24 Exoplanets

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Love this podcast support this show through the a cast support a feature. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now than 15 seconds guidance to the internal can nine ignition sequence space nut size three to five or more about more radio on Space notice that recorded meals good 11. Thanks for joining us on another edition of the Space Nuts podcast episode 2 to 3 months. My name is Andrew dunkley and joining me as always is the good professor Fred Watson astronomer at large. Hello Fred Andrew. It's nice to be good for a change Euro with trade and another age some of the things that people used to say about me. I think we've all been there. Saying at about the federal treasurer of this week because the the budgets been released and it's the Cove covid budget some scary numbers, but you know, you've got the economy going and that means spending money and that means going into debt and that means, you know children and our children's children and their children are all going to have to pick up the slack in a few years time, but that's the way it goes. Unfortunately and I'm sure it'll be the same in many other countries around the world used to come now. We got a lot to talk about today. There's a few people you want to mention that have won prizes the Nobel Prize we're talking about one of the stories that's in the news this week that we're going to talk about is a study of comets which has revealed that our our system has a second alignment plane, which I think you'll find rather fascinating but maybe more so the possibility that around two dozen 24 odd x e Planets have better potential for life than Earth. That gets you thinking doesn't it? So we'll look at that and some audience questions one from Zoey in Northern Ireland and one from Gareth this coming up on this edition of choice nuts now Fred a few people you want to mention briefly as recipients of the Nobel Prize. This would be the Nobel Prize for science. Is it it's physics. Yep. So the 2020 Nobel Prize for physics indeed being shared in kind of two halves half goes to that esteemed British like Rodger Penrose. He he and you and I have talked about Rodger many times because of his work on the idea that black holes might spawn new universes off his his prize is not for that. It's for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity in other words, he dead Basically proved that black holes exist mathematically very well-known physicist. I'm sure I've told you before I was wanted a public lecture that Rodger gave in Sydney and halfway through the lectures mobile phone rang and he took the call so somebody in Oxford I think saying what do we do about this? I spoke for about five minutes and then got back-to-back very individual style. So he he's got half the prize and the other half goes to to really big names in in the science of black hole observations lineup cancel who is German and Andrea Gates who is American they have both independently and using different instruments have observed the orbits of stars around the black hole at the center of our galaxy The supermassive black hole. So they looked at the waist our swarm around it. They've met The orbits of those Styles which is why we know the mass of that black hole. So accurately it's about 4 million times the mass of the Sun. So Andre Agassi has used the Keck telescopes in Hawaii to observe the galactic center. While Rinehart Dental has used the European Southern observatory's VLT the very often telescope down there in Chile and they produced basically they produced movies over the last more than 20 years. They've both been working since the 1990s on this page produce movies of the motion of the Stars around the around the galactic center a stunning stuff. You can't actually see that galactic center directly in visible light. So they used infrared lights to you know, the infrared radiation released by these stars to to penetrate the dust that lies between ourselves and the galactic center fantastic stuff off. Been following their work for well over 20 years and I'm delighted that they both shared the second half of this Nobel Prize the first half going to Rodger Penrose. So it's gray noon Thursday, it is indeed and I think anybody who achieves those signs those sorts of levels of greatness certainly deserve deserve to be recognized for it. And while the Nobel Prize came about because of something terribly destructive called Dynamite we being used for very good things these days is it not? Yeah. That's right. Now let's move on to our first topic and a a study of comments revealing that our solar system has a second alignment plane. Now, I'm guessing the first month is the planets. That's right. Yeah, which is the the plane of the the orbits of the planets. It's called the ecliptic. It's very flat plane. I mean the Thursday Misfits and Mercury and Venus near the middle. They're tilted at a few degrees to the plane. But most of the rest of the planets are, you know, essentially lie in this same play in the name of this orbit is the actual the ecliptic itself. It was one of the reasons why Pluto was seen as an outsider very early on in but the history of knowledge of choice because it's inclined that I remember rightly 17°, I think to the ecliptic plane. So it's it's it's well out of it. Anyway that plane is what probably you know full well in Florida half billion years ago when the solar system was young was was a disc of material that the protoplanetary disk, but once now happened is a scientist in Japan whose whose name is Ari car higuchi. I think that's pronouncing it properly who's actually at the University of Occupational And environmental health in Japan. It's an official name for a university but she's working there and basically has worked on some of the the Nash observatories projects the national observatory in Japan. So she's basically said okay that ecliptic plane May well have come about because of the influence of the gravity of our galaxy the whole galaxy itself. In other words, the Milky Way the plane of the Milky Way exerts gravitational forces off. So she looked at the way those foster excuse me would might have set up the ecliptic in other words that the plane of this planetary disk protoplanetary disk back in the early history of the solar system how that might have been set up in the first place because the ecliptic stilted over with respect to the disk of the Milky Way by about sixty degrees it's dead. roughly sixty degrees and what she found was that there should be another plane that would be favored by the galactic the effect of Galactic gravity on the young solar system. So we've got the ecliptic tilted over at sixty degrees and the calculations show that there should be another plane also at 60° to the Milky Way But in a position Direction and she called it the empty ecliptic because essentially it doesn't contain a planetary system like, you know, like life the the really clip tick and that's a really interesting mathematical entity comes from our study of her study of the gravitational pull of the Galaxy, but then she looks at the orbits of comments and that in itself is an interesting thing because the suggestion is that Comments actually started off being formed in the ecliptic. We know we now know that comets occupy this spherical shell around the solar system called the Oort cloud and that's because they sort of come in from all directions. But what she's saying is that originally those comments would have been in there would have been probably concentrated in the ecliptic wage, but also perhaps in what we now see as the empty ecliptic and so to cut a long story short doing calculations of the orbits of comets you look at the statistics of it and sure enough she finds peaks in the the the basically the direction of of actually of the page and the aphelion that the farthest point from the some she finds two peaks in this distribution in the Comets in our you know, catalog of Commerce one near the eclipse wage. Among nearly empty ecliptic. So it's really interesting to find that you can make a prediction from you know, the the Dynamics of our own Galaxy Edge. It relates to the solar system and then make some you know, look at the catalog of of, tree objects that we have already available and find that there is evidence that what she's saying is correct nice piece of work. So would it be fair to say to this point in time? We've just assumed that all the comments are on the same plane and we've we've not really look down to the yeah their origin to graduate degree since we weren't away. Yeah. So so we it's been the opposite we've assumed that, it's have money coming from anywhere. They've been not in the plane but in this spherical shell the art cloud and that's certainly the case. We you know, they do come in from all directions. That's why you proposed the idea of this very closed off. Of comments, but what this work is showing is that the Oort cloud probably started off exactly as you said with comments in the plane of the solar system because that's sort of how they should be formed. But because, it's a small objects and and have been there a long way out this, you know, they're in the depths of the solar system. They've been perturbed by off the passage of other stars and things of that sort, which is why they're now in a spherical shell but I think what you're saying is that even within that spherical distribution of comets there is a sort of fossil wage remnant of the fact that they started off not only in the ecliptic but also in this empty ecliptic as well the to ecliptic directions. I'm not salute to the the whole paper for this which I'm going to do cuz it's interesting work. But so yeah, basically this is a you know, this is a second hand report, but it's yeah, it's a it's a VIN number. Resting place of work and it's quite far-reaching really it's yes if there's an inside the history of our solar system. Yeah. And from what I've read the this now opens up future study of long., It's so that they can you know, double-check their work I suppose so they can confirm their beliefs confirm their theories. Yeah, and that's what happens is know when you come up with an idea that could find a way of proving it. Yeah. Yeah, that's right. And actually the there's something on the on the agenda which is you know, I've spoken about the Vera see Ruben telescope, which may be called the large synoptic survey telescope should open for business. I think it's next year or the following year. It's been held up a bit by covid-19 there that that still building it down in Chile not very far from La Sirena. I saw it last year actually the construction side, but this telescope will survey the entire Sky every week effectively dead. Every few days and it's looking for what it called transient events. And that is you know, they'll pick up thousands of comments this page telescope and as well as asteroids, so we might have more evidence for the for the this empty ecliptic being a real thing by the time and that's those surveys are done on the on the very Ruben telescope fascinating exciting. All right. Well, they think it is. Yes and they'll definitely be more to talk about wage that sort of information starts to filter back. So we will watch with interest as I say Fred you all listening to the Space Nuts podcast Andrew dunkley here with Fred Watson over the wage. Yes that I'm over here. He's over there. Now, let's take a little break and find out more about our sponsor expressvpn rated number one by techradar. This is the one I use I've been using it for a couple of years and I love it. I joined expressvpn now that were brand new new to the market, but I read a lot of reviews and did a lot of comparisons and it was just something about their their business model that I particularly liked and a couple of years down the track honestly can't complain their interface is very easy to use their their service is second to none. I've had to contact them a couple of times about certain things that I wanted to do and they were brilliant. So you may be wondering why I do need a VPN at all. 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Come slash space to learn more and you'll find the link details in the show notes. And on our website now back to the show Space Nuts. Thanks for listening to the space. And that's podcast Andrew dunkley here with the good professor Fred Watson are now something I haven't mentioned for a long time is the space in that shop. You can find it on our website space. That's podcast.com. You can click on the the the shop Tab and there's new products that I didn't even know. We had like the bubble free stickers you can now get the Space Nuts logo in the office of a sticker. There's the dad hat. What's what's a dead? I don't know. What a dad hat is but there I'm thinking it's like a baseball cap, but you know a bit more daggy looking chaps more more akin to something an astronomer might wear whatever embroidered t-shirts for men and women. We've got the matte black magic coffee cup where you could probably drink too age. Of it or something else. We've got polo shirts. We've got colored mugs with the the big logo on them. We've even got the unisex hoodie. The Space Nuts unisex. Hoodie is not available. It's all on the space that's shop on our website space and that's podcast.com my goodness. It's just going gangbusters. And yeah, there's some good stuff with Christmas coming up and you know, you've got a dad that doesn't have you know, you've got no idea what to get him. The dad had would be a go. I reckon yeah off or polish it or my go get him one of everything Why Not Afraid let us move on to this study of world exoplanets effectively and what they've found is possibly a couple of dozen exoplanets that seem to have a better potential for life than earth now to this point in time Earth is still off. Replacing the whole universe that we are aware of that has life, but we strongly suspect there will be other places perhaps in our own solar system that Harbors some kind of Life probably microbial choice, but to actually be bold enough to step out and say well we think these twenty-four on planets are probably better than Earth for harboring life is a pretty big leap of faith isn't dead. Yeah. That's well. It's an interesting idea other, you know places that can out earth the earth and apparently there are home is similar when making we're making it easier for them. Yes, that's right, you know planets that that may have conditions better than us and indeed May orbit stars that are better than our son. That's so what what has happened is a group of scientists led by somebody at Washington State University. I think he's off. Connected with the Technical University in Berlin. His name is Derek shoots, and he has got together with some colleagues and penne. Hello from the Max Planck Institute for solar system research and Edouard ganar of via Nova University. So that you are this is a group of scientists have basically looked at what they call Super habitability criteria. So not just habitability, but super habitability wage, they looked through the list of four and a half thousand now known exoplanets to find candidates for planets might be better better than our own and as you said they found I think it's 24. Yes within that not none of them are within a hundred light-years though. They're all quite a long way away but nevertheless. So what what time? It done is taken these criteria. So first of all, of course habitability doesn't mean that planets definitely have life. It means they've got the conditions that will be conducive to life. So I'm super habitability means that they've got the conditions that will be super conducive to life. In other words might be even better than they are here. So they looked at home terrestrial type Planet rocky planets orbiting in the basically in the Goldilocks zone of the Kepler object of Interest exoplanet wage archive. This is ur, you know capital of the of the spacecraft that that discovered a very large number of these exoplanets by the transit method they pass in front of their parent stars and didn't the light bulb so they've said okay take just take the ones that that live within the the the habitable zone know that the liquid water Zone. The Goldilocks zone is recall, Of these objects and then that what they also looked at was lifespan. How long a star last so our son took your life span roughly ten billion years and we're about halfway through it at the moment, but there are many other stars which are cooler and age less massive, but go through that hydrogen fuel much more slowly in particular what we call case. K dwarf stars. They've got much much longer life spans, but more than twenty billion years sometimes up to seventy billion years. So it means that if you have a star that's going to last all this time, you're giving life a longer chance to to evolve. You know, you're you're you're to some extent improving the chances of Life kicking off on the other hand off. You don't want the planet to be so old that it's got no geothermal heat that it score is not liquid because the liquid core is probably what generates and protracted magnetic field and you don't want to lose that you don't want to you magnetic field to wear out so that you don't have protection from the radiation from your parents star particularly, cuz these K dwarfs are quite active and not probably spits out a lot more radiation than the son does. So they make this point that the sweet spot for life is a planet that is between 5 billion and 8 billion years old. That's the the kind of Zone that they think is the sweet spot and then they talk about the size of a planet clearly. If you've got a planet that's bigger than the earth it you might expect unless it's an ocean world that it would have more land if it's dead. Little bit bigger this suggests 50% bigger than the Earth's mass you'd retain more in interior heat. And so you keep the magnetic field going and you'll still have stronger gravity a larger level of gravity which means that you could keep an atmosphere, you know more solidly than than a smaller Planet. So I thought they also point to a slightly warmer temperature. If I remember rightly the Earth's average temperature mean temperature is 15° Celsius, they suggest if you get up about five degrees then and especially if you've got more moisture in the atmosphere, you've got a better chance of life and then points to the fact that this warmth and moisture preference we find on Earth because when you look at tropical rainforests, you've got much greater biodiversity than you do else wage. What you know in in areas that are not as as warm and moist. So those are the candidates. Those are the criteria. They say that this 24 Top Planet candidates that they've dug out. None of them actually meet all their criteria included the things that we've just left listed one have one of them four of the critical characteristics apparently making it as they say possibly much more comfortable for life than our home planet so long that shoots macro says it's sometimes difficult to convey this principle of super habitable planets because we think we have the best planet. We have a great number of complex diverse life-forms and many that can survive in extreme environments. It's good at to have adaptable life, but that doesn't mean we have the best of everything. So it's really quite an interesting job. Idea the idea of super habitability and you know it when you do studies like this Andrew it essentially sheds a bit of more light on our own environment and tells us a little bit more about our own planet. And you know, what is shortcomings are in perhaps? Yes. Yeah. Well, you know, I couldn't get past the headlines Size Matters off and won't be asleep. If you could find a Planet. There's a little bit bigger as you said the gravity would work in our favor keep the interior harder for longer and the atmosphere or old better, but there's there's there's also the issue if we ever are capable of leaving Earth and and colonizing another planet. We we do have to actually find something that we can handle in terms of gravity and that's something that never portrayed well in science fiction cuz everyone can go from planet to planet in some circumstances and they all walk the same way regardless, but clearly there are dead. Huge challenges for any future Exodus to potentially livable planet outside of our our own and gravity's got to come into effect. It's you Thursday. We noticed that when you get off the planet muscle wastage. Well, the opposite would be true. If you went to a planet like Earth that was one and a half times bigger. You would have issues with the amount of gravity Shorkey. Yeah and do your knees in four star? I can tell you I'm speaking as someone who's had his own these done in by us gravity or one of them. Anyway, look just as a PostScript to this page as you probably know. I'm a big fan of colonizing other worlds, but a building our own megastructures that would allow us to to live off Earth in space in large numbers with whatever gravity would choose because these like Halo Worlds world where the gravity is artificially created by centrifugal force. So that's the way to do it. You can make your own you can go off. Now that's that's good thinking and that's probably the way migration will happen. Ultimately you'll have generations of people moving through space and and the people who get there may have been born for a long time after The Exodus began but one one particular story. I read recently the Name Escapes me off the other the people of our solar system basically traveled in hollowed-out asteroids that we've been turned into long long haul space ships off basically places where people lived and they they rotated so that was gravity and they had Gardens it was you know, it's not beyond the Realms of possibility in the distant future. I thought I'd suggest very clever thinking I think it was a Kim Stanley Robinson novel. He's very clever. He's got a very very sharp mind when it comes to potential ways of living in our solar system beyond Earth that's dead. He wrote that amazing Mars series too, which is is a pretty heavy read but fascinating bloke. Yeah. No, it's it's exciting that there are potentially livable planets out there. Hopefully, you guys that keep looking into what we might find some that are a bit closer. Which would May well be ideal for our future who knows you listening to the space and that's podcast with Andrew dunkley and Fred 1000. The truth about the haditha massacre has been covered up but not anymore. I don't you know what happened. They went into houses and killed women and children who are thinking what a mask US Marines murdered innocent civilians In Cold Blood, and at the center of it. All is 25 year old Sergeant Frank ward off and me murder in house to a new podcast from crowd Network. Space Nuts now something else. I've not mentioned in recent episodes is that on our website? You can subscribe to our mailing list. Now, you can do that through your favorite podcast distributor whether that's iTunes or apple or YouTube or Stitch or Google or iHeartRadio off Spotify or maybe through your standard RSS feed. They're always of subscribing or you can simply subscribe by filling out the the information on our mailing list, which you will find on our website Space Nuts podcast, and tap on the Subscribe option. You can also become a patron by TJ signing up to your fate via your favorite Patriot Patron platform, whether it's patreon a cast or supercast they're all available to you and the packages off. Many and varied can cost you as little as $3 a month us. But if you want to put in more it's totally up to you. And as I've said many times it is optional. The good news is, we will very very soon have a bit more to add to our our patreon Platforms in the form of bonus material. So stand by for that not far away. We got some questions to to tackle and this one sort of caught us all by surprise in in an amusing way because of I I'm trying to walk as I read it think of the accent in my mind because I think it would just enhance it so beautifully, but even our producer Hugh was was smiled when he read this one. This comes from faith in Northern Ireland Hey Zoe from Northern Ireland here. I re-watched the movie Interstellar the other day and they show how some random Planet orbiting a black hole blah blah gravity makes time slowed down. In the movie 1 hour on the planet is seven years on Earth and I was wondering if that fact or that actually can happen. If so, if you're able to watch earth live from the planet Earth looked like it was in fast forward and this is the line that humor and I really love proper love the the podcast and you definitely make my long bus Journeys to work much more enjoyable. Thank you off. That's lovely. So we thank you for reaching out and asking that question. It's a it's a we've we've had people ask questions about Interstellar many times before and I don't know if you've yet seen it Fred was just added. Yeah. Yeah. Yes. Yeah and and then so where they go down to that water planet that is orbiting a black hole the the issue becomes one of gravity and as a consequence of that the time dilation or variation causes an hour on the planet's surface to be a year seven years back on the spaceship and therefore Earth. And could that really happen? So so what this is depicting is something we call gravitational time dilation dog chewing of time by gravity and we all experience here here on the surface of the Earth X moving a little bit more slowly than it is for people up in the International Space Station cuz we're in the home that's conclusive, you know to the center of the Earth's gravitational field than they are not by much. I mean the amount of dilation is Tiny But the the idea of dilating time from one hour to seven years is it's not possible because the that amount of time dilation would require such an enormous gravitational field that you would simply be spaghettified immediately. That's the issue that you know, you would feel a much greater gravitational. All the new then your head so you get turned into spaghetti. So that that time dilation of one hour to 7 years has been decried many trying to age. I observe as of this of this movie that it yes. The idea is correct that time is passing slower, you know in in the in the wrong section of field but not by that amount that amount is just a stretch too far by a very very long way. So no not really and Thursday. Yeah you the fast-forward effects that you would in a sense should see the Earth moving in fast forward if you could see it at all, but it's but yeah, once again, it's it's a for any kind of survivable environment, which is what's being depicted on the planet. The time dilation is much dead. Which relaxes you know, something like one day becoming a microsecond longer or something like that. It's not one hour becoming seven years. Hm now is I suppose the question that pops into my mind is what is a feasible limit on time dilation gravitational dilation, you could survive or circumstances where it would be significant. I suppose I think the answer is know. If you wanted an environment that you could survive in, you know, it's it would be significant. Okay, so that taxes back to the yeah, that's yeah that's affected the discussion about discovering a livable exoplanet. Again, we talked about gravity gravity in terms of the effect on the human body. But it also you'd also have to take time into account because you and I have talked before about trying to live on Mars. Example which almost has the same amount of day and the length as as Earth but long-term be a very very horrible place to try and live because you you took Acadian rhythms wouldn't work and they they don't adjust. Well as far as I remember a discussion. So there's there's all sorts of elements to take into account if we ever move and that's why we build our own space stations where you can make it 24 hours a day, like go back Point gravitational time dilation not a thing to the extreme that they go to in in that movie. That's right. It is science fiction. It is science fiction Zoe and you can do anything in science fiction as I've discovered and may make it seem so very real. Look. It's a clever film. I love it. I really enjoy it but they do stretch the creative license quite a bit in many aspects of the job. Be but it wouldn't be science fiction if they didn't so yes now and thanks for the questions. Oh and thanks for telling us how much you enjoy the podcast now, let's move on to a question from Gareth Edwards Gareth is referring back to a discussion where you had some time ago, probably a month or so ago about the the moon we were talking about how the Moon is actually rusting. He says hi. I'm no chemist as I'm sure this question reveals in the recent episode about oxidized a walk on the moon. You mentioned that there was no hydrogen on the moon which came there was hydrogen on the moon which came from the icing polar craters, but there was no obvious local source of oxygen but given that ice is H2O y cart it also be the source of oxygen best regards Gareth. I've Got a Feeling we might have actually said that at the time or maybe we suck. Off off camera, I'm not sure but he brings up an interesting point. I think what we said Andrew was a wonder why you can't get us can't get the oxygen Palm Beach to oh so garish questions are great one and I'm pretty sure we discussed it. I think I think it was Offline that we ourselves didn't understand and I think it I think I may answer has to do with you know, it's it's to do with the chemistry and I'm not a chemist either Gareth. So you and I are in the same boat here, but it is certainly true that the lunar soil the natural lunar soil has a huge component of oxygen in it, you know, a lot of the minerals are oxides of one form or another and there's a some work on the list to do with the ultimate project that is going to the moon now people looking long-term about whether wage Can whether you can actually use the lunar soil to generate oxygen and apparently one of the mineral studies very rich in oxygen is something called ilmenite wage, which again is a bit like what we're talking about. We were talking about hematite which is iron and oxygen ilmenite is a mixture of iron titanium an oxygen and so, you know, the the whole project talks about the chemistry required to extract that so I'm not sure what the answer to your question is, but I think it is to do with the way the oxygen is bound up in these dead minerals and it may well be that the hydrogen is the hydrogen, you know, the the divorce present in the in the water of the polls that tends to to leak away so that you log Would expect you to end up with a with an oxygen-rich environment in those in those Frozen puzzles in the South and North Poles of the Moon. Why did not provide the oxygen needed to you know to oxidized iron to make hematite and they don't know the answer to that some sort of chemistry here if I get time off next week or so. I'll go back to the the original paper which talked about the rusting of the Moon and try to find out a bit more detail, but I'm sorry, I don't have the the answer at the moment. But it's a really good question. And if there's anybody out there who knows the answer don't hesitate to let us know. Absolutely. Yes. We we do love to hear from you and sometimes people have put forward comments that off and sort of we go off. Yes, of course, that's that would make sense. Yeah, but we will we welcome that as we do welcome your questions, of course via our website space wage. Podcast.com you can just message as your question the traditional way via text or you can I record your question on the am a link on our website. Just click on that. If you've got a device with a microphone built in like a smartphone or a tablet or a laptop or a computer or whatever they call them these days notebook. You can just click record and say hi. I'm Fred from Sydney and I want to know what Andrews next novel is about and we'll spend twenty-four hours talking about it for you. No questions asked but yeah, ask us anything you like and I will handle that over to Fred cuz I don't answer any which is a blessing but yes, we do appreciate your questions and your feedback. Sometimes we just get emails from people wanting to say hi and that that's fine too. And you know, I've got found a long long suffering. 290 Bengals fan which I mentioned the other day. They actually achieved a draw their first non loss of the season the other day, which I was impressed with what a dog had battle that game was but that's beside the point. I think we've reached the end of another program Fred. Thank you so much though. It's a pleasure Andrew that took me by surprise, but we are now is to go. Yeah, probably but yeah, we we've gone a bit quicker this week than we normally would, you know, very good I take the philosophy that our story it should be as long as it takes to tell we have it especially when you don't know me, but I will say that if you are a patron through patreon or supercast some bonus material coming your way very very sensitive stand by for that. We should be getting onto that very very quickly indeed. So for it, thank you very much. We'll catch you again next week. Sounds great. Thanks a lot. Take care of look after yourself. See you soon. You too. Let's Fred Watson astronomer at large part of the crew here on the Good Ship Space Nuts and for me Andrew dunkley. Have a good week. Stay safe and we'll catch you again real soon a first lady available at Apple podcast on Google podcasts Spotify. I have radio or off favorite podcast Planet. You can also stream on-demand advice.com. This has been another quality broadcast production from.com.

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