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Hi i'm and i'm sarah. And we are two very good friends who love gossip and celebrity scandals for also the host of a new podcast cult. The re we're going to use our as cultural journalist provide you with in-depth analysis of all the stories. You remember and somebody you don't down a for to branch selena time princess and was almost kidnapped little. And what about whitney crack as wax. They're listened to the reheat on july twenty six on the frequency podcast network or wherever you get your podcast when the lights came up on gianni versace cheese nineteen ninety-one fall fashion show in milan. There was electricity and excitement in the air. Instead of sending the usual single model the italian designer sent out models in packs. Long-legged women with bouncy hair sauntered down the runway in twos and threes while wearing for sachi's newest collection. The showstopper was the finale. When four beautiful young women linked arm-in-arm made their way down the catwalk laughing and smiling as they lip sync the words of a pop song that blasted from the speakers. It was the launch of a nineties phenomenon that is as symbolic of the decade as tabloid television and the launch of the internet but a lot more glamorous i'm catholic zora and this is history of the nineties a podcast about a decade that changed the world on this episode. We look at the reign of the supermodels. It's up for debate. But the term supermodel may have first been used by janice dickinson in the nineteen seventy s at least according to dickinson. Maybe you know her. From being the brutally honest judge on america's top model for four seasons but before that she was an incredibly successful model in the seventies and the renowned wild girl of the fashion and disco scene at club fifty four dickinson claims. Not only to be the first supermodel. But that she was also the first person to use the term in about nineteen seventy nine others have given credit for the term to clyde matthew essner the owner of a small model agency in the nineteen forties regardless of when the term was used first. By whom the concept of the supermodel as we know it today didn't really take hold until the late eighties setting the stage. For the iconic supermodel era of the ninety s when a group of beautiful young women transcended the runway and became full service celebrities before we look at the nineties and the supermodels that ruled the runways during that era. Let's go back a little further in fashion history in the nineteen thirties. Forty s and fifty s runway shows put on by designers were very exclusive and according to fashion journalist randy berkman as a result models were largely anonymous to the general public when trashing how who could tour houses were staging shows in the early days. Like in the thirties fifties the sixties even. They were really private affairs. They were just for clients and media. Not even really media like just very very very small. Obviously this is video. But otas were pretty nazi ver- comment and it was a really insular world. Of course there was the occasional model who broke through and became household names. Think twiggy in the nineteen sixties. But it really wasn't until the eighties that models began to infiltrate the mainstream in a noticeable way. And that's partly because of a major industry change. The mass marketing of fashion designer started licensing. Their names and manufacturing moderately priced lines that were affordable to more shoppers. It was no longer just the uber rich wearing the latest. Close from halston ralph lauren. Pierre cardin and calvin klein and with these new accessible lines came big marketing campaigns. Wanna know what comes between me. And my kevin's nothing. Calvin klein jeans this sexy and controversial. Nineteen eighty ad campaign for calvin klein jeans which featured fifteen-year-old brooke shields was banned by abc and cbs. For implying that the young model wasn't wearing any underwear. Calvin klein was the first high fashion designer to launch a separate affordable line called a diffusion line. His skin tight jeans featured a distinctive stitch line on the back along with calvin klein label that distinguished them as a designer status symbol not surprisingly all the controversy over the ads only brought more attention for the brand which sold over seventy million dollars worth of genes in the first year and brooke shields became a household name who pivoted her modelling career to acting. Soon after shields became more than an anonymous face hawking a product. She became a celebrity in her way came other celebrity models in the eighties. L. mcpherson iman jerry hall and christie brinkley and then in january nineteen ninety. The cover of british vogue changed everything you have on that cover stevie crawford prestige hurling team. Linda evangelists naomi campbell. Tatyana teats and you have me basically birth of the super model. That's writer rachel burchfield and she says the iconic cover is the first of three major moments in the evolution of the supermodel going to get to each of them but first let's spend some time looking back at the picture. Let's start at all. The black and white photo on the cover of the january. Nineteen ninety edition of british. Vogue was taken by legendary german photographer. Peter lindbergh lindberg who died in two thousand nineteen at the age of seventy four was known for untouched down images of glamorous leicester's you might be surprised to learn that before making history with that vote cover. Lindbergh captured a similar image for american vogue. That didn't have the same impact in one thousand nine hundred seven. Lindberg received a call from alexander lieberman the creative director of conde nast vogues parent company. He was curious why the photographer never wanted to work for the us version of the magazine. Lindbergh honestly explained that he simply couldn't relate to the images of the over styled women they featured in his words he preferred photos that depicted outspoken adventurous women in control of their own lives. Who weren't concerned about things like social status so lieberman ass lindbergh to show him what he meant in response. Lindbergh went to the beach in santa monica with a group of barely known models. Dressed simply in over-sized white button up shirts. Linda evangelista karen alexander christy. Chillington esta lefebre tatiana. Petites and rachel williams were captured by lindbergh laughing implying around on the beach. The simple images were the antithesis of the formal composition of fashion photography at the time. Those were mainly headshots of heavily made up models when the proofs of the beach shoot arrived at vogue new york office the magazine's editor grace mirabella refused to print the images. She put them in a drawer where they stayed until mirabella was replaced. Six months later by legendary vogue editor anna winter winter. Not only love the pictures. She commissioned lindbergh to shoot the cover for her debut issue with vogue and november nineteen eighty eight it featured israeli model michaela burke q. and a. cropped be jewel jumper in stone wash jeans smiling with her eyes half closed head turning away from the camera at the time it was considered a revelation signaling a move towards an uninhibited bureau listrik representation of beauty as the nineteen eighties. Were drawing to a close british vogue editor. Liz tilberis asked lindbergh to photograph the new woman of the nineties. For the first edition of the decade. Lindbergh's were apply was that he couldn't do it with just one woman. he felt the idea of beauty. Had broadened and it could no longer be summed up with either a blonde blue eyed girl or a sexy brunette so instead he gathered five models in manhattan for what would become an iconic photo. Shoot cindy crawford told vogue in thousand sixteen. They weren't photographed with a ton of hair and makeup. In her words. They were quite undone and she said coming out of the eighties which was all about big hair and boobs pushed up. It felt refreshing and new dressed in simple bodysuits and levi jeans. The girl set the tone of the new decade in two thousand. Sixteen lindbergh told the guardian. He has no idea they were making history with the photo he said because it came together very naturally and effortlessly he never felt they were changing the world. It was just all intuition. There was one other image that captured the new generation of supermodels. I should mention. It's the famous nude photograph taken by her brits. For rolling stone magazine it showed yet another iteration of the supermodel. Naomi cindy christy tatiana. And this time stephanie. Seymour was included instead of linda evangelista. The high contrast black and white image of the five models intertwined arms and legs wrapped around each other was actually taken in nineteen eighty nine and didn't get much attention at the time. It didn't become conic and tell lindbergh's nineteen ninety. British vogue cover introduced the masses to the new supermodel. The next major moment happened. Thanks to singer george michael. He was at a turning point in his career and when he released his nineteen ninety album. Listen without prejudice volume one. The twenty seven year old singer was trying to be considered a serious artist after years as a successful pop star. Michael refused to use his image to promote the album and only did a limited number of interviews. He also chose not to go on the road. Right away saying long tours had a dehumanizing effect that works against both the creative process and a healthy personal life and most importantly to this story the singer told the record label he would not appear in any music videos. Michael argued that videos destroyed the artistic integrity of a song by encouraging listeners. To accept a single interpretation of it as you can imagine. The label was not pleased. They still want something to air on. Mtv which the time could make or break. The success of new release. Michael solution would change the course of history after seeing the british vogue. Cover featuring peter lindbergh's black and white supermodel photo george. Michael decided naomi christy. Linda cindy and tatiana should replace him in the video for the song. Freedom ninety freedom ninety addressed michael struggles with identity. Artistic growth and stardom with poignant lyrics like. I just hope you understand. Sometimes the clothes do not make the man and music that producer mark ronson has described as a funk groove masterpiece it's become a classic it definitely could stand on its own merits but the video of five supermodels lip synching the lyrics. Turn it into an iconic pop culture moment. The video was directed by david fincher. Who was at the start of his career and we'll go on to make classic nineties films like seven and fight club. It was shot over several days at merton park studio in london and like the british vogue cover featured naomi campbell christy. Turlington linda evangelista. Cindy crawford and tatiana petites. The result was a six and a half minute. Moody romantic video filmed in neo noir tones. That's been watched over a hundred million times on youtube. It was revolutionary for many reasons including the fact that the models were the focus of the video. In fact they were the stars throughout the eighties models had appeared in lots of music videos but only as the sexy girlfriend to the lead singer. Think tony catan and david coverdale in the nineteen eighty-seven whitesnake video for here. I go again the first face we see in the george. Michael video is linda evangelista. The canadian model who is considered by many to be the catalyst of the supermodel group. Her short hair is platinum blonde which she died the night before in a spur of the moment decision. Surprising everyone on set of the music video. P- next we see naomi campbell dancing as she listens to freedom. Ninety unhedged phones. She's wearing a big pair of boots. That belonged to the boyfriend of the stylist in charge of the ships. Camilla nickerson told vogue magazine in two thousand sixteen. That director david fincher was incredibly specific. About how we wanted christy turlington to walk in with a long white sheet. That was light enough for the light to shine through and to get that effect. They used expensive irish linen. And that used up nickerson's entire budget so everyone else's clothes came from nickerson's wardrobe or in the case of naomi's boots nickerson's boyfriends wardrope not included the big sweater that linda evangelista famously pulls up over her head. That scene by the way wasn't planned just something. That evangelist improvised and after seeing move venture responded by putting a camera and a light inside her sweater and filming it. When the video was released it introduced the new ninety supermodel to the entire. Mtv generation and caught the eye of a famous designer would create the third and possibly the ultimate supermodel moments in march nineteen ninety-one legendary fashion designer gianni for saatchi closed his couture show in milan with linda. Christie naomi and cindy marching down the runway in black orange yellow mini dresses lip synching. George michael's freedom reminiscent of the songs music video. Michael was in the front row watching as the girls. Straight down the runway with his video projected behind them here again is writer. Rachel burchfield johnny researchy as a designer was iconic in brilliant. But he also who's very tapped into music. He was very tapped into the culture and it was kind of a full circle moment where music and fashion and the met. And there's this shot of the four of them walking arm-in-arm on the catwalk lip synching freedom. Ninety in the sake show. It became a hugely defining moment in fashion and was a point where these women as supermodels prior to supermodels runway models and photo models didn't usually overlap. A model was either one or the other. The new nineties model did both and a whole lot more as we would soon find out. So who are these five or six women who infiltrated every aspect of pop culture in the nineties and what made them so popular. Let's start with linda evangelista. As i mentioned earlier evangelista is considered by many to be the catalyst. She's from saint catharines ontario. The daughter of a general motors worker at age sixteen evangelista was discovered by a scout from elite model agency while competing in a t niagara contest. As soon as she finished high school she started working. Full time in the fashion industry relocating to paris in nineteen eighty-four that's when she met fifteen year old christy turlington. Who'd been invited to the city of lights by the ford modeling agency. Kristie grew up in northern california and was more concerned with horses than modeling but when a photographer took her picture and sent them to. I lean forward. The grand dame of the modeling industry spotted something special in the young team in the summer of nineteen eighty five on a job in london christie. Naomi campbell who was a year younger campbell the uk born daughter of jamaican immigrants was discovered by an elite modeling scout at age. Fifteen while studying ballet at the italia conti performing arts school in london. Linda chuck both of the younger girls under her wing. And by nineteen eighty-nine christie was staying in linda's new york apartment. The same building where naomi also lived. That's when the original supermodel trio was born a tight click. They moved together out together and even began to be booked together and for a time. They were all with leap paris. Which was run by gerald marie. Linda's husband at the time fashion insiders began calling them the trinity a term. They hate but couldn't escape as they became a bigger sensation on the runways in the pages of magazines and on the dance. Floors of new york nightclubs. For example by nineteen ninety linda. Evangelista had been on sixty magazine covers and was under contract to revlon as the charlie perfume. Girl evangelista also made history with a quote that has haunted her ever since in fact evangelist does name is barely ever mentioned without referring to it in october. Nineteen ninety she told a reporter we have the saying christie and i. We don't wake up for less than ten thousand dollars a day through the years. The quote has morphed a bit most commonly remembered as i don't get out of bed for less than ten thousand dollars a day. The statement echoed around the fashion world. And there was definitely some backlash but rachel burchfield looks at it a bit differently swagger confidence that we so often see with name and now here comes linda. Evangelista saying that in. It's a whole new era nauseous for modeling but for women. And it's an it's. It's all at once empowering and also kind of off putting mike diva i choose to look at it as okay. Linda hacked. If i could make ten thousand dollars a day. If that were a possibility for me. I don't think i'd wake up for less than that either. And it's just like she knew her power and she harnessed it. And i love that. Despite the controversial comment evangelista remained a highly in demand. Supermodel some say. The models career took off because of her marriage to drawled murray. Who was the head of elites paris office evangelista was just eighteen which tied the knot with thirty seven year old marie in one thousand nine hundred seven the marriage lasted six years and recently about a dozen women have come forward to say that during that time. They were sexually assaulted by marie. Something that evangelista says she knew. Nothing about but believes probably happened. Other say that evangelist. His career took off because of the alliance. She forged with celebrated fashion photographer. Steven meisel. evangelista was a longtime use of mysel- and once told the new york times that she feels like stevens barbie doll still others say it all happened because of the chances she took with her hair in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight evangelista cut her hair extremely short going against the standard long hair look of most models at that time photographer. Peter lindbergh had convinced her to cut off her hair and initially. She lost several runway jobs because of it but within a couple of months she had appeared on every vogue cover. Evangelista was also constantly dying her hair changing the color seventeen times over five years quick succession. She went from brunette to platinum blonde to a flaming redhead becoming the talk of the industry. Either way she reigned as one of the top supermodels if not the top supermodel for about six or seven years which is an eternity in the fashion world by her side. Where christie naomi. the remaining two thirds of the trinity christie charleston's rise to fame began in nineteen eighty six when she appeared in durant iran's video for notorious the next year. She landed the cover of german vogue and at the age of twenty. She signed a record setting contract. As the new face of calvin klein helping launch the designers new fragrance. Eternity turlington 's name eventually became synonymous with calvin klein particularly after she worked alongside dutch model. Mark vanderloop for the one thousand nine hundred ninety five eternity campaign in the iconic black-and-white odd turlington and vanderloop cozy up on a beach hair slicked. Back they look like they just came in from the ocean. Turlington was also the face of maybelline signing a famous contract with the cosmetics company that paid her eight hundred thousand dollars for just twelve days of work. And in nineteen ninety-three the metropolitan museum of art declared was the face of the twentieth century after famed fashion. Designer ralph pucci created one hundred twenty mannequins modeled after her exclusively for the mets costume. Institutes the final element of the supermodel trinity. Was naomi campbell. She to appeared in music videos in her early days of modeling in fact at age seven. She played a small role in the bob. Marley video for the song. Is this love. Legendary reggae singer is pictured putting a blanket over the sleeping pint-sized future. Supermodel campbell is of chinese jamaican heritage and was raised by her grandmother and aunts in south london while her mother toured europe as a professional dancer at the age of sixteen a year after being discovered naomi landed her first cover on elle magazine and then in nineteen eighty eight at the age of eighteen. She became the first black woman to appear on the cover of french vogue breaking down barriers for other models of color like tyra banks over the years. Naomi became known as the queen of the runway. Here's randi berkman. Like her walk was just so other worldly like the way that she moves down a runway is just like the confidence of the just movements are so natural and so beautiful and so sexy and i think her persona was also larger than life. Like all of them were up. I purrs especially as carried through with pretty timeless at this point but despite her obvious. Talent and stunning looks naomi. Campbell had to fight against being racially sidelined through her career. Campbell has said that she felt she needed to be twice as good as a white model to be considered. Campbell has also revealed that one of the reasons she kept booking shows despite industry. Racism is that fellow members of the supermodel trinity linda. Evangelista and christy turlington refused to walk in shows without her at the beginning of the nineties. The three women known as the trinity seemed to be everywhere becoming as big or bigger than movie stars. not only were they modeling. They were also in music videos on talk shows and seen hanging around together in the pages of celebrity magazines. Eventually the trinity was expanded to the big five bringing tatiana. Petites and cindy crawford. Into the supermodel folds tatiana petites was born in hamburg germany and was first discovered by photographer. Peter lindbergh at the age of seventeen and then moved to california to pursue modeling. She's been called the most mysterious of the supermodels partly because of the five. She is the only one who didn't really become a household name. She was eventually replaced in the big five by german model. Claudia schiffer but tatiana west certainly. No less beautiful than the others with her cat like is in her perfect bom structure and like the other super supers. She was the face of numerous coveted campaigns including chanel calvin klein and for saatchi the fifth member of the big five on the other hand maybe the most well known. Here's rachel burchfield. I remember the most is cindy crawford because she was midwestern girl like me. She's from illinois. i'm from kansas. She was brennan butter. America's sweetheart. I remember watching her on. Mtv's house of style Which was a whole other. That was very different too because you did not see supermodels or models hosting tv programs and so then you've got cindy crawford for six years from nineteen eighty nine to nineteen ninety-five on house of style. Nineteen ninety two iconic pepsi commercial that she was in the super bowl. I can still see that in my mind right now on route. I would have to say cindy crawford to me is just like the ultimate supermodel cindy. Crawford's rise to fame began in one thousand nine hundred eighty two when won the look of the year contest held by the elite modeling agency. And although she was considered an all american girl she was not the typical blonde that had dominated modeling for the past. Thirty years. crawford had brown hair brown eyes in an olive complexion. Plus she had more curvy affleck build and of course that famous beauty mark near her mouth early on some potential clients wanted her to remove the mole but she always said no way. Make no mistake. Though crawford wasn't just a pretty face. She studied chemical engineering at northwestern. University before dropping out to pursue a career in modeling crawford was also a shrewd businesswoman when she didn't jive with sports illustrated producers crawford shot her own swimsuit calendar in nineteen ninety-two and gave a portion of the proceeds to charity. An exercise video called shape. Your body followed later that year. Which was mainly cindy on a beach in a bathing suit with her perfect hair and body lifting little hand weights. Five crawford was also one of the first models to sign a big endorsement deal that went beyond the fashion or cosmetics world the nineteen ninety-two pepsi commercial. That rachel mentioned show cindy in cut off jeans and a tank top getting out of a bright red lamborghini and walking over to pepsi vending machine. Two young boys watching all she chugs back. A cold can of pepsi. Great new pepsi can introducing a whole new way to look at pepsi. Imc it's beautiful. The ad one procedures cleo award in the soft drink category for the bbdo ad agency which stated they picked crawford for the ad promoting pepsi's new look because of her all looks and her personality and bbdo executive said they tried lesser known models. But the magic just wasn't there wasn't alone more and more companies. We're going with one of the five supermodels for high profile campaigns. The new york times reported in nineteen ninety-two that recession. weary marketers. trying to save money by cutting back on the number of ads they run. Were hiring more expensive models. That would definitely get noticed. They wanted more bang for their buck. And supermodels cindy crawford. Were a guaranteed no-brainer. The result consumers were seeing the same faces over and over promoting everything from perfume too purses. In addition to pepsi cindy crawford appeared in ads for revlon and compete bags and rachel mentioned. She hosted the hugely popular. Mtv show house of style. Hi i'm cindy crawford. Welcome to house houses style coming to you. This time from paris this city is always buzzing with style and glamour but even more so right now as press impassioned buyers from crawford seem to be everywhere appearing not only in fashion magazines but also in playboy and sports illustrated prince even wrote a song about her called cindy and if that wasn't enough at the height of her fame. Cindy crawford married high profile. Hollywood actor richard gere who has starred in a long list of blockbuster movies including pretty woman. The couple i met at a star-studded barbecue hosted at the home of photographer herbert's around nineteen eighty-eight gear was thirty nine and crawford twenty two. Despite the seventeen year age difference they married in december. Nineteen ninety-one at a spontaneous las vegas wedding exchanging homemade tin foil rings at the altar back in the day gear and crawford were a legit power couple on par with jay z. Ambience say okay. Maybe more like john legend and chrissy teigen before she was cancelled. They were both at the height of their careers and when they got together people can stop talking about them take. For example their arrival at the nineteen ninety-one academy awards crawford's plunging read vir- sachi gown inspired countless lookalike dresses and became so influential. That it even has its own wikipedia page but like a lot of hollywood marriages. This one did not last the couple split up in one thousand nine hundred ninety five. After four years together during the marriage the couple was constantly the target of gossip and rumors tabloid papers were relentless with the accusations. That gearan crawford got married as a publicity stunt because they were both hiding the fact they are gay. The rumors got worse. When cindy appeared on a provocative cover vanity fair magazine in nineteen ninety-three with openly. Gay musician katie lang. The next year in nineteen ninety-four gear and crawford paid for a full page ad in the london times proclaiming among other things that they are heterosexual monogamous and reports of a divorce are totally false years later. Crawford said the real reason for their split was partly the seventeen year age gap and partly their busy schedules. The movie star and supermodel. We're constantly working in different parts of the world and apparently they had to check in with secretaries to find out what was going on in each other's lives by the time they put their beller mansion on the market they have reportedly never spent a single night together in the house. Cindy looks back on the supermodel era with fondness and she told british vogue in two thousand nineteen that being part of that group of models was almost like being in a boy band. They were all different but looked good together. Randy bergman agrees. I mean they all kind of had different looks and that was so cool about them. I think they were almost like the original spice girls that way. I think that's also why people love. I think people love like pick your fighter kind of thing you know like people love like things that are different. I mean i know. I love bad so i think they were all supermodels. We were all united in the fact that they were all super super glamorous and their personalities were over the top and in a really glamorously gorgeous play but individually they all had their own persona which were so specific. It was like you know. Linda was the chameleon naomi was the to. Cindy crawford was like the all american sort of most mainstream one like they all. They all had their own their own versions of themselves. Their looks and personalities may have all been different but the supermodels all represented glamour that was unattainable for most people but fun to look at and dream about author. Michael grow says the original ninety supermodels weren't just another way to sell clothes they were the visual projection of the dreams of millions. Of course there were other models working during this time. Who weren't part of the original big five but we're very successful models even supermodels in their own right. Tyra banks helena christianson harlem rooney stephanie seymour. Veronica webb and a young waif-like model by the name of kate. Moss british-born kate. Moss was discovered at age fourteen at jfk airport in new york and helped spark the heroin chic trend as she rose to fame in the early nineties. The look was characterized by a skinny body an angular bone structure pale skin and sometimes even dark circles under the eyes. the look was also a bit androgynous. Which was the direct opposite of the healthy curvy. bodies of the current crop of supermodels. Like cindy crawford and claudia schiffer maas was just five seven and weighed barely a hundred pounds. When moss was seventeen she was selected to be in an ad campaign launching. Calvin clients new oriented lines along with mark wahlberg who is still going by his rap name marky mark the controversial nineteen ninety two campaign featured a topless moss and a buff. Marky mark also shirtless talking about his snug underwear. These these are the nineties man. They just good and hold. Hold me snow from to go get some skins. I'm not gonna put on like no silk underwear. The ad spark negative reaction from some supermodels including claudia schiffer. Who didn't like what she called unnecessary. Nudity a feisty. Young moss responded by saying that's how she made her fortune. She sold her body. Like i sold mine more recently. Though moss has described her time on sat at the calvin klein photo shoot with mark. Wahlberg as extremely uncomfortable remember. She was only seventeen at the time. Ma says she had a nervous breakdown crying in the bathroom and for two weeks after couldn't get out of bed. The calvin klein campaign officially launched kate moss and the look that would soon be called heroin chic by some an elegantly wasted by others by the fall of nineteen ninety-two. Moss had taken over the runway appearing in the famous. Marc jacobs grunge show in her weight. Came a wave of other waiflike models including amber valetta and shalom harlow. But the look didn't last long according to author michael gross. The waif-like was uncommercial and controversy alter survive longer than a normal fashion trend in his book. Model the ugly business. Beautiful women gross writes that masa scrawny look inspired protests. The words feed me were scrawled across posters and billboards and june nineteen ninety-three. The new york daily news described moss as a skin and bones model. Who looks like she should be tied down and intravenously fed magazines even received angry letters from upset readers and by nineteen ninety four. The trend was essentially dead but kate. Moss survived in fact she thrived. She started hanging out with christy turlington. Naomi campbell began dating. Hollywood actor johnny depp. And soon the supermodel group went from the big five to the big six moss and depth. Were another couple in the ninety s. They were often photographed either partying or arguing or sometimes both. They were both accused of trashing hotel rooms and one report suggested. They ordered a champagne filled bathtub at a west london. Hotel in one thousand nine eight in case you're wondering it take spoke thirty six bottles of champagne to fill up a bathtub. Moss developed a notorious reputation for partying hard during the nineties which continued into the two thousands and would eventually cost her several contracts when photos of her doing drugs with boyfriend pete doherty were sold to the tabloids. A book published in two thousand fourteen called champagne supernova claimed the tiny model had earned the nickname the tank because she could snort three grams of cocaine and drink a bottle of vodka in one sitting another supermodel with a super bad reputation was of course naomi campbell through the nineties campbell was linked romantically with many high profile men. Everyone from mike tyson robert deniro to sylvester stallone and eric clapton. She was also engaged at one time to youtube. Bassist adam clayton through the nineties. There were frequent media reports about campbell's diva like behavior. Enter angry outbursts directed at hotel employees airport staff and assistance in nineteen ninety-three campbell was fired by elite modelling in a very public way agency. Founder john casablancas faxed a letter around the world to all of the company's clients stating to whom it may concern. Please be informed that. Do not wish to represent naomi campbell any longer no amount of money or prestige could further justify the abuse that has been imposed on our staff and clients. All who have experienced. This will understand looking back now. It's ironic that casablancas would call out naomi's behavior when he himself was engaged in some pretty disturbing activity according to the guardian casablancas. Who moved in social circles with jeffrey epstein. Donald trump was notorious for sleeping with his teenage models for example in one thousand nine hundred eighty three. He had a public relationship with model. Stephanie seymour casablanca's was forty. One seymour just fifteen. But getting back to naomi campbell. In recent years she's become an activist and philanthropist but is still often saddled with her diva identity. It's hard not to consider whether that identity was partly shaped by media and public. That played into the angry black woman. Trope sure campbell misbehaved in the nineties. But so did the likes of mark wahlberg and hugh grant but they have long since been forgiven campbell. Herself told harpers bizarre in twenty twenty that the angry black woman label has been used against her many times. She says in an effort to silence her her response. Well here i am. The ninety supermodel moment really began to wind down around nineteen ninety-five most of the spurs had grown too big for the fashion world and were mostly absent from runways. They were too busy filming movies hosting tv shows and recording pop records naomi campbell singing baby woman on her nineteen ninety-four album by the same name that was widely panned by critics and the public. Some of the supers even got into the restaurant business in nineteen nine five claudia schiffer elle macphearson and naomi campbell opened the first fashion cafe at. New york's rockefeller center with entrepreneur. Brothers tomasso and francesco beauty. The fashion cafe was kitschy tourist spot all like the hard rock cafe with lots of fashion memorabilia and very little emphasis on food the grand opening of new york location attracted fashion and hollywood elite like gianni and donatella for saatchi tyra banks and eileen ford as well as stephen baldwin. David copperfield the way in brothers and john stewart at the opening schiffer told reporters. It's our baby. We make all the decisions the difference between the girls today and models of the past. We're not only interested in fashion. We're going in so many different directions at once. We work harder at night and on the weekends. Three months later things were going so well. That christy turlington decided to come on board and soon seven. More locations were added in places like london jakarta and new orleans but as author matt haig pointed out in his book brand failures. The connection between models and food was not an obvious. One and fashion was not a theme that made people hungary plus the beauty brothers were mismanaging things behind the scenes eventually leading toward litany federal charges and lawsuits as a result. All of the fashion. Cafes closed down in one thousand nine hundred ninety eight as supermodels continued spending more and more time away from the runways. Some designers and fashion editors were becoming less enamored with them for other reasons. Tired of bad attitudes high prices. Some designers and fashion editors started looking beyond the handful of women who had been ruling. The runways for the past decade. Plus randy bergman says because of the normal ebbs and flows of the fashion industry. It was time for a change. It wasn't like the supermodel went away. It was different supermodel. It was like the giselle 's tires of the role the heidi coons was. Victoria's secret like that. Brazil thing like that was sort of just took over in the late nineties to the early two thousand. There was also a big shift happening in hollywood in previous generations. Movie star shied away from endorsing products or dressing up and designer clothes but a new generation of actors had no problem with it soon. Revlon signed halle berry. Salma hayek and curiouser was featured in ads for saks fifth avenue. The final blow came in one thousand nine hundred ninety eight when the all important. September issue of vogue magazine featured actor renee zellweger on its cover. She was the first non model to appear on the front of the magazine and for many. It signaled the end of the supermodel era. here's writer. rachel. Burchfield tiny goodman of vogue. Said why why not put these movie stars on the cover because then you get people that were going to read about fashioned anyway right in the end these models might be on the inside of the magazine. But now you've also hooked people that are interested in this celebrity. Like shearson dunster. Julia roberts sir stanford bullock or meg ryan or someone like that in so you know. Ask started to become more than norm on magazine covers by the end of the nineties. Most of the original supermodels had already moved on. Linda had retired. Christie went to college and cindy retreated to malibu with her second husband randy gerber claudia traded in the high profile american magician. David copperfield for the low key. English film director. Matthew vaughn whom she married in two thousand two and they all became mothers in the twenty years since then. Many new models have come and gone following in the path laid out by the women of the nineties. They pave the way for the multi-purpose model. Who doesn't just walk in fashion shows but until recently few have become household names. Now with kendall jenner the hadeed sisters and even kaya gerber cindy crawford's daughter. It feels like a slight return to the era of the supermodel. Just slightly though. That's because none of today's models have managed to capture the public imagination. Like the ninety s. supermodel writer. Rachel burchfield lames it on social media. She says models today are just too accessible to have the same impact. I mean especially kendall jenner. My gosh i feel like i know everything about her life since she was ten years old because of keeping up with the kardashians There's there's a point where there is that air of mystery that is so compelling and that is why we were so compelled by these women's that we don't have anymore we know all about. Gd bella and kendall even kaya and that's fine but it they'll there will never be another ninety supermodel that is not as a class zone. The jenner's and the hades of today may not have the same impact for name recognition as the supermodels of the nineties. But today's runway queens have something else to hang their hat on big big salaries according to forbes. Kendall jenner was the top earning model in two thousand eighteen. Earning twenty two and a half million dollars in twelve months. Linda evangelisches comment that. She doesn't get out of bed for less than ten thousand dollars. Seems almost quaint. Doesn't it as for the nineties. They walked the runway together again in two thousand eighteen in a bold trivia to gianni versace on the twentieth anniversary of his death for the finale of the runway show his sister donatella gathered. The original super is once again. For that show. Cindy was flanked by naomi campbell. Elena christianson carla bruni and claudia schiffer as they closed the show marching down the catwalk in milan to the tune of george michael's freedom ninety just like they did almost thirty years earlier missing that night but not forgotten. Where linda evangelista tatiana petites and christy turlington. The other three fifths of michael's original supermodel filled music video. Thanks for listening to this. Look back at nineties supermodels. It's great to be back after a summer break and we have lots of great shows planned for you this fall so please make sure to subscribe to history of the nineties so you never miss an episode thanks to my to special guests rachel burchfield and brandy bergman in addition to writing about fashion rachel also hosts a cool podcast about the british royal family called podcast royal an randy also has a great podcast and website called capsule ninety eight. If you haven't already make sure you check it out. I'll put links to both podcast in the show notes. If you've got an idea for an episode please let me know. You can reach me through twitter and facebook at nineteen ninety history and on instagram at that ninety s podcast. You can also email me anytime at nineties at curious cast dot ca. That's nine zero s at curious. Cast dot ca. This episode was written and hosted by me. Kathy zora our producer is deal of alaska's and sound design and final production is by rob. Johnston see you next time for more history of the ninety s.

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