of time before you see threats and violence. Terry tally recovered from the physical injury. She suffered in the bombing and continues to work for the Federal Employees Credit Union which is now called Allegiance Credit Union. She worked for many years with a counselor and a psychiatrist to manage symptoms of PTSD. Terry told me. She suffers from survivor's guilt and she doesn't agree with people who say that she's here for a reason. I have a hard time with that. Because you're telling me that I was left here but those babies that were on the second floor. They weren't worthy to stay here. I don't think you know God picks and chooses when it's your time I don't know I don't know what I believe I just it. I don't believe that. They thanked me over them after the bombing Terry and her husband divorced. She says partly because he was one of many people who believed in a conspiracy theories surrounding the bombing. Rumors have persisted that the ATF knew about McVeigh's attack in advance and got all of their agents out of the building but didn't warn anyone else the ATF has repeatedly denied. They had any advance knowledge of the attack. And Terry dismisses the theory as completely unbelievable as for McVeigh Terry said during his legal proceedings. She struggled with what could possibly be done to him. That would make her feel better. I honestly headed forgives him at what I did now. It wasn't instant it wasn't automatic is something I had to work through for my recovery. So then I can focus on. I could focus on me. Oklahoma City National Memorial Museum stands in the place where one hundred sixty eight people were killed in April nineteen ninety-five. Not only. Does it honor those who died or were injured that day it also pays tribute to the first responders and the everyday people who stepped in to help them. This became known as something that visiting rescue workers and journalists called the Oklahoma Standard after that Ryder truck exploded outside the Alfred p Murrah building the people of Oklahoma City band together in a community wide display spontaneous altruism cars became ambulances strangers became neighbors. People donated the shoes off their feet. People went out of their way to share everything. They had to make it comfortable for the rescue workers. The firefighters anyone who was there to help. Because that's the Oklahoma Standard. Thanks for joining me as we look back at the terrifying events in Oklahoma City. And thanks to Terry tally for sharing her story of survival. 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Rob Johnston see you next time for more history of the nineties.