Troubling: a death in Northern Ireland
This economists podcast is sponsored by linked in jobs. Hello and welcome to the intelligence on economists radio. I'm your host Jason Palmer every weekday. We provide a fresh perspective on the events shaping your world. A minority of South African people have steadied formal jobs too many, including a large fraction of the country's youth do piecemeal work or are unemployed altogether. We look at the efforts to bring the young into the workforce. And there's a lot of talk about public figures particularly candidates in America's upcoming presidential race speaking, multiple languages, what's with these polyglot politicians. But I. A funeral will be held today for a young journalist from Northern Ireland who was shot dead last week all for the loss of lira. Our hopes and dreams all of her Mazen potential with snuff type a single Barrick. Lira Mckee had been reporting on violent unrest in the city of Londonderry. We believe this to be a terrorist act. We believe it's been carved violent Republicans yesterday. A group called the new IRA took responsibility for the killing it even apologized. The incident was shocking reminder of the fragility of peace since the end of the Northern Ireland conflict known as the troubles. This was an attack on everybody in northern. It. Doesn't matter if you're Catholic or Protestant. British are this is an attack on democracy? The troubles began in the nineteen sixties and painted mostly Catholic Irish nationalists against the British army Northern Ireland police and mostly Protestant loyalists. For three decades violence and terror was a part of everyday life, the turmoil claimed more than three thousand five hundred lives, but in nineteen ninety eight the Good Friday agreement largely brought an end to the conflict today is about the promise of a bright future. Dave, and behold, a line can be drawn bloody past some low level violence continued, but this latest killing has fear and outrage. The funeral today of Larry Mckee is going to feel in many ways. Like, we'll most states occasion. Tom Wainwright is the economists Britain editor where expecting to see the Irish T show that the prime minister will say the president of island the secretary of the UK as well as low two local politicians from Nova Nyland, of course. And so it's going to feel like a big deal, and it really is a big deal in Northern Ireland. This kind of killing of innocent civilian in what seems to have been a terrorist attack something that really has shocked people. It's by no means the gnome since the peace agreements of twenty one years ago. This kind of thing is much less common than it used to be in people here really really shocked by what happened last week, and Tom what can you tell me about the group responsible for misbehaves death, new IRA and its relation to the other groups with IRA in the name, it's it's a bit confusing. Picture it is it really isn't. I think to understand that you've got to go back to the Good Friday agreement of nineteen ninety eight and. What happened? There was that the IRA and most Republicans agreed to end any kind of struggle and take their fight for the United Ireland to the debating chamber of the streets. But at the time there was some Republicans who disagreed with that to this represented, a capitulation, and these guys who are now widely noted dissident Republicans have continued that struggle on a fairly low level. But nonetheless, they are security worry five the security agency raised the threat in Northern Ireland is severe they have continued trying to police officers, for instance. And so why do the new IRA kill Lear mckie? Well, she seems to have been killed by stray bullets. She was watching a riot taking place in the city of Londonderry Derry as it's known to Republicans, and she was watching from next to police come and she was shot in the head and later died, and this riot was kicked off really after police had been raiding homes in the area shortly beforehand seems that they were concerned on the. The Easter rising some local Republicans might be out to coast trouble. And seems that some cycle dissident Republicans is this as a excuse to get that people on the streets and co some trouble and the new IRA said it was an accident and apologized there's some significance to that. Right. There. Is yet seems that they really feel as if that on the back photo of this that agreed which has said, the it's propensity is violence to said that the Republican coups, but they seem to be well aware that locally these kinds of acts of violence in which older NRI innocent civilians killed or injured go down extremely badly and really risk setting that goes back, and we've seen evidence of this already in dairy, the headquarters of a local political party, which is supported by the IRA people being smearing red painted handprints on their offices a form of protest and lately various Republican murals have been graffiti as well by people saying things like not in my name. Name. And so they think realize that this could set them back in a big way. Police also reporting that moving one hundred people have sent them with information about the killing and in a city like Derry, that's really unusual. This is not a place where people have historically been happy to talk to the police about Republican activists. So we could be seeing Quanta change. So do you get the sense from all that then that there is just simply less tolerance for the kind of violence that was so common during the troubles. I think that's right. I think since the Good Friday agreement which was almost exactly twenty one years ago. Many people in Northern Ireland of come to see the peace that's being achieved is enormously valuable, and the idea of going back to that is something that really worries a lot of people. And I think most observers thing that the chances of returns to scale violence, very slim, but any sign that violences on the rise is obviously a worry, especially at the moment with Brexit going on which is causing all kinds of problems for Northern Ireland. We've also got the problem of the Northern Ireland assembly having been suspended now for more than two years. So there's a feeling Northern Ireland is inevitable position so events like this do concern a lot of people that people worry that things are being destabilized that, but you mentioned Briggs in in passing there. Do you think that all the negotiations and the degree to which Northern Ireland has been such a lynchpin of the negotiations has sort of reignited tensions? It's certainly reignited tensions. Yeah. We haven't yet seen a big kicking off of large scale violence or anything like that. But tensions absolutely have been heightened. And it's not surprising because the peace deal made back in nineteen ninety eight really hinged in many ways on the UK an island shed membership of the European Union that help to enable these countries to have a border, which is not just open. But invisible, I mean, if you go there and drive between Northern Ireland and their public of island, you can do so without even realizing that you've crossed the Boda, and of course, membership of the EU means the two countries of members of the single. Markets, and so no customs checks needed and since nineteen ninety eight people know of Nyland being able to choose whether they take Irish or UK possibles in many ways, they've been allowed to feel as if they are either Irish Oprah show oath if they want and so the UK now leaving the European Union really will subject that to strain. And it's clearly pulling the UK an island upon a way that nobody on typically to twenty one years ago and many people particularly in the Republican community. Most of them voted to remain, by the way, think that Britain is in some way reneging on agreements that were made or hinted that twenty years ago, so it is a time of heightened tension. Yes. Tom. Thank you very much for joining us. Thank you. South Africa is in the midst of unemployment crisis the only country with a higher fischel unemployment rate is Venezuela for the country's youth. The outlook is particularly bleak. Nearly forty percent of those aged between fifteen at thirty four are not in work training or decay. Shen? South Africa has to conham there's one in which a minority has steady formal jobs and lives are rich world lifestyle. And then there's a second in which people either have informal work or no jobs at all John McDermott is Africa correspondent based in Johannesburg. I see this every quarter in the employment numbers. But I also see it all around me whether it's going to the shop and seeing young men carrying brooms or hammers advertising work or even at the bottom of my road. Whether it's the guy who stands there most days carrying a sign that reads any job, please. And this is a human tragedy. But it's also one that threatens the social stability of South Africa. The roots of today's unemployment crisis can be found in the apartheid era demonstrations against the South African government. Strict apartheid policies, this is a trauma and deduction of hunger, homelessness of illness. Illiteracy and unemployment. Unemployment actually began to tick up in the nineteen seventies in one thousand nine hundred eighty s because you had a large black population who had deliberately under educated by white rule and to couldn't move freely in order to find work. So when you had structural changes in key industries like mining farming and manufacturing and when you had sanctions imposed on the racist regime growth. Stalled demand for labour fell, and it was difficult for the majority black population to find skill jobs in the Konami. And so absent those pressures presumably things got better after apartheid things have gone. A lot better since one thousand nine hundred four in democracy happens and the ANC African National Congress took over. What means for the mentioned? When it came to power. It did make a decision of how the labor market would be structured, and that was to have a highly regulated jobs market, which is perhaps understandable, given all the bad things happen to black workers under apartheid. But essentially, what happened was that you had an economy with German style regulations, but a workforce that didn't have German style skills. And because of that it's been often too expensive for employers to hire people, right? And what about today how does the state of the economy today effect on employment levels, stay there? Connie's not great to be honest. Jason I'm that's largely result of the last decade of rule by Jacob Zuma who stepped down last year. Here's the president was stratospheric corrupt and did great damage to the economy on employment remains really high around twenty seven percents, and essentially there's been no GDP growth per person for nine ten years. And that's the inheritance oppose the current. Evident has to deal with. And so there are forty percent of people who aren't working aren't getting trained aren't getting educated. What's life like for them? Life is pretty tough a few weeks ago. I went down to central Johannesburg to an organization called Harambee Harambee does is it tries to help these hundreds of thousands of young people some of them by work time. And again, you just hear these tales of people with a lot of drive and self-confidence just being a visceral over a number of years. There's one woman called Delhvi historic particularly stuck with me. She's thirty two now, and she has two kids. She lives with her mom, and she's spent twelve years looking for work firefighting Phya one has it has Materia. She tried number of different courses tried to educate ourselves activate and tried to confer job. And then since two six hours trying to look for jobs everywhere. Akron. Emmy, and none of the seem to work if I Tim 'cause also done six because I like many on that's not necessarily on Representative the average second school graduate and South Africa takes them to the thirty to find a job. And Dobie toll made up by the time. She finds this organization Harambee her confidence was almost completely shot isolate myself and Lord saw its peak in front of people everyday anything. So I was only as quiet, but his actually call center is within Beheira organization, which is trying to give people work experience. So w finally Gullit's an opportunity to try her skills as shaking, I couldn't even the mouths and my best as shaking didn't want to say to the customer nervous. She was but also how much there's job at meant to her. And what else does Harambee due to help young people into work? It does some basic stuff. So it gives young people a bit of money, so they can afford transport costs and data for their phone. But also does something else which is to try and build their. Infidels over a number of weeks runs courses, which are basically trying to build up young people's soft skills. I sat in on a couple of these courses which fascinating to observe something. Which which you would enjoy called the warcry. What's that? On what? We do. There the back of the room, and you've got I guess kind of thirty thirty five young people who towards the end of the day as class will kick all the tables and chairs away and a different person every day will nobody themselves to lead the war cry. Who? Slowly, stirring movements. They will get up hacker style. And do this quite kind of moving exercise in order to build up a sense of Morad, ary and self confidence. Which both kind of impressed and intimidate me. But places like this can can only do so much. This is addressing a really big systemic problem. What's the government going to do about this? So Ramaphosa knows that jobs and the economy of the key issues, the head of the election next month, and he's place to do number of things about it. Most importantly attract whole of foreign investment, which in theory will kick start domestic industry, but what the president hasn't done is to set an agenda that we've actually lead to serious drop in the unemployment rate does because for mostly political reasons he's unwilling to dismantle this inside or side of Konami. So you have a number of regulations, for example, a national minimum wage strong hiring and firing laws that have been imposed by trade unions and weighed in councils all of which use. If you are worker within the insider Konami, but it makes it much harder. If you're in the eyesight of calling me to get a decent, Joel. And unless the president is actually willing to take on those shits he might get a little bit more money coming into the country that doesn't necessarily mean there'll be many more jobs for South Africans. John. Thank you very much for joining us. Jason. John's take on employment in South Africa is just one part of a special report on the country coming out in a couple of days in the economist pick up a copy to learn more. Lane. Green writes Johnson our language column. He's been tuning in to some of the contenders in America's presidential race. So this year's them field is not only a big one about seventeen candidates. I've even lost count. I think but notably number of them have shown off their language abilities on the campaign trail being over Rourke speaks pretty good Spanish seek it almost infinite. Jila brain who studied Asian studies at university, try out some Mandarin. Law. Joel Harris who spent some time in Montreal. And Quebec is student speaks conversational French apparently. But when that everyone's talking about is people to judge who is the mayor south bend, Indiana and speaks about seven foreign language. If you easy European languages like Spanish in Italian French, but also a Maltese, which is his family heritage language Arabic story, which he learned as military intelligence officer. He was in the navy, and he even learned Norwegian to read a favorite author. And so how is that that sort of perceive superhuman ability being being dealt with on the campaign trail in well from the left wing of the Democratic Party there even been some attacks on but a judge four speaking all these languages because he's this kind of shiny character who's been MacKenzie, and he was in the military, and he plays piano. And he went to Harvard and his mother and father educated almost to educating this kind of show just like racking up all these accomplishments along the same lines as his being at MacKenzie. You're being in the navy just kind of a CV item rather than a useful skill. And why do you think this discussion about languages has come to the fore, white Weiss's is becoming a campaign issue almost? Well, I think. Buddha. Judges ability has been the thing. That's got everybody talking the most sort of gaudy number, but it's also something symbolic of sort of liberal non liberal divide right now, what some people call the Neo liberal internationalist globalist kind of left really prizes. Foreign language is the kind of people who travel and have loads of stamps in their passports are always the ones who are most likely to not only speak a foreign language, but also to be very pleased and proud trotted out and that plays out a little bit differently on the right side of the political spectrum where even those you do speak a foreign language or typically a little more halting about about trying it out, but not every Republican politician is modeling will not at all. No in the twenty sixteen cycle. We had to let, you know, Cuban American politicians Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio Rubio, the two of them distinctly more willing to speak Spanish, most ghetto second, Jeb Bush. Who was a Florida governor spoke Spanish, but then Don Trump actually went after him and criticize him for speaking Spanish in questions to reporters and said that he should set an exam. See put it by speaking English in the United States. Conservatives are a little bit more likely to push English only laws mostly at the state level banning public services from being offered in other languages and to be a little bit more raw about their patriotism, implying. If you speak another language than maybe you're not quite so proud of speaking English. What does this debate? They'll look like outside the Americans are somewhat famous for only speaking English, but in plenty of places, you can't you can't even get away with that. I wouldn't even say it's the debate. In a lot of countries multi-lingualism is part of the national fabric in part of the political culture top level, Canadian politicians need to be able to speak French English and very often switch right in the middle of a press conference, small countries like Switzerland, and Luxembourg are multi lingual and people are expected to speak several or all the national languages. Singapore is one of those countries that is unified by English, but people are expected to know some Chinese, and there's of course, Tamil speaking in Malay speaking population as well. And so it's another one of those places where without multi-lingual is. From the country just doesn't work, and so they're part of really bone deep. I think national value. Thanks very much. Thank you. That's all for this episode of the intelligence, if you like us give us a rating on apple podcasts, and you can subscribe to the economist at a columnist dot com slash radio offer twelve issues for twelve dollars or twelve pounds see about here tomorrow.