Afghan women take a seat with the Taliban at the negotiating table

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Support for the world comes from hint water. Hint is water infused with fruit essences like watermelon and blackberry no sweeteners no calories in stores or delivered direct to your door from drink hint dot com hint water with a touch of true fruit flavor. I WanNa tell you about another show you might enjoy Ted ex shorts hosted by Tosa. Leoni tech shorts will immerse you in surprising knowledge fresh perspectives and moving stories from some of the most compelling tech's community talks out there. Star each day with short eye-opening ideas on Apple podcasts spotify or wherever you listen. He's talks underway the Afghan government and the Taliban trying to end twenty years of war at the negotiating table for women. It's not easy work. We feel a kind of. A heavy responsibility on our shoulders. I'm Marco Werman and in Lebanon is the government even listening to the people? Well, I mean, for government this the people you need to have a government to begin with that we don't avalon right now political stalemate in Beirut and in Belarus and opposition leader has a message for Americans value, your freedom and democracy. This is what inspires the whole world and in a lockdown in Verona we set our seen a happy ending this time delivered in IAMBIC Pentameter, all that and more today here on the world. I'm Marco Werman, this is the world. It's good to have you with us today president trump has been pretty clear. He wants to end the war in Afghanistan and bring the troops home. Peace talks are now underway the Afghan government and the Taliban are meeting face to face in Qatar back in Afghanistan. Plenty of women are worried that their hard earned rights could be lost if the Taliban comes back to power the Afghan. Government's negotiating team includes a handful of women. The World Sharon Jafari spoke with two of them. The talks are taking place in a giant. Ballroom the capital Doha. On the opening the there was a huge TV screen on the wall with the wars, Afghanistan peace negotiations, the cross it, and even some mood music in the background. I. When the Taller won't ruled on Assan in the nineteen ninety s music like this or any music in fact, would have been bent the Taliban follow strict version of Islam, and fear is what many women remember of the years very empowered. Now Habiba Sarabi says sitting face to face with the group's leaders brings up not sophie motions. Nervous but we came here with a lot of. Responsibility soapy is one of four women on the Afghan negotiating team with about twenty men. It's not easy work. We feel a kind of a heavy responsibility on our shoulder heavy responsibility because back home women are counting on Sarabi and her colleagues to stave quad what they've achieved in the past two decades today women in Afghanistan can hold public office. Sabi herself is an example of that. She was the first woman to be elected governor show served as the Minister of Women's affairs and. Vegetation. But snobby today the prospect of a hardline Taliban comeback looms large mentality. No, they are different. There is no difference between Taliban and the Aliban ninety on the behavior. We can see a little bit change on that. Afghans. Are watching closely she says, they're looking for signs couture view what the new Taliban mindset is. For. More. Because they're in a recent TV interview. Spokesman Mohammad Name, but refused to make eye contact with a report. Now Guess Herash viewers immediately took to social media to comment. Some said, it's a sign that the group has changed at all. That is still used women as less than. But others slip interview was promising that it showed Taliban representative winning to sit down with a woman on camera. Still so far ten days into the negotiations the two sides have only discussed procedural matters. Especially, they've been talking about the talks but Donna, but Turner Boyd Balloon K. Chiasson Houghton could make them show you for. So matty attack is taking part in the negotiations she tells me from Doha that the slow progress shows just how much mistrust and scepticism there is. She says his team is staying in separate buildings from the Taller Balm but that they do bump into each other from time to time outside of formal sittings. Back in Afghanistan, the violence continues just speak as two sides are getting ready to meet. In Doha, a local official indemnities province was shot dead. More, authorship passing me who has to Jill. Is. No. She says we want an immediate ceasefire. Of CONISTON are tired of the budget goes onto. Tell me it's time to stop the kidding but this hot on say they're not ready to agree to a ceasefire. So since she came to Doha hit phone has been ringing nonstop. She gets Mrs from people back home asking how the talks are going. So far she doesn't have much progress to report I ask what she thinks about the process taking so long. IAGO stinky Muslim Russo Jealous Russia, or block in a bag not to Jimmy there since. Every day we asked when are we going to start talking about the real issues she says but? We're Afghans we've been at war for forty years. What's a couple of more days to start talking about peace? For the world I'm sure in. The last couple of weeks, the world has been bringing you coverage of the crisis that migrants are facing on the Greek island of Lesbos twelve, thousand, five, hundred migrants and asylum-seekers lost their homes lost pretty much everything after a fire raise the Morio refugee camp there the European Union is watching closely had a handle asylum and migration has been a divisive issue in the EU today though the e you tried to put forward a solution mandatory pack that would affect all twenty-seven EU countries you commission President Ursula, von called it a sustainable solution migration is complex. The all system to deal with it in Europe no longer words. So. What's in that plan and what impact would it have across Europe? The world's Lydia Manley joins us from Lesbos in Greece what exactly what this pact require countries to do it would require that all countries in the EU pigeon to help manage migration and asylum in some ways. So countries would either have to take people in relocate migrants and refugees to their countries or if they don't WanNa do that they'd be required to help return those whose applications are rejected to their home countries initially Marco there had been some talk of instituting mandatory quotas. So each country having to host. A certain number of migrants and refugees but some countries like Hungary and Poland have strongly opposed that came out today was a compromise. What is the commission proposing to do to the asylum process? A couple other things they WANNA do is one speed up the asylum procedure so that once people make it to the e U, they're not waiting here indefinitely, and another thing they wanna do is beef up security. So toughened screenings and checks at the border and not just within the EU but at the countries where people are coming from from the perspective of the EU. Commission, what is the intention of the plan we'll marco there were two words that commissioners kept repeating at the press conference today solidarity and responsibility. So you commissioned vice president, but these seeing us his Greek said, it's unthinkable that the EU still doesn't have a cohesive migration and asylum policy. We learn the lessons of two, thousand sixteen and the failure of the European Union to establish. Stern agreement. That is very president with us. That's why we need to start with everyone on board everyone around the table. So he's talking about you know Europe, at the height of the migrant crisis in two, thousand, Fifteen, twenty sixteen, and in terms of responsibility commissioner said today that managing migration and asylum shouldn't fall to just a few countries. So for years now countries here in southern. Europe like Greece, where I am have been on the frontline of this crisis because of their geography, they've been disproportionately affected by the influx of migrants and they've accused northern European countries, which also by the way tend to be richer of not doing their part. So this pact also tries to address that and take some of the burden off of Greece and other countries in this region. What are you hearing from advocacy groups and NGOs? What's their reaction to this proposal? Many people are not pleased at all with this pact. They say totally misses the mark I spoke earlier today with Marissa Ryan heads the e U Office for Oxfam, which is an international group of twenty NGOs what's coming from the commission today looks like the lowest common denominator for us and we're seeing much more emphasis on returns. We're seeing moves towards ensuring that development assistance is spent on border control rather than poverty eradication, and we have no guarantees Scott. What is being announced is actually going to protect and make a meaningful difference in the lives of people who are fleeing for their lives. Lydia's you think about this plan, the e U is proposed and you think about some of the people who Lost their homes and the fire at Maurya I mean, does it feel like that? You plan could be what they need. Well from what I've seen on the Ground Marco ever since the media fire at twelve thousand people were on the streets. They didn't have basic things like shelter food water. They've now been moved into a new camp and they tell. Me that a lot of those conditions are still ongoing. There are now hundreds of cases of coronavirus in the camp. So I think right now, a lot of these people are thinking about one having their immediate needs met and also having their asylum applications processed. So they can leave this island. A lot of people have been here for more than a year. And they just want to leave. The world leading Amana leaders speaking with us from Lesbos Greece. Lydia thanks very much. Thank you, Marco. It's already getting colder here in Boston that means a lot more time indoors soon for those of us in the northern hemisphere inside, it's Kinda worrisome to think about how the Karuna virus could spread preventing transmission indoors was the focus of our discussion on facebook live this week in collaboration with Harvard's h Chan School of Public Health. The world's Alana Gordon moderated the conversation and joins me I. I got to tell you a lot there seems to be a lot of confusion around corona virus transmission these days especially when it comes to aerosols reminders first of all, what are aerosols? So Marco these are really small particles. They're like one to ten microns in size can remain suspended in the air when you beat them out travel beyond six feet and then held by others this is compared to the bigger droplets like when you sneeze and this weekend, the CDC posted an update to the website and said, yes, this needs to be taken seriously Joanne is the professor of exposure assessment. Science. At Harvard School of. Public. Health and he's when he saw this he was like finally that's a landmark shift because people in my field myself included since early February have known that airborne transmissions happening we've been yelling from the rooftops trying to alert the world but then there was this big news earlier this week when the CDC removed the guidance instead it was posted by mistake that is confusing. Totally and even the WHO has moved the needle a little bit on this the agency does now acknowledge that airborne transmission is happening the point of debate and all this Marco is like just how common it is and where. So, long what is the current advice like how do we make indoor spaces safer? So. Here's where there's more clarity. Transmission of Krona virus is just a lot more common indoors compared to outdoors a lot and that's especially the case when you're in close proximity to other people, and of course, the longer the period, the longer the risk right that makes sense because the big outbreaks we've been hearing about are. Indoors yeah, I mean think about jails in Ohio overcrowded housing in places like Mumbai workers and packed meat packing plant in Germany. Those big droplets or the small ones they transmit more easily inside and so acknowledging even the possibility of airborne transmissions important in what we can do. Here's Harvard's Joe Allen again. Just means you have to ask one more control to what you're doing already and washing, masking distancing. Just make sure you're also thinking about ventilation and filtration indoors to address this far field or longer range transmission that can happen. So yes, distancing from others that matters a lot wearing a mask matters and then diluting and cleaning the air can further reduce those particles. So. If we're indoors, should we open a window? I mean ventilation in simple terms means getting outdoor air in Allen says in a home without that typically takes more than an hour for the air to fully changed clear out what's in it. What if it is impossible to open a window? What if you live in a basement apartment you don't have windows. So Harvard's Joe. Allen says, there are other tools to help with this. You can use certain kinds of filters and ventilation systems and finally Marco. I want to add that even leaders like Dr. Anthony Fauci. With Nih they've been shifting in acknowledging aerosols. So I want to just wrap up by playing a clip from the daily show with Trevor Noah from this week voucher you responded to fire hose. Of questions about what to do in different scenarios inside including this one. If you in a movie theater, some people are going to movies around the country and you're watching Christopher new movie tenants right and there's only two people in the cinema. Do you put your Moscow and You keep it off if this? So physically distanced away from you, you probably could keep it off but remember you gotta be. Because in the theater if there's not good ventilation, there could be aristotle than that myself. What I would do I would probably keep it on just to be safe. All right I got it. Dr Phil Gee, wear a mask and keep that fresh air circulating the world's Alana Gordon. Thanks very much with this. Thanks. You can watch the full conversation with Harvard's Joe Alan and Alana Gordon about ways to prevent the corona virus from spreading indoors and explore the rest of our series head over to the world dot Org Slash Corona Virus Dash conversations you're listening to the world. Support, for NPR comes from xfinity with school back in session, xfinity is committed to helping kids continue to learn no matter where they are there providing affordable Internet access to low income families through their Internet essentials program. It's why they're working twenty four seven to keep your network fast reliable and secure and helping college students study and stay connected through their university program. XFINITY is committed to helping your family, stay connected and learn this school year learn more at expanded dot com slash education. 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Go right now to indeed dot com slash the world terms and conditions apply offer valid through September thirtieth I'm Marco Werman your with the world. Across Italy attention has turned to a recent murder outside of Rome. The victim was black. He was beaten to death by a group of white men. The world's Rupa Shenoy reports Willie Monte Duarte was born in Rome to parents from Cape veered he had just become an Italian citizen and at twenty one years old was an aspiring chef at a hotel in a town near Rome. All that ended early this month when he tried to break up a fight and instead was beaten to death himself. Prime Minister just say Gone Day attended workdays funeral and hundreds marched in a candlelight procession to call for justice to white brothers were arrested in Duarte's death and have been charged with murder. Some believe they should also be charged for committing a crime, but that's where things get complicated. Maybe another case would be absolutely OCCA- is of racism but in this case based on the fact that we know we do not know at the end Julia. Corinne is an attorney with an Italian Association of Immigration Lawyers. She says, there needs to be concrete evidence of racist motivations. These would be done before as we know that moment of the key Linga this boyswear shouting you are black or something, but that's not the case other say that Duarte's death is evidence of growing fascism in Italy. Marcello Mainieri is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Milan be coca who studies race and power. has this history of cost of the male body stronger. Me Fell Rome? That's ruled the world. Domination the brothers charged into our taste death have pleaded innocent their bodybuilders who were into mixed martial arts and have police records. Those people like they owned the community a wanted to patrol their territory in the end I think that's whether they saw this black guy. we are the people who master control, the territory, not him, and that's a fascist instinct. T says Judith Sunderland argues the brothers behavior can be fascistic and racist. She's deputy director of Europe for Human Rights Watch based in Milan fascism as it was developed and implemented and experienced here in Italy had very racist dimension to it and Sunderland says that while Italian. Law Enforcement requires clear cut indications to declare an attack racially motivated. That's not how racism often works and reality it's unfortunate that so much of the conversation has revolved around this insistence on while it's not racism. It was all these other things but the absolute wasn't racism because that means that people aren't ready for the kind of reckoning that is necessary in order. To really address systemic discrimination and racism in our societies yet last week to artists family released a statement saying they didn't want their son's death to be used as a political tool to talk about racism or fascism. They wrote quote Willie was the victim of cruelty and unjustified ferocity which had no color or race unquote I understand why they did this statement i. Think I can understand, but it disappointed am technically a daughter of Eritrean immigrants. Her thousand seventeen documentary explored the lives of children of immigrants in Italy. She doesn't know the Duarte family, but speculates that they were trying to fend off racist attacks online technically believes if Duarte had died in the US, there would be a larger mainstream discussion about racism for me is obviously. racy stocks. It's a bit dangerous saying that he's not racist because it is. and. She says as long as Italians don't recognize racism they won't be able to address it. For the world I'm Rupa Shenoy. A rigged election, violent government crackdown, and political repression orchestrated by Alexander Lukashenka the President of Belarus for twenty six years make that five more. Today Lukashenko was sworn in for a term in an unannounced ceremony. One opposition politician called it a secret meeting thieves joining me is Franck via Charca. He's a Belorussian analyst with the Atlantic Council starting from now Lukashenka lost to the remains of legitimacy. He say it but I don't care about your opinion. I will be the president for five more years and perhaps this radicalized protest. You describe yourself as a journalist, but you've also been part of the opposition movement to look for years. We should note your father is also an opposition politician you studied at an interesting school, the Belorussian humanities lyceum. What is that school in? What does it stand for? La Soon, as them all this Colin Belarussian language which was given independence knowledge from Belarus, he's the rent culture. And it was closed by Lukashenka. So we were studying in on the ground for many years and still exists it works underground and many young and cool people are graduating from the school. So the school became the nest of the new generation of pro-democracy activists are billers and I think I am one of them these days it may be obvious but why did look shut it down? We know looking came to power he tried to sterilize the political social cultural sphere of billers source. He dismissed the parliament many opponents detained arrested many journalists where kilt and into thousands of their history is the political sphere. He started building power vertical, serve his own interests. He wanted every piece of the state to serve him, and now we have everyone dependent on Lukashenka and this is why for protesters it's so. Crash, the system and I'm afraid that without destroying the system in the state by itself, it's be possible to make the democratic revolution brothers. Frontal. How did your time studying at the bill Russian humanities lyceum and Lukashenko's dismissal of it? How did it influence your identity as? Belorussian citizen. was like fourteen fifteen years old beg them and they didn't believe that Lukashenko's stay for. So long we wear making jokes of him. We were mocking him we were saying that the Lukashenka kids like the mistake of the history and now fifteen years after nothing really changed the system still in place and we really underestimated the seriousness of the situation. So I think if I would know the L. regime, it will become so strong fifteen years after I fight harder, I would be more active back then. Franck finally you're on radio in the US right now, what do you want to say to? Americans what do you think they should know about Belarus in the Belorussian people. I the full video, your and democracy. This is what inspires the whole world for US Belarussians United States was always they exemple the modal, the symbol of freedom and we were always counting on America in terms of help in terms of our fight for democracy. Recently. Last year America's not so active unfortunately in international affairs support democracies worldwide but many people around the world really need to protect America America built on the on values built on ideas of personal freedom and definitely value freedoms you have now because it's very easy to lose and it's very hard to fight back. That is an important thing to keep in mind front via. Georgia Belorussian analyst with the Atlantic Council. Thank you for speaking with us. Thank you. We'll be right back with more in the next half hour of the show you're listening to the world. This episode is brought to you by better help if you're struggling with stress or anxiety or depression better help online counseling offers licensed professional counselors who are trained to listen and help simply fill out a questionnaire to get matched with your counselor and start communicating online via secure video chat or text in under forty eight hours. Join the one million plus taking charge of their mental health with the help of an experienced better help counselor better help is also an affordable option in our listeners get ten percent off your first month with the Discount Code. World get started at better help dot com slash world. That's better. H E L P DOT com slash world. A ship's log was discovered in a closet in. California. The book gives historians a closer look at the transatlantic slave trade. It was right in front of me and I could turn the pages and really text something media team you feel being right in front of. Quite. What we can all learn from slave ship Still. Ahead you're on the world. I'm Marco Werman your with the world where a CO production of GBH NPR EX president trump reminded supporters this week that he's been nominated for a Nobel. Peace Prize for the second time with both nominations trump got the nod from a far-right lawmaker in Norway well known for his anti immigrant views among the far right in. Europe trump has proven to be. A popular figure specifically, though we wanted to know the actual impact trump's time in office has had on popular parties in the far right over there the world's Europe correspondent Orla Barry reports from London just hours after Donald Trump won the twenty sixteen election Marine Le Pen one. Of France's leading far right politicians took to the stage at parties headquarters in Paris visionary. These visit is that you cool. The Americans voted Lapenne said and they've rejected the status quo next door in Germany Franca. Petrie then leader of the far-right alternative of for Deutschland or AFDC party declared on twitter this night changes the USA Europe and the world and a Briton Nigel garage the former UK independence. Party. Leader linked the brexit campaign to trump's election America the twenty-six. Is GonNa be the Year of two great political revolutions I thought Brexit was big. But boy this looks looks like it's going to be even bigger before twenty sixteen and the rise of trump. He was almost unthinkable for politicians in Europe to be looking towards the White House for inspiration. The most remarkable development he is that trump and what he stands for challenged the long tradition of anti-americanism Scott via Toshka is a history lecture at. Wayne State University in Detroit. She says in the past American presidents mostly represented everything that the far right in. Europe opposed on restraint capitalism. In other words, you know globalized free market economy and interventionist. Some would say imperialist foreign policy and then trump came along and he challenged both of these stereotypes of the United States. Toshka was born in Nuremberg the city made infamous by the Nazi party rallies of the nineteen thirties featuring Adolf Hitler. Watching the rise of Germany's far-right FD party in recent years has been distressing for people like Sylvia. Toshka. But not entirely surprising Germany always had a far-right element even when I grew up. They were kept more under the LID and the two thousand ten's a made it possible for for these people to show their face more in public. That's how I look it'd the FDA is not alone the League party initially and the VOX party in Spain or to other far-right parties seen their support grow steadily in the last few years but don't political scientists cast mover who's written a number of books about the virus is very little of this can be attributed to president trump. It's important to remember that far right politics dates trump both in the US but particularly in Europe by decades and parties like Dalstrom Freedom Party or. The national rally in France really don't have to look at trump's for ideological motivation. They actually have a much more developed ideological frame than from will ever have mid that says, trump himself pays very little attention to the politics of Europe, but that's not the case with all of his diplomats. Some of the US ambassador's in Western Europe have tried to normalize far-right parties won't can think of Richard Grenell in. who was criticized for normalizing the A E and in the Netherlands even stronger whiff US ambassador took Stra. An allegedly formed for democracy leaders met with at the US embassy to discuss their plans for the future. Trump's former strategist. Steve Bannon Bannon has been on a never ending euro trip supporting far-right parties across the continent and he's preparing for a long war. To be waged from the thirteenth, century Abbey and Color Pardo Italy. BANNON's plans to open an academy prommoting ideology in that monastery outside of Rome is getting pushback from Italy's culture, ministry, he'll to set up a think tank in Brussels aimed at supporting populist parties in Europe Book Bannon, is hardly driving ideological force here says French political analyst Yves Camus parties like the National Front in France have been doing just fine and their own committee says when Steve Bannon tried to present himself as the man who could unite vague Chirac in European forgot very involved in thing. v National Francois's strong. Willed before Steve Bannon became knowing Washington DC. So the ad need him, but it's not just about political parties Patrick Hermansen with hope not haste a British group that campaigns against racism and extremism. He says Trump's election in twenty sixteen gave a boost to far right grassroots movements in Europe Hermansen who's originally from Sweden went undercover for year in twenty seventeen to report on these groups in Europe and the US he was at the protest. CHARLOTTESVILLE. The Day Heather Heyer was killed in a car ramming attack by a man who espoused neo Nazi and white supremacist beliefs. Right on that corner. Happen wrecking. Hermansen, says, no one could have predicted hairs desks. But after spending months with these groups, he says, he did expect the things could turn violent. These people were increasingly willing to make violence Davick you're quite clearly. Based on how they feed like you say. How it will soon be too late to save the UK or the US when Hermansen went public revealing his year undercover he received personal threats from far right supporters for many months afterwards today he says he feels relatively safe looking to November third Hermansen says the far right supporters he mashed across Europe will want to see trump win a second term political scientists Kazmi. The agrees trump will treat them at the Very least, the same as the others as the mainstream parties whereas Biden will probably be very much against the far right not just in the US but outside as well. So it makes perfect sense that they would prefer trump over biden whoever wins the November election though all of the experts I spoke with agree that the far right in Europe is here to stay for the world I'm more Tiberi in London. Now to Lebanon where the state is barely functioning the Lebanese currency is in free fall unemployment is above thirty percent and politicians cannot agree on who should be in charge Lebanon's President Michel own literally said this week that his country could be going to hell if a new government is informed soon now was the president's quote to hell own added there does not appear to be any solution on the horizon. Hey, Co women is with the International Crisis Group where he's a project director for Lebanon Syria and Iraq he's currently in Cairo. I hate go what's the hold up with forming a new Lebanese cabinet So Tussle. was going to get the Ministry of Finance, which are clearly in a situation like this run when you need to talk to the IMF and all of this is A. Very crucial one but but the larger problem is It's a struggle for influence It's I. Mean of course has La and you have other parties and took. That are struggling for influence next government and how many ministers you are able to put in them means how much influence You have. The Prime Minister of Lebanon, the designated prime minister most. ADIBA recently, proposes shakeup of ministries which I in recent years I understand been allocated according to Lebanon's sectarian government system. Such a move happening the shakeup diminished shell finance has been. That's the big prize fighting over has been so-called Shia Ministry for now. Something like five six years I believe were mistaken. Wasn't before the Lebanese system is actually not as inflexible as as this would suggest, it's like certain ministries are allocated to certain parties but now with the system so much under pressure elites feeling themselves corner. And you don't know where things are going between the Garonne you don't who's going to be sitting in the White House next year on all of this. the likelihood that anybody is going to make any compromises risk, take any risks. By being flexible. A PS quite low. So. You mentioned Hezbollah considered by the US of the terror organization but they've been receiving growing criticism especially since the August report explosion in Beirut. Can you envision a government without Hezbollah? Yes but you cannot envision government. That Hezbollah agrees to and as let's say, somewhat comfortable with. A million very simple that one of the two big parties that represent the Shiite community, the other party she had argued that that is there I'm. Walks with them in. Lockstep So if you have those two big parties against you against the government, the government will not work because the system is built that way the system is building a way to make sure that none of the. Communities. Can Be excluded. No. So you need to get them go after onboard somehow. Yesterday. There was a large explosion in the south of Lebanon. It left a large crater and caused damage to some buildings in the reports. Say it was a Hezbollah weapons depot that experienced a quote unquote technical error. What is the local sentiment towards Hezbollah stocking weapons in populated areas? The issue of of Hezbollah's weapons is a very divisive. People who are supportive of the Party in general. Then, you will hear. Good explanations for this for things like that. Maybe some grumbling but no condemnations and if you ask people against Hezbollah project against epic line, you will, of course he he had the most fiery. Condemnations you hear people coming up with now tips that's supposedly proved that Hezbollah was even depart explosion and the fact is it is extremely divisive and is really depends we'll ask. To hear about a political logjam just over a month since such a graphic illustration of dysfunction in the Lebanese government the terrible and massive explosion at the bay report is the government not listening to the people. Well, I mean for government does the people you need to have a government to begin with and we don't have one right now you can definitely say that the established existing political elites status quo parties if you want. Another very good in listening to the people and very good at blaming the opponents. Everything. That is wrong. I think I would I would say the politically has a in Lebanon Sylla's has gotten what? received a message stay still don't understand. This game that been playing what twenty years is is really up were they're still playing by the old rules, but in the meantime, the country thinking. Co Women with the International Crisis Group he's the project director for Lebanon Syria and Iraq. They're thanks very much Echo Yala. Thank you. Have a nice day. In Seventeen, ninety, five, a ship call the Mary departed from Providence Rhode Island. It was heading to cities along the West African coast in what are now the countries of Senegal, Liberia, and Ghana a year. Later, it returned to the United States with one hundred, forty, two enslaved men, women, and children aboard. We know this because it's written down in the long book from the Mary that book was recently discovered in a closet in California now has a new home at Georgetown, university where it's being digitized Adam. Kaufman is a historian at Georgetown when you first held his logbook in your hands Adam and look through it. What were you feeling? I was feeling. Kind. Of Astonishment. Such an artifact actually existed and. It was right in front of me and I could turn the pages and read the text is that kind of immediacy Incident Medias you feel being right in front of an artifact. Quite unparalleled and I'm assuming pretty good condition. What does it look like? It's a big book. It's. Physically large oversized script, and so you really get a sense of there's something weighty when it arrived, it was in pretty good condition all things considered but the pages were a little afraid a little torn. The whole thing was was quite fragile. It's also emotionally weighty. There were a hundred and forty two enslaved African people on board the Mary we know that a what does the book tell us about them what we know about their lives? Well, the book tells us almost nothing about the. Doesn't tell their names doesn't tell us. Where they came from originally how they got onto the vessel of the Mary. All it tells us is that they're on board that vessel in that some of them a few shockingly large number of them died during middle passage. And the way those deaths are recorded in the logbook is probably the most shocking thing about it all it says over and over day after day is. Boy. died. See. Who kept this log or was it a ship's captain a slave trader, and do we get any insights into how that person was part of this objection of people into slavery this crime we don't know who actually kept a journal it could have been the captain could have been a I made or ship's surgeon or something like that. What's unusual about this one is the level of detail that is provided day day-to-day. You know there's some standard stuff like the weather was like, but then there's also record of the transactions that big plays on the west African coast kinds of goods that her bonds sold exchange for for people. And then this record of death dying the log also documents some pretty incredible stories being of detail a mutiny attempts what happened in those cases. Yeah. It was a tumultuous voyage. The captain had some trouble with the crew. And had to you had to punish some of them. Near disgruntled but then the most serious. Uni. That took place call meetings really an uprising. was on the captive Africans off the coast of West Africa it try to free themselves from the hold of the ship take over the vessel, but they're beaten down gunned down by the crew and it's narrated in incredible detail in the journal you can kind of see the leader of the rebels emerging from the hold. And try to take over the ship by. But he failed. It's a wild story that the ship's log was found in a closet in California, do do you know how it ended up there and how did it get to Georgetown? University? It seems like this law goes has been in the family. Probably, the person who wrote it across generations as that family moved west and we at Georgetown, we've been examining our own history of slavery has institution very intensely for the last five years. George student who was aware of what was going on knew that a neighbor Had this log. In their family and he basically I think talk to the neighbor. Convinced into the Georgetown how do these primary sources like the ship's log? How do they change the way? We think about the history of the Atlantic slave trade I, think one of the most important lessons of the logbook has to do with. How ordinary it is. It's an account. In the most. Basic financial sense of the word preps on the deepest level it tells us. About The business practices, the routine business practices. Of the buying and selling of human. Beings. Boarding them thousands of miles. Across the track was ocean. Adamant cost basically one out of six of one of. Captives transported across the ocean on the slave ships died on route. It's an astronomical Sharon tall. Z. recorded in such talented kind of way in the logbook takes you deeper into the mentality of the slaving world. Adam Rothman as a professor of history at Georgetown, university in Washington thanks very much for describing this telling about this logbook. Thanks for having me. Perhaps the biggest climate change news of the year came out this week China's President Xi Jinping announced new carbon emission targets in a video address to the United Nations. Yesterday he said a new long-term goal of reaching Carbon Neutrality before twenty sixty here he is speaking to the through an interpreter. Form quickly a bring up. And of lives. Shooting ecological civilization and beautiful of. The world's environment correspondent Carolyn Bieler joins us now caroline considering this is the biggest climate news of the you're just how big of a deal is it? It's a big deal Marco for for two reasons. I, WanNa, talk about first from a scientific perspective China is by far the world's biggest and bitter of greenhouse gases about a quarter of global emissions come from just that one country. So if China meets this target Reaching Carbon Neutrality before twenty sixty that could actually have a big impact on how much our world warms. It could reduce global warming by as much half a degree. Fahrenheit according to the climate action tracker, which you know that might not seem like a huge amount, but it actually makes a really big difference and then aside from this the science with climate science this announcements also important on the diplomatic front also explained that. Well China and the US together back in two thousand fourteen join together to pave the way for the Paris Agreement. So they made this bilateral pact to cut emissions, announced it, and that sort of paved the way for the Paris agreement when the US announced in two thousand seventeen that it was going to be pulling out of the Paris Agreement. There was this concern that you know with the US. The world's largest historical amidror basically saying. We're not going to be a leader on climate change China also wouldn't feel like it needed to do that. Anymore. China has long seen itself as having historical responsibility to tackle this problem, and with this announcement from Xi. Jinping is really stepping up and saying we're going to be a global leader on this issue. So this is a big shift for China real is the target though I mean, is this just talk from Xi? Jinping. because. As a long way off it is and we have no details beyond you know one line in a speech. So there's a lot of excitement and hope from the climate world around this surprise announcement, but there's also some skepticism. So two things to watch going forward China will submit a new nationally determined contribution. So a new carbon cutting target officially through the Paris agreement process sometime next year. So we can look for details there and we'll also have more details when China unveils its next five year economic plan, which will govern the country's economic trajectory and energy starting twenty twenty one. What are you going to be watching out for moving forward caroline to see if this is really real. A couple of things both in terms of its announcement and then what China does domestically I what exactly Xi Jinping means here by carbon neutrality that term usually refers to carbon dioxide getting that down to net zero and not other greenhouse gases. So what exactly he means by that also, how much before twenty sixty he plans to reach that target scientists say we need to be at net zero before that by twenty fifty to reach the Paris agreement goals. And then on the domestic side in China if near-term policy changes really match the ambition of this twenty, sixty target and another tweak in policy that he announced yesterday hitting peak co two emissions before twenty thirty instead of around twenty thirty, which was a previous school some some background here on China emissions of there are still on the rise and it's still permiting and building lots of new coal plants. So domestic energy policy will be another key thing to watch right we should remember too that some of the things. To Watch out for are not in China China's a serious financial backer of energy projects, well outside its borders. That's right and it's not clear if or how this new target would impact decisions. China makes on financing energy or infrastructure projects outside of China. For example, the one trillion dollar global infrastructure project, the Belton Road Initiative. So emissions from coal fired power plant that China. Finances outside of the country don't count toward a carbon emissions but obviously emissions no, no border. So these are all things to watch going forward. The world's environment correspondent Carolyn Taylor. Thanks very much. You're welcome NOCCO every weekday morning the team here at the world discusses the most important stories that we need to cover. You can also get a seat at the table subscribe to our daily newsletter top of the world to find out what's in our minds each day sign up at the world dot org slash newsletters again, that's the world dot org slash newsletters. There are occasionally sparks of joy that arise from the worst of circumstances not too many of those in the midst of pandemic though. So when one comes along, we got to let you know about it this actually happened in the same town where Shakespeare created setting for Romeo and Juliet Verona Italy a man and a woman on separate balconies for a concert in the city they did not know each other now they do. Sit Down, and let me regale you with the tail in IAMBIC pentameter. In Fair Verona, their lives are seeing to single people one girl and one boy stood on their balconies waiting to sing. In March, twenty twenty, they were both lockdown evenings were spent two choruses of Queen. We are the champions soon. was there theme as the girl sister played the island strings love soon bloomed and as lockdown eased, they met in a park for their first big squeeze. No star-crossed lovers he took to his knees and Verona Verona's balconies rejoiced in glee cheering on the new bride and groom to be. Yes mcclay Dow POWs thirty eight and powder on yellow forty are now engaged a little iambic pentameter composed by old friend of the show. Jimmy. Rogers is also a Shakespearean scholar. We've got the whole love story in modern English pros at the world's twitter feed. We are at the world. Earlier this hour we told you about the reaction in Belarus to the surprise secret inauguration today of President Alexander Lukashenka despite sustained weeks the protests his victory was rigged protests. Say the winner of that election is actually Svetlana a sky up this. Bill. Respect as because for more than twenty years it then they will. THINK ABOUT PEOPLE AS PEOPLE IS A. Unitary just where working follow for them took an oath sky is currently in exile in Lithuania tomorrow took an Oscar will be our guest on the show to talk about what comes next for Belarus's protest movement. That's going to do it for us today from an and Bill Harris Studio at Gbh in Boston I'm Marco. Werman. Thanks very much for making it today. We'll see you back here tomorrow.

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