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A Fantasy of Fashion: Articles of Interest #7


This is ninety nine percent invisible. I'm ruin Mars. Man is a perpetually wanting animal. These are the words of Abraham Maslo. The psychologist who in nineteen forty-three identified that humans have five basic needs on the first and most basic level is the physiological need for food and Water. The second need is shelter a sense of safety and security boats producer. Rachel from the third level is the need for love and belonging than the need for self esteem and respect and then the last final stage of Maslow's hierarchy is the need. For Self actualization the desire for fulfillment and being all one can be but it's like Muslims. Hierarchy is a video game neatly complete each level as Maslo Road. Most members of our society who are normal are partially satisfied in all their basic needs an partially unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time which is to say a complete gratification. Hardly ever exists for the wanting animal maslow's said a more realistic description of the hierarchy would be in terms of decreasing percentages of satisfaction. As we go up the hierarchy we will always have some hunger or another and everything we want and desire in this world manifestation of one of these five basic needs in Mazuz words. A desire for an ice cream cone might actually be an indirect expression of a desire for love if it is then this desire for the ice cream cone becomes extremely important. Motivation every day conscious desires are to be regarded as symptoms as surface indicators of more basic needs although sometimes the symptoms of our desires can be so much more complicated so much more elaborate than an ice cream cone and what we need manifests in strange seemingly frivolous ways articles of interest. Our pop-up show about fashion. And what we wear is back. We'll be releasing episodes over the next four weeks on Tuesdays and occasional. Friday is kind of Tuesday Friday Tuesday Tuesday Friday Tuesday. It'll be like the flag of Nepal but upside down. Oh my God. I'm brand. It's hosted by avery and you don't need to listen to season wine to understand season into you can just dive right in. But either way you're already listening to it now articles of interest a show about what we wear. She's into you. People don't realize it's fantasy is always this thing that you have to work extra hard to get silk good. No-one dresses like a king anymore. How you make money doesn't really make money. There are lots of things that we take for granted the would have been considered luxuries. Linda Essner wanted out. I did not love living in the Middle West the Midwest and I really wanted to move. Linda went to Ohio State University for her master's art history and when she graduated in the early eighties she was ready to high tail. It out to New York or Boston. I wanted to museum job. But Institution after institution. Linda was striking out then. One day Linda was flipping through a newsletter for museum professionals and she saw job listing to be the director at a place in. Washington state called the Mary Hill Museum of art and I thought what the heck is this in. At the time there was no internet in nineteen eighty. Three's there was no way to kind of check it up or look at their website. I had no idea what this museum was about but I sent them my materials anyway. Even though Linda was twenty six years old and had never worked in museum management and didn't know this place at all she got the job and it was only then that Linda learned exactly where she was moving Mary. Helium is in the middle of nowhere. The closest town is Golden Washington which is thirteen miles away. The Mary Hill Museum of art is a stately mansion perched on top of a cliff by the Columbia River Gorge. It's stunning but it looks like it was just cut and pasted onto the Lewis and Clark trail. It has absolutely no other buildings around it. It's a very curious place because you drive to it and the museum just unfolds like a castle on the banks of the river surrounded by basically nothing but hills. This is not what Linda was picturing when she got into the arts. She grew up reading fashion magazines. Getting up on culture. Glamour was kind of my Bible for a long time. I mean there's a teenager. I read single issue of Seventeen magazine and then jump cut to Linda. Six years old looking out over a vast expanse of the Columbia River friend of mine said that she gave me a year. Because I couldn't live among cowboys the Mary. Home Museum of art is surrounded by acres and acres of ranch. Land visitors usually found the museum by accident as they were driving back from ski trips. The closest thing to a restaurant was the nearest gas station. The closest building at all was two miles away. A small cottage owned by the museum. That's where Linda lived mostly alone. Why are you alone? You live with your husband. My husband was a research glaciologist. And he was on expeditions about nine months out of every year so even before our marriage fell apart. I was living alone mostly so as mostly just me living there with a big dog. Linda's big dog was her protector. Barking at the rattlesnakes that appeared in her yard and sometimes in her basement at an open braver person. When I was twenty six and stupid as for the collection was actually inside the Merry Hill Museum of art. It was all over the place as random and fascinating as its location because the whole museum was created as a Lark by four random fascinating friends. The main founder was businessman Sam Hill. He's friend number one. He began construction on this beautiful mansion in nineteen fourteen and named it Mary Hill. And there's some debate about whether he named it for his wife or his daughter because they were both named Mary. Hill Sam hill roped in friends. Number two lowy a famous modern dancer performance artist and friend to the sculptor Rhoda. She helped bring in a collection of redounds original casts to Marry Hill. The third friend was Queen Marie of Romania. She met Sam Hill in his world travels and she is why the Atrium of the Mary Hill Museum of art is full of beautiful Romanian furniture and the fourth and most important friend at least for Linda was Alma Debris Ville sprinkles she was the wife of Adolf sprinkles head of these speckles sugar company when I was a little girl. The boxes of sugar in our kitchen were always speckled. Sugar Alma became one of the museum's first trustees and foremost benefactors. Her donation to the museum collection would have the biggest impact on Linda's life and it was a bunch of creepy dolls. I shouldn't say this but it was. I thought they were the most macab objects I'd ever seen. When Linda Got Mary Hill she stumbled on a glass case. Full of these dolls and they weren't like baby dolls. They were clearly supposed to be adults but they were thin skeletal and looked like they were out of the nightmare before Christmas. Some of them were taken apart. So you'd see them a Mannequin. Aware Mannequin with a disembodied head. You see these parts little shoes little purses these wire bodies these very blank. Ghost like faces. The dolls were twenty seven inches tall about double the length of your forearm and they all wore strange dirty dresses and mismatch jackets all bedraggled from years of volunteers playing with them and switching up their outfits. They're around fifty of these dolls displayed in the glass case. All just bunched up close together like they were on crowded bleachers. Bright fluorescent light flickered above them accentuating their creeping. Apparently there were about a hundred more of these dolls in storage. Linda did not know what was with these dolls but she couldn't really dwell on it. Frankly there were so many things that had to be done at Maryville. Absolutely everything was in some sort of disrepair or or dysfunction everything. I mean from the bathrooms to sign edge so among the Rodin sculptures the Romanian furniture a large collection of indigenous art. A display of chess sets. There were the dirty dolls piling up against the glass showcase in the hall collecting dust until one day when Linda got a call from a curator at the De Young Museum in San Francisco. She asked Linda if she could come to Mary Hill because she wanted to see these dolls and that was when Linda learned what she had on her hands. These dolls weren't supposed to be so macab. Actually they were kind of heroes in a way because these dolls had saved French fashion. This is the end of German pride and power in. It began with the fall of France. And now I'm at the chairs of the people not after four devastating years of Nazi occupation. Paris was liberated on August. Twenty fifth nineteen forty four the Peres opera of long renown. All who the city same sounds. Static Parisians rejoiced in the streets. Some of them gathered up the ration tickets that govern their lives and tore them into confetti and this turned out to be a very bad idea because the war was not over. They'd still need those ration. Tickets in the aftermath of the occupation more than five million French adults and children didn't have adequate shelter or food Parisians dressed in ratty warn close walked and bicycled through their dark city. The capital of light of art of culture was shell of itself during the course of World War. Two Paris lost its position. As the at the center of Contemporary Art that moved to New York City literary world also re centered around New York but Paris was determined not to lose it. Sold release not lose everything to New York somehow. Even though they didn't have electricity Paris had to remain a capital of beauty and ideas it had to retain its title as the capital of fashion. Look at it this way. France has been relying on the couture industry and all of the other industries. It involves the textile industry the industry that makes all of Zippers. The buttons the hooks feather workers the embroiderers. This is Melissa Levinson. An independent curator fashion historian and appraiser. That's been a big part of not only Francis Economy but Francis national identity since the seventeenth century. They're not just going to let that go. Because of four year occupation by Germany they were not gonNa let it die without a really tough fight before the war in nineteen thirty nine the French fashion industry employed more than nine hundred thousand people. It was the second largest industry in France and then by the end of the Occupation Paris. Fashion houses were just gasping for breath. They had no customers and no materials at all. Everything had gone to the war. Effort shreds of leather and buttons were rare. Even spools of thread were few and far between and this was really hard for France. I mean the country has a department of its government devoted to regulating high fashion. It's called the Chamunda Cul de lacouture and even in that. Post occupation scarcity. The Sean Persson called a lacouture tour wanted to send a message to the world. We are still here. We were not destroyed by the war and we kept our skills and we might not have much in the way of materials. But we're just GONNA figure it out. We survived and we want you to know that we survived but in order to keep going we need our customers back and the Shaman. Dekalb came up with an idea. They would gather all the famous French fashion designers together to do a joint fall collection. They would use real for real leather. Real silk no compromises. Well except that thing would have to be in miniature that way. They could scrape together just enough to make tiny outfits tiny shoes little purses and gloves and belts and still use real materials so they revived and old old. French practice fashion dolls. So let's talk about fashion dolls. The Way dressmaker and women. Who were called milliner Mushonga mud kind of like fashion stylists of day? They sent dolls dressed in the latest fashion dolls. Were in effect. The first catalogs clothiers were sending out dolls. Two wealthy families in royal circles way before the first fashion magazine came out in the late. Seventeen hundreds so the Shepardson to call decided to use dolls again the reach out to fashion. Houses like Balenciaga and Nina Ricci and Armez and they each volunteered to create an outfit or to. The project was organized as a fundraiser for war refugees and victims but it was also an advertising campaign marketing. The concept of French chic the collection of two hundred twenty eight fashion dolls would be called the Yatra dilemma. The theater of fashion and they would be sent to the major cities across Europe and eventually America and each showing what announced to the world that the tour houses in France were still in business that Paris was still the capital Glamour and luxury even though the city barely had power and okay so I keep calling them dolls but I'm wrong. They are not technically dolls. We have doll enthusiasts. Who are like we want to see the dolls. You can see the mannequins this is collections. Manager Anna Goodwin showing me some of the Piatra de la mode mannequins. We definitely at least I definitely cringe anytime. Someone calls them dolls. These mannequins were sculpted by the artist. Elian Bonnabel and they are works of art in and of themselves they were intentionally made with wire limbs on those blank plaster faces so that they would have no personality of their own. Absolutely if that was their goal was to create of Mannequin. That just disappeared. They look like sketchbook drawings brought to life the wire limbs look like three D. Brush marks the focus is obviously supposed to be on the impassable. Close like this dress and showed me in storage it sort of has a bodice with Buttons and Collar and then it comes down to the waist with a belt which you can see is actually a functional belt housing a teeny tiny bill about the buckles about half an inch. By quarter-inch these are not doll close. There's no velcro. No fake snap on attachments these are real outfits with little clasps and right proper lining. I mean they look like a runway or red carpet. Looks put into a shrinking machine. Kind of feels like when you look at a freshly born baby and you're like Oh my God the little fingernails everything is. They're all in proportion but so careful in tiny tiny little buttons there. Those detainees buttons on the sleeves. Let me tell you. These fashions from nineteen forty-five in forty-six are not what you're imagining like when I think nineteen forties fashion. I think broad shoulders pencil skirts. Muted colors. Practical low-heeled wartime attire. No these are richly colored full-skirted affairs with sumptuous overcoats and gowns intricately beaded with thousands of tiny sequence and hair resplendent with exotic bird feathers. There are tiny radiant. Sundresses hint at the nineteen fifties to come and dramatic pleated trousers that I would wear now and the shoes do not get me started on the shoes. These are lake white leather platform. Oxford's I guess the tiny buckle. Oh my God like the stitching is minute. The Tatra delivered mud premiered in March of nineteen forty five in the west wing of the Louvre. It was a massive success supposedly the installation in Paris race. Something like a million French franc which was a lot of money given the total economic disaster. That was France after World War. Two as the Tatra de la mode opened in March of Nineteen forty-five allied armies were pushing deeper into Germany. Liberating French for prisoners. In April of nineteen forty five France discovered the existential horror of the concentration camps bleakness was invalid in Europe and the Tatra. Ella was a tiny shred of pleasure. The show was extended for weeks and weeks and weeks. This miniature beacon of Glamour attracted one hundred thousand visitors. Who paid what little money they had to witness this luxurious vision of what? Paris still was in their imaginations and maybe could be again. The lubes exhibit of the Talmud ended around the same time that the war did in May of nineteen forty five and so the cha-cha de la mode went on to the next phase of its mission. The show rebranded in a fantasy of fashion was packed up and shipped to London then. Leads Barcelona Copenhagen Stockholm Vienna all to rave reviews and then the little mannequins to show off to the old rival New York City to more rapturous crowd scaring his best to strip the French style. Capital of its finest treasure. But there seems to be some things. You Miss Certainly Pretty snazzy. It looks like it was really worthwhile. Freeing Paris in Nineteen forty-six theatric de la Madrid made its final. Stop the De Young Museum in San Francisco and everyone agreed this would be the exhibits. Final Resting Place. France didn't want the mannequins anymore. They didn't need them back. So the young had not earmarked funds to return them like there was no spare cash in the system. The Theatre de la mode was sent to a department store in downtown San Francisco. That was named confusingly the city of Paris. I remember talking to a woman who used to work city of Paris saying she remembered seeing them in the basement and the mannequins stayed in the basement of the city of Paris department. Store for years until they were found by a wealthy San Franciscan named almaden Brett Ville sparkles in one thousand nine hundred eighty two. She shipped them off to her pet project. A museum in rural Washington state there were sent without any accompanying documents or explanation. As to their origin. Perhaps Alma thought. These mannequins needed no introduction. That everyone would of course remember this worldwide sensation. Even though of course they didn't in a lot of ways it seems to be the fate of this exhibition to get forgotten about from time to time France. Pretty much forgot about the. Tatra dilemma to the mannequins were generally assumed to be lost or destroyed. But as you know they weren't the Tatra was perched on a mountain top overlooking the Columbia River Gorge with Linda Really. After I started At Mary Hill. I got this call from a woman named Anna Bennett. Who was the textile and costume curator in San Francisco? And she wanted to know if she could drive out to Mary. Ho Museum and take a look at the tax de la was like somebody walked into the museum and provided information. That had been missing for a very long time when this curator rediscovered the mannequins in the eighties word traveled around. Akkad. Fashion circles. A slow trickle of curator's and professors and editors made pilgrimages to marry hill each one adding a little more to the pool of knowledge. Then finally the news got to Susan Train. The Paris bureau chief for Conde NAST. She was wheeled a lot of power to very interested in fashion. She'd been in the fashion industry for her entire life. At the time I met her she must have been in her fifties late fifties. Maybe of course Susan trained knew all about the Tatra de la mode and she knew its importance and she couldn't believe that it was like there. Was this time capsule. There was this collection sitting. Where like Golden Del Washington? What Susan flew from Paris to the Pacific northwest to see the mannequins? And would you wearing heels when she touchdown at the Portland Airport? Yeah she always wore heels and always wore pearls with her blonde hair. Chopped in a chic. Bob Oh and she always carried a purebred longhaired American Kennel Club. Dachshund WITH HER LENDER REMEMBER. She had one named no. Fia which is a flower. I had to look up shoes She was very intimidating because very tall thin and elegant very elegant woman. Linda tried to roll out the red carpet as best she could. She took Susan to the only place. You could eat out for dinner. Which was a truckstop across? The river called Jacks fine foods. This was a woman that I am sure that French fry rarely cross lips and when Linda took Susan to the Mary Hill Museum to see the Tatra de la mode. Susan adored it. She could see past the grime and the mismatched outfits and recognize what it once had been and she looked at the Ti Dila mode and she fell in love. It was kind of love at first sight and there was another love. Blossoming between Linda and Susan. Non-romantic way. Maybe it was a an older sister younger sister relationship. Listen you can hear it in Linda's voice. She wore these big hearings that were cut glass but it was like a big chunk of rock on her ear and they were they were so shockingly beautiful to me. I'd really never seen any like that. I remember once at lunchtime. I was saying Oh Susan I really those earrings I just. I just love them and she immediately pop them off ears and handed to the I want them to. I want you to have them. She was generous like that. She was extremely generous. I mean how. Could you not be completely taken with this? Glamorous Person It's the same thing that drew one hundred thousand starving. French people to stare at the Seattle mud glamour and luxury are powerful. Susan knew she had to bring these mannequins back to Paris to revive the theatrical mode back to its former glory. She went back to Paris and got busy Susan at her Paris. Conde Nast Bureau chief thing and pulled together an elite team to refurbish the Tatra de la mode. They were Ahmad Holes in the mannequins mannequins themselves. Some of them had to be re soldered and some things had to be recreated and then maybe the most vexing thing that well meaning volunteers over the years changed all the clothes so they were in no way were they in their original on samples. This was a team. Effort from a crew of set designers clothiers historians experts and artists referenced. The black and white photographs from the original show and talk with the fashion houses to make sure the outfits were perfectly restored. Leather was polished. Silk was dry-cleaned Diamond. Jewelry was reconstructed real hair replaced combed and once again the shom-son to call. Delatour was footing. The bill the cool thing was that many of the original artists and designers who worked on the project in the forties were still alive to oversee the revival in the eighties. This labor of love. They all thought they had lost. And if the mannequins were going to Paris Linda had to go with them she had to ensure they were safe because they were still in the Mary Hill collection but also there were many parties and celebrations to attend. Well I remember I had bought outfits for all of these events that were taking place in Paris and I thought I what I was doing but the minute I got to Paris Minute. I got to Paris. Susan wanted to like what did you did you bring so. I took all of the clothes that I brought from home to her apartment on Saturday and she was like no no no. There was nothing wrong with Linda's look. Let Susan was just on a whole other level. I ended up because she is so disapproved of what I had brought from Oregon. She ended up close to these events. I think it was important to her that I looked certain way and I certainly did not want to disappoint her for the next two years as the mannequins were being fixed up. Linda went back and from Paris. Golden Dale from Champagne. Toast to rattlesnakes back again. Little by little. Choose becoming more glamorous under the tutelage of Susan train whenever I came to Paris. Susan always made sure that we're flowers in my hotel room when I arrived the most astonishing book as like a profusion of Pink Lilies. She arranged for me to have my hair done. She raised for me to have my makeup done. She arranged for me to have a pearl. Choker made made me actually march me like she just put me in the car with her driver and she would come along with her little dog and there was a jewelry store. Who's I don't just wear need to take you for a Pearl Choker? It was a real classic Makeover Montage Scrapbook. I could pull out and show you could you? Yeah Linda has kept nearly every party. Invitation every dinner menu and in her scrapbook. There are lots and lots of photos and Linda. Looks like a supermodel. She's tall and thin with blond bobbed. Hair her three. Strand Pearl choker always with a drink in hand flushed with laughter the Ti de mode was reopened in Paris in May nineteen ninety at the Museo de Arte. Lamad it was a smash success. There were parties and photo shoots and press interviews and it was like Linda had gone through the looking glass. She was living the very fantasy that the Tatra de la mode represented case in point back in Washington state. Linda had cut out an article from vogue about the upcoming dress. Designer Availa Jay and in Paris Susan Brought Linda to Availa Studio to get address fitted for her. It's simple black and white with a drop waste in her. Blonde Bob and her village address. Linda looked like ninety s flapper. It was like a fairy tale especially because this survey leget dress was for an actual ball after France. Tatra de la. Mer was exhibited at the costume institute at the Metropolitan Museum of art and it was on display during the met gull that year and the met gala is just the Fashion Party in nineteen ninety. Linda received an invitation. I was going to be dazzled with the opportunity of going to this incredibly glamorous dinner party at the mat like who to who would ever think that was going to happen when I moved to Mary Hall Museum in Nineteen Eighty Three. And I can't help but notice as the pictures in her scrapbook progress. Linda starts to look more and more like Susan. Somebody once laughed like Linda. Your Susan's little mannequin. Like she's dressing you. She had opinions about how I looked. She had Eliza doolittle way like I. I can teach you how to be chic. Susan wanted to teach and Linda wanted to learn. They were getting closer. We did love each other. We really did. We did love each other. We're very good friends. But Linda started imitating Susan in ways to less healthy ones. I'm sure she was naturally thin. So staying in that body that that I had in Paris in New York was really hard and took a lot of time. Linda was eating less and as she put it exercising. Like a crazy person. And then you'd get back took Golden Dell and you'd still be like running and dieting and yes definitely really yeah. I didn't want to disappoint Susan. I know exactly what Linda's talking about. I think a lot of people do there. Were years in my life where I tried to starve myself and definitely a big part of it was I wanted to fit into beautiful clothing and when you are intentionally starving yourself that is a task that takes over your whole brain. I didn't think about anything else. It's not sustainable. As not even very fun. Because you're constantly thinking all the Goddamn time about what you're going to eat or not eat so your entire world like it pains me to of those years like not thinking about other things but thinking about assiduously writing down every calorie in a little notebook in this condition. You feel like you're not human like you can't eat meals and just enjoy life the way other people can but I did it in pursuit of glamour of something that ascends to a higher plane the normal life. Something that's impossible. You can't stayed this thin for that long. You can't I mean I couldn't it was it created a real crisis of confidence. Even Susan could see that Linda wasn't doing well. She was a little worried about me. At how thin I had become. I remember at one lunch. We were having lunch together and she assisted on getting a bowl of strawberries and whipped cream for dessert. And I remember sitting there saying Linda. Eight After New York the Tatra de la mode went to Tokyo and so did Linda but in the pictures in her scrapbook. All the glamour appears to be taking a toll on her actually gained a lot of weight and only a few months from all the stress and traveling and she was spending a lot of money. Oh I put myself into debt by chasing having to have the AVAILA J. I don't regret it. It was really exciting to wear that dress for one night. At the the Costume Institute gala I would do it again but it had major repercussions in my life that lasted for a long time financial repercussions financial repercussions body. Dismore via. Linda started to wonder exactly why she was doing all this. Like how should I WANNA be like Susan trained? Mississippi was was in many ways very lonely person. I didn't WanNA depend on anyone for anything. Susan train told Vogue journalists in two thousand seven. I never want to be identified with one. Click the profile adds that Susan train new every designer but kept a professional distance and that she intentionally did not spend time with Americans. Linda apparently was an exception. Well I learned that what what appears to be very. Glamorous can be very lonely in watching Susan. Linda realized that she didn't want to be quite so addicted to her work or quite so lonely or quite so thin and then the best possible thing happened the show ended. The Piazza della mud went back to Mary Hill and so did Linda back to her little house on the cliff but this whirlwind experience made Linda ready to move on. She went to live in New York for a spell and then eventually went back west and she lives in Portland now and she spent much of her career working in museums and collections. There she can drive to the Mary Hill Museum of art in two hours and she does every so often to remember this beacon of hope for postwar France and this evidence of a parallel life. She wants had because the other witnesses to her story are mostly gone. My husband John met Susan and went to France for honeymoon. They went to Paris and it was so great to see Susan. We had meals together and it was the last time I saw her. Most of the artisans and experts and historians were involved with the mannequins in both of their incarnations have passed away and a lot of ways. The story has become Linda's and cut a sick of people talking about like I. I did this or I had this and it changed my life life changing experience. This actually changed my life. It taught me lessons that I think about today after our weekend together. Linda sent me a quote that she had heard longtime ago which had stayed with her. It was attributed to Ben Brantley the theater critic for the New York Times. Glamour is whatever you can't have. It is best perceived at a distance either literally or emotionally knowledge kills glamour. This just seemed so utterly true to Linda. She experienced the shadow side of jet set life with Susan. She knew about the suffering and deep trauma behind the tiny mannequins and yet I personally don't know if knowledge kills glamour entirely wounds it severely for sure but it's hard to completely destroy illusion the aspirational pull of fashion. Carves out a space in our imagination. Why we dream of Paris WANNA see Cardi B. on the red carpet and vintage couture glamour involves so much delicate placement of smoke and mirrors for the people who occupy that rarified air so much so that the pleasure in it as really ours we the viewing public the audience. Linda knows this and I think that's why she enjoys the show. I don't want to go any place else. On the night of the Oscars I want to be in front of my TV with absolute silence. And I WANNA watch but I don't WanNa be that and I don't even want to be in that world not again. Once was enough from the vantage point of Linda's living room the beautiful people on TV seems so small and innocuous they almost look like little dolls Pau On the piece of paper words from yesterday there. There's a portrait painted on the thing. Articles of interest was written performed by avery. Truffle men edited by Chris. Brubeck scored by Ray Royal Cheyne. Row back checked by Tom. Culligan with additional fact checking by Gram Hacia mixing tech production Sharieff Yussef with additional mixing. By Catherine Raimondo are opening and closing songs by Asami inside support and edits from the whole ninety nine. Pi Team including Joe Rosenberg Emmett Fitzgerald. Vivian Lay Abbey. Madonna Kirk Kolstad Delaney Katie. Mingle and Roman Mars is the true fantasy of this whole series of true you. We all been looking at a lot of screens. 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These looks and paid money to copy them. There is actually something referred to as a licensed copy. So that was. If you were a french-qatari eight you could sell a license. To design retailers. Like barneys or or box or Woolworth's all over the world would buy sketches or patterns from French designers and recreate the outfits to sell in their shops and the liberal would say like dior by Bergdorfs so there's various labels Arielle Eliah curated an exhibit about counterfeits at the Fashion Institute of Technology and she showed me a label from one of these licensed copies. So in here it says. Bergdorf Goodman on the Plaza New York and it has the customer's name the date which is nineteen forty nine and the serial number two this because they were only able to do a certain amount of copies that was in the licensing agreement. These licensed copies were nowhere near as expensive and rare runway designs but they were still to a lesser degree expensive and rare. So a Qatari like Dior. He made sure that there was only maybe five or ten of that piece reproduced. 'cause you want to maintain the exclusively this system of licensed copies more or less ended by the nineteen seventy s? People didn't really care about wearing an entire designer outfit anymore. But they did still care about the clout of designers. You all of a sudden just have. It switched to more accessories. You have handbags and things like that if you look at the nineteen eighty s with logo mania. That's where you start. See all of the monograms on the bags. You're next articles of interest are knockoffs.

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