BONUS: How The CIA Overthrew Iran's Democracy In 4 Days
Hey, there up first listeners it is Saturday, not a weekday. And we've got a bonus episode for you today. This month marks the fortieth anniversary of the Iranian revolution. Which led to the overthrow of Iran's head of state. The Shah a hostage crisis at the American embassy and Iran becoming an Islamic Republic. It is cited as the year, Iran, and the United States became enemies, but that animosity actually has earlier roots in this episode of through line new history podcast from NPR hosts rum, teen Arab Bluey and run up. Delfa ta explore the US's role in the nineteen Fifty-three coup in Iran, August fifteenth nineteen fifty three. Shortly before midnight, and Tehran Iran's capital city. The air was thick with anticipation something big was about to happen. The elected prime minister of Iran. Bahaman Mozelle was sitting at home waiting. He knew something was coming. And he had no idea still be prime minister by morning. So with each tick tick tick of the clock, he knew that the future of Iran without state one truck loan of presidential guard soldiers we're going to most ex house the midnight. Their mission was simple go to Mosul decks house in the middle of the night, knock on the door telomeres, fired most of them protests, undoubtedly say, you can't fire me I'm elected and at that point you would arrest him that failed because most had f found out about the arrest. News of it leaked out. Then there was a bit of panic among the army that was supposed to come out and support the arrest of Los Adam. The phone lines were supposed to be caught. They were not cod. So there were a number of missteps that took place and when the soldiers arrived at most of the house to arrest him other soldiers jumped out of the woods arrested those guys most desks forces had foiled a coup attempt. He would stay prime minister. But little did. He know that night was just the beginning of a much bigger battle to come. It would change the future of Iran and America. Iran. British Haiti brim of Mosser day arrived in Cairo. Most of the testimony three days of bloody rat. Time now and say has released on that show is. Nineteen fifty three coup. You're listening to through line where we go back in time to understand the president. Hey, I'm rob Tina of Louis. I'm Rhonda and welcome to the first episode of through line. I'm not gonna lie. I'm still a little bit shocked that they show. Here, but we're really excited and really glad that you decided to join us for this ride because Ronnie ni- have been talking about this for a while like a lot of you where news junkies, and we were just pretty frustrated with the lack of historical context around a lot of the headlines we were reading and we end up in these Wikipedia wormholes trying to figure out the history behind things. So we wanted to create a show where you the listeners and us could go on this journey every single week and become better informed about the world around us and do it in a way that wasn't boring. Exactly. So in this first episode, we're going to take you to Iran and the story of four days in nineteen fifty three. All right. Ron team you were born in Iran, and you've spent a bunch of time there. So I'm curious how much had you heard about this American coup growing up? A definitely heard stuff about it. Especially for my father who would remind you all the time. Like, the only reason we're here in the US is because what the US did to our democracy in nineteen fifty three. Right. And I would always just kind of like brush it off like whatever that could have happened. This is just like Iran and conspiracy theory stuff, right? But as I grew up, I realized that US actually did interfere Iran's politics in nineteen Fifty-three. Let me honestly, I didn't have much of an idea about this going into the episode. And it's like a a really big shocking thing to not have much ninety about. Because I always thought that nineteen Seventy-nine was the real piddle moment Ray that the Iranian revolution happened that year and the Husted crisis at the American embassy, those were the things that really set the tone for like this very tense relationship between the US any run. Yeah. I mean that makes sense. Like, why would you? You or any other American pick differently right because nineteen Seventy-nine was such an important year. But nineteen Fifty-three is really when it all goes down, doesn't it? Sucked bay here. Dad was right. Yeah. It really does. Okay. I wanna get into it. It's a great story. So we're going to take you back to that pivotal moment. More than sixty five years ago to understand what happened during the coup while the US made that decision and how this event redefined the US, Iran relationship and change the world. Support for this podcast and the following message. Come from discover who believes innovation and good ideas can come from anywhere. Discover is one of the pioneers in giving people cash back on their purchases. And now they're edit again at the end of your first year as a new cardmember, they'll match all the cash back you've earned dollar for dollar with no caps. And no catch because discover believes in taking a good idea and making it even better check it out at discover dot com slash match. Cash back match offer only for new card members. Limitations apply. Call you lady luck. August sixteenth nineteen fifty three. At times, you have a very unladylike. Running. Early morning of August sixteenth nineteen Fifty-three American agents were hiding out in a safe house at a secret location in Tehran listening to this song. Luck be a lady tonight. A lady. They were waiting to hear whether the CU the engineered had worked and the move was electric using blasting booze flowing everyone's celebrating a job well done. Now. Remember, this is nineteen fifty three. So there were no breaking news alerts. No email. No good way to deliver information fast. So as far as these guys knew the coup had gone off without a hitch. And there was one guy who was a specially happy Kermit Roosevelt. So Kermit Roosevelt was chief of the CIA Nerius and Africa division like many of the figures in the early CI. He had been born into privilege gone to Ivy league schools. His grandfather had been Theodore Roosevelt distant relative of FDR as well. He was called in to help facilitate this transition so on July nineteenth nineteen Fifty-three Kermit Roosevelt crossed over into Iran. This is Stephen Kinzer. He wrote a groundbreaking book on this coup called all the Shah's men and son them back near me. Can you hear me? Hello research, fellow at Chatham house in London where she leads the Iran forum project, and they were are guides through this story. Okay. So Kermit Roosevelt entered Iran on July nineteenth with a pretty big mission ahead of him say Juku to get rid of Iran's prime minister Muhammad Muslim, and we'll explain why in a bit. But the first question rose about how to answer your asked myself. This question was how so you're sent into a foreign country and your assignment is overthrow the government. What do you do like, what do you do on the first day nine o'clock? You get to the office. How do you start even though the CIA had devised a plan for Savell? No, one was sure it would actually work. It was suddenly up to Roosevelt to destabilize a whole country. Step one, seize control of the Iranian press. Basically buy them off with bribes turned out that the press was quite corrupt and soon enough Roosevelt had columnists editors and reporters from most of Iran's newspapers on its payroll, then anti theft propaganda began printing everywhere. Plus, it was Jew homosexual a British agent anything that they thought would would outrage people. There was such an appetite for these stories that Iranian journalists just couldn't keep up so Roosevelt had to recruit the aid back in Washington to write some of the articles for Iranian press. In fact, one of them later wrote a memoir, and he talked about how bizarre it was at the CIA, you had the people plotting the Iran coup, and then you had analysts on the other side of word aware the covert action. And he said, I would write an article about how the deck was an atheist and he hated God. And then a couple of days. As later a guy from the other side of the hall in the analysis division would run over to my office holding up an Iranian newspaper and saying, wow, you won't believe how the newspapers in Iran, denouncing most look what this article, and I couldn't tell him. I wrote that article. Step to recruit allies on the ground. Most importantly, the Islamic clergy or mullah's who held a lot of power in Iran. Kermit Roosevelt made strategic payments to a number of important Mola's in exchange for them delivering sermons denouncing most deck from the pulpit as against God. And irreligious step three get Iran's king the Shaw on board and convince the Iranian Shah, Mohammad Raza pot of the that must have that was a threat this part took some persuading though. Yeah. Because in theory, at least the Shah and the prime minister were meant to work together. But there was a lot of tension between them because for decades Iran's parliament in Shaw had a tough time sharing power. It would be a big deal for the shot to help overthrow the prime minister. But Roosevelt's on opening to turn them against each other. That included bribing the shot sister in exchange for help convincing the shot to sign on and their reports that a for cope was. Even part of the deal, but that tactic failed. Eventually Roosevelt took matters into his own hands and began meeting with the Shaw almost every day at midnight in a taxi cab, always in a different location during these late night meetings Roosevelt managed to convince the Shah that Mosa was at threat. And so the Shah agreed to the coup and finally step for go to most of house in the middle of the night arrest him and consolidate power in the hands of the Shah who was more friendly towards the west than most del but remember the coup attempt failed at this point. You're probably wondering why the US went to all this. Trouble sending Roosevelt Tehran having him Stirrup chaos in the country and ultimately trying to carry out a coup. Why were they so hell bent on getting most out of power will the truth is the US was dragged into the situation by Great Britain? All because of one thing. The world oil supply and nationalist feeling ran high against Britain and the western democracy. We sometimes say the countries are blessed with resources, but sometimes resources can be a curse, particularly if you're a country that's week because there are always strong countries that wanna come and take what you have an Iran was cursed with a lot of oil oil was discovered there in one thousand nine hundred eight and almost immediately Great Britain took an interest. And at that time Britain was the world's biggest superpower. So they decided to strike a deal with the Iranian Shaw. And they needed a lot of oil this deal between the British any run. I was completely one sided Great Britain was taking well over eighty percent of the revenues while Iran was receiving about ten to twelve percent of the revenues from its natural resource. Wait a deal. Like that makes no sense though. Why did he Ron agree to that will? Yeah. It makes no sense. Unless you're in desperate need of money on Iran's government in the early. Twentieth. Century was desk. Britt Iran during the early part of the twentieth. Century was still ruled by the old codger. Royal dynasty was a very corrupt dynasty and it supported itself by selling off anything of value in Iran. They sold off the transportation industry the tobacco industry the caviar fisheries. They even sold off the country's treasury and banking industries. It was basically a free for all. And the British were first in line oil was by far their most valuable acquisition. And here's a fun. Fact, the company that controlled all of that oil was originally called the Anglo Persian oil company, which would later become every day. The supplies the few the. Shirley, m. So this was obviously very lucrative for them very lucrative and during World War One and two Iranian oil pump life into the British war effort. So it was absolutely essential to Britain's future. Okay. This all really helps. Explain the next part of the story. Right. Because before he's even prime minister, Mohammad Mosa del got to work lobbying against this unfair oil deal hoping to get a better deal for Iran. He tried to negotiate a new deal with the British that would allow Iran to keep a bigger share of the profits, which I'm sure freaked out the British and when the Goshi nations broke down the British imposed the worldwide embargo on Iranian oil, eventually in nineteen fifty one most convinced the Iranian parliament to nationalize Iran's oil and a month later, he was elected prime minister, which really sent British through the roof. Handle the oil nationalization programme took his case to the United Nations where they remained adamant in the British decided only solution was to get rid of most idea and put in a more favorable government. And most side, they're sensing the British were up to something shut down their embassy in Iran. And here's where I'm assuming the US enters the picture, right? Right. So they called the Americans for health and president Truman said no not going to do it. He actually sent a a mediator to Iran. He had most that come to Washington to try to persuade him. But when nothing worked he essentially told the British there's nothing you can do you're gonna have to swallow us like we had to swallow Mexico nationalizing its oil industry thirties. We didn't like it. You just going to have to live with this. But the following year. Dwight Eisenhower became president and his thinking was a little different. Suddenly, you don't have an American president who forbids military action. But on the contrary you have a new team that's eager to show that it's going to roll back threats to the United States and that played right into the British hands. Plus this was right around the time of the Cold War was heating up and Iran happened to share border with the Soviet Union. So what can he do to show that he's fighting communists while you can't bomb Moscow? He's not going to invade China. You can't go after the real enemy. It's not possible. So you have to go after somebody else. Iran also in this period. And I think it's important to mention there was a communist party known as the two day that was active in parliament was supporting was said dad, even though by all accounts was that. There was not a communist himself. The US was still on high alert all these factors as the British wanna eventually convinced the USC muster deck is threatening the world it can get onboard. With Britain's plan. See we're desperate for victory to stage a coup and overthrow Iran's prime minister what how mad was that. This evening is all they give me the brush you mud. Six AM the morning after the attempt Roosevelt and his men. Tired from nine to partying tuned into the radio. But all they heard was silence. And Roosevelt knew something had gone wrong. Then suddenly. The radio crackles on. Military music started playing. And most Adele announced victory over an attempted coup. Could he noticed that the Shah was nowhere to be found? And immediately suspected that the Shah was behind the coup attempt. Meanwhile, the shot new this might happen and fearing most Adele would come after him half done is private plane and flew to Baghdad and from there. He went on to Rome where he told reporters, I'm probably going to have to look for work now because obviously never going to be able to go back to Iran. So to recap at the end of day to the Shaw had left, Iran. Most adults was still in power with no idea that the US was behind the coup attempt and Roosevelt had failed. But even though his boss is back in Washington told him he could go home after the coup failed. Kermit Roosevelt was not willing to give up that easily. I think it came a little bit from the old CI can-do mentality. The also sends how weak the Iranian political establishment was he thought he still had assets that he hadn't used. Most Adele, wasn't out of the woods. Just yet. Kermit Roosevelt had not given up. And actually it was having a plan b. This message comes from NPR sponsor REI REI believes that a live outdoors is a life. Well lived and they have for eighty years. So check out their podcast wild ideas worth living for inspiring stories of people who took the road, less traveled here from explorers, athletes, authors and experts in the field follow how they're taking wild ideas and making them a reality every day find that on items Spotify, Stitcher or wherever you listen to podcasts. August seventeenth nineteen fifty three. Couple of days after the failed coup it down crowds of supporters packed the streets. Chanting. The words has one and victories have the nation. It seemed like the worst was behind most of he survived a coup attempt and live to tell the tale. But this was the calm before the storm backroom dealings were happening out of sight and the threat to most was still very real. And we'll get to that during this momentary calm, you want to give you some insight into the man who was at the center of this whole thing. The man the US and Britain terrified. Madam ascetics? Get the feeling that this is a kind fatherly person who cares about the people, and he's very respectful of people. He talks to people would respect for the first time. That in Iranian politician advised him as dear fellow citizen. This is Abraham neuropathy. I'm retired physician. Dr nor is he was born in nineteen forty two in a town in Iran. Call Qasr Wien, and he's the most ideal superfan. He even create a website to honor him. Dr nor was he became very interested in politics from young age. I have no idea exactly why because we didn't even have radio and our house when I was a kid when I was in lamentably school. Maybe I was tiny and was bullied a lot. Maybe it. So I wanted some sort of Justice in the world, Dr noisy like a lot of Iranians sees most kind of a national hero sort of Gandhi for Iran. He's really become a mythical figure. But to really understand Moore said there we have to find the man behind the myth. So Muhammad most the deck was in Iran aristocrat again, Stephen Kinzer, his father had been finance minister for decades under the jar regime is mother was a Princess he held various positions at sun, Mbeki minister for an affair as minister finance elected twice to the Iranian parliament. He went off to be educated in Europe. He came home and began campaigning against the agreement by which the British were trying to subjugate Iran and became quite outraged at the injustices, he saw round and must had dad was known to be very dramatic. There are these anecdotes where he used to receive visitors in his bed in his pajamas. For example, most of was pretty eccentric guy prone to outbursts and dramatic speeches where he would cry even pass out and the US and Britain saw him as kind of erotic and unreliable difficult to negotiate with even if he was a fan of democratic ideas, very much believed in the democratic ideals on checks and balances that were necessary to curtail monarchical power at the time. And he came of age during a time where these changes also influenced the political system the biggest political tunechi witnessed happen when most was in his twenty s between nineteen o five and nineteen eleven Iran went through a constitutional revolution. This was a remarkable moment in Middle Eastern history. And in the history of the developing world, Iran developed a constitution nineteen hundred six there are countries in the Middle East that don't even have a constitute. Today. The revolution sought to make your on more democratic with things like parliament constitution and a free press see for centuries country had been ruled by Shah's kinks with power passing from fathers sons, but by the turn of the twentieth century as a turn of the twentieth century, the corrupt irresponsible business dealings that the shots which riding the running economy straight into the ground which made the Shah's really unpopular among the people. I'm this wasn't like normal corruption. We're talking crazy excessive spending he had like one shot had a harem of sixteen hundred people sixteen hundred one six zero zero and he and his many many sons would use the national treasury as their personal piggy Bank taking money out whenever they wanted to travel around Europe. You also demanded that people call him one of the following Hanes show show show. Shaw's audio mash Silom of the universe at Dhahran subdural climate nigga all night guarding the flock Saudi adult that rule you seeming or shadow of God on earth. I could see wanting to become guarding a block. Or would you prefer shadow of got on her? I personally like subdural climate. I don't know. But it just feels like. Right now, you're right anyway point is the shots were out of control and the constitutional revolution. United people across Iran against the Shah in favor of a more Representative government a coalition if you will of intellectuals people from the bizarre, the clergy coalition stood up to the monarchy violence broke out. And one of the most interesting stories that came across from team that I told you about yet was the story of this American guy who actually fought any Ron's constitutional revolution. Really? Yeah. His name was Howard basket rule. Howard Baskerville who was it. Graduate of Princeton University seminary school Baskerville wasn't American missionary and in this period. There was a lot of missionary activity coming from the United States. They went support education in various countries throughout the Middle East who came to own identified with plight and basketball and wanted to go and fight on the side of the constitutional. Exactly. But the US Representative in Iran, begged Baskerville, not to join the fight became to him and yelled at him. No. You can't do that. You know, you shouldn't get involved in civil war of other countries. You come here to help, you know, where he wouldn't listen. And then he threatened him that if you go and involve yourself in the war. I take away your pass food is. Okay. This is my pass it to him. He said, no, I just because I was born in America that doesn't mean I'm better than them. I'm like them. I'm going to fight for them for their cause. And this is a good cause. Unfortunately, he dies just the first hour of a battle. And by the basket will his sculpture was installed in constitutional hall in tabbies and his tomb is like a worship place so Iranian it's fabricated. These missionaries action to America as a government. So what I'm saying? Is that American left very good impression in Iran. Iran has loved it. I had never heard of the sky Howard Baskerville. Neither had I before this. I mean, it's really wild to think that this guy would have laid down his life for Iran's constitutional revolution. Like think about it. How many Americans that time even new way round was let alone go over there and fight? I and it's interesting because at that time, we're in the show were the bad guys. But America was kind of an ally our fight exactly until they got involved. The days after the cooler tapped, however, all that seemed to matter was that was that was a man of the people and that he was still in power, but out of sight, a new plot against most death was brewing. Kermit Roosevelt's plan b. Support for this podcast and the following message. Come from male chimp, it might sound like male champ just does Email marketing, but they actually do a lot more to help your business grow because growth looks different to everyone. Male champ helps guide you to the right marketing decisions for your business from audience management to ad campaigns automation male champ, they do more than male. August nineteen nineteen Fifty-three tension is focused once again on the Middle East where in Iran, I've taken a dramatic. Double twist during three days after the Shaath flat and Roosevelt's coup attempt failed Roosevelt set the state for his second quit and on August nineteenth. It began hundreds and hundreds of rioters filled the streets of Tehran and in a word. It was chaos. Three hundred hundred wounded is a conservative estimate and his plan was this. First of all higher gangs of Iran ins through people who controlled criminal protection rackets and pay them to go out on the street and cause chaos to Roosevelt actually paid criminals and gang members to storm into the city beat up people in the streets break, shop windows, shoot your guns into mosques. And while doing all that. Yeah, we love most the deck. We love communism. And then he hired a second mob to attack the first month which led to bloody violent clashes between the two mobs. And the really trippy thing was that everybody involved. Everybody involved in the battles was being paid to be there. But what they didn't know was they were being paid by the same source, the CIA and all of this was designed to create confusion as the signal that most is that it was a source of the violence in the country that he was losing control, which was becoming more and more true. Most decorated fused to send the police out because he said well there. Demonstrators people should be allowed to say what they want. He truly was too naive to grasp what was happening. And this brings us to the final part of its plan to get rid of most doubt once and for all. Roosevelt ordered both mobs to to most of those house. So a giant crowd surrounded? Most decks house shouting insults and throwing stones in potion show up but several police and military commanders including a couple with tanks. People who Kermit Roosevelt had bribed to participate. Those officers began opening fire on Muster's house while inside most NFU of his closest advisors huddled together tells them I wanna die here in house. But somehow they managed to drag him out of back window. They got him over a fence. He'd fled house was looted. And immediately thereafter Kermit Roosevelt went to get his savior general who he'd been hiding in a safehouse brought the guy who radio station and the guy proclaimed himself has a new leader. So this guy general saw was putting tower as a placeholder until the Shah who remember had fled to Rome could be turned was that that eventually turned himself in and just like that with a couple of chess moves Kermit Roosevelt's plant assured Iran into a new era. Shar who had fled to Rome comes home backed by generals. I hit military strongman who engineered is return to power everything was that was the Shah was not which isn't really surprising, given the corruption of the Shah's the Shaw then ruled over Iran like a dictator for twenty five years and the western powers, including the US didn't really care because give them easy access to Iran's oil during that time, the Shah did everything in his power to get rid of any trace of the most dealt era Mossad the name was banned again. Dr no Rosie. You don't hear anything Masada after the coup? I was that was the time. I was actually in high school. I don't remember anything, you know, much Masada the coup. They were off limits things that the running government wanted people to forget under these conditions must adopt became a sort of legend, a symbol of Iran's loss. Potential the CIA only officially acknowle. It's role in coup in twenty thirteen sixty years later in case you're wondering what happened to muscle. So he turned himself in in the quick shift of power was finally ended and awaits trial and was placed on trial who's convicted of treason and sentenced to a prison term followed by life under house arrest. A couple of his closest advisors are executed. There were hundreds of other executions of people who are suspected to be disloyal in the military and Masa deck remained almost taboo, figure almost for the rest of his life. As for Kermit Roosevelt, Kermit Roosevelt stayed in Tehran to wait for the shot to come back from Rome, and then arranged a farewell meeting with the Shah before leaving Iran. The Shah greeted him with a toast. And he said I oh my throne to God. Mike people in do you? He was right. Right. Although he might not be the right order. So Kermit Roosevelt went home. And of course, he was welcomed jubilantly back in Washington as kind of conquering hero. He went onto more years at the CIA, then later left became an oil consultant, speaking of oil, the holy grail of resources that started this whole thing as you might expect Iranian still ended up with a pretty bad deal. After the coup was set in done may again blow westward. Okay. So given all this fundamentalism resentment built up against the Shah declared martial law in most of Iran in nineteen seventy nine. Iranians reached a breaking point and revolted against the shot. This shelf fled Iran and the clergy assume control the country. That same year a hostage crisis unfolded at the American embassy. CBS new young Iranians described as students acting with the blessing of Atala Khomeini have occupied American embassy in regarding days of unsuccessfully. Trying to get the American hostages out of Ron the government of the United States is now trying to get the deposed Shaw around out of this country. And there is no signs that either problem is likely to be solved. So in nine hundred seventeen nine in nineteen Fifty-three coup was invoked as justification for seizing the American embassy. The argument was at the time that these diplomats these American diplomats inside the embassy whereabout to do what Americans had done in Iran. Overthrowing most I did and restoring show, and they were about to do the same thing. And therefore they justified to the public wide. I needed to shut the embassy down this Roya cocky on. She writes a lot about this time in Iran's history and the subject is. Deeply personal for her as someone who was born and raised in your own during the tumultuous years of Iranian, revolution and its aftermath and Roya challenged everything. We thought we knew about this story because up until now we thought the basic story was that pre nineteen fifty three US in. Iran are pretty chill. Brin is the bad guy. Nineteen fifty three coup happens. The US installs a dictator in Iran, and eventually the people respond with a revolution and hostage crisis and the US in Iran, become mortal enemies, so that is the narrative that was presented at a time. It was wrong for the US to intervene. But at the same time, this isn't the whole story and tells only a very small part of why Iran has been stuck in this place for so long Roya says that narrative, let's one group off the hook way too easily Iran's clergy of peace. That's missing from the way. This narrative has been told is the fact that Kermit Roosevelt. This is very wisely. Obviously to go pay visit to the grand Ayatollah Barani in Tehran. And you know, history changes course, after he does that. So remember when Roosevelt got help from the melas to carry out his plan B after that first attempt failed while ROY of things that moment was the real game changer. She says Iran's clergy has been conspiring behind the scenes for a long time to oppose democracy in Iran. She says they saw a chance to undermine democracy in nineteen fifty three and then in nineteen seventy nine when it seemed like democracy would be the result of the revolution. They saw another opportunity to take power, and they did this all on Boqing was idell Nate. Yes. Yes. It's really truly ironic because by nineteen Seventy-nine most does long dead, but his legacy is not. So while he himself was. Completely axed by the clerical powers at the time. His narrative his Lesi became very useful to the regime in other words, it's a mistake to put all the blame for Iran's problems on the US intervention in nineteen fifty three that the Iranian clergy have played a part too. I hear what Roya saying Iran's mullah's have definitely than a number on the country. And there's plenty of blame to go around between the US Iran, especially since nineteen seventy nine, and there's a long list of of back and forth grievances that have added to and fuelled attention, but you can still make the argument that the original sin of the US Iran relationship was what happened in August nineteen fifty three and that that set the tone for everything to fall. In the United States US Iran relations begin and end with the hostage crisis. That's the moment that is the key turning point on the source of everything from the Iranian perspective. Things are very different Iran. Ian and American perceptions they're like parallel train tracks. Just keep running parallel. They never coincide. That's it burst episode. Tina Bluey I'm read that you've been listening to through lie. I show is produced by me and Ramtane. Our team includes Jamie York, Jordan, Anna, Hopman, Lawrence William. It's Michelle land as minding Nigel Eaton, but you also to Larry cap low for editing help and Greta pitting her for her help backtracking. I music was composed by drop electric special. Thanks to on your grandma, Chris Turpin until PR and Seve Nelson for working so hard to make this show a reality. And now that Arab Louis promptings dad who helped us out with translations finally a big huge massive shoutout to guy Roz Jeff Rodgers Neva grandson us Michigan poor on the whole Ted radio hour and how I built this team for teaching us how to make radio. If you like the show, please leave us a review on I tunes until you're Brent's to subscribe. And let's keep the conversation going if you have an idea or thoughts in the episode. It has on Twitter a through line NPR or send us an Email to through line at MPR dot org. Thanks for listening. That was the first episode of through line new history podcast from NPR. You can subscribe to through line right now. New episodes will be dropping every Thursday. I'm Dave agreeing. This is up first and we'll be back Monday morning with all the news you need to start your day support for this podcast and the following message. Also, come from IBM to meet the needs of the world's growing population. Farmers are working with IBM and Watson to help increase crop yields. Let's put smart to work. Find out how at IBM dot com slash smart.