Responsive Technologies and the Public Realm
We are not inventing anything. We're not developing new technology. We have no patent or anything. We are a designer so we fly or presenter then deployed this technology in new way by means of design from the Harvard Graduate School of design. The future of the American city conversations on how we live where we live. I'm Charles Waldheim words with Rodolfo. Gory architect educator and urban est whose work focuses on smart cities and embedded technologies rudy joins us today to discuss his work in technology and the public realm. Welcome Rudy. Thank you so you. After you know the The notable international crew that you've had as an architect and practice krill at Fong hadn't taught at a range of world-class leading institutions in architecture. Urbanism you made a choice. Five years ago to move oof to to Miami full-time and ticklish. Approval University of Miami. Why was that the right choice for you? And why was Miami the right place. The I mean it's not like one day I woke up reports said I would like to move to Miami because this is the right move. It just happens that I was aggressively. Recruited given an offer I I couldn't refuse and now. In retrospect it does seem like this was the right move for me but it wasn't really calculated it was more the Buzzer Michio of seizing. That opportunity well you know of course. The University of Miami School of Architecture has disproportionate role in the history of our fields in the last several decades last half century arguably and so of course it's an important and significant institutional role but it was presumably also the city itself that was in part attractive. It was both really because I'm very interested in the history of the school. In the role it has played in the evolution of the discourse and the practice but the interest of the school. It was surprising because I'm not the most obvious candidate. Given my investment in emerging technology so to be involved volved in these processes that are transforming the feel is very important but also I am interested in all the scales at which we see this transformation transformation from the scale of the object to actually also the the city and in terms of how I relate to the trajectory of the the University of Miami School of architecture. It's basically at the scale of the city. And how will you engage faculty and students in that workout. How does that? Ah Get organized at the Miami. So when I arrived five years ago a broad the that lab that I had in Toronto onto with my colleagues Kalama hiber and the Smart Coppola's so there was a extension of that effort in Miami so Gerrad lab so that was called the red U M. And what do you mean by Rad in rat lab read. I'm GONNA be honest. He used to stand for responsive architecture at Daniels. which is the Dave task but now it has been transformed to responsive architecture and design? That's read that's right so responsive architecture and undesired. Um Yes yeah so help me understand so the idea is with you know the kind of coming Internet of things you know. Every component every element of the built environment comment will be communicating in some way. We'll we'll have information for us right. So like we know how technology transforming everything the way we design CETERA. But in this case case it's technology's not only in instrument for Construction Design Management workflows term with with think of it as a an ingredient to building materials. We're embedding that can -nology like we have the seraphic. Mateo was show a break close. A microcontroller equals question. Shumar so the idea is to think of the possibility of embedding this kind of intelligence or connectivity into every building material and to see what happens you you have this formulation telling you this right. Every brick is communicating right. Yeah sounds terrifying. Every week has an IP be address. There it's you can. We can pin it down on the has the presence on the Web I mean there's something about the idea of the juxtaposition of the brick right. I mean in some ways. The most ancient the most archaic the most Foundational Building Material. But part of what your research suggests is that not only bricks and buildings but also urban environments landscapes could be communicate so as they communicate. Like what kinds of if things might we be learning from these environments. Like what kinds of information might we be gathering right. I mean much of the discussion on the Internet of things and sponsored. It has to do with the bus of collecting data digitizing and deploying big data as an instrument for a more informed decision making or management of the city and architecture. But the of course there's much more than that. So for instance one of the lines of research that we are in how we can start to think about customization for the city for the large scale like we tend to customize our private environments. They are multi billion dollar industries devoted to this but was we step out in the public we all. There's no such thing as customization right. It's almost sounds like a contradiction on Oxymoron. Because by the Phoenicians supposedly sadly the public realm is the common denominator that has to accommodate everyone and it tends toward in certain contexts the lowest common denominator or at least the most generic right but because of the technology and the possibility to in Mesh all of these building components of the environment into this web of communication. We can start to orchestrate besides responses to individuals and the built advice. I can give you example the smart city we designing and the Yucatan. It's good sensiti. It's right outside of Marietta there. Is this kind of digital platform from that. The served as an interface between the citizens and the city where they can find to calibrate the wistful manatee so for instance they can go online and specify what kind of public light the wish to have so the the preferred I very bright so because they feel safer for something more discreet. In what kind of color temperature. So if they happen to be walking alone than the municipal lighting public infrastructure accommodates to their user profile. And then will will deliver the light that they prefer of. Course if there's more than one person then there's some kind of averaging what are quite like about the example is that you could imagine in a situation in which this is something that is at based in which the individual citizen has some agency individually or through some collective or political process assis. One could also imagine some kind of you know algorithm or machine learning over time to interpret human behavior respond and this seems like a very different scenario scenario than the kinds of Surveillance and data kind of privacy concerns that we see around the topic in so many places right but of course the the lighting is going to respond to you. It means that you are being watched and tracked. And so this the idea. The problems of sedans privacy. I always you know very challenging when we're working in that territory but whenever it comes up sometimes I've went present something like this. And there's a reaction from the audience. I remind them that our notion of privacy's is constantly transforming for instance. The Kodak cameras were prohibited waited on public beaches in the US for quite a while. I think it's not until the forty s that they were allowed. Those very interesting story. I don't know if it's true story but it's fascinating. Apparently in the nineteenth century in Paris Windy hosman assignments started. You know the transformation the Vars were introduced and most importantly for the discussion artificial lighting was introduced. There were some protests because it was seen as a invasion of privacy this soda privacy eroding due to this kind of technological intrusion intrusion. It's interesting because sore remotes like this idea. But that does you how understanding of fiber see has evolved. Since and. I suspect that we will. Well see this kind of evolution in relation to those new technologies. It's well put the history. Science Technology is littered with those kinds of negotiations. So I guess one of the questions I've got has to do with the role of sponsorship so this experimental city in the Oklahoma City. Who are your partners in it? And does that in any way give you a greater confidence. So the private project project and the site is adjacent to science and Technology Park which is funded by the federal government. So it's capitalizing on that. The Adjacency is entity is conceived as a tech transfer hub. So it's a group of private investors and developers but as the project evolves as thick. It will get more and more government support. It's a great group of people who are really visionaries reason. They are very optimistic about technology and they have like the. The sauce is very much like a silicon valley since ability. Not to use the same jargon talk about disruptive technology they think of the the city they they think of it as a startup that has the capacity you to imagine a completely different lifestyle. I mean given the kind of the beauty and the kind of environmental quality of the Yucatan. It reminds me that a quite a lot of your interest in in smart cities technology responsive environments has not simply been about built environments but also about natural environments in the landscape. and I wonder if you could say more about the role. All of these technologies in thinking about questions of Sustainability Orion. The the kind of building healthier natural in Ryan's should this of course there's a big part of it. We have three big teams for density. That's one of the new Unity Yucatan famous for this sin notice. You know they are these. You're right caves that you're meant to dive in them and yellow water by the beautiful under ground environments water ended ended our part of the cultural imaginary. So we have this kind of system of reservoirs for collecting stormwater you're actually under deployed under the main abyss squares so it has that sin not quality in the sense that it is shaped in a particular. Okay but also it's accessible to the public and actually also include some amenities like a small library resources. It's a public underground bound public space with water. Psych assistant reminds me a bit of those that fame system in Istanbul. non-roman reservoir isn't war so it's a piece of infrastructure for remediating collecting stormwater. That's also oblique space. The present as was the public cultural imaginary around this notice Cetera so fascinating so this is on kind of a new kind of innovative urban tight. But it's also drawing on the history of the the Indian step world the regional kind of geology so in in those kinds of examples. You're interested in not just the Internet if things is or wired responsive environments but the ways in which design can play a role and I take it from you know from your writings your your your public comments in your Ted Talk Doc that you you think that in some ways maybe the conversation about smart cities and the conversation around the Internet of things hasn't really benefited yet from being thought through from the point of view of design is is that et Cetera. I know absolutely also repeatedly insists that we are not inventing anything. We're not developing new technology. We have no patents or anything anything. We are designer so we Li- or present or deployed technology in a new way by means of design. It is that killer way in which is used and presented that we think of our contribution to the field for instance one known nonni example from the Toronto red days is the smart blankets. That search too busy track sleeping patterns was interesting about it as easy due to just attach sensors to blanket and then collect the data in this particular case the itself is the decorative pattern. Turn the through it. Looks like a floral pattern on the blankets and we invented the Lancashire and it's decorative motifs leaves to perform as a they're collecting vies with student just glued technology on it and this is what we tried to do in all these projects his to land the technology and then interesting way in order to allow familiar objects to perform in this new way. I mean AH parts of that project remind me very favorably of the work of Just off with each artist. Who's done quite a lot of interesting installation work around accommodating you know people people that are sleeping raw for sleeping in the in the open and at the same time as you accommodate them? His work is most often also making them more legible in a way in the in the space the city in addition to responsive landscapes. I know that you've had an interest in questions of health. Public Health unhealthy facilities. Healthcare facilities is also a part of your research here. So what are we speak week of embedded technology responsive environments etcetera is one area where they are most likely to flourish is in the healthcare. Oh care space because this is where you want space to perform optimally and the way we can actually justify the cost because it it it yields feels safer environments better equipped with handling the task Tan. So yes many of the projects have this healthcare application vacation which led me to become more and more interested in this field and my commitment to starting a healthcare design program The the school of Architecture of Miami so we are have been working on this for a while. We've had the soft launch so to speak for a Master's program focused on healthcare designed is now one of the areas of concentration in our massive science and architecture. Eventually it will become a standalone on professional master's dedicated to healthcare. There are a number of these now emerging. Because there's a great need for them but what will be particular about hours at University of Miami is that it will address also the large scale at the. Um disqualified that sure even when we're talk about the individual building we are always thinking of the urban context because of the DNA of the school so we will be addressing these issues at the scale up the individual building also the individual room in healthcare facility but also at the scale of the neighborhood the district Cetera. There's of course a growing now. Actually entire field emerging around wellbeing health at the scale of the of the cities are very exciting. The emerging discourse and we are the forefront of discussion and in linking that idea of the the medical environment hospital title environment thinking about you know from the scale of the patient and the kind of data rich environment of patient care to the kind of nested scales in which these complexes grow grow. It strikes me that you are proposing kind of continuity across scales. I mean from the very beginning of the conversation about public health and the western city. The the beginning inning of the mapping of pump handles in London there has been this aspiration to bring a more empirically based or evidence based approach to thinking about health in the city. It strikes me that your interest your proposition around information in the city is really a continuation of that rather than something completely now. That's a very interesting. I think insights because it touches also on this idea of customization but frames it in different ways. So it's not so much about the individual projecting their desires his onto the public realm. But the possibility of being able to have a sense of ownership individual ownership over the public aquarium or the P. pieces of infrastructure for that. Give you an example. So we developed this project where it's an photovoltaic array to power the some some of the municipal services but in this case each panel in this Ray is actually assigned by means of an APP to individual citizen so the APP response to the actions the behavior of the panels and it moves only when the the owner is moving is active and the panel has to move because it has to catch up with the trajectory of the sun has to optimize its orientation tation to become more efficient. But if the if it's assigned owner is not moving then it falls behind and it's less efficient so this Out there in that piece of infrastructure has assigned to you and that is rotating trying to keep up with the sun and you are keeping it. It's powerful image. So the in the same way the fitbit or the SMARTWATCH gamified your own healthcare regime you can somehow Gamma Phi and engage age. Human curiosity the obsessive -ness of individuals to have gamified public infrastructure. But what's interesting is that you have a sense of ownership you can. There's this piece Out there you can point to it. It's yours and you are responsible for this kind of building. This relationship with public infrastructure at the individual level is is part of that vision of the city not as this indifferent platform. But something that can be talking to individually and that you are responsible responsible for but this kind of Gamification of health speaks to what you were saying earlier about the the whole discontinuing between spots city big data health wellbeing there was a conference at the Radcliffe Institute. You're a half ago on this question of data and decision making aching and in that. What one that we saw was that while? There's a a robust discourse for several decades now around behavioral economics this is now now established body of economic thought That humans are not rational actors and we still carry around these kind of pre pre human brain lobes and make choices. That are not optimal that simile. There's a group of people engaged in. What's putatively being called behavioral policy right and so it strikes me that this game indication the engagement agent of the human brain with how to harvest energy in the most optimal way and also have a sense of personal individual investment in a in a public utility that strikes me is is a good example of this idea of a kind of behavioral policy understanding how to engage citizens rate inside? I never link this idea with this behavior of policy discussion. That's interesting I mean. One of the maybe optimistic takeaways from that conversation so far has been that and while we know that more information has not historically produced better decision making for humans the distribution the decentralization of decision. Making your product is proposing is one way to work around that and it it strikes me that this simultaneously does too very interesting things. One thing that does is it decentralizes centralizers in defuses the role of the single profess oriole or managerial class person. In the lab coat who's making all the decisions who's increasingly inundated dated with information but not necessarily increasingly able to make better decisions because of the amount of information and at the same time. This product of yours proposes to more fully engage individuals citizens in the work of the city. It's life it's infrastructure life. It's metabolism does the fiction of the Big Data in those nefarious terms. You know a certain terms of civilians manipulation etc really. Don't take into consideration the dialectical opposites of how citizens maybe empowered also by those technologies and big data access to information and the data and how that may prompt participatory citizenship. And actually we have seen how this is playing out. It is very much so like the disease increased participation and engagement because of the link that is being made between the the citizen and UH infrastructure. That is more tune and responsive to their actions so not only collecting database. Actually be offering the possibility of of their participation. In it's shaping it. Is it your sense that the slider accessibility of information could be thought of as a kind of Democratization John I mean in the context that many are concerned with four or five very large monopolistic firms in one culture having all that data To do with what they will. Yes when we talk about facebook Google Cetera. Yes there are these big firms monopolizing this kind of information. We're talking about cities. Public Infrastructure at ticket is mine. I eve in the swimming that actually no we can still think of Open source US accessible data civic hacking and avenues of participation and access to data. So the interesting question. So we've talked about your research Your interest in the development of the RAD lab at the Miami and Your interest in healthcare. Can you tell us more more. Broadly the direction that you see the school of Architecture University Miami taking your leadership and and with the advice and consent of your colleagues so interesting. What University of Miami in general and the School of Also in particular is that the university is very much you know heart of the city. It doesn't have this kind of adversarial relation that you find sometimes sometimes and you know what I think it has to do with the football team. Football is big and hold region. The community identify was this team and by By association I think is was the university so the university community is not only condemning community It's the entire city so to speak because of I think it has largely to do with the love for the batch leading teams and especially the football team so this kind of favorable favorable kind of sympathy sets the ground for a very interesting productive collaboration relationship. We have was the city so for instance the Squaw architecture has historically always been involved in their fares of the city. Does Zoning Code for Miami. Miami Twenty one which was actually developed by the the office of the former Andean Liz better cyborg was also incubated tested the explored also in the context of the school of architecture. So everybody who you participated in this very important project many many things that characterize like for instance there is a consensus dances forming. Now to kind of mobilization is I think I think it is exciting around the issues of adaptation to sea level rise Serban resilience so we have a new president reuse ago. As you know with the new president comes this important. Effort is the strategic plan and actually Poleo Frank up as lexical the roadmap which is a better way to think about it so we have been engaged in this pal process at the Slovak next for a Trying to establish our roadmap and urban resilience has emerged as the focus like this. It's very exciting to think of a school having one one single dedication everything focused on this problem and I think it's only possible in Miami because there is an existential threat. It's the sea level rise. You know it's very serious problem. We we cannot afford not to invest all of our resources thinking efforts into to this issue so there is this problem solving ethos that has developed. And there is a shared that dictation or focus on at application and sea level rise which is energizing the school. So yes it is still is this very heterogeneous place but we are all all the united in this. Shared Mission Nausea think is exciting and you mentioned the schools Legacy its history of being engaged in the future of the city. Eh and in some ways using Miami as kind of test bed to then impact disciplined impact the profession more broadly. Because of course you know you you mentioned your predecessor thirteen for decades Sylla's platters who were speaking with in this series as well offering through DP Z.? Miami Twenty one. The planning guy but also a spatial planning guide not one which is just about policy regulatory. But in fact the commitment to kind of urban design right characterizes Miami in its history and the University of Miami School Architecture's contribution to that in that history. Can you share with us one of the projects that you can imagine going forward Around this question of resilience adaptation nation and your engagement with the city right so given this dedication the new focus which is really the result of our reflection the strategizing strategizing. We are not trying to Orient. Most if not all of our upper level sponsor. Joe's is it towards that goal. For instance like excited about this new partnership we have with the Perkins in wheel would be funding to Joe's the deal. Was this problem for this. One example. But it's dramatic of this effort now that we will spend on investing being all of these two draws in this particular arena and in real world problems so we will have supporters from the industry but also will have interlocutors doc actors from the city in real world problem solving situations in addition to sea level rise among the effects of anthropogenic climate. I'm a change or increase storm event changing loss of loss of species but also changing by oems and the statistical inevitability of another big storm event. I recall in one thousand nine hundred to the impact of hurricane. Andrew and the response of faculty the Miami and the city and the region responding with what is now I think viewed widely as among the most progressive and resilient hurricane building codes in the world by the way tend to focus on the gradual long delay of the sea level rise. Actually think more decisive in its impact on Miami is going to be the occasional big storm. That's going to be devastating and then actually have consequences. So yes you're right about the Andrew and it's actually very very important moment for the school because it is Andrew and the consequences of Andrew that created our center for or that urban and community designed cd which emerged or almost organically from the hold efforts that the school was involved old in aftermath of Andrew they had shreds projects participated in various citywide efforts et CETERA. They extremely active and engage and To such an extent that finally all of these efforts accumulated and four formalized lies into what is now our UCD but the emerged as a response to that the storm so this UCD is our consultation. TATUM arms with to speak takes on. Projects has been very active for instance in Haiti after the earthquake but continues to have projects their the an all over the Caribbean the interesting to know. Actually how emerge in a moment of crisis as a response to Andrew so the Center for urban and community design fine in school of architecture. University of Miami is a good example of institutional response to a set of social environmental crises. And we know that Miami was founded in this place. which was this then diagram between Kind of Semitropical Environments Access the Tropics in the context of the legal and economic and Cultural System United States. It's not a place that would be built on. Geological terms the limestone geology of this part of the world is utterly different than the the river clay based systems of New Orleans or New York or Rotterdam for that matter. The solutions that you're developing here here will be different than would be developed elsewhere. But it's true. I mean we see in our work in Miami Beach. There's so-called nuisance flooding and the allegation of streets in the city of Miami is already eighty beginning to deal with the effects of anthropogenic climate. Change Sea level rise and storm event in that regard. What roles can the School of Architecture Miami play as the city Takes these challenges on. I mean you're right. Change especially mitigation and to certain extent adaptation. Also but Miami Hammy is a very different situation and this is why you can have as cool completely mobilizing focused on this issue. It's because yes. This is a global challenge challenge but it is particularly acute in Miami because of the conditions. You describe. Solutions are not obvious. It's actually exists existential threat to the city in this really tragic so At the same time we don't get depressed about about it. We we are making a big effort in trying to see opportunity and so given the circumstances that tragic outlook we recognized that that we have a big important role to play. We recognize that we are The clearly a major player of considering all the resources we abidine versity and was especially in our capacity to collaborate with other units we are already positioned as is one of the he disciplines in this big ambitious project to deal with this threat and we are just getting ready to do it. We are already doing it but I think this is going to escalate especially when we start to see the the first signs signs there is no uncertainty about the fact that the sea level is going to rise to the extent that it's going to be devastating dating a condition for Miami. So we I said earlier this is also yes tragic. But it's an unfortunate in which it in the the sense that we will have the resources we will have all the concentration the dedication the attention and in And the right positioning for dealing with this so it's also it's also exciting. I I tell this to students who are actually joining us now. And why the beginning of their academic careers and rational careers that actually this is a great moment. Meant for them because they will they. Are they'll be participating in this Very big and important project. I wonder what you make of this. I mean given the what you describe crab is an existential threat and the change. That will come on the one hand. I sense your optimism about the future and the opportunities here as well of course school of architecture. Miami has historically it's faculty leadership of played a disproportionate role in the city's past its formation. Its its growth and I understand from your comments that they will continue to. What do you make the fact that In the course of the last nine or ten years the city seems to be booming. I mean You know every time I'm here a new range of buildings while it's always been of a of a certain echo architectural prominence increasingly the city. The skyline is likely to buy buildings by signature architects of international reputation and increasingly. The the city's seems to be in part seem to be desirable by people from all around the world. Who Won't be here now at this moment and as you say the season will rise how do you you think about that? Is that a contradiction in your mind. Yes very interesting question a little if it can be say something that made at some light so five years ago our supporters which are mainly developers sponsors to. They're very much engaged with school. Our our we have multiple boards dedicated to the FIN programs. We have and most of them are populated by developers as you know the developers are a big presence in the city and then the school also although they were supportive in many ways I think they were always reluctant. Hesitant to support initiatives that dealers sea level arise. Because I think the for the word that it would like spook the market or something I just drink too much. Attention to this issue may actually not be favorable wall to their horror businesses but that has changed very within just a few years that attitude has changed and many of these developers are actually blushing leading the discussion around sea level. Rise an adaptation and. They don't seem to be so worried about how this May being be the end of their business here. Actually they are confident. They know that they should raise awareness around his shoes. They want want to address it head on the leading the charge. They embracing that future in in very optimistic vigorous way. So I'm sound optimistic. Domestic is because I have faith in that could have been injured uti of Miami and its leaders its citizens in dealing with. Is this problem. It's true what you say about the Development Community broadly and its role in building city strikes me that there are a generation or more of Developers who really have had a hand in building modern Miami and I I've come to share some sense of your optimism for their ability to address the challenges. That do you share that optimism when you think about civil society the public discourse in the preparedness for these challenges. I'm attuned to the the thinking of Public officials government officials academic community my colleagues but also the developers leading the charge now was regarded as issues. I am not entirely sure how aware of the general public is with regard to this question ethic. We need to do a lot of work. Year in in terms of communication and education bringing greater awareness around these issues. Because I haven't seen yet very robust public blake discussion brown those questions so a major research university in a city facing an essential crisis identifies from the lenses of Public Health Medicine Law Engineering Architecture to mobilize a university wide response. What other disciplines around campus purpose should I be including an atlas? I in my mind. The fact ship so to speak is the Rosen. Steel School of Marine at Atmospheric Eric Science and they are a major player and partner in all of our interdisciplinary activities. Also does it in frank also has is very much determined to break the silos and encourage into disciplinary research DAB. Many incentives including very generous research grants funding university it to fund the into disciplinary teams. Sa- great program that has already yielded very interesting results and for the school of architecture. Sure you've been in long standing training architects urban assists to now have programs that engage with the medical school to engage with public health to engage with Marine Sciences. This this strike me as both progressive and an interesting as a catalyst to effect some change. It wasn't interesting shift. I mean I never discussed. It was my faculty. There's been ruminating about this. Is the language used in our promotion materials etc referred to architecture as a civic art. It was a lot of emphasis on art. So that if you think about your as some discipline that spectrum art and sciences I think we were more comfortable being in the more a bit more towards the arts I think we have shifted now towards the Science and Engineering Bandini being the art part but I think the the this kind of problem solving ethos that I see emerging at the school has shifted left the kind of the center of gravity in that spectrum. Interesting the moment perhaps that schools are backed extra so also in the sixties as the simulated the social sciences. Also that moment and in some ways I mean what you're suggesting. Is that this kind of return to the tech. Nee and return to the societal title engagement of architecture in a way comes after several decades of architecture benefiting from its own cultural autonomy its own position in the arts. Let's say of course and and And in some ways suggests both opportunity as you say like a newfound relevance a kind of a relevance for our knowledge and a relationship to addressing societal and environmental concerns. Does that come at a cost in your in your view. Is there a downside to being engaged being more instrumental in the world and addressing these societal and environmental challenges to the fuel of Arkin. No none of of going to say without any hesitation is actually. There's no downside. There's later relevance there is an expanded field of operation more possibilities or colonizing so to speak. Jason feels and in claiming some veterans those but also most importantly is the social and economic benefits In becoming a problem solver that is grappling and was very urgent problems. So does this suggest to you Changes in the education of the architect right although oh I don't hesitate to say that. We can only gain though by having to adapt or slightly retool our architectural pedagogy so my colleagues sometimes frustrated with me because I have no patience for purely theoretical speculative explorations and treaty trying to anchor pedagogy in real world problems. So that's very different. Different mentality when we think of the architectural pedagogy and you know how we teach the conne-tann and concerned with problem solving than we may lose something about the free opens spirited Expiration that used to do perhaps be characteristic of architectural schools especially during that moments when that actual autonomy was Affirmed and would I be right in taking your comments to suggest a kind of really long dialectic between those issues I mean apart from the Peyser really AH disciplinary professional formation on the one hand and then you know being relevant to societal environmental issues. Of course this is a long array problematic in our feel. Will your simply returning to engagement in the world Right yes you're right actually when I arrive here. In order to quickly engage the school cool was a core preoccupation. I suggested that the theme of the call to order for a series of exhibitions lectures to basically position the school and its commitment to fundamentals in relation to what I observed as a wider international reinvestment in typology history etc especially in Europe like Belgium. Switzerland it's lead Cetera but in the introduction to the book that follow follow that I made this game about this dialectical process. And I say yes we we can talk about their return order and to reaffirm the fundamentals. But what's interesting about this moment. Is that. It's not an a claim for autonomy but actually for an expanded fields for architecture embracing consigns this social sciences engineering ecology etcetera so back to fundamentals. But not without a claim for autonomy EMME Rodeo Corey Dean school artistry interest in Miami. Thanks very much. Thank you for the Great Discussion You've been listening to future of the American City curated by the Office for Organization at the Harvard Graduate School of design. This conversation was supported by the Knight Foundation and the generous donors to the American city sparked. Our producers are as Charley. The League is Jeffrey S. Nesbitt music is by Kevin to learn more visit every TAC dot Atiyah St Dot. Harvard that E._D._U..