Abraham Lincoln Part 1: John Wilkes Booth
Yeah. On December second eighteen fifty nine a group of soldiers erected gallows outside the town of Charlestown, West Virginia, the Virginia militia plan to execute a man named John Brown for leading an armed slave rebellion in harpers ferry West Virginia his crime threatened the southern way of life, especially at a time when the tensions over slavery were on the razor's edge of toppling into civil war at eleven o'clock in the morning soldiers led Brown out of his jail cell as Brown mounted the scaffold and slipped. His head into the news one soldier near the front of the crowd felt a Pang of sympathy. For the condemned man, he grew pale as he watched Brown's body gross still another militiaman asked the sympathetic soldier if he was okay, he replied, I feel very faint. Then a little embarrassed he straightened up and added. I would like a good stiff drink of. Whiskey? The soldiers fellows were sympathetic to his reaction. He was a new recruit on us to the side of death. They trusted he would toughen up soon enough. They were correct that soldiers name was John Wilkes booth and in around five and a half years. He would become one of history's most notorious, assassins. One death can change the world. At least that's what assassins believe welcome to assassinations on the par cast network every Monday, we examined the famous assassins of history, and the men and women who were assassinated. I'm your host Bill Thomas, and I'm your host, Kate Leonard. This is our first of three episodes on president ABRAHAM LINCOLN who led the country through the civil war and ended the practice of legal slavery in the United States as the war was winding to a close in eighteen sixty five he was assassinated by John Wilkes booth park cast. We're grateful for you our listeners you allow us to do what we love let us know how we're doing reach out on Facebook and Instagram at par cast and Twitter at par cast network. And if you enjoy today's episode the best way to help us is to leave a five star review wherever you're listening. Ng? It really does help. We also now have merchandise head to par cast dot com slash merch. For more information. Today Lincoln is regarded by historians and political scientists has one of the greatest presidents in United States history. But this wasn't always the case during his presidency. He was incredibly unpopular in eighteen sixty one when seven states seceded from the United States month before his inauguration. Lincoln took the blame one of his harshest critics was John Wilkes booth even before ABRAHAM LINCOLN was elected, president nationally renowned actor John Wilkes booth. Despised him Lincoln stood for everything booth. Hated Lincoln was a northerner. He wanted to stop the spread of slavery. And he advocated for the rights of black people more than booth despise Lincoln, though, he feared him as the civil war progressed. Lincoln invoked wartime powers and broke many norms of presidential behavior. This only fed booths belief that. Lincoln was a tyrant who would topple America's democracy in pursuit of his own power. John Wilkes booth political beliefs were shaped by the nation. He grew up in booth was born on may tenth eighteen thirty eight on a farm in Bel Air, Maryland, like many farming families at the time the booths owned numerous slaves. Slavery felt natural to John and he never questioned the institution as a child booth love to be the center of attention. His father Junius was a famous actor and respected worldwide boots older brother, Edwin became an actor too. It was no surprise when John followed in his family's footsteps and pursued a career in acting just after he turned seventeen in August eighteen fifty five booth began his professional acting career as a walking gentleman, meaning he played small roles in numerous shows performed by the same company his. I performance was in Shakespeare's Richard the third he was anything, but an instant success less than a week into professional acting career booth flubbed align during a performance of the bell stratagem and was met with boos and hisses. His later performances were similarly disastrous even though he was charismatic offstage booth struggled with severe stage fright, which led him to forget or miss speak his lines. He did so poorly as an actor that he briefly performed under the name, John Wilkes. So that his failures wouldn't negatively reflect on his brother and father, however, driven by an obsessive desire for fame booth pushed himself to overcome his nerves. It took him years of practice and failed performances, but eventually he was able to perform without forgetting his lines or making any obvious mistakes underneath his stage fright booth was actually a talented actor and by the tail end. End of the eighteen fifties. When he was in his early twenties. He was just as famous as his father and brother soon, he wants more used his full name performing as John Wilkes booth whose Embiid were aided by his natural charisma and his ability to charm, powerful and connected. People off the stage booth became a popular figure in the city of Richmond Virginia, which would later become the capital of the confederacy his place in the Virginia community cemented his identification with the southern cause as the divisions between the north and south grew deeper abolitionists had been clashing with supporters of slavery. Since before. The US constitution was even ratified over the decades numerous laws were made and then contested as people on both sides of the issue fought to control the country's destiny by the eighteen fifties. Slavery was the defining point in national politics at some point. It in the late eighteen fifties. When booth was in his late teens or early twenties. He joined the know nothing party political party that was built around opposition to immigrants the party began as a secret society and members were instructed to pretend they knew nothing about the group, which was how they got their name as the party became more mainstream. It pushed a platform to limit immigration and make it more difficult to become a naturalized citizen John Wilkes booth. Father Junius was an immigrant and John had many immigrant friends throughout his life. But he viewed the wealthy upper class immigrants. He knew as inherently different from other immigrants who are often poor or uneducated booth believed in maintaining a natural order in society and opposed any efforts to change his traditional way of life, especially the abolition movement. His fear of abolitionist only grew as the conflict started to turn violent in the late eighteen fifties. In the early morning of October seventeenth eighteen fifty nine an abolitionist named John Brown led a group of twenty two fellow abolitionists to a military arsenal. At harpers ferry Virginia he planned to distribute the weapons throughout southern slave communities. So they could rebel and seize their freedom Brown successfully seized the arsenal and held control for hours until Colonel Robert Lee of the US marines arrived to reclaim the armory on October eighteenth. It took the marines all of three minutes to invade the armory defeat the raiders and arrest. John brown. Brown was captured and arrested still the standoff at harpers ferry proved to be a meaningful symbolic moment for people on both sides of the slavery issue. Clarify the issue in the most dramatic and finally resistible way. Where no matter where you stood you had to stand somewhere after harpers ferry when booth. Heard about the events at harpers ferry. He decided he needed to get involved in the southern 'cause there were rumors that riots had broken out in Charlestown, West Virginia where John Brown was being held and soldiers from other states where needed to step in and quell the violence Luth left town so quickly. He didn't even tell his theater managers. He was quitting. He tried to board the first train headed south that he could find. But the soldiers already on board wouldn't allow him the train was solely for enlisted men and booth wasn't in uniform booth said he was ready to enlist and even offered to buy spare uniform off one of the soldiers, finally two men relented and gave booth pieces of their spare uniforms. He got dressed and climbed aboard the train to Charlestown, a newly minted member of the Virginia militia Charlestown proved to be less exciting than he'd anticipated. There was no rioting or fighting in the streets. Still booth had. A commitment. So he stayed with the militia one of his first duties was standing guard outside the prison where Brown was held. They believed the abolitionists would rally to save Brown from execution and the militia was prepared for a fight. But no supporters ever came booth remarked that Brown's heart must have been broken when he realised he'd been abandoned by his 'cause booth was still standing guard when Brown was marched outside for his execution on December second eighteen fifty nine and the moment stayed with him for the rest of his life later. He often spoken Meiring Lee about Brown. Even though they disagreed on slavery booth respected Brown's willingness to fight and die for his beliefs. Even when no one else would do had far less respect for politicians abolitionist politicians wanted to disrupt the natural order booth believed in and they weren't even willing to fight. For that change face to face. So when a former Illinois, congressman and staunch abolitionist named ABRAHAM LINCOLN ran for the presidency in eighteen sixty booth dismissed him as both a coward and a tyrant in the making booth wasn't alone. Even before election day numerous southern states threatened to succeed if Lincoln won the presidency somewhat ironically, southern slave owners valued their own freedom highly Lincoln's opposition to slavery was seen as a threat to the freedom and independence of the south. When Lincoln won the election southerners like John Wilkes booth decided that the time had come to take dramatic action. If the United States wouldn't recognize their right to continue owning slaves than the southerners would form their own separate country in February eighteen sixty seven of the thirty three states seceded from the union triggering the. Civil war coming up. We'll turn our focus to the man who was blamed for the civil war. Abraham lincoln. If you're looking for a great podcast, listen to between episodes of assassinations. You should check out rusty hinges. Rusty hinges isn't a par cash show. But we think you'll like their in-depth exploration of mysteries hoaxes and natural phenomenon. The house LARs also tells captivating stories about unsolved murders and weird history with just the right amount of sarcasm. I figure assassinations listeners would enjoy the episode titled where is Kennedy's brain the brain could hold the truth about whether the president was shot from the front rather than by Lee Harvey Oswald from the Texas school book depository, but there are other great episodes to like the one on Barbara folate the child prodigy who vanished without a trace and the kidnapping of June row blaze, which grand jury couldn't even decide if it really happened. One of my favorite episodes was on legendary conman count Victor Lustiger who sold. The Eiffel tower. Plus, there's the story about Clarence Roberts who died not once but twice to check out these episodes and more just look for rusty hinges on your favorite podcast app and be sure to hit the subscribe button. So you won't miss upcoming episodes. Now back to the story. Abraham LINCOLN was born in Kentucky on February twelve eighteen nine. His family was poor and Lincoln had to work to support them from a young age, which meant he had a very limited formal education eighteen thirty when Lincoln was just twenty years old, he moved to make an county in southern Illinois. And then later to new Salem, Illinois, where he worked as a postmaster overseeing the town's post office at the time. A postmaster was a highly respected elected position Lincoln found that he relished the life of a politician and after four years as postmaster he ran for and won a seat in the Illinois state legislature in eighteen thirty four Lincoln was an unusual choice for the state Senate his humble background left him with far less education than his peers. And he struggled to gain their respect to many of the other legislators. Lincoln was a backwater rube with no place in the US government. Eighteen thirty six Lincoln at age twenty six prove them wrong by passing the bar exam and becoming a lawyer. This was a particularly impressive achievement. Given the fact that he never attended law school ten years later in eighteen forty six he accomplished another feat winning an election to the US house of representatives Lincoln entered the US government during a time of turmoil prior to the eighteen forties. There were two major political parties the Whigs and the democratic Republicans. But as slavery became a more important issue in the mid nineteenth century, the democratic Republican party fractured into two parties, the abolitionist Republicans, and the pro slavery Democrats, not long after that, the pro slavery Democratic Party split again between the southern Democrats who advocated for secession and the northern Democrats who preferred Nash. Oh, unity all this to say. By the time Lincoln was involved in national politics. There were four major parties on the ballot northern Democrats. Southern Democrats Republicans and Whigs Lincoln began his political career as a wig. He initially didn't consider himself an abolitionist he believed in preserving slavery and slave owning states and halting it's spread to new states as they joined the union, but his beliefs evolved during his time in the legislature as he met and spoke with black citizens, including former slaves when the abolitionist Republican party was formed Lincoln eagerly joined by the time Lincoln ran for president in eighteen sixty. He was firmly anti-slavery, however, he ran on a platform of slowly phasing slavery out instead of Bala Shing it immediately to prevent an economic crisis in the south this water down anti-slavery stance. Alienated everyone pro slavery voter. There's staunch abolitionists and also the more moderate Whigs who wanted to allow slavery to continue in the south to prevent secession. Several southern leaders announced they would secede if Lincoln were elected and his opponents use that against him in the election claiming that even abolitionists who believed in a unified nation had to vote against Lincoln. The election was split between four candidates one from each major party despite the fear mongering about succession when election day ruled around in the fall of eighteen sixty Lincoln edged out on top with only thirty nine point eight percent of the popular vote the lowest share in United States history, just as they had promised by February fourth eighteen sixty one a month before Lincoln's term began seven southern states officially seceded from the union before Lincoln was even sworn in. He was already facing an unprecedented challenge as the. Nog Eurasian grew closer. His officials were so nervous about the risk of violence that armed men were stationed all along the procession route Lincoln took the oath of office on March fourth eighteen sixty one and became the president of a divided nation. Once in office Lincoln refused to recognize the seven states of the confederacy as their own separate country a month later, the south sent back their response. Bloodshed began on April twelve eighteen sixty one when the confederate army attacked fort Sumter Lincoln authorized militia to support the union troops defending the Fords. The civil war had officially begun, Lincoln's militant response, incited, four more states, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee to join the secession. The confederacy was now eleven state strong Lincoln was being faced with an unusual conflict and had to vote unusual thority to manage it. Keep blockaded southern ports and suspended habeas corpus rights allowing the government to arrest and hold any citizen of either the union or the confederacy without an arraignment. The constitution allows for the president to vote certain wartime powers, but those powers are poorly defined and Lincoln's policies during the war were unprecedented in scope citizens and legislators alike questioned. Either Lincoln's actions were even legal when John Wilkes booth heard about how Lincoln was expanding the powers of the presidential office. His worst fears were confirmed Lincoln was a tyrant as the war raged on Lincoln needed away to offset the stresses of leading the nation. He found respite in the theater as the later. President Bill Clinton explains Lincoln needed to balance the challenges of the presidency with a continued appreciation of the arts. It did allow him to survive. Because he understood that every political leaders passion for progress must be tempered by an understanding of the universal human existence, the darkness and the light and the struggle to have the light, prevail. Abraham wasn't the only member of the Lincoln family to enjoy the theater once during his presidency. Lincoln son tad attended a performance of the marble heart starring one John Wilkes booth after his brief stint in the Virginia militia booth had returned to acting and hit found success touring in both the north and south during the war tad Lincoln was fascinated by booth performance. And during intermission. He went backstage and met the actor himself booth was a gracious host even gifting tad with a rose perhaps on tad's glowing recommendation ABRAHAM LINCOLN went to a performance of the marble heart with a few of his friends later on he'd seen booth. Form several times before and he was already a fan of his work, Lincoln's friend an actor named Frank Morton's new John Wilkes booth personally when Lincoln confessed his admiration for booth Morton and offer to introduce them. But when Morton tried to arrange the meeting booth refused he wouldn't lower himself to meet the man, he blamed for destroying the nation's piece Lincoln had larger concerns than a snub from an actor on September twenty second eighteen sixty two he announced his intention to sign the emancipation proclamation, which would make slavery illegal in the southern states. This was the first time Lincoln had advocated for mmediately freeing, all slaves without a transition period. The decision was tactical as much as moral the amounts of patient proclamation. Also allowed the union army to accept escaped southern slaves as recruits Lincoln hoped the proclamation would inspire more slaves in the south to escape further. Weakening, the southern economy and giving the north more of an edge on. Fortunately, the emancipation proclamation was unpopular across the political spectrum. Even most abolitionists believed that a gradual transition away from a slave based economy was more practical than freeing all the southern slaves at once. Some even believed Lincoln's announcement was a bluff to apply pressure on the confederate government. Congress was unwilling to approve any measure that would instantly outlaw slavery. So instead Lincoln invoked special wartime powers in order to sign. The emancipation proclamation into law on New Year's day January first aid. Eighteen sixty three. Lincoln read the proclamation allowed at the White House. The reading was met with celebration, spontaneous tears of joy and celebrate Ori church. Bells with the emancipation proclamation Lincoln, delta blow to the south's culture that was just as powerful as the military victory. The union was approaching he also doomed himself to death on the same day Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation. John Wilkes booth was rehearsing with his cast mates in Saint Louis, Missouri during the rehearsal booth lifted a prop pistol and mimed shooting another actor. He said if you were Lincoln what a chance I'd have coming up will explore the choices that brought John Wilkes booth to assassinate the president. Now back to the story in March eighteen sixty four John Wilkes booth visited New Orleans for three weeks to stay with his friend. George miller. Another confederate sympathizer for years into these civil war. The south was in dire. Straits the army had taken heavy losses in battle. And they need to do something drastic to turn the tide sometime during booths visit Miller recruited, the twenty six year old actor to serve the confederacy as a secret agent, both the union and the confederacy ran clandestine intelligence gathering programs throughout the war initially, the confederate secret service was devoted solely to gathering information from the north, but as the war went on they began to run more dangerous missions the union army had captured numerous confederate generals and they refuse to negotiate for their release. If the confederacy could capture the commander of the union army, president ABRAHAM LINCOLN, they'd have more bargaining power to negotiate for the release of confederate prisoners of war, thus new recruit John Wilkes booth s-. First mission was to kidnap ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Booth had very little experience with this sort of espionage. But his status as a well known actor gave him more access to government officials than other secret agents would have booths kidnapping plot wasn't as outlandish as it sounds Lincoln traveled with far less security than a modern day presidents while he did have a personal bodyguard. He wasn't always guarded which meant booth had ample opportunity to capture the president while he was alone booth. Couldn't pull off this mission on his own though. So he recruited several trusted friends to help. One of his first collaborators was a fellow confederate secret service officer his friend, John Sarut, they met at a boarding house owned by Surat's mother Mary to lay out their plans Lincoln was six feet four inches tall making him. The tallest president in US history booth was only five foot eight booth answer at needed more muscle if they're were going to subdue the president. So they recruited. It an ex confederate soldier named Lewis Powell once booth Surat and Powell spirited Lincoln away. They'd have to stay off the main roads and travel through woods. They couldn't risk using bridges which would be surveilled by police. So they needed another way to cross the Potomac river into the south to do this. The kidnappers brought on David Herold. A tracker familiar with the woods of the south and George at Surat a smuggler who could navigate the Potomac river booth suggested kidnapping Lincoln from Ford's theatre where he often attended plays booth had performed there before and he believed it was an ideal spot his collaborators saw the plan as impractical not in the least due to the number of witnesses at the theater but booth was insistent. They set the date for January eighteenth eighteen sixty five when Lincoln would be attending a performance of Jack Cade at a certain moment during the show booth and his co conspirators would. Extinguish? The theaters lamps plunging the stage and the audience into darkness in the confusion booth would enter Lincoln's private box and knocked the president unconscious, then he and his conspirators would carry Lincoln out of the theater and sneak him out of Washington DC on the night of the eighteenth booth and his collaborators arrived at Ford's theatre early and took their seats. The private box was decorated with patriotic bunting and flags assure sign that Lincoln would be an attendance when the show began Lincoln still hadn't arrived booth waited perhaps the president was running late. However, as the show went on it grew apparent that Lincoln wasn't coming fearing that the government had learned of their plot booth signal to the others to flee. They all got up and left the theater separately. In fact, Lincoln's reason for skipping the play was far more innocent a storm and heavy rainfall wash. Out. The roads Lincoln went to see Jack Cade the next evening without incident booth kidnapping plot was off for the time being but an incident the next month would inspire him to hatch an even more sinister plan a few months earlier in September eighteen sixty four a group of confederate sympathizers led by a man named John Yates bell robbed a train full of prisoners of war bell hope to release the prisoners. So they could return to battle for the confederacy. Instead bell was captured immediately and sentenced to death for espionage Belsen was controversial even among northerners eighty five members of the house and six members of the Senate signed the petition of clemency which they presented to Lincoln hoping he'd commute Bell's death sentence. John Wilkes booth new bell well from their days serving together in the Virginia militia, he agreed that his friend didn't deserve to be executed for the train robbery. He followed the case closely throughout early eighteen sixty five hoping that Lincoln would pardon bell to do. Otherwise would be a gross miscarriage of Justice booth woke on the morning, February twenty fourth eighteen sixty five and a good mood and went to visit a friend at the national hotel in Washington DC, he was in his friends hotel room. And he heard the news. John Yates bell had been Hong that morning at fort Columbus in New York bells last words, were I protest against this execution. It is absolute murder. Brutal murder. I die in the service of my country. When booth heard the news, he fainted, his companions attributed, his reaction to what they referred to as a brain fever a term for delirium brought on by severe emotional shock and grief booth had already hated Lincoln for his politics. But now his rage was personal the very next week on March fourth eighteen. Sixty five Lincoln would be inaugurated into his second term booth asked his fiancee, Lucy HALE whose father was a Senator to secure him a ticket to the inauguration. Heavy rains didn't discourage the crowd gathering on Pennsylvania Avenue where Lincoln's family was scheduled a pass in a parade accompanied by union soldiers booth watched the procession distracted and agitated a friend notice booth and went over to say Hello but booth ignored him and walked away without a word. He headed straight for the Senate chamber where Lincoln would be sworn in those entered with the ticket. His fiancee had gifted him. The Senate floor was packed with government officials and regular citizens alike booth pushed through the masses to the very front of the crowd. He watched Lincoln take the oath of office beginning four more years as president of the once United States to booth he was ushering. In four more years of tyranny and bloodshed after the swearing in. Concluded booth rushed off again, he reached the capitol buildings exit. Right. As Lincoln began leading a procession out of the building as Lincoln past booth burst from the crowd and lurched at him booth was so aggressive the police had to restrain him Lincoln left the building safely and the police pushed the door shut behind him so booth couldn't follow him out the police didn't recognize booth as an actor. So the incident didn't attract too much public attention once they let him go convinced that he wasn't a threat later booth bragged. What an excellent chance I had if I wished to kill the president on inauguration day after booths outburst of the inauguration. Lucille broke off their engagement hissy. Radic behavior was too much for her to handle alone and obsessed booth called his kidnapping conspirators together. Again on March sixteenth eighteen sixty five less than two weeks after the inauguration booth learned that Lincoln had tickets to a play the next evening at Campbell military hospital outside of Washington DC Lincoln would travel without a bodyguard along secluded roads. Far from safety or witnesses with little time to plan booth and his collaborators rushed to the capital by the time. They met at a restaurant near the military hospital. The play had already begun the men plan to intercept Lincoln after the play while he was traveling alone back into the city the night would be dark in the streets would be quiet. They're hasty plans were spoiled when booth discovered that once again Lincoln had skipped the play the second kidnapping plot was thwarted the same way as the first booth was running out of time by March eighteen sixty five victory was looking more and more certain for the north confederate. President Jefferson Davis was so afraid of the union army seizing their capital in Richmond Virginia that he ordered all confederate government officials to evacuate the city on the night of April. First eighteen sixty five confederate soldiers stationed in and around Richmond, blew up their own ships. So they couldn't be captured and used by the union army the next morning the evacuation began the quickest way to escape Richmond was my train. But after years of war and destruction the state of the southern train system was dire. Tracks were rotting engines were decrepit and the president of the confederate railroad had already fled Richmond days before the evacuees were only able to locate one working engine, and they loaded its passenger cars as full as they dared. Due to concerns about the state of the engine as well as the tracks. It ran on the train's conductor refused to travel faster than ten miles per hour. The slow pace did nothing to quell the fear among the fleeing confederate leaders. Nobody knew how close the union army was or whether they'd captured the train before they made it out of Richmond nation. They passed the train slow to a stop and the confederate officials clambered out to inform the people of their abandonment of Richmond. This was confirmation that the south had all but officially lost the war fifteen hours after leaving Richmond on the morning of April third eighteen sixty five the train reached danville. North carolina. They're president Jefferson. Davis said about reestablishing the confederate government in his mind. The loss of Richmond wasn't the end of the war. He had great confidence that general Robert E Lee could still win Vic. -tory for the south Davis was competence in general Lee proved to be ill placed less than a week after the evacuation of Richmond on April ninth eighteen sixty five Lee, surrendered to union General Grant at the app Matic's courthouse. The war wouldn't officially be over until the terms of surrender could be negotiated. But the end of the confederacy was confirmed when news of general Lee's surrender reached Washington D C the public erupted into celebration on the evening of April eleventh two days after the surrender Lincoln addressed the public from the White House balcony clouds from a rain shower block out the moon, leaving the night dark and Chile. The White House was lit with gas lights when Lincoln stepped out onto the balcony. He was dramatically lit above the dark crowd. He began his speech by saying we meet the evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond and the. Surrender of the principal. Insurgent. Army give hope of a righteous and speedy piece, whose joyous expression cannot be restrained. John Wilkes booth and his co conspirator Lewis Powell were among the crowd gathered outside the White House as Lincoln spoke booth urged Powell to shoot him booth said that is the last speech he will ever make Powell refuse to shoot Lincoln right then in their booth Preston, repeating shoot him when booth wouldn't drop the issue Powell walked away into the crowd booth was left alone. Among the jubilant crowd staring up at Lincoln's glowing face the war was over but booth wasn't willing to admit defeat. He may have held himself responsible for the Union's victory since he'd failed twice in his assignment to kidnap Lincoln. He held firm to a hope that if he could destabilize the union government and throw the. North into disarray. The war would be reignited and the south could rise again on April thirteenth eighteen sixty five booth her that Lincoln had bought tickets to see a performance of our American cousin at Ford's theatre on the following evening. He immediately called together his co-conspirators Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George at Surat booths plan was to make a final bold move for the sake of the confederacy over the course of a single night booth and his collaborators would target three key members of the union government. David at Surat who had been recruited for his Skillet. Navigation would kill vice president Andrew Johnson booths friend Lewis Powell would murder the union secretary of State William Seward Seward had recently been injured in a carriage accident and was confined to his bed making him an easy target and John Wilkes booth would kill president ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Thanks for listening to assassinations. We'll be back Monday to explore John Wilkes booths conspiracy to bring down the United States government. You can find more episodes of Sasser nations as well. As all par casts. Other podcasts on apple podcasts. Spotify Stitcher, Google play or your favorite podcast directory. Several of you have asked how to help us if you enjoy the show the best way to help is to leave a five star review. And don't forget to follow us on Facebook and Instagram at par cast and Twitter at par. Cast network will see you next time. Assassinations was created by max Cutler is a production of Cutler media and is part of the park cast network. It is produced by Maxon Ron Cutler sound his I'm by Paul liba skinned with production assistance by Ron Shapiro and Paul Moller additional production assistance by Carly Madden. And Nagy admire assassinations as written by Angela Jurgensen stars Kate Leonard and Bill Thomas.