Is There Anybody Out There? A New Theory
The fifteen seconds guidance been journal and nine technician sequence. Spence nuts. Three To. One space. Meals good. Hello again. Thank you for joining us. This is the space that's podcast episode, two hundred and seven. My Name is Andrew Dunkley your high school with me. As always is professor Fred. Watson Astronomer Lodge Heidi Afraid I. Andrew How you going? I am quite well. Sir and how you, yes, very. Stealing piece still. Most bitter working. It's all good. Yeah well. I'm no longer in isolation on back at work this WACO. Back in the radio station back in my office It's as bad as normal as it can get under the circumstances, but It's almost three months since I was actually working from yard used to work. And it's it feels quite strange even right now because I'm recording the podcast at the radio station which I have not done since. March I guess. so it's all. It's all a little bit. We'd and. Look I. Don't mind a deadlock admitting to era because. For Stop they very few when it comes to me, but I had such a terrible time getting back on the radio and working through the desk after three months of broadcasting from harm I to retrain my Brian as to how to use the the disc. There's an old thing in radio called Second Syndrome usually when you're doing your I shifted a new radio station or your first shift. Ever you concentrating so much. Don't generally make any mistakes. But then the second day. You're a bit more relaxed and the whole world caves in on generally will familiar this. It was third day syndrome. Could not having a secondary syndrome IDA third day syndromes. Our. That's law if isn't that. Coming Up Fred are we talked a bad whether or not? Aliens have visited Earth last week, not that they visited US last week. That's what we discussed last week. and now almost becoming habit of as we talk about these things, and then a new report pops up. That says Oh, well, guess what so well! There's a new theory about intelligent life in our galaxy, so we'll be looking into that There's a project that's being slighted. Full the Moon where they got it possibly send arrived to look for water. to be pretty good reasons behind that and I think on no one of them. And a few questions one from somebody anonymous. We don't know who this came from, but there were asking about scientific papers, way to all the pipe is go. Are they all compiled and putting one Datta Banco? What happens to all the scientific research papers? That's a really good question. I would suggest there used to line garbage bins by I. could be wrong about that we also going to answer a question from Dan in California, who has simply asked us to discuss the crossing 'cause, Mulji? I'm hoping Fred knows what he's and mark from Quebec. is posing a question on us as to what to questions if we could ask two questions of aliens, what would they bay? Well I've actually not put much thought into that, but i. a couple of things come to mind pretty quickly, so we go down that right. But I'm sure it'll have a couple of questions for them. but I prayed. Let's go into this interesting and somewhat fascinating. Publication that came out last weekend through the astronomical astrophysical journal on the possibility of intelligent lifeforms, existing within a universal more specifically within our galaxy, and the suggestion has been that they could be. At least thirty, which just sort of blows my mind. When I first read it, I thought I'll double check way. This is being published on a win ACI, Maybe not but. It seems to have a little bit attraction. It's property refereed publication as you said, it's The astrophysical journal, and I know the publication you read about it, in which is not the most reliable in the world, but yeah the. And, of course, it's been picked up in the popular science media. I'm looking. At the story, I actually did look at the original type of other story I. Think the the Best Account of is in physics dot Org. Website which is great news website for physics and astronomy news so basically what we have here Andrew is. A. Rehash of the studies on the drank equation. And basically putting in new. New Values and you can. Think about the drake equation. Equation of course that's. The designed to give an idea of based on probabilities of whether there are any communicable communicating extraterrestrial civilizations within range of us. That has remember seven parameters in it, and they're all guesses apart from. which is we now know the probably old styles have planets. which we didn't know when frank drag pull this together back in nineteen sixty. I think it was so. This is essentially a re evaluation. Revaluation of the drake equation, using some new statistical techniques, and as I said I did have a look at the paper this a lot in it a lot of. Assumptions made of course as always. To cut to the chase they come to the conclusion the. Who are best actually at the University of Nottingham in the UK. The office come to the conclusion that they could be at least thirty intelligent civilizations throughout our galaxy in other words, the the home in the universe. so. It's you know the thing is just to put this in context, probably beer and a half ago. A paper came out from the University of Oxford that said that number is actually zero. So that it you know other other communicating intelligent life forms a so rare as to be vanishingly small suddenly within our galaxy. The May, be in the distant universe, the so far away that it doesn't matter, so I'm in a sense, you you. You get what you know. You get what you put into it. And you might say the same. The same so the. Mantra that we have with computer programs rubbish rubbish out. I'm not saying that these authors have put rubbishing that, but It's. With this with this particular kind of study, you can put in Putting what you like and you get what you like out. the the big uncertainties of course eternal these values, the the the Scientific Piper itself. Specifies, what the uncertainties are in the outcomes I? Actually don't have the paper in front of me. Bucks they were there were large. But the best guess estimate I think if I remember it was thirty six communicating extraterrestrial civilizations. Within our galaxy. And it's based on things like how long civilizations last and that sort of. Those those things going to it as well. is. Supposed to come up with a number like that. You do have to make assumptions, but Would you call them? Educated guesses, or would you take it further insight that there is some science behind it? Is it? Is it reasonable number two to assume? That say it is the suddenly put all the right numbers in. You know they've considered things like they've basically taken the age of Sun. As being the yardstick speculating that that's the typical, the four point six billion year-old. Solar System. That they say okay, we'll ask the typical. Length of time. It takes to evolve. An intelligent civilization, and then they put him parameters as well like the metal content of the sun now Meta listen. To An, astronomer means anything that's not hydrogen or helium. So these are the the heavier elements iron silicon. Carbon Oxygen, all of those are actually considered by astronomers to be metals, because hygiene, an alien and so Our Son has a particular value of metal content, and they've basically. Stuck in not as well in the in the theories, they've got various criteria. We can criteria that they apply that. the that actually. Give you basically start off with different assumptions about what's happening. So so! Just to give you an example of us. Want to talking about that strong criterion. Puts in the the requirement for. A star to have the metal content the same the same as that of the Sun, which is actually quite rich in terms, you know in terms of these other elements, and that's that the elements that found their way into the earth, when the s was formed under the things that we regard his normal environment, so strong criterion says okay. Put. Put the metal content equal to the sun and when you do that, you get this thirty thirty six active civilizations in the galaxy. The small number compared with the full hundred billion stars in the galaxy phones. It's a needle in a haystack job, but they I in a sense they're coming out with encouraging answer to you know the scientific community trust tresslerlaw intelligence community. Could it sort of Create a catalyst for what to look for. Going forward in terms of may be identifying STAS with life bearing planets potential. Law that's right in fact already happening so. You know and I've spoken at length about the kinds of solar systems that the kinds of. Styles that might. have. Planets that could support life by far. The Communists type of starring the galaxy is is a variety of star. That's nothing like the subsidies a red dwarfs. Much fainter than the sun. But the the they're also when most of the planets have been found partly because they're easy to find around red dwarfs. But You can have a habitable zone in red dwarf you could find. It s like planet in the Habitable Zone of a red dwarf, but what we don't know too much about is the the effective of the flat surface of Red Dwarf said quite active in the end of the sons active, but far more so and so you know if you find a strong candidate with enough like planet around a Red Dwarf and then realized it's being. These planets being Boston lethal radiation from the star. That tends to put the down of so it. It gets more exciting. When find as we were talking about less time, a sunlight style with a planet, the size of the. In orbit around the right distance that starts to look a lot more promising until they're the things that we should be looking for exactly. Yeah now that a lot of people will be excited by the prospect of possibly thirty plus intelligent civilizations in a galaxy. The downside is that they suggesting that they on average seventeen thousand light years away which? I? Know it's not. To mention that. Thank you for bringing that up exactly that. On average. That's the distance seventeen thousand light years. It's a long way. Of. The four four point, three light years to the near star is alone way so when you talking about sort of distance eight difficult any. Essentially, rules out any kind of a radio transmitted conversation because nobody wants to wait thirty four thousand years to get the answer back. If you if you send a message. If. You know. If the. Way a weekend. Identify such a planet. It will just add more frustration to the hall anyone. Will we know your day, but you know we relying on Postal Service? It's GonNa. Take Seventy eight thousand needs to reach you. Sorry about that. and. That's assuming the message doesn't get lost. That's a different issue altogether. But it's a it's a fascinating report and and one. That's certainly. Gain traction in the popular media, but I'm glad to know that it's actually got some substance to it. Because as we mentioned at the START I picked it up in a publication that is of questionable accuracy from time to time so I'm. Glad that actually does have some traction quite often some of these athletes, only the sort of the sixty parts of the story and run with the rest of it sorta goes on the. Floor and you never hear about the actual truth, but that's that's the meteor in some respects. Are you know need to take it over the grand salt sometimes and it It answers that great question. Pink Floyd to a certain degree. Is there anybody out there. Possibly Sire. The answer might be maybe thirty. Which is well? The answer was before. While I was hoping it'd be forty to. Know. Is near enough. There anyway, we might be more of this but It's certainly a very popular area of space science that Tongues wagging. You're listening to the space. Nuts podcast with. Of course Fred Watson. Now let's take a little break and find out more about our sponsor express. VPN rated number one biotech writer. This is the one I use I've been using it for a couple of years and I love it. When I joined expressive ap now that will brand new new to the market, but I read a lot of reviews, and did a lot of comparisons, and it was just something about the business model that I particularly liked in couple of years down the track on, honestly can't complain. Their interface is very easy to use. The service is second to none. I've had to contact them a couple of times about certain things that I wanted to do and I were brilliant, so you may be wondering. 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Dot Com slash space for three months free with a one year package, try express, VPN DOT com slash space to learn more, and you'll find the link details in the show nuts and on our website now back to the show. Space nuts now. If you'd like to become a premium member of the spice nuts fraternity, you can do that. By visiting the super cast website there are also two options therefore ram buying bundles for a small amount of money per month you can combine space nuts with space time for seven dollars a month through Saupiquet Picasso, or you can go the whole hog eight dollars a month. Spice Nuts spice time and the DOC sky conversations podcasts. They're all pot of as stable, and if you go to a super cast website, you can certainly find out more about that oil. You might want to sign on through patriotic and become a patron of the spice nuts podcast, and the other option is to sign on through. Carrier, Ikast, nee can find all that on our website everything you need to know about becoming a patron or a supporter. It's not mandatory as I every week you do not have to. We're not telling you to do this. It is it is purely voluntary, but if you do want to kick, the can for a few dollars a month. jump on our website space knots podcast, dot com and find out more about it they. Now Fred, let's move onto the next topic, and that is the possibility of putting a rover on the moon to find water now I, think I know why they would want to find water on the moon. But. You know there could be more than one reason for that, but it is a pretty exciting project. Is it something that might happen soon? Indeed, it's. This is tech me a bit by surprise because I didn't know about this plant mission. But this is a work that's going to happen in advance of the first Luna landings that NASA will when they put humans on the moon, the first woman in the next man on the moon. Which is shadow for twenty twenty four. What what is being done is a is a little bit like what was done in the Apollo era. Before the Apollo landings, a number of spacecraft were sent to the moon. Basically to land on the surface and check out the conditions. In particular whether you'd sink into the into the moon dust if you if you were human trying to work on the so so awesome. I didn't really know what that will. So farm respects so now. It's described the surfaces walking on Talcum pat very slippery. Very Slim. Up to date instead of united, who made it? Two meters would have been tricky so just as worry than happened. But, of course, we now know much more about the lunar surface than we did in the nineteen sixties, and in particular that there is water in a number of. You know. What am I? Call conditions this suddenly water ice in some of the date craters near the South Pole, simply frozen water, but there there's also hydrated materials on the Moon's surface well rocks that essentially contain. Water molecules hydrated molecules so. You're right about the wolters results. Not only drinking water, but Also it's about rocket fuel because if he can dissociate hydrogen on the oxygen using solar power, an electrolysis than you've got the. With all to fuel the rocket without actually having he come back to a, they'll send you. There or whatever so it's an interesting and. Probably. interesting scientifically, but also interesting from the point of view of human exploration of the moon to find out whether water is how much is what it's like an all the rest of it, so enter a project called Viper, which is a very sneaky nine there. And Vice and we'd. Viper is an acronym for the volatile investigating polar exploration rover volatile basically means. Water. In fact, it means in the context that we're hearing it here. We we think about the hydrogen, the hydrogen, the volatile aspect of it, and usually hydrogen detecting hydrogen above a surface tells you that there's probably ice is down. There is one of the ways that we know about the the ice moons, the outer planets for example so the volatile investigating polar exploration rover. Is a Nassir project and the idea is that it will go to the South Pole of the Moon in late twenty twenty three in advance of the first astronauts exploring the Moon in the team is program so really interesting story because. This is a it's all been done. You know through commercial agencies. The there is a NASA initiative which is called the cops which stands for commercial Luna payloads surfaces. Payroll. Rome Web Commercial Luna Payload Sevices that initiative that basically brings industry partners into to you know to to build and deliver actually to the moon instruments and technology demonstrators, and all of that sort of thing, so one company particular. WHO's nineties? Ostra Baltic great name. They essentially are now responsible for the whole delivery of Ikea to the moon. And he's worked at manufacturing and hold the all the rest of it, so they must be. Very happy about this high profile project. Burqas as quite big. She's almost half a ton. Will work for one hundred days. That's the idea over. You know several kilometres around the the south. Pole region, basically looking at various soil environments as they as they. You know the brief. So. The More interesting of this Andrew is that. Has Four instruments on board. which will be looking for water I don't know the details of them. One of them is suddenly a drill that will drilling to the surface to extract the raw material, but. What the what they're doing is that they're going to send. Three of these instruments in early versions to the moon as soon as next year. Just in the form of Landau, so they'll be once again the C. l. p. s. the Commercial Lunar Payload Services Initiative They're going to send some of these instruments. The Moon land them on the surface, dry them out to see how they perform, and whether they actually work. And then that allows the scientists to refine them. Get them into good order in order to be sent to the moon. In advance of the land. The great thing about the moon is it's right next door. It's not like sending instruments to Saturday assuming like that where you got a ten year journey, so you can't do that. You can send things to the moon Check them out and then in real time. Modify what you what you building on the final. The Final Rover. And that's what's going to happen. It's a really exciting story. I I, like a comment by. Thomas. Zurbuchen who is Nassar's associate in the sorry associate administrative for signs. He says we're doing something that's never been done before. Testing the instruments on the moon, as the rover is being developed his. You know you can't do that with MAS for example. So Viper and many payloads we will send to the lunar surface in the next few years going to help us realize the moon's vast scientific potential. So great stuff. Yes, indeed and as you and I have discussed to the moon will be very important platform for missions to Mars. And as we've mentioned to die in many times before the water on the moon could will be. A source of a rocket fuel so tightly guy to have to build. a facilities on the moon to convert that water into into fuel so have to probably call an is by the sound of it or at least have some kind of livable facility yet so that certainly I wouldn't call it. Colonization drew certainly within us as brief as coming in occupants occupancy the moon in the same way that there's permanent on. The International Space Station. There's always somebody that and that's what NASA envisages for the Moon It may well be so. The autists program was united. Really talked about is a multi faceted NASA. At NASA venture one of the important components of it. Is, something called Luna Gateway, and that's basically a mini international. Space Station in orbit around the moon is nowhere near as big as the International Space Station, but he's got a similar. You know similar features including a fairly large Two of them, actually how tation modules these white people can. Can Live for relatively short periods, not not permanently. As we've got with International Space Station A. You know a staging post. Basically, it's a place where the the can be resources managed there, so it may well be. You know you could imagine that what you do. If you talking about fueling MAS spacecraft as you lift the. The rocket fuel that you've mind from the the moon's surface up to something like the Gateway Space. Station and that's where. You feel your mouse UMASS spacecraft for the luggage. Interesting. To kind of envisage what things might be like in twenty years time? We'll be talking. Look Garden. Accelerating one of the questions that comes to mind about occupying the moon is how long could you stay before your body deteriorated to the point where coming back to Earth could actually be dangerous. That's one thing I. wonder about because it's low G. Muscle Wastage We've seen in the past. Where LONG-TERM time in spaces as caused astronauts comeback in a very cosmonauts Mo-, specifically have come back in a weakened state, so you have to put a time limit on your exposure to those kinds of environments when you yeah I I think you can that particular one. You can deal with with exercising that they certainly do that on the International. Space Section with several hours a day exercise The standards. The direction of a what we call an expedition on the space station six months. So. That's probably okay, but what's a bigger problem? Is the radiation exposure that you get on the Moon's surface because? Get that one. Note no protection. No magnetic field no no atmosphere so. The Sun's radiation in all its forms is beating down on the lunar surface, so you've really got to think about putting your astronauts underground a or at least shielding the. To assign degrees possible, so I think that might be the limiting factor on the length of footer. Maybe put a lead on a on a Kreider. Well in fact, people have talked about the lava tubes on the moon. As their US here on Earth, and certainly people talked about getting into those tunnels wet. This probably bit more protection from the radiation. We will watch with interest, but the rover project of I percents like one giant leap forward for humankind in. making a next step beyond the planet. You're listening to spice nuts Andrew Dunkley here with for Watson. Base nuts. A shoutout is always to social media followers whether you follow the space nuts podcast on facebook. Oh, whether you're a member of the space nuts podcast group where you can get together and talk to each other that group just grows in leaps and bounds You can also subscribe to the podcast through Youtube. Your favorite podcasts distributor apple podcast Google. PODCASTS pod Bane. The list is long IHEART radio, etc, we're also on instagram and twitter. Just do a bit of search for space, nuts, three favorite platform, and and make sure you follow us that way as well now Fred. We've got some some questions. To answer this week at one that's come from an anonymous source, but one that you did want to tackle and it's all about with all the pipe is go. Hi, guys! I just discovered. Your podcast is wake of already sunk roughly twelve hours into it absolutely loving it excellent topics, and the delivery keeps McCabe divided. Will slow down a bit in that case I was just wondering about all these papers that get published. How does one get their hands on them? Is this some sort of central hub? They're all uploaded to or do. We need to already know about them and search them out, thanks. Question is a grand and something. That's my mind, but you hear about them all the time in the news, a new pipe is being released. That says there are at least thirty alien civilization living in how galaxy. Where do they go? So the. I mean traditionally. Of course, they were literally. The papers published in journals. And most university departments of astronomy and observatories. Had libraries where these generals were assembled, and if you want to read some of these papers to go and look at it physically, but now, of course they're all electronically online, wearing a totally from well from what I started as a researcher. The. And but it's still a relatively complex question so in astronomy. The several different journals still existed journals even though. I don't know how many of them still print things. They are actually mostly A. but the main ones for astronomers. In the United States the astrophysical Journal and the Astronomical Journal in Europe it strongly in astro physics in the UK. It's the monthly notices of the Royal Extra Nominal Society, and then in different countries have different journals. We Australia have the publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia Passer. But there are other ones. Many many other ones Acre of Planetary Journal. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. That dozens and dozens of days, and of course really capers go. Not just in the astronomy journals, but in the the manager science journals of which I guess, the two most important. A nature in the UK and signs in the USA. However? You don't have to go hunting all these different journals A. if you want to find out what's going on because there is a repulses tree. Of a papers, people tend these days to upload that papers once that. They should wait till they are accepted and peer reviewed, but sometimes doing in advance of that they upload them to a site which is called the archive site, so it's all kind, but the engine. The middle is an ex. That's what. The Greek Kai is so it's it looks like A. Ex IV and that's the archive side, and if you if you do a search on that, that will tell you it's. It's operated through universities. But if you. Just look for Archive. Then he faced with every astronomical paper. This kind of coming out and there are thousands of them a week. So, it would help if you knew if you were going to have a look who the author was for it is you're wanting to look for all what the topic is because he can put those in the in the. Engine so it's a valley daunting and you often will find your your go to paper and full of the technical terms, and that's what it should be because it's you know this is front leading edge research what often makes it more palatable for every day readers, and that includes you know people in the media and commentators you and I Andrew is the press releases. That are often. Issued by by universities wanted particularly significant result comes out, but once again. The problem is searching for them. Yes well. It's good denied. There is Some central process that puts them all together. Not Maybe every single one all in one place, but it sounds like you know are collectives of them, and they are accessible, so you just to know what you're looking for and do some searching, but yeah, science, nature and archive sound like three very good options. You got an in those for any papers. Em Yes a due. Mainly because of being part of some big projects that have been involved in particular the Right Project Radio Los Experiment. This that produced well over one hundred papers, and because I was. In charge of the observations, not actually gathering the data. I very kindly get to be an author many of those. Usually at the end because W is somewhat the end of the alphabet that often. At The recent ones are certainly because of those big surveys, but I had papers in the monthly notices of the astronaut Michael Society, Astronomical Journalist or Physical Journal and I, think one in nature I think of only got my name on one nature paper, and it was bad. Nineteen seventy something like. That break once he's good enough. In my opinion around the ever one Gulf Chan One Gulf championship, but it's yeah, the contract get away from me. But and there are advantages to being further down the alphabet on my soon I'm starts with day and that always put me at the front of the line for the school dentist. So. I felt like the. Anyway. Sorry by the time the dentist to delete that given up, which is why I'm serving the price of. Very very possible. Thanks to whoever sent that question in because it, is, it was a bit of an. For for a lot of people I expect. Let's move onto our next question. It's an audience question. This one comes from Dan in California. Either sedan from California. I have a question about the crisis in cosmology. Could you explain to US exactly what that is and y sudden is becoming. More topic. Love the show. Thanks, okay, thank you. Dan the crisis in cosmology frayed. Is there across in cosmetology? Yet yes, in in a sense, there is because. Certainly in the media you Google crisis. Login, you'll find plenty of stuff on it, but look I've been around long. Enough finders just. About types published in the seventies to know that the current crises nothing like what it was fifty years ago. When the absolute fundamentals of the universe were really not well known. and. What this all centers around is! The Hubble constant and the Hubble constant is basically the rate of expansion of the universe, and it's it's constant at any given time, but it changes over time now back in the seventies. The problem was finding what the constant was. In, you know now. Worry about the time in the past we we needed to know what it was. What the Hubble constant as at the present time and the the two camps of scientists. And their values for the Hubble constant default by one hundred percent. Let me. Tell you the Hubble. Constant is usually quoted in units of kilometers per second per mega pacific so kilometers per second is a speed, and that's the spate of recession of galaxies and a mega project is a million PASA PASA is the the unit used by astronomers? It's rather more than three light years, so a Meghan Pontiac is I think about three three. Thousand Sorry Three point two million years. So it and what that saying is a further opting to spice you look to the galaxies are going away, and that's just a property of the expansion of the universe, but that's what this constant says. So when I was allowed young astronomer, the two different camps, one group were favoring a value of the Hubble constant of around fifty kilometers per second PGA Sake, and the other was around one hundred kilometers per second Pasig. DIVO- CLA and Sandwich of the two names that come to mind in connection with those in the reversal of what I've just told Davila was in favour the high value but now. So one of the reasons why the Hubble telescope was launched to sell this out because he can you can measure the Hubble constant by looking at what we call standard candles. A Standard Candle is just something whose brightness he had no whose intrinsic brightness you know, and so you can essentially measure. How far away is very accurately on the standard candles that we used we used by the Hubble telescope. CEPHEID variable stars which we know about having a standard brightness. And that closed down the. The the the answer. Increase the accuracy. And in fact, what was curious was what came out of that work was that the Hubble constant is basically the average of the too early values that we have so some people sank fifty seven people, saying one hundred out sheet with seventy five it's exactly halfway between, and that's still about the standard answer, and it comes from not just the variable stars, but it comes also from. Looking at Supernova, explosions. STAS which blow up a achieve standard Brian said that. It comes from a process gravitational lensing in the way we C diff distant quasars lands. By the gravitation of intervening galaxies, so all that supports a value which is. About seventy three to seventy four kilometers per second Meghan Pasig. But while, but the problem is the an you know that's good. That's that's one side of the argument. Where the crisis comes is when you study the cosmic microwave background radiation, the flash of the Big Bang because we can see those ripples in flesh of the big. Bang, that tell us about the way the universe Luke then, and you can actually deduce from that. What today's Hubble constant is? Is A new. Get a different answer. Sixty seven point four kilometers per second PA- Meghan Pasig on that as outside the experimental eras, and so what it suggests is that there is something wrong with our standard model of the universe, some aspect of it that is not working, and that is the crisis in cosmology, but as I said compared with what the crisis is like back in the seventies nothing. Interesting, when you do a Google search and the crisis in 'cause cosmology, you get three, million, two hundred and fifty thousand results. So. Yes, it's not a very common topic really in this game. But the thank you Dan via question fully. We've managed to not resolve the crisis in cosmetology, but at least resolve your wondering of it. Let's move onto the next question Fred? This is mark in Quebec. The. Something we discussed last week. In terms of whether or not alien civilizations visited Earth, but then he follows it up with a intr- interesting questions are asking questions. We'll get to that nick. Hi Fred Andrew. My name is mark. I'm my recording from. Sherbrooke in the province of Beck in Canada. I really really do like and love your gas especially last one when he talked about. That alien civilization visited us. Well I just wanted to point out the fact that you know considering the level of technology required traveled to our solar system and even more in our galaxy. Why would they spend so much time and energy to get to us? To get what exactly plastic polluted sea water. I mean. What could they find here? They couldn't not find. Elsewhere I mean if they can get to us. They probably already found numerous order civilizations in their galaxy neighborhood Okay now Fred and Andrew I would still like to know about you. Let's say you have the chance to meet real aliens and you can each ask them two questions. What would you ask them? Thank you oh okay. Wow. Thanks mark. Putting us on the spot of it actually one thing he said you know. What would they find here that they wouldn't find anywhere else. I'd find us is my answer to that particular angle on a visiting planet. I think that's why they would want to come. He wouldn't come here to. Do anything else would imagine unless title by. Find us when they would. Be Good. If, we still around there. Yeah. Exploration of the universe I guess is the is the answer It's what's Enrico Fermi postulated in his foaming comic power paradox. He said that if if civilizations have the wherewithal to travel about the university wilder. And you know even if they just kinda randomly looking at planet. To catalog what they like close up. That my still bring them here. So who's GonNa go. I drew about what we. Look at it I'm to give the lime question so I'll go first because yours will be much more astute. But I did I did put. Thought into it. and I think the first question I would want to ask them is how? We created. How D-. How do you come to be? which would also angle me into the God question, so I I would sort of firstly. How did you evolve? How did you become what you are Why Do Exist? What were the circumstances? How did you develop a spacey's? And do you believe in God by the way I mean way too, but. In general terms. That would be probably the one of the first things. The question without notice. That I would want an answer to. How did you come to be what you are? I would really want to know that. I would also want to know and I would ask the question straight at. Is Your civilization successful? And I ask that because I know of we all know the troubles we face here on earth with a Java the the disputes over territory disputes ever resources the constant fighting over borders, the ideology that gets in the in the way of humanity. I would want to know if they have similar issues. in they are more do they have the same kinds of civil crises that that we have been fighting for thousands of years, and what we could learn from each other as a consequence of that if they did have a successful civilization. What could we learn? That might actually make our lives better. Ovalles's versa. Maybe they've got troubles that we can resolve. It is a couple of areas that I would definitely want to. Focus on and learn more bat from them. Does it just questions the top of my head, and probably more journalistic than intelligent, but I those those are a couple of things I'd want an I, plus plus I gotta I gotTa throw in a third one. What you currently for the for petrol because we pie why to be much He. Had IT. You afford to get here because petrels not shape. would be what's petrol. I probably will guess if you North Americans. What you currently paying for gas. But yeah that that those two questions about how that recreated and yeah, is there a civilization? A success would be my two off the cuff questions. I think they're really profound under I. Think you're on the selling yourself. Because Zach. Sounds fiction writer. That's right, and that's a you know a Imahara. But first one will be similar to to what I'd like to know the. What about what what what are we missing? but To come back to do just to focus on two questions, the first one would be so. What about crisis in cosmology? What's in? Ninety guy. We'll well. I can understand that Fred. Because from your point of view, you would want to say what. I have learned about the. Is. Compare Nights. and. In fact, this is my second. One will be along the same lines. How did you get here? Come on, what's the? What's the secret of your? Your. Supplying sources. Probably. No doubt. But I'd like to know how they work and that sort of stuff, but yes, you know. Anybody who can come along and tell me what the universe is full. I will be very interested. I architect any intelligence. Spacey's out there the thirty of them in Galaxy probably neither that air, though the probably don't have been the same his way. Yeah. It's really you know I. Mean I think questions like this really good to ask because they they kind of focus you on what you really want to know about. What what? What are the things that really? The really in a way travelers. In in terms of our understanding of who we are, and where we fit into the grand scheme of things. So. Hopefully John, up and shut up soon because I want to know the answer to these questions very quickly. David Question List would be on to. Maybe, maybe the space nuts podcast group on facebook could can throw that one into the mix, and and have a chat about it because I. Reckon Aric and that would be a long. Very long topic on the many topics that are discussed by the group, but if you're not a member of the spice podcast group your to join because. They. Do have a Lotta Fun. Fred and I tend to keep out of it, but. Because it's all for you, but occasionally will chime in with a coma to the. Yeah, thank you so much for that question mock because it is really one that gets gets the Brian going and I do enjoy those kinds of conversations as does Fred That's why we're going to have live at Fred. Thank you so much. It's a pleasure. Andrew Been Good Mornings Work and thank you for your time and your company and thanks to everybody who listens to us. It's always great to other people out there. See you soon. Okay thanks Fred. Fred Watson Astronomer Lodge. The K. member of the space nuts podcast tame. one more thing before I. Go and don't forget to visit our website. We've got a new URL. It's called space. Nuts podcast DOT COM, and we're still it, but it's It's sort of reaching a stage where it's. It's effective. Now so you're on the homepage? You'll be able to listen into all air episodes down the list but across the top there a little tabs We have a blog is a bit of information about our background. Is the astronomy daily? News page that we have where we just keep adding all the stuff that's coming out through journals, a lot of them and papers, and You can subscribe to the website the A tab. They way can buy some books, apparently unaware comic books I are but the other and the space. Nuts shop is up there as well so space nuts podcast dot com visit a soon in the meantime stay well, and we will catch you on the next edition of the space. Nuts podcast. This. PODCAST. Available at apple podcasts Google podcasts spotify. Radio, your favorite podcast plan, you can also stream on demand at. This is another quality podcast production thoughts dot com.