Liftoff 103: Apollo 11

Automatic TRANSCRIPT

T minus fifteen seconds guidances internal twelve eleven ten nine ignition sequence start six five four three two to one zero all engine running. Let we have left thirty two minutes past the hour. Let that boy oh boy. It looks good. I believe the building shaking getting that buffeting. We used to Dan on the way it was obvious from the very beginning that even though two men would touchdown together inside the same spacecraft on the lunar surface the one who put his boot in the powder of the moon. I would become one of the most famous names in human history in the early days of putting together the Apollo eleven mission there there was debate about which astronaut to go first Buzz Aldrin may the case that it should be him look he had to try of course who wouldn't but in the end the roles of the two astronauts in the Eagle and the design of the limit self determined the Neil Armstrong would be the bigger name in the history books as mission commander in the person steering the limb he was positioned nearest the hatch that would lead out to the lunar surface. There's not enough room inside the limb to safely switch places regardless of desire air so Neil Armstrong. It'd be the first man on the Moon <music> <music> Moon <hes> welcome to lift off from really F._M.. Where marking the fiftieth anniversary of each crude Apollo flight at today Oh it's the big we're talking about Apollo Eleven? This episode is brought to you by squarespace and express V._p._N.. My name is Jason Snell and because I am the person who talks I on odd numbered episodes of lift-off that means I am standing on the lunar surface waiting waiting for my co host Stephen Hackett to join me a jason. This is a huge episode but can I come out of the limb now. It's time come on come on out. Come down the ladder. Being the fiftieth anniversary of the first moon landing. We know there is going to be a lot of great coverage out there. I have been inundated did with fantastic documentaries and and movies and T._v.. Shows there's so much out there and amazing podcast as well. We thought we would focus on a couple of aspects of this mission that we felt weren't as well known <unk> as the descent to the lunar surface so instead of our normal template of talking through the whole mission chronologically. We're going to take a look at three distinct components of it sounds good to me all right so let's start with the lunar landing research vehicle number one otherwise known as El R._V.. One <hes> these names are so great. This vehicle was designed to help train astronauts to fly and land the that weird looking spidery lunar module in an interview in two thousand one Neil Armstrong said it looked blake a tin campbell soup cans sitting on top of some lakes. He's not wrong. The L. R._V.. took off and landed vertically and looked a bit like the limit self with four legs coming down from a central platform or the pilot sat with all his controls under that platform was a single jet engine mounted on a gamble power to cancel out about five six of the total weight of the vehicle to roughly match the Moon's gravity. The main engine was augmented by hydrogen peroxide rockets to help steer until the vehicle the L. R. V. had been built in the early nineteen sixties over two hundred training flights took place between nineteen sixty seven and the end of the Apollo program. It had a maximum altitude of five hundred feet feet not that far up there meaning. If anything went wrong the astronaut had seconds to eject from the vehicle on May six one thousand nine hundred sixty eight that exact thing happened. Neil Armstrong had to eject from L. L. R._V.. One at a mere Mir two hundred feet or about sixty meters above the ground after the vehicles attitude control thrusters had run out of fuel due to the high winds during the test in the film of this flight is very clear to see that Armstrong has completely lost control role of craft. It's really scary looking you know the way this thing works. It's in a stable hovering position. That jet engine is is holding it up so it's it's coming down very slowly like it was on the <hes> going going to the moon and then all of a sudden it's up on its side. It's falling to the ground. It's it's just like just one big jerk in it's kind of like completely out of Control Armstrong's parachute open when he ejected for four seconds. He had four seconds of parachute drag to slow him down before you hit the ground after this l._l.. R._V. Fights were suspended. NASA was about to take receipt of a new trainer dubbed the Lunar Lander Training Vehicle or L. L. TV that came complete with a revised and more stable design Zayn in fact this vehicle was used to train the bulk of the Apollo astronauts mother wasn't accident during its development no astronaut had to eject from it during training fights in their descent to the lunar surface Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin found themselves of surface filled with rocks and boulders some the size of a car Armstrong ended up taking manual control of the limb flying it rapidly across the surface of the moon kind of like a helicopter looking for a smooth place to land no doubt his many hours. Ars in the L._l.. R._V. and L._T._v. helped him land Armstrong said this about the Elo T._v.. After returning from the Moon is a quote eagle flu very much like the lunar landing training vehicle which I had flown more than thirty times at Ellington Air Force Base near the Space Center I had made from fifty to sixty landings in that trainer and the founder Jittery I flew to the landing was very much like those flown. In practice Armstrong's comfortable familiarity put the pair on the Moon <unk> safely on forward or forty beatdown going up down or forward grip into the right little okay and didn't stop. We got down and you go back. Quality Air in this episode of lift-off is brought to you by squarespace. Make your next move squarespace. Let's you easily create a website for your next idea with unique demet name award-winning triplets and more. Maybe WANNA create an online store or have a portfolio to show off your work. Maybe you're a writer and you WANNA spend up a blog. squarespace is an all in one platform. Let you do all of those things and you don't have to become some sort of server admins. I think to install there's no patches to worry about. Skirts base has all of that stuff covered. They've award winning twenty four seven customer support. If you need any help they allow you to quickly and easily grab unique to May name and all of those award wingtip was beautifully designed signed for you to show off your great ideas earlier this week. I had a phone call with a a group here in town. They've got an aging website and they're looking to build something new and of course I pointed them to squarespace going through picking out templates talking about what we can do. I think it's GonNa work out really well. squarespace plans start at just twelve dollars a month but you can start a trial with no credit card required by going to squarespace dot com slash lift off when you decide to sign up use the offer code liftoff to get ten percent off off your first purchase of a website or domain and to show support for this show once again that squarespace dot com. I slipped off and the code liftoff to get ten percent off your first purchase. I did thank squarespace for their support of this show and all of Rela- F._M.. squarespace space make your next move. Make your website after touching down the mission plan called for a four hour rest period before the initial V._A.. But that was scrapped you land on the moon and then you're gonNA take a nap. That seems really unlikely because did not not going to happen. I'm not stressed out at all. I didn't just land a lunar vehicle going to take a nap now no no so they they didn't do that. No so the crew in the Oakland began to prepare to open the hatch this was quite the process they had to put on their bulky V._A.. Suits and life support backpacks which proved more difficult in the tiny lunar module cabin than it had in training and after three three and a half hours of prep checklist the crew depressurized eagle and opened the door video footage of Neil Armstrong's descent was captured by a slow scan television camera that was mounted to the limb on the way down the ladder Armstrong paused I and pulled a d ring that deployed the modular equipment stowage assembly from against the side of the descent module and doing that turned on the camera coming down the ladder now okay back up to the club but <hes> if adequate ticket back surgery county little job at the foot of the latter bit only Ania <hes> about <hes> enters although the the <hes> very very fine grain doesn't get close to it Pelinka powder found. I WanNa talk about the slow Sam camera for just a second it was incompatible with broadcast television. Nasser received the signal at the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia showing it on a special monitor. Get this with a conventional T._v.. Camera pointed at that monitor to send the the video to broadcast networks around the world. Yeah it shot at ten frames to second and that was a thing that <hes> you often did with film for example <hes> you do the Kenneth scope kind of thing where they took pictures of video on film and stored that this was old school. How do we do standards conversion which shoot one camera picture with different camera now NASA did record that raw video signal that was received in Australia and by all accounts it was a vastly higher quality picture than what we're used used to seeing from the moon landing but those tapes were never converted? Nobody apparently got around to trying to find a way to keep them around and then improve the final archival footage and they were apparently lost in the nineteen seventies and are believed to have been destroyed. They did search for them in the last decade or so and they couldn't find them anywhere and everybody that is how we lost the pristine copy of the most historic video ever made unbelievable. The Documentary Apollo Eleven does show Armstrong stepping on the surface from a different vantage point and I believe that was actually shot by Buzz Aldrin looking out one of the windows of the limb. Yeah may have been a mounted camera but it you can actually see his reflection in the window as you're seeing Neil. Armstrong serves blew me away when I saw that for the first time so there are a couple different angles of this moment just not at the highest quality know who it will matter. It's not a big event whatever anyway in addition to pulling that D- ring and turning on the camera and doing his thing Neil Armstrong also uncovered a plaque on the ladder of the lamb which read here men from the planet Earth First set foot upon the moon July nineteen sixty nine A._d.. We came in peace for all mankind it included the signatures of the three crew members members of Apollo eleven as well as President Nixon's and of course that still there because the descent module stone the moon yet twenty minutes after Armstrong came down the ladder Aldrin joined him and then move the camera to a tripod about thirty meters from the base of the limb while waiting for his fellow crew member Armstrong collected what was known as the contingency soil sample. This was a small sample that could be stored in a bag tucked into the pocket of his pressure suit and so the idea is that if the crew had to abort their V._A.. Suddenly and and leave the surface at least have some small sample of lunar material to return home alternate Armstrong inspected the lymph or any damage that may have impacted their return to the command service module being flown in orbit around the Moon by Michael Collins Sorta like when you rent a car check C._N._N.. or any dense exactly it's just just prudent after that they set up an American flag at the landing site and took a just casual phone call with the president of the United States just calling them as you at this point the two men had different tasks Aldrin Audran completed what was called the trajectory of Lunar Soil Wind kicked experiment which is exactly what it sounds like. I did this all the time in school. Yeah this experiment well probably not the moon on the playground because the same thing you kick the surface and report back to the ground how the district's just kicking the moon. It's a it's a usual thing take that Moon Aldrin also was responsible for noting any perceived temperature differences inside his suit when standing in the sun versus standing in the shadows as we know they would have to rotate rotate the Apollo spacecraft in what they call barbecue mode in order to kind of even out the temperature between the sun side and the shade side and they were concerned about whether that would be an issue with the space suits but what buzz altern found was that there were only minor temperature differences mostly mostly localized to the helmet and it wasn't that big a deal meanwhile Armstrong was busy collecting additional small samples of lunar material before the two regrouped and unpacked a passive seismometers and a laser ranging reflector from the storage area on the lower section of the limb. The size monitor was designed to collect information about the interior of the moon and detect any mooncakes actually not that different from insight which is on Mars right now the experiment though failed after just three weeks but there we're more advanced seismometers to come deployed by the crews of Apollo twelve fourteen fifteen and sixteen <hes> so we'll talk about them more as we get to those missions nine last of those lasted until nineteen seventy seven the laser ranging retro reflector was device designed to reflect a laser beam from Earth directly back to its cinder these were also placed by Apollo Fourteen and fifteen later in the three or used to provide a measurement of the round trip distance between the Earth and the moon out of all the Apollo experiments across the six missions that landed only this program is still returning data. You can see why there's no moving parts right as a basically a mirror amazingly though the distance of the moon can be measured to an accuracy AC- of about three centimeters with these tools yeah and anybody who's got the right hardware can do this because you're essentially shooting a laser beam to the reflector point and making sure that you're getting it back and then when you turn it off you can precisely measure the the amount of time before for the beam stops and you've got a distance and it's incredibly accurate. It's pretty cool. Another experiment that they laid out on the surface was actually attached to the passive seismic experiment and it was called a lunar dust detector it was not just carried Apollo eleven but also twelve fourteen fifteen and this L. D. measured the power output from a set of solar cells so it's a solar panel and they watched to see how dusty it got so how much the solar signal would get suppressed and most notably when the lamb fired off the ascent module and left the surface because that would pick up a little bit of dust and there's a little experiment like how much does did we kick up when we when we fired off and they <hes> they use this tool to find out the sensors were also also used to monitor long term health of solar cells when left on the surface of the moon of course being exposed to radiation and thermal expansion far beyond what we see here on earth yeah lots of things you can learn about something that we didn't know before which is what if you put equipment on the moon and leave it there what happens to it that was also the solar wind composition experiment. This was an aluminum foil sheet facing the Sun. <hes> seems pretty simple. The theory here is solar wind particles would embed themselves into the foil it was taken down after seventy seven minutes and return to the earth where researchers found isotopes of several different noble gases in the foil of course the lunar samples of our probably what are most well known we were talking about the crews work on the Moon Armstrong Aldrin collected twenty two kilograms of material including fifty rocks and several samples of the fine lunar dust including that contingency <hes> little pouty had in his pocket in case things went wrong additionally they returned to New Core Samples Harvest by Hammering Collection Tube some twelve centimeters below the surface of these are hollow tubes they hammer into the surface and you can get material. That's beyond just the dust and rocks you can see with your eyes and from here you get if you've ever. I've been to a space museum. That's got a little like moon rock sample that you can touch. It's been rubbed smooth by all the people who've been touching it over years and years and years. It's all from this stuff these these mood rocks. It's a it's pretty great they they're two different kinds of rocks that came back from from the moon in via Apollo eleven their assaults which Iraq's that are formed when lava cools and become solid and their breakfast which are fragments of older rocks and bits of meteorites that have been stuck together the work of collecting and packing checking these materials was quite demanding with the crew often hitting metabolic limits set by the flight surgeon. All this work took the crew of Apollo eleven about two and a half hours with Armstrong and total spinning about sixty minutes longer on the surface than Aldrin once both were back in the limb attached to it for life support they tossed their life support backpacks shoe covers and other equipment that didn't need any more out the hatch back to the surface before closing it and repressurizing Eagle. Now that's littering space littering yeah moon littering. It's even better than space lettering moon littering lunar littering now they did also leave back some things that we wouldn't consider litter. There was an Apollo one patch. There was a half inch silicon silicon disk containing messages of peace and goodwill from the leaders of seventy three countries and some more stuff to watch a movie. Maybe a necklace from his daughter but probably not yeah after the V._A.. The crew was assigned arrest period. <hes> finally got around to doing that. They didn't have much luck getting any decent sleep though the mission plan called for them to keep their suits on hooked up to Eagle for air as the ground it was really worried about lunar dust asked making its way into their lungs which is a good thing to worry about because it could be potentially quite dangerous now later crews had a weird little hammocks that they could hang in the limb but <hes> they weren't really a huge improvement anyway. Armstrong and Aldrin didn't get them <music> altern curled up on the floor little astronaut in a spacesuit laying on the floor of a lunar module and Neil Armstrong tried to does while sitting up with which sort of like your property yourself against the window in an airplane he was wedged between the ascent module's of cover and a little bit of the wall anyway. Maybe they did some meditation. I don't know but after about seven hours of of trying to get some rest because they wanted them sharper for a sent it was time to light that ascent engine and <hes> rejoin Michael Collins up in lunar orbit. This episode of lift-off is also brought to you by Express V._p._N.. You might think that nobody would be interested in your online data but when you browse the web without anything to protect get your privacy you risk hackers at companies and others collecting your data and it does happen to regular people which is why I use Recommend Express V._p._n.. It runs in the background of your computer or phone and encryption data and hide your public I._P.. Address just download the APP click to connect and you're protected express V._p._n.. was rated the number one V._p._N.. 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We're going to jump ahead a little bit so on Thursday July twenty fourth nineteen sixty nine Apollo eleven came to an end Columbia the command module and all it was left after they jettisoned the service module and the lunar module and everything else splashdown in the Pacific Ocean South West of Hawaii the astronauts astronauts were picked up by the Hornet once on board received hugs and handshakes and we're flown directly back from Hawaii to New York City for a a giant ticker tape parade. No that's not no <hes> Apollo eleven may have been over and it may have been a massive success but for about two more weeks the astronauts were effectively held prisoner by the government today. It seems a little bit silly but back in the nineteen sixties NASA felt it would be prudent to be absolutely sure that there weren't poisons or deadly alien forms of life on the moon that would be tracked back by the astronauts and in fact everybody on planet her this sort of extreme carefulness or paranoia. If you WANNA call it that was it was a big part of this era just two two months before Apollo Eleven Michael Crichton novel the drama strain was published it depicts a military satellite landing back on Earth contaminated with any mechanisms it really put people in a mood is what we're saying if you've seen the movie like which was later but the andromeda strain is super creepy and that was it was definitely in the air not the not the alien bio forms just paranoia was in the air at the time and there was actually a federal regulation called the extra terrestrial exposure law that was adopted by NASA in nineteen sixty nine not an actual like Congress law more of a guideline law sure but it required a formal quarantine policy for anything returning to Earth after landing on a celestial body. The net result of all of this is that Aldrin Armstrong Collins had to be put on biological had to put on biological isolation garments. These gray has met suits. I think bathed in iodine which is probably not super pleasant. Welcome back to Earth boys when they were welcomed. Looking into heroes no doubt on the deck of the Hornet they could barely see what was going on because their face masks were fogging up Macon's writes about this in his book as being very difficult to see what was happening. You're kind of shaking hands of people you can't see they waved dignitaries. They assumed were there and sailors and then we're ushered in to the M Q F or mobile quarantine facility. We joke sometimes about how everything involved in space travel is expensive because it has to be custom made. That's not always the case this M. F.. The Mobile Quarantine Facility Ludi was a converted airstream trailer visit like a motorhome and once the astronauts were loaded inside. They basically had to sit there sitting there camper as the Hornet got it sailed back to Hawaii the May transferred it at the dock they loaded on an airplane and they flew it back to Houston all the while. They're just in their airstream just hanging in less than glamorous yeah then again. The airstream must have seen huge compared to the size of the Columbia right a very small module so so everything's relative. There's this famous picture of Nixon meeting with the astronauts. After their landing he flew all the way to Hawaii in order to stand on the outside of an airstream trailer as the three astronauts huddled against a window below the window. Someone stuck presidential zeal which I think was a nice touch. Just live it right on there. Of course the astronauts families had flown to Pearl Harbor to meet them. There and all of those reunions were conducted through the glass of this window on the airstream trailer. There were two other people in the trailer to a physician who check their their medical status for signs of alien bugs. I don't know how you do that but yeah. I don't know just take their blood pressure. See if it changes as well as a technician who had entered the Columbia to power down the capsule after splashdown I looked for the name of this technician and I couldn't find anywhere but like you know right so they pull the astronauts they put on there has been suits. They doused with iodine and all that but somebody actually has to safe the capsule to climb in there this was a job and flip the switches and all to like power down and get it like in safe mode and then they close it up and and that guy got to be in the airstream trailer to because he was exposed like the rest of them were to whatever they brought back from the moon which was dust as it turns out just dust. You may be asking yourself. How sound is the idea of using a camper to quarantine astronauts who might have deadly space germs answer is not very much much later? It was revealed that the astronauts they were actually joking about this during the whole thing they like ants getting in from from the from the outside they saw some cracks. It's in the seals. It was not exactly a pristine perfectly sealed up airstream trailer environment three and a half days after splashdown the in Q. F. finally arrived in Houston like you said and it's five passengers were transferred to better accommodations this time the l. r. l. or the lunar receiving laboratory. This was a whole building that was built to take in people and stuff brought back from the moon along with any exposed individuals all the moon rocks equipment brought back by the crew cameras and all sorts of stuff. We're all brought here and quarantined you say three and a half days like it's like it's not that I mean that was welcome back from the moon everybody three and a half days just being carried around in a camper. It's not fun but when they get to the L. L. R. L. This building that they built for this purpose. The Post mission work really started the astronauts got debriefed about everything in great detail that happened on the mission but they also got increasingly stir crazy and the kept joking about how they had been incarcerated. NASA did what it could to keep them entertained. There were movie. Screenings lots of card games especially GIN rummy was a popular choice. Yeah Armstrong was apparently quite Asharq Gin rummy. They also weren't alone so you had additional doctors a NASA P._R.. Person and some scientists who can were accidentally exposed to the samples from the moon so then he's like Oh. No you open this box now. You have to go into the L._l.. Jerry go into the now fun surprise yeah. It was more full featured than the airstream. This is good. It had a bar. It had an exercise room. They get real food but couldn't go anywhere. They were stuck for eighteen days so welcome back to Earth again really until we have finally released into a world that had been completely altered by what they had accomplished on the moon three Rena weeks earlier upon returning to Earth the astronauts were able to watch recordings of the T._v.. Coverage of the mission including excited crowds watching around the world. You know people filling up these big public areas to watch. I think this is when they really realized the scope of the impact. Our mission had on the world they've been away from the world and all this had happened very often. During the Apollo missions and even in previous programs Capcom would read some headlines in the morning but I don't think that really filled in the picture of what they what they had done what was happening when they were gone a buzz Aldrin said during his time in the L._l.. Neil we missed the whole thing. If you miss moon landing you're too busy on the moon. You didn't get to say have any of the fun of the moon landing after Apollo Fourteen gene the quarantine protocol was actually abandoned <hes> as all of humanity had finally confirmed the moon was entirely sterile. There were no space bugs moon bugs so the only four airstream trailers were ever converted for use at the cost of about a quarter of a million dollars to to be the post splashdown camper and the extra terrestrial exposure law was finally revoked in nineteen seventy seven this talk a little bit about the crew and their lives after Apollo Eleven Neil Armstrong left NASA in nineteen seventy one became a professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Cincinnati where he taught until nineteen eighty he served on many corporate boards and was the vice chair of the Rogers Commission that investigated the Challenger disaster in Nineteen eighty-six in the nineties he hosted aviation documentary series on the network and died of complications of coronary bypass surgery in two thousand twelve. I did a little reading up about his time at the University of Cincinnati which was only nine years but I I didn't know. Oh this apparently he was a full force teacher. At the University of Cincinnati. He taught class. Neil Armstrong in nineteen seventy two was teaching multiple classes a year to engineering students at the University of Cincinnati imagine being in one of those classes and apparently he not only taught classes but he also sort of designed and built other classes that were taught by him and other people so he those nine years eight nine years when he was at the University of Cincinnati. Apparently he was very serious about being a teacher sure and teaching the next generation of aerospace engineers which is not something I knew about Neil Armstrong. It's pretty cool buzz Aldrin meanwhile was involved in early discussions about the space shuttle design but he ultimately left NASA in Nineteen seventy-one returning to the air force and <hes> mostly because he realized he'd probably never go to space again he retired from the air force the next year and seventy two after spending several years struggling with depression and alcoholism he did become involved in a lot of bids business business ventures he became and is to this day a high profile advocate for human spaceflight including recently going to Mars. He notably punched an infamous moon hoax conspiracy theorist in the jaw. I love that I mean I'm. I'm not really pro violence but if you're Aldrin and there's a guy who says you didn't land on the moon you can get an a pop. I'm going to be okay with that. Honestly it's just sure come on yeah. Come on and as of this recording of this episode he is eighty nine years old and lives in Florida. After Apollo Apollo Eleven's Michael Collins became the assistant secretary of State for Public Affairs for a whole year but then became the director of the new national air and Space Museum from nineteen seventy one to nineteen seventy eight he oversaw the museum being built on budget and in time for the bicentennial celebration back in nineteen seventy six he then became the under secretary of the Smithsonian Institution as of this recording his eight years old and lives in Florida. I had no idea that Michael Collins was the guy who basically helped get the aerospace museum built. I had no idea but that's so cool. Yeah it is cool at this vantage point of fifty years. It is clear that the Apollo program is one of humanity's most impressive technological logical achievements Neil Armstrong and buzz Aldrin's time on the surface of the moon is really an indelible moment for all of humanity but why some say the move I choose this as our goal and they may well ask why climb the highest mountain why thirty five years ago fly the Atlantic. Why does rice play Texas we choose to go to the moon we choose to go to the moon and this decayed and do the the other thing not because they are easy but because they are hard because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills because that challenge is one that we're willing willing to accept one we are unwilling to postpone and one we intend to win and the other two we shall send the Moon two hundred and forty thousand miles away from the control station in Houston a giant rocket more than three hundred feet tall the length of this football field made of NU metal alloys some of which have not yet been vetted capable of standing heat and stresses several times more than ever been experienced fitted together with a precision better than the finest watch carrying all the equipment needed for propulsion Guidance Control Communications Food and survival on untried mission to an unknown celestial body and then return it safely to earth reentering the atmosphere at speeds of over twenty five thousand miles per hour causing heat about half that on the temperature of the Sun almost as hot as it is here today and do all this and do all this and do it right and do it? I thought it was given by political motivations. Most notably Cold War desire to beat out the Russians at something in space but perhaps more damming is that fifty years later humanity has not set foot anywhere else in the solar system at since the last Apollo missions no one has even returned to the moon in the aftermath of the Apollo eleven moon landing the accomplishment was viewed by many as humanity's first step into life as a spacefaring culture now these days we have to view it as a remarkable accomplishment but a singular one. I think that's right. Perhaps in the future when people go to moon and then onto Mars is the current plan our view of Apollo eleven even will shift once again. Maybe it will be the first of many new giant leaps for humankind. I wonder who those people will be. Are they alive right now. We see this in our lifetimes. Yeah how we view the story does keep changing but important point the the story itself cannot be erased on July Twentieth Nineteen Sixty nine human beings put their boots in the powder of the lunar surface. It was a remarkable moment in human history and as for the next moment it's yet to be written. If you want to learn a lot more about Apollo eleven our show notes this week or just full of links. You can see those on our website relay dot F._M.. Liftoff Sasha one. Oh three while you're there you can get in touch via email. There's also Lincoln the Sidebar to our blog where we post stories and Lincoln stuff in between episodes and of course you can find us on twitter as well Jason Is there as j Snell and you can follow me there as I s h until our next fortnight Jason <music> everybody <music>.

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