'the need for speed'
I love this podcast. Support this show through the acoss support a feature. It's up to you. how much give. And there's no regular commitment just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal and admission sequence Space nuts three to five report. It feels good. Hello once again and happy new year. Thanks for joining us on the latest episode of the space. Nuts podcast episode. Two hundred and thirty five is what it says on the notice. The professional professional rundown shake out so backwards anyway trouble rating that my name is andrew dunkley your host and joining me as always is good professor fred watson astronomer at large. Hello fred andrew. I wanted you to see my astronomy face masks because my daughter sent me for my birthday all the constellations sadly they're only their employees but they are the right constellations the real thing. So this is my. This is my new fashion accessory. Which don't need in here. Because i'm on my own. Nearest person is twenty inches away in a different room. So i can take it off but i thought you'd like to see beauty. I love it. I wasn't very actually. I've seen a lot that people have been creating. You've got to give humans credit for the ingenuity that some of the face masks that have started popping up around the world just so imagine any. I'm not so sure about the zombie ones because children have a scowl. Another good one to show you in your letter. And so that's one yet but i've sitting it be good and by the way. How is christmas and new year. What did you get up to. I wrote two chapters of the new book and still forging ahead to try and get it. Get the text out away as soon it can extend the cartoons for it. Because that's the next big thing. Just go away. This impromptu you hang on hang on gentlemen was the late under dunkley. Who's just revealed his chest full of his his case full of trophies. It's done oh the book stone ready for my perforated creator so We're all good to go. Yeah hard copy to an editor an miracle anyway. Anyway that will be out sometime this year. Probably the guys freights to look to nine comes in. No fans come though andrew. Both of them. It takes me. We'd better get down to business so news. Good christmas good as good very very quiet so we didn't get up too much not that we could because there was so many restrictions that we had to deal with because of the sydney at break but yeah hopefully things will get better this year but against a wish. Think so in this episode of the space knots. Podcast we will be talking about earth spinning faster than it used to. That's because people running a lot faster than they used to. The planet of luck treadmill effect china the these certain chinese astronomy as we got a lot of speed going on not the wrong kind of spayed. We got spayed spade going on this week's episode. Chinese astronomy on nearly six hundred high velocity stars. That's because most of them are seventeen years old now and a couple of questions coming up one from tome in the midlands of the uk around binford's law which this fascinating question and darryl in south. Australia has a what would happen if question for us. I love those ones so we will deal with all of that today on the space. Podcast now fred to l. very first a topic for twenty twenty one earth is spinning faster than it used to. Someone suggested the treadmill effect. I suspect otherwise. Actually you know the treadmill effect is good as yes zanny. Because of the moment nobody knows why so short segment the theory that Look at your theory that is should go into the mix for what the reason is for his faster spinning earth that we're seeing it sort of flies in the face of the normal wisdom about the spain we've known ever since invention of clocks and probably a little bit before let's actually but we know that the the rotation he's not constant it's very poor timing sort of a because it spins affected by things like the sloshing around of the liquid iron core in the middle solid iron core in the middle and the liquid encore above it the excuse me the convictions in the mantle. But he's also affected by other things like melting ice sheets and ocean currents and things of that so all of those things effect the rotation of the earth. But as you. And i spoken about before andrew the normal way changes is by slowing down. And that's because the tidal friction effects between the earth and the moon. The earth is gradually put the energy into the moon which makes it received away from us that energy has to come from somewhere and by logic comes from the slowdown of the rotation. But it's not just you know a constant drift downwards it's got bumps in it and we had a bump effectively last year. Twenty twenty apparently had more short days than we had for quite a while which means that the spin is going up. Sorry i do go ahead now. I knew that last year felt quake. Everyone said just half austin twenty twenty like well. The shortest day was by day. Now we don't mean daylight or anything like that. It's the stunned day. Eight to six thousand four hundred seconds. That's how many seconds going today which is twenty four times three thousand six hundred number of seconds our so. The shortest day was actually july nineteenth. The debts of our winter down here in australia but high summer up in the northern hemisphere and the the so that eight to six thousand four hundred seconds was short by one point. Four six zero two milliseconds. So it's not really something you'd notice but it is a short day and you blink and you would yes blinked too usually longer than expected so you would but yes. There's no so. I should say that. Nobody's worried about this particularly it's just a reflection of the fact that the earth is as variable in its spin. An exactly as i was saying things like the the movement of material with india but also i think to some extent we're seeing the sensitivity sensitivity of the earth to what actually happens on the surface and that's because on the surface this effectively. What's called a big moment of inertia. So that things that happened on the surface actually have a bigger effect. And that's why just the level of snowfall for example over a continent light green land or over an online greenland and even things like the erosion of mountains by glasses. And that sort of thing all of these can change the speed of the planet's spin the the other side of it and maybe this is a little bit more concerning is that atmosphere and climate scientists looking at this as perhaps seeing something like the effect of global warming wave got snow caps melting on the snows high up in the in the mountains actually disappearing So it's it's really an interesting yardstick May mark the beginning of changes in the weather through tate. Now the people really most upset about it. I'll the computer scientists and they always up because that's why computer. Scientists hate the fact that the spinneys gradually slowing down because in order to compensate for that. We introduce leap seconds periodically. I think something that's not been introduced since nine hundred seventy five. Was it the first time elite second was put in and they buy their computers. Need to be adjusted. If you put a leap second in and that's a big pain in the neck because it systems on board spacecraft. It's all over the place where things have got to be changed and the idea of the speeding up of it could mean that you put in a negative leap second. That's to say you take out a second. At the end of seasonal periods other the thirtieth of june thirtieth of december put in. So you could take one house. And that's again could lead computer scientists to tear their hair out and all kinds of problems. So they're the ones who are most directly affected by this but i thought it was a really interesting piece of research to point out that actually occasionally this in speeds up. Yes it is it's fascinating. I believe the first leap second was added in nineteen seventy two. You went viral. And yeah when the earth slowed down a little bit. And and yet as bain think twenty seven seconds up their bats. I did have a question you. At the beginning that the title affected the moon is supposedly slowing the rotation of the earth. But we also had the moon is creeping away from the earth. And we'll have a time. Will that change the spin of the earth as it is it moves away or is that too so the to intimately linked andrew. The moon will never disappear. It will settle down about half a million kilometers away. This is in something like fifty billion. It's nothing to worry about but it's actually so it's the gravitational interaction between the two that causes both of those phenomena the slowdown of the earth. Which is because it's giving energy to the moon. It is a very complicated process. But it's all about the way the tidal bulge on the earth naturally acts gravitationally on the moon itself to give it an acceleration that acceleration moves it further out in its orbit so yes to intimately linked processes both of which are very interesting. I think me gets they all joy. I actually looked it up once and i think we have talked about it when once or twice the ball. She's responsible for quite a significant difference between the width and the height of height of the planet. It's it's it's quite a large fairy. That's the equatorial bulge. Just the bulge calls the story. Actually something something. That's not good me andrew. So yes the has. An equatorial bulge fatter around the middle. Pretty well all the planet. Saturn is the most sundays ten percent wider across his equator than is at the polls. But wait for this in the all. The research been doing for the kids book. One of the amazing facts is how perfectly spherical sonny's so the some is one point. Three thereabouts million kilometers in diameter. And yet it's the difference between its equatorial diameter. it's polar diameter is less than ten kilometres. It's a staggering. So it's absolutely a perfect fear which is really quite remarkable. It is so here's another question without notice getting good at that if spinning a bit faster in twenty twenty does that main the bulge. The equatorial bulge begun. Probably but the amount millimeter. Not exactly. that's too much ten millimeters overestimate just a case. Okay we got. That covered. Great topic off the year fascinating. You're listening to and occasionally watching the space nuts. Podcast with andrew. Dunkley and fred watson all space nuts. Thanks again for joining us on the space nuts. Podcast andrew dunkley with frayed watson and thanks to everybody who send questions into us because we lock to get questions from the audience we feel it gives you a bit more to to enjoy. It's just us rabbiting on about what we like to talk We get to talk about the stuff that you want to know about as well and we've got Episode two hundred forty coming up very very soon and as we tend to do on the round numbers. We offer the opportunity to go all in. So if you've got a question buzzing around in that massive. Brian of yours that you would like fred to tackle plays plays plays senate into us. Just go to the space. And that's podcast website space nuts. Podcast dot com is what it is coincidentally and you can upload your question through our email interface. If you don't want to use your voice or you can click on the tab and record your voice as long as you got to deliver the microphone. It should work and just tell us who you Wave from ask you a question bam and away we go. So we'd like to do an old question episode for episode two hundred and forty which will be coming up in about five weeks time. Now fred we. We have got The need for spade in episode two hundred thirty five of the space. And that's us and we go from a fastest spinning earth too high velocity stars which of been observed and fan quite a few of them. Yeah that's right. This is actually a story quite close to my heart under a number of reasons partly. Because i've been involved with in measuring high-velocity stars myself the right project. Radio velocity experiment which we did with the united kingdom schmidt telescope during first decade or so of the new millennium we surveyed the speeds of half a million stars and one of the first pieces of research that came out of that was the detection of high velocity stars. Nothing like as many as the chinese astronomers have now discovered but what does not just these stars leaving the galaxy and waving goodbye. She gives you a way of measuring the mass of the galaxy and we got a mass for the galaxy from those results of one point four trillion times. The massive sum. That's a result. The dutch really still holds up. I think anyway. Things are moving on because with a telescope. Which again. I've had quite a bit to do with. It's called lemos. It is a telescope. That is built actually only about one hundred kilometers from beijing for reasons that i won't go into but on a site that is rather light polluted but is very good for observing relatively bright stars. And what they've done with lemos. An east name is actually an acronym is the large sky multi object fiber spectroscopic telescope and. There's the clue because my career was all about multi object fiber spectroscopy which is where you use optical fibres to steer starlight from the telescope into the spectrum device that actually turns the light into a spectrum unless you analyze all details so our five spectograph on the schmidt telescope one hundred and fifty five dollars when he was in good condition but the llamas telescope has thousand so it can look thousand us simultaneously. And that's why they doing now very big surveys of star speeds and the chemistry of styles as well which is one of the other things that comes out of this so the the study that's just been published has now a total of five hundred ninety. One stars added to the list that we knew already which was about five hundred and fifty so it kind of doubles effectively doubles. What we know often. The stars are ones that have actually had something happened to them For example if you have a style that happens to be in the central galaxy of one disclose to the black hole in the central galaxy might get caught up in the maelstrom of material. But not quite be sucks in. But in fact given a cake atwood's to give these very high losses it's that sort of thing or even just an encounter of two stars coming together. where they they don't colli but the gravitational interaction actually boosts one of them out of the galaxy so it's really You know it's a really interesting piece of work. But today we have something we didn't have in the in the era of raves. The ready of loss experiment. We now have the space. What guy is doing is measuring very accurate positions of stars. They're accurate to about five minutes of a of an arc. Second tiny fraction of a second of arc is one three thousand six hundred thirty degree which is a relatively small angle but then they're splitting to millions of an second and that lets you look at the way styles move across the line of sight when you can combine that with the radio lusty which is the along. The line of sight you get the true space velocity of the star. It's actual motion through space. And that's how you can how you can use some of these very high velocity and are effectively leaving the galaxy. It's great half fast. Are we talking figures. But i actually had time to look at the paper itself which came out on the seventeenth of december but the typical sosa figures that we were talking about with rave war of the order. Four hundred five hundred kilometers per second. And that's enough to to get you out of the galaxy. It's all about the escape. Velocity galaxy of course varies depending on where abouts in the galaxy. You are so. It's not a single number. I think we're used to quote the escape. Velocity the radius of what the number is. I could probably look it up but do just now. I think it's less than four hundred kilometers per second. But you get the drift. It's these velocities in the region of a few hundred kilometers per second. How fast is l. Son moving asda. Yes so we Part of sort of circulating around the center of the galaxy our speed is roundabout two hundred and fifty kilometers per second. Okay that's the psalms orbital speed around the center of the galaxy and in fact because of doubt matter that's the orbital speed of most styles one of the things that we won the reasons why we think dark matter is there is because of this. What's called a flat rotation curve when you look at galaxies. Everything's moving around at about two hundred and fifty kilometers per second whereas what you would expect is for the velocities in the middle to be fast and then for them to slow down as you go further out what they don't. And that's one of the one of the reasons why we think every galaxies encased in a cocoon of dark matter. It's the the the most significant reason why we think dot military israel. Someone's going to ask the question if everything's moving at approximately the same speed and how is all drifting apart at a suppose. It doesn't matter what that's s you drifting atwood's if or apart what do you mean i mean gets makings the so that is much much smaller and only comes into play where you've got you know huge distances. We're talking about galaxies which are bound by their own gravity a that sort of overrides anything to do with the drift of space which is much much slower values on the scale of the galaxy the expansion of the universe zero. It's only when you're looking at galaxies separated by you know millions or billions of light years that you start to see the expansion of the universe. I k- makes perfect sense. You mentioned a few reasons. Why stars reach these high-velocity the one you mentioned is that they just got their drivers losses. Well we knew those. The state of new south wales and i think in a couple of other states in australia. Who get the loss to demonstrate so with a red pay for their first year provisional license and then For three more years two more years they have to have green lights so well identified. It doesn't slow them down at all but yes making generalizations hundred because all climbing saudi non santo them. I know some people who were very very carefully and under done pretty good too doesn't let or time for a break here on the space podcast episode two hundred and thirty five your with andrew dice. Clay and frit watson four pistols spins nuts the nuts podcast with andrew dunkley and professor afraid watson and a special shout out to all our patrons of course who put a bit of money into the podcast. We certainly appreciate your support. And if you'd like to become patron you can look up the day towels on our website. Spice nuts podcasts dot com. You can give a little. You can give a lot you it's totally up to. You is not mandatory I must point out and A shoutout to our social media supporters. Those follow us on facebook twitter. Where else pay patriots. That's my special. That social media is also Pinterest and a few other places. So what's that other one called instagram instagram. I should have but I just get so lost in them there so many but and youtube. Of course you call you to Social media platform i suppose but We getting quite a following on youtube. So thank you to the youtube followers for supporting this the space nuts podcast when we get a lot of feedback from youtube as well so thank you very much now frayed. We've got a couple of questions to tackle we and this i yes I one pretty wordy is comes from tom who lives in the midland of the uk. Hi fred and andrew. I have a question for regarding a mathematical phenomenal. Benfits ball came. I came across this awhile ago. Walls casually researching various things online for those unaware of benfits law. It's an analytical to tool commonly used to detect financial fraud. I find this fascinating. Basically the law states that when taking the first digit of numbers in lodge dafa sits the probability of h number one to nine occurring repeatedly decreases the higher. You go for example. The number one will occur. Thirty thirty percent of the time to around fifteen percent and so on Nine occurring just five percent of the time audited this tool to analyze data sets and find anomalies in the information if a company's features a nine as the first digit say sixty eight percent of the time providing the company's services died products whose prices exclusively begin with the non. That's important it's a likely indicator of fraud so now to the actual question pot in benfits law is benfits. Law commonly used in astronomy analyze things like distances between stars galaxies planets all for other large sets of data relevant to astronomy. I've read several articles that have explained how they've explored the slow in niger for things such as dips diverse quakes sizes of animals and infectious diseases. But there doesn't seem to be a huge amount on astronomy and spice if this lower applies not only define any financial information but much to the natural world and the universe that's that would be somewhat intriguing. Love the podcast discovered it. For months ago. I tend to listen to it whilst flying space exploration game which really enhances the experience. I'm fully code up now. Begun releasing some episodes. You poor thing If you could start recording twice a week minimum. That would be great about all the best tom from the uk. Midland's benfits law. I like the sound of these. It's interesting yeah. It was an infection. Benford was only. This was the second person to discover this law because it was also discovered a fifty years earlier in eighteen thousand nine one by an astronomer by the name of simon american so sometimes known as the new combined. Astronomers of certainly to the numerical distribution. Tom's right actually that it's not a to the is widely used in astronomy. Although i take his point that other natural things have been used to to to to have been shown to fit this law like mathematical of physical constants. It's it's a really very interesting thing i think. Financial fraud is probably sleaziest us. But the point going to make in astronomy. They're a statistical tools. Which quite different from this and very much more suited to the problems that we face strong which are looking things like looking for trends in the metal content of stars in their atmospheres or their surface gravities how distributed with distance in the galaxy. And for that kind of statistics that we use pops in some ways more conventional. Although the flavor of the month is still something called beijing statistics which is a statistic set of statistical tools that involve you effectively taking a guess at what the answer might be you fix something called a prion and the prior is your starting point when you are going through the statistical number crunching to work out. What what the answer is likely to be so basin in statistics play a much bigger role than benfits law. It is interesting. Though how applicable it is over many different physical parameters. One of the things that that i thought was an interesting concept. Benford law is lengths of rivers a. That's such an interesting thing that the length of rivers actually fits this natural law. I just wanted to comment. I'm going to have to offer a second because my computer's got red lights on. It tells me. I forgot to plug in power. So i'm gonna let you chat for a second. While i get it but the the really interesting thing i think about them. Full when you look into it is it works best. When you've got a statistical data covering many orders of magnitude that means you know tens hundreds thousands hundreds of thousands millions. If you've got data that covers that broad-based then the law works really well. If you're only in like this year one to ten then it doesn't work so well which is an interesting of i think is an interesting little. I'm going to go before my computer. Dis andrew leave you to talk for no less than no longer than about thirty seconds tribal. I think i can manage that. I used to work in radio. F- still up radio. I don't work in it anymore. It reminds me of a trip judy. A couple of months ago. now we We saw trip. We decided not to take charges. And of course my find but it's battery heavily and so the next day driving home at a cable in the car and just plug in and charge a fine on the way home and everything will be apple's when i got home. The phone was almost data. What the heck over the course of time. The plug in the Adaptor in the car dashboard had worked. Its way out a couple of millimeters and no longer have contact. Couldn't you get caught out in this wise but Luckily or go home with fully functional. Find the light. i the lightest i. I've put on my phone battery burn Daily which ended a brand new find. So i'm a little bit annoyed and apparently the fixed isn't going to be uploaded until next month. So yeah i think a lot of these mobile phone companies have got a bit to answer for fred. I really do. But that's another story. Thank you complicit away. I didn't want it to fair enough. Now let's move onto our next question and this is. This is a what would happen if question. This comes from daryl. In south australia must point out too that This question one from tom. The the patrons but just for change were including a couple of days. Patron questions in the mainstream podcast. Normally they'd go into bonus material for the patrons but These questions were so very good. We thought everyone would enjoy them Now i darryl says the other day i was watching a youtube channel and the title of the segment was what would happen. If the earth got kicked out of the solar system it was mentioned that some seventy thousand years ago a brown dwarf red dwarf binary system passed through the cloud. Miss things up it also stated that Please seven ten of probably that will pass through in about a million years time So he's asked several questions. Have either of you heard about this carol. Scientists had to scientists now Now this happened. can this still be saying through telescopes. today how would it take How long would it take for asteroids from the event. And how can scientists track something that might take a million years to be in our neighborhood. Good questions and You fred. I love the way you haven't heard of. It was just going to say. I love the way that darrell has number these questions. One be three and five so yes. I've certainly of gleason seven ten. Which is a star that will pass through a million time. I don't know about the black brown. Dwarf red dwarf binary system. It's possible that might have happened. So let's just step back and workout what what's going on here. The solar system is not just the planet and the asteroids and comets. It is also the cloud cloud envisage baiano water dutch back in about nineteen fifty or there abouts he postulated that the source of comments. Is this sperry. Co cloud of comet nuclei which bodies a few kilometres long very icy. But if you've got lots of them out there a passing star could disturb the cloud propel them into the inner solar system where they will essentially falling towards the sun and be visible as comments because they wanna get near this up evaporating there. The isis basically turned to to today to a plasma in fact and then see them but of course if that happens on a wholesale scale. If you've got something that churns through the cloud and disturbs it and sends a whole lot of comets into the inner solar system. A good chance that some of them are going to hit the earth and so people who look at asteroid impacts and things of that sort and the history of the earth in terms of mass extinctions criterion and things of that sort. They're the people who i think would be saying. Well something happened here. We had a whole lot of mass extinctions. Maybe that was because something Through the cloud. And you can. Actually you can naturally. This is going to one of the questions here. Be i think actually not to be how the scientists know this happened. You can look at stars now especially that we've got the guy data set that we were talking about a few minutes ago. These exquisite positions of stars which also gives us the chance to work out their motion. How they're moving. If you combine that with radio losses take from spectograph of you've got this complete motion of a stom- and if we can look stars out there in the universe and say well or in the galaxy and say well this one would be now affinity few hundred thousand years ago something of that. So so that's how that kind of deduction is made and so the red dwarf binary system as i said i haven't heard of that one but it if it really exists it probably is something that has been observed through telescopes the gleason seven tan is much better defined. Because that's one that's kind of way it hasn't passed through the the solar system yet It's a it's a red dwarf star glazer stars. Essentially red dwarf dwarfs the head doctor professor leases. Catalog is number seven. Ten in. the catalog is acted that there will be an interaction between please ten and the cloud because it will come in closer probably than the cloud. Certain point two light years is minimum distance. The cloud his roundabout that distance from the from the sun. So this is an event that is expected to occur on our best figures in one million two hundred and eighty-one thousand years time and that again comes from the guy data so it is. It's a close approach and that is likely to disturb the cloud and so the other one of the other questions that donald has asked question. D- how long would it take to see astronauts. From this event that should be comets asteroids because cloud is the reservoir of comments they would take yes tens of thousands hundreds of thousands of years to spiral in from the cloud into the inner solar system. Maybe on average fifty to one hundred thousand years so it's not an immediate thing but this star is itself conduct an immediate effect it drifts through the sky relatively leisurely pace. I think also a figure of one year. I think was been. Let me see if i can take that up again. It was certainly something that would be easily visible. It's a star that will be relatively brian. In fact they were suggesting magnitude of about minus two. Which is as bright as mars gets when it's when it's brightest. I'm sorry i can't find that figure of its of its drift. But the style would be there and it doesn't through the cloud bash everything up it's a very leisurely process but the effect of this one hundred thousand years or so after the closest approach when the star would still be visible in the sky. That's when you start getting become feeding into the inner solar system and the last question how can scientists track something that might take a million years to be unable. It's exactly one of just said it's looking at the information we get from gaya and the radio velocity surveys that gives us the space velocity of a star. And then you just map it forward because there's not that much else threatens in the you know in the period go to any other styles that it might interact with but a million years is you. It's not that long in the grand scheme of things so it's very interesting really interesting question. I'm very glad. Donald rosa ripa beside the and still less around one point. Two question about the predictability. I suppose a million years out that makes it a little bit of a lottery dozen Only in the sense that you might have ignored or missed. There's a faint star somewhere between us. That will disturb its path and it's be the modeling that people are doing about the way stars moving within our neighborhood. Actually go out to fifteen million years and so this sunday. Good modeling That takes into account what we know about styles vicinity now. This one's an interesting one. The fact that it is sort of whizzing towards was timescale of point. Two eight one million years. I don't know whether any of us still be around by them. We hotfooted to other parts of the galaxy all succeeded in wiping out. Who knows i fully the former committing. I just going back to one of my is many years. It's motion through the sky. News right Could something be disturbing north plad now. or a we pretty well with with what's happening around us in this possible. The cloud the problem with the cloud is so so far away the objects in tiny that he's not really well bound to the solar system. So you don't have to give it much of a push to disturb things and people have suggested you can giant molecular clouds in the neighborhood of the sun could disturb the cloud facto. I've worked with some strenuous in the nineteen seventies and eighties. Who have picture that. Epi sell the disturbances of the cloud of a period of hundreds of millions of years every self company one of these regularly company one of these giant molecular clouds cloud guess disturbed and you get an episode of bombardment on the on the surface. A victim of and bill napier my two colleagues at hebrew. Were very big on this on this view but we do have we do have evidence that certainly have been periods where the bombardment via has been much higher than other periods and not just right at the beginning in the early history of the solar system. Three point eight zero three point. Nine billion years ago something called the late heavy bombardment. Which in which was a time when everything's charging around but they've been these other period since then where it's looked as other been more higher rates of cratering on solar system bodies which suggests that there's been more than that suggests that maybe something has upset the clouded and i suppose it's also possible. Something disturbed what. I've fifty to one hundred thousand years ago when humanity wasn't feeling and we might say the effects real soon true actually hundred thousand years ago. He was a thing but different. Not quite as well in tune with the the sums negatives were then they just new things. We're flying down. The point mentioned in the youtube channel. That donald watch not confessed to watch this video. And it's giving us a link to it. We'll try and do that. But that talks about events seventy thousand years ago. That would have messed things up. We could still say the effect of we could yes. That's right yeah we watch out for this spes. Yes great news. Daryl fresh question. It was a good one. I do enjoy the what would happen. If so if you want to Forest one or two of those for episode to forty We could have a bit of Because i'm sure people got something in mind about what we'll look forward to that. Is i forget again. If you do have a question you can upload it our Website gust dot com. I m i linked voice If you want to record your voice Or you can just do it through the email interface and send us the text. Whatever way suits you that brings us to the end of another program and their first one for twenty twenty one. Thank you for it. It's it's great fun and a great pleasure. We'll find other interesting stuff to talk about next time on a look food andrew. Soon okay professor. Fred watson astronomer lodge out of the team here at space nets podcast and special high to hugh back in the studio and for me andrew dunkley and all of us. Thanks for your company will see you on the very next episode. Mice not available at apple podcasts. Google podcasts spotify. Iheart your favorite podcast playa. You can also stream on demand. This is another thirty podcast. Production from dot com radio.