Astronomers vs Starlink
Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS supportive Asia. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided been journal, Jan.. Ignition sequence, uh. Nuts! To. report it feels good. Hello once again. Thank you for joining us on this. The space nuts podcast episode two hundred nine. My name is Andrew Dunkley and with me as always is professor. Fred Watson astronomer at large frayed. Andrew how you doing. I'm quite well sir, how are you quite well to I? Guess more or less. Doesn't it and so. Much more to say. But we carry on regardless and there's plenty to talk about again this week. Including an update on the styling satellite program. A planet discovered by the University of southern Queensland, but it's more about how they did it than the discovery itself. That's interesting and we're going to follow up a story that seems to be doing the rounds. I- collision between two black holes that looks to have created an explosion of light. That sounds rather spectacular. Will tackle some audience questions about except planets and this. This fascinates me freighter. Have you've done your homework? Quack, matter in quacks stars. I. Thought that was the stuff of myth, but we'll find out. but that's all coming up. We'll start off. Fred with a look at the styling. Satellite Program is an update day. This is I think it is the certainly the tenth launch off styling satellites, which takes the total up to something like six hundred satellites in orbit from of course. This is the issue that has got astronomers. Hot under under the color all over the world, both professional and amateur, because the of the amount of light these spacecraft. Reflect back from the sun and. SPACEX. Have come to the party on this they have. been very concerned that that's the case, and so they looked to town to mitigate this I think I'm right in saying that this the whole trench of Anna believe it was fifty seven. Spacecraft that will. With probably some other payloads in as well as a fifty seven of the styling south allies. But this whole tranche of them now. Uses walks. What? SPACEX is calling well the cooler satellites. The visor sat because they've got adviser a Sun visor. To Stop the direct light of the sun, illuminating the antennas of the space craft and hence. Causing bright reflections or causing light pollution for astronomers trying to see this, house. These apparently are made of a foam material. Dark. Foam like material that. Has No effect on the radio signals that are being transmitted, but will basically. Prevent. The that are certainly reduced the amount of light that comes from each base craft, as it reflects sunlight, so their effect is yet to be seen. We might expect to see some observations of this transfer fifty seven spacecraft going across. Across the sky with the visors and it'll be grave nobody. Says anything. So. That's the thing, isn't it? Because in the past people have photograph, these lines of lights in the sky and we've had a few amateur astronomers. messages decide that. They've had issue with satellites while try to do astro photography, and if indeed they have managed to come up with solutions for that and we did talk about that last time few weeks ago that they were considering this it will be just a fantastic effort, and and and that that's got to be a positive thing very much, so yeah, so we'll. We'll wait to see what the verdict is as. It's a good story and I suppose we'll. We'll now in the next little while take long shouldn't do. Probably before this before this episode space, it's the airways anyway. Long does it take for them to deploy fifty-seven satellites It's it's a pretty rapid process and you know what has has a. Almost alarm people in the past when they went to wear what was going on. Here is a stream of of up to sixty spacecraft in a line across the sky, a very very interesting stuff. That's what I'm saying photos. Often it It does sort of cut you off God and I've seen a few people said what is it? What is it? Can someone told me and there are others in the? No, it's I all that Spicy Blah Blah. And And there is so this time. Perhaps no one will say anything. It'd be great nobody so anything yeah. Fingers crossed. All right. That's good news. Let's let's move onto this planetary discovery by the University of southern Queensland I I know the stories about maybe how they did it, but do. We know much about the planet at this stage? Yeah, we do it's. It's a really interesting story Andrew because some a very strong strand flavor of there is a strong excellent group of University of southern Queensland. People most of them I know pretty well because it worked with many of them. Before on. The observatory. Assigning spring in new, South, Wales, but University of southern Queensland has its own observatory to place called. Mount can't eat doc sky site, which means be July but. The SPACEX satellites have been done because they defendants from that. Eight. Essentially a a planet discovery facility. which is used in tandem with Nastas? Test Satellite Transiting Planet Survey, satellite basically. University of southern Queensland provides backup facilities. That's exactly what's happened in this particular story. Sorry, you asked me about this story. The planet itself which now getting to. A cold a you microscopy e, which means it's in the constellation of Lico Scorpio microscopy. Say Making Lia. A you Chris Copied give is Latin pronunciation usually known as you make. It. San and how Australian is that Fred? Well is that? It makes us raw. Australians have a reputation for abbreviating things and Michael Becomes So this is now planet meek, this planet make. A with actually quite right because he's a you. Make a you is designated. That tells you. It's a variable star, but also leads Australia's of A. Does. Everything going for it so there it is. Why is this very? This is a young variable star. Why is it been trust because he has a dust? Debris disk around it, so it's you know this is what we call a protoplanetary disk. Our Son had one once upon a time. A solar system within that as these particles have dustin. The debris start together by this process cold accretion. So, it's got. It has been known to have this disc of debris, but now what has happened is as a planet has been found within that disk, so young as I said only twenty thirty million years old, compared with a four point six billion years of our solar system. And the the planet has been discovered by the tests spacecraft Dad Transiting EXO Planet Survey Satellite. Which noted the dip in the Star's brightness as the planet passed in front of it. So, that's a fairly standard process. That's how tests works these. How many of the planets that have been discovered at the moment of being found, but what then was able to happen? Was that because? The University of southern Queensland as this link with the tests, facility? The information was basically a passed over to add to the STRANA NBA US Q. who used that telescopes, which is actually a? Part of. A support network called Minerva. Sakarov want me. Nerve is an acronym for, but it is a fairly large consortium. And as I said with telescopes at Mount Kent near to MBA, so the US Q. Astronomers use that telescopes, not only to check these measurements of the of the change in brightness of the of the of the star, but also to carry out what's called doppler wobble method which you and I talked about before the smell Andrew, so you use a the the light from the star you can split it into components. Spectrum colors not reveals this Bar Code of information which is imprinted by the elements in the atmosphere, the style, but by making very accurate measurements of these you can you can. You can work out the motion of the Star itself as he's pulled around by the the planet and so. Some has an effect. The Sun moves backwards and forwards slightly. Is that different planets in the solar system? Move around it principally Jupiter that does that but the other plan. Back to? So, that is now observed with the the Mount Kent Telescopes, and basically it means that you you actually extract much more. Information because he can determine the mass of the of the transiting planet. You can also determine. By looking how far it dips the light of its parent star, you can also determine its size not gives us density, which tells you something about its nature. This one is is a Neptune star. Neptune sized planet unlikely to be a home for life, but nevertheless parts of the giant picture of exoplanets that we're building up now it's well over four thousand dollars been discovered, so we live in a golden age of planet discovery, and this is just another. Way which they can be, you know that they can be characterized. Yes indeed, so I ended up confirming it with both methods transit an doppler wobble. That's right exactly. I know all about the global effect on Mr Short Pat on Saturday because of that. Nasty stuff. Yes, you've got to watch out for on the Gulf coast. There's a lot of Doppler wobbling going on. It's terrible. It's my excuse for everything. Well, that's that's a great discovery, and they're doing some good work by the of it Fred now down in. The paper that Scott in the journal Nature, which is the leading a? Science Journal published in the UK. The team from. A very long list of authors in this in this Piper, which also includes people from University of. Wales. I noticed Christie's names, ed crisis, a an old colleague of mine used to be at the eye of Johnny Henry's one. The lead people up to Mount Kenta Observatory us q so lot of friends and colleagues in this large number of. Office for this paper. Johnny wouldn't be South African woody. He comes from not very far from where I grew up. He's got an accident. That's not that different from mine. Believe okay. Interesting well Janis. I should say very much north east of England diminutive. Except when you get to Newcastle East Jump Eight. because. Johnny Man I. Got It. Yep. and. Map can't one of the. Mount Canton one of the most horrible shots astrology at the dialing dance what he is looking. Straight. Think you'd better explain the? UPSET, it's it's absolutely beautiful, Rolling Hills and green valleys in just glorious, just a beautiful part of the world. Just over the border, why didn't we snaffle that? When we drew up the maps, Fred alive not. Probably. Sleep! Well? New South Wales the the state way leaving us to encompass all of Australia right to the West Strident Boorda. And someone decided to carve it up and they gave Queensland based on pretty unimpressed to be honest. But anyway that's the way it goes. That's the way guys. You're listening to the space. Nuts podcast with Andrew. Dunkley and professor. Fred Watson. Space nuts now. If you'd like to become a premium member of the space, nuts, soup cast franchise were serious You can do that by visiting our website spice. Not Super CASS DOT tech. And radio about it there I. their monthly plans this this if you want to put something back into the podcast, which is completely. But as a super cast member you get access to the back catalogue with new episode debris week ca weekly new episodes exclusive bonus I am I content, and it's one hundred percent commercial free, though if you'd like to look that up, you can go to our website and check it out the URL space, not start super cast dot tech. you can also find out how all this works through well-run standard website space nuts podcast, dot com, and thank you to our patrons We're going to be adding some bonus material in the next waco-style. Now Fred. Let's move onto this story. That's. been hitting the headlines in many many publications, and that is the collision that's been reported between two black holes, which may have caused an explosion of light now. I'm guessing that's a little bit more significant than a fireworks display. Yes that's right I mean. You know this is A. Lie a little bit like the the story just talked about. Excuse me the planet discovery. This is A. Highly collaborative event between many different institutions. Some of which are very very different in that in that style of observing. The discovery that as well. It's a world I it's the first time. This sort of thing has been observed a pair of black holes, merging but producing light signal so. Okay let's get back to basics by Kohl's merging. You basically need a gravitational wave detector and we now have working gravitational wave observatories. The Lago facility in the United. States operated by the national. Science Foundation the LASER INTERFEROMETRY, gravitational wave, observatory and European version, which is called Virgo. These instruments have been operating together for a number of years now and actually producing gravitational wave at detections, most of which of from either merging black holes, all merging neutron stars, all merging black holes neutron stars. You can characterize them. Quite accurately by looking at the the the wave pattern of the gravitational waves as they pass through the earth. Because what we're talking about, here is slight shaking of space that comes about when a when allows mattis accelerated way off in the depths of space, but it shakes base around it that causes waves. Sit like dropping a pebble in a pond. The. Only a bit like it. Like that. and. You know you can detect the ripples as they go past, and looking at the details of those ripples tells you what you're actually seeing. It is an astounding. Scientific discipline the emerged since we've actually been able to detect these gravitational waves, so two black holes merging and don't. Cause any light. Normally because that black. What they do, is they spiral around each other? And then. Merge into alarm. Black hole which itself. Like the two precursors, he's also black, and so you don't get a light flash until now. And event is. An event which I love. The name is Gw. Nineteen O five to one G. Up tells you it's. An event gravitational wave event that occurred on the the twenty first of May, two, thousand, nine, hundred, eighteen, so second until now to analyze the results. Get them out, but it turns out the Don that day, and at the time of the event. Excuse me a another completely different style of telescope. Which is at the Palomar Observatory near San Diego, and if I remember rightly, this is based on their Schmidt Telescope, which is effectively a twin. Of the Schmidt Telescope we have siding spring. Observatory here in Australia. What used to be called the phone in Schmidt. Two of the one in Alabama one here hearing Australia now called the one point to me Schmidt. So. They can take right instrument on. And I'm pretty sure I'm talking about the right. Tell us if I'm not somebody must excuse me. A this Vicki transient facility is essentially a wide field imager the looks for transient events things that. Take place over a short length of time is named after Fritz Vicky who? Is actually the person who discovered dot matrimonial things he was A. Twentieth Century Drama, sadly now no longer with us, but the character and a half according to accounts. The ZETI ethics called. Is Vicky transient facility. Actually served a flash of light at the same point that this gravitational wave disturbance seemed to come from until that's. That gives you essentially a puzzle. You can look at the you know the shape of the gravitational wave measurements you can determine what you've seen is not to neutron stars, colliding black holes colliding, but then you've got the the enigma of the fat that they produced a flash, and so the office of the paper that has resulted from this. suggest that the the two black. Kohl's themselves which? Probably quite large of older of ten times the mass of the sound that sort of Size, but they suggest that these two black holes were in orbit around each other, but together where in orbit around. A supermassive black hole in other words sibling in the central. Alexey lets millions of times the mass of the Sun. And and it, it's a disc around its disc of and stars and bits of debris that it's kind of sucking in. And so the suspicion is that these two black holes, which just part of the swirling massive stuff going around the big black hole when they merged. They essentially provided an acceleration. The merging accelerates the final black hole which may have. Essentially somehow plowed they the the the words that they use plowed through the disk of gas, causing it to light up. Sounds like a complex story, but it seems to be the best that you can do. In terms of trying to understand why to merging black holes would give you a light signal, and it's all about the environment that they're in if they're in a dense environment with. A swelling material, going around to a bigger supermassive black hole. Then you can create this flagship lines. And so what the officers suggesting is that you know given what we now can can detect to gravitational wave telescopes detectors. Basically? We've got a new way of centrally studying the black hole population, generally, if you look for merging black holes in orbit around biggest ones, which is what this event to vein so. They are very excited about this. And there is one footnote in the paper, and that is is kind of a bit of a disclaimer, really because Although the conclusion of this of this paper is that light fled was picked up the Viki transient facility. Although that is very likely to be the result of this black hole merger. There there are other possibilities and you know you can imagine that it could have been just a chance occurrence of two things in the same direction, whichever completely independent source. One of them gives a flash the other. Gives the gravitational wave. Signal, but they've nothing to do with each. I think. It'd be very unlikely, but it's always a possibility is not likely to but yes. They say they cut up completely. Rule Out of the possibilities. Fair enough fair enough, but as we've discussed before with the gravitational wave detection capabilities, we now have It's early days in terms of what we're finding and how it detecting they sings, and the combinations of factors the create gravitational waves so. As you, said we. We've got signatures that indicate to blackhall's merging to neutron STAS merging or a neutron star, merging with the Blackhall, but this could well be. Two black holes merging in a dust cloud so. What else could what else could possibly happen? Exactly? So you know it's. I way whatever the whatever the causes this is. This is. You know it's a big step forward. I think as well just to perhaps give it a little bit more credibility. I think you know theoretical astronomers of already realized that maybe such events could happen that you can get a black hole merger that gives a light flash before the this one was detected in other words if They astronomers. They think way outside the box. Imagine all kinds of scenarios Maybe they were thinking about this beforehand and. This is the first confirmation of that I'm not quite sure that was the older in which things happen, but that's very of the West giacobbe works. okay well. They might be more to learn on this. I'm sure they'll be doing a lot of analysis on that data and keeping their. Eyes Open for. More gravitational, wise and. Who knows what will learn from those? Which I think is what I said last time, but that's that's the way that's just the way it is at the moment the. It's a sort of A. Fresher areas in science and and a stormy so It's definitely a watch. The spice scenario because this seems to be accelerating amount of DOT. Coming out of gravitational wave detection technology. You're listening to the space, and that's podcast with me Andrew and of course Fred Watson. Space nuts now if you would like to send us a question and see if you can stump Fred, we'll call it. That's what we'll call the segment from now on, I think can use dump freight You can send your questions to us the repeal away by missing or a mile or something like that Barra. Vara website all you can go to our website and click on the I, am I link at the top of the page and record your question in an audio form. We love to hear your voices had some great questions from people in Yeah. It's nice to hear from you. You literally so You can do that at Spice Nats podcast dot com space, and that's PODCAST DOT COM while they can check out astronomy daily the spice now shop the bookshop but the IM link up the top. We'll give you access to the audio recorder. You just gotTa microphone on your device, but it will work on a smartphone at work on a tablet, and if you've got a laptop, they usually have microphones built in but if you've got a desktop with mark of unattached, then it'll work on that, too, so it's pretty simple and we'd love to hear from you quite. Quite literally love to hear from you. Now Fred. Let's get to a couple of questions now audio questions this week, but we have one from a from Alex Poten- Leo Hyper have pronounced that correctly Alex. thanks for your question. Hi Andrew and Fred have a question about exoplanets planets, if we cannot say except planets directly, and we measure the amass and yearly obits via the wobble technique and the dipping lot technique whereby the stars lot dim slightly when something allegedly passes in front of it. Can we possibly know if it's one planets mass? We are measuring scholley stars wobble could only be linked to A. Concentration of mass on one side of the star. Does that even tell us how many except planets that star has, and if one was viewing our own solar system from Alpha Centauri using the transit technique then doesn't one need to try and the telescope constantly. Stop the best part of one hundred years close in order to record the dips in brightness of most of our planet's passing in front of the Sun Logically. One must stay at s on for years from Alpha. Centauri, in order to catch the passing in front of Assan, full measure our planet's mass and distance perhaps from the sun. Is that what planet hunting telescopes do stare at the same system or patch of sky for every? If they don't then have, can we ever hope to discover earth like planets that are close that are not close to their son's red dwarfs the best candidates for us like planets Is it possible to discover planets in bigger orbits? If we haven't had time to watch some vs in years to catch the second dip in brightness, anyway would love. would be great to hear your thoughts. Keep up the good work Alex. it's a long question and I think we've already touched on in this episode in terms of. The wobble technique and the transit technique. Buddy brings up some good points. How long is long enough to make way? Discoveries you hope to make exactly so what Alex says! He's absolutely right. It's not a quick process. And okay. Let's imagine the scenario that he. He mentions that if you're looking. At our solar system from well, it said the distance of Alpha Centauri. Let's say you're looking. In the direction that all the planets would pass in front of the some. then. What what happens is. You you. Basically have to look for a long time. You, you of what how the styles brightness changes. And in many of the. Planetary Systems that have been discovered. Yes, this is what we've seen. We've seen multiple dips. And some of them are different depths by that I. mean the talking about a big planet blocking the light of its parent star, so the light dips than you know. He alleged dips again, but it's a deeper this time then. What you what you wind up doing is recording all these different bits, perhaps from several different planets. You know if it was also assistant Jupiter Saturn. The guests they ice giant. All of them would give different debt, and they would be on a different cadence. Say that the different spicing in time. You would to watch our solar system for a very long time to make those discoveries. You Know Hundred Years, plus that's right because you either going going around twelve years. In order to. To. Volley. How what's the word validates is the what I'm looking for. In order to validate a planet discovery, I think you have to see it. It's like dip three times. I think that's the standard. So? That's thirty six years with Jupiter. This. This is why. Most of the planets that have been discovered so far aerobic around Red Dwarf Star, which much less massive than our some on the planet closer in that narrative that parents star, so they have shelter years. That makes much easier to pick up. It's why we often see things with with a year of just a few days. Because he can pick up this this dip after not very much length of time in observing. And Yes that is one of the limitations so the test spacecraft which we talked about few minutes ago. I think if I remember the Alex's right. They stare at patch of sky. Looking for the dips in brightness and I think with test. Looks at each patch of sky for if I remember on these twenty seven days, which is not a very long time when you're talking about things in obits around around stars, but what you can then do is if you find a star that has clearly has a planet passing in front of it to absorb one dip then you can go to other observatories and. They're now dedicated telescopes, which will focus on just one star, a look for the the the the the change in brightness, overload period, and in fact, that's all been turned out to citizen science as well so much is now could do this with their own telescopes the the. Technology has come on by leaps and bounds. And okay, the just throwing a little bit at the end of Alex Talk to the beginning of this question about the the doppler. Wobbly facts the fact that as as a planet goes around a stop, it pools, the staff slightly one win the other once again. If you've got multiple planets that pulling and pushing gets more complicated than so, what you get is what we Colorado velocity curve that's. The shape of the the line of sight velocity of the star over time, and with a single planet it will be just a regular up and down curve, but if you've got more than one planet that gets really complicated, it's got little steps in. It jumps and bumps and things of that sort, but once again you can analyze those and tease out exactly what it is. You're looking at and discover a multiple planet, so it's long process. It's a complicated process, but it does work. Yes I. We know it does because we've as you said Fan I've a four thousand such planets, but it also indicates to me based on these hit and miss approach I suppose that four thousand planets is probably a drop in the ocean. In terms of what we've already. areas of spice will go already observed is probably for every planet we have found Know if we use our solar system as an example, probably six or seven more that we haven't seen. I absolutely, that's right the smaller ones. Present technical techniques for determining what discovering planets, they're not sensitive to small planets, particularly small planets, hundred and fifty million years from this parents star like the earth. The earth will be very hard to detect. By the techniques using at the moment, but over time those technologies techniques are improving so. Yes like plenty suddenly on the agenda, but was once again. It tends to be red dwarf styles of there will be singing around. And of course he's right Dwarf Stars by the most common style, said no galaxy so. That's another reason why the. Why the discovery has been Basically towards those kinds of styles. He mentioned Alpha Interiors and observation point of AL solar system and The price and the time it would take to find the planets orbiting on. I recall a thing that we have discovered. A planet, all maybe more than one planet in the Alpha Centauri Region, have we? Yes, that's right. Yeah, and in fact I think Proxima is supposed to have an earth like planets around the is not very proxy. Moore is the nearest of those styles the office and Tori Stars. It's not don't think it's a very firm observation if I remember lightly, but. There is a suspicion that there's a there is a a planet in orbit around Proxima Centauri. Ingesting. More loose Andy for me. Sorry, if you were on Alpha Centauri, you wouldn't see the planets of the solar system crossing in front of the Sun because you're in the wrong direction, which is why I think of said. Take from a star of the distance of office story of it. The Alpha Centauri is well away from the plane of the solar system. Oh okay. Yes, of course. But. Apart yet. You never going to see. The Solar System's planets crossing the film from Dot Direction but there are other directions that you would see it from. Yes indeed Moron Alex. thank you for your question While Austin hopefully we gave you an adequate answer. Here on spicing outs now, afraid, let's move on to our next question. This one comes fraum Janet pits hello from a walloon Queensland. Andrew Infrared. Double Bunks for you. Or maybe it's the same question twice. there was a recent announcement of evidence that neutron stars may contain something called crack matter in there. 'CAUSE I hadn't heard of this before. Can you please tell me what quack matter might be? I know. It's in saw. Golf Balls I'm guessing it's an even more dense matter or state of matter than that in the neutron star. Also in the past week it spent announced the gravitational. Gravitational waves from a collision between twenty-three solemness black holes in an object of two point six solar masses. This object is heavier than neutron stars is supposed to be and lighter than any blackhall previously observed. It could be a small blackhall or trans, star or something else one of the possible something else. Candidates is quack. STA, which I suppose is made entirely of the aforementioned quack matter have. Could a crack star differ from a neutron star? Jeez brought up something very juicy and interesting. Tell something we certainly never talked about before. John that is quack, matter and quacks stars. So you fred. Okay so. A, you know they are among the funded the fundamental building blocks of matter until the standard model of matter. Involves. Actually sixteen particles seventeen. If you include the Higgs Boson, which is the particle that gives all the others mess, so therefore force particles. There are six leptons which include things like electrons and museums. These. Are you know basically smallest subatomic particles? And then there are six quarks. And the not together makes up the the sixteen plus one particulars of Subatomic Mata-. What I love about, Fox is the names that got these six quarks have got different names. They are up down top bottom. And strange. Could. A, they're all different, so they asked specifically you know. Indi individually determined Components of the building blocks of matter that what you and I am. Adolf you've. Got A, strange quark India in your digestive system was probably well well in other places as well so anyway. The components of things like protons, neutrons, and that's really the. The Nub of the matter when it comes to. So we recognize. Several states of what's called degenerate matter in in astronomy and the characterized by. Attained H clocks. Sorry missed the word. That walk teenage. Teen, quacks the degenerate Meta wasn't degenerate when I was a teenage. SHORROCK was. So okay, what's degenerate? Matter is matter that's in very unusual state, and the you know the example, the most of us think of a white dwarf stars. We. In fact, seeing product to the cell, the Sun will wind up his wide USTA. Something with almost massive of the some butts which is about the size of the earth. So an compressed. Density that only the outward pressure of the electrodes, the stopping it from collapsing to a to a another stage of. So, this is called electron degeneracy when the electrons walks holdings stuff apart the next stage, if it's more massive, the month point four times a mess of the some than it will continue collapsing until he gets to what we call neutron degeneracy, just the pressure of the neutrons stopping collapsing further, and that's a neutron star so. These are. Of the Order of ten to twenty kilometers. But once again with the massive a starring them. Exactly. As as A. Sorry John was saying sorry John. A mixture without lakes there exactly as John was saying. That s that's the typical picture of what we imagined to be the the most dense kind of star, and until now they have been thought not to exist more than about twice. The mass of the Psalm the thinking has been that. If you get a neutral style with more than two solar masses of matter, it will continue its gravitational collapse, the force of gravity that does this of course pulls it down to be a black hole. And nothing can keep. You can stop it from collapsing into that. So what put a spanner in the works exactly as John says, is observations made recently which seemed to suggest that the neutral laws which are more massive than not to Sola mass limits in particular one of a massive two point six. Sorry a massive two point six solar masses. So. What is it it somewhere between a black hole and a neutron star, or is some something else? That's where the idea of styles comes in to to the picture. Because? Then is work. This has been done. Thanks John for pointing this out. In the University of Helsinki announce whites. Were done by a zero theoretical group that. I'm what they are suggesting is that? Neutron Stars might be more complicated than we told. They might have structure now. We know that already through previous work, which suggests that neutron stars in that outer layers of probably a high proportion of propulsion of protocols as well. You've got to have protons that somehow because they things a highly magnetic, a neutrons up monetize. So there is the thinking that. A neutral stomach might be a bit like. An orange with until land is rich in protons, then a neutral a neutral coal. But the new book suggests that may be more to it that we feel and they might have a kwok call at the center of a neutron style, so you've got this Change in density from the outside to the edge and in the middle. You've got this really exotic stuff, which is kind of predicted by theory. that. Quark, matter things that are Sony stop from turning into a black hole by the clocks themselves the ups, the downs, the Buttons Toxin chums strange, although it might not all of up not enough of a particle physicist to note which. Which prohibited witcher allowed? So, my bright's falling apart this. Yeah, this new. Stuff people about quoc sauce for a long time, but this seems to be the first time that it's really coming into the. Job Into the regime of something that is worth falling rather than something that is highly speculative. It's still pretty speculative, but it looks as it's heading for the mainstream and certainly. Group in Finland think that Kwok styles all this exotic state of matter. Might well be a very likely outcome. There's a quotation hia. By one of the League scientists police work. which is the re still a small but non zero chance? The Dole Neutron Stars composed of nuclear matter alone. What we've been able to do however is quantify what this scenario would require. Ensure the behavior of dense nuclear Meta would then need to be truly peculiar three for instance, the speed of sound would need to reach almost that of light. So this is what they're saying here is. This is a scenario where you don't have. The just got neutrals. What it says is he got very peculiar comes so I. Think Everybody's leaning towards the idea that maybe maybe we starting to discover Kwok's. Load it's possible. We classify. As quack, rather than whatever they are at the moment, rather neutral torello than massive neutron stars. That's right, yeah! Fascinating interesting. Nas to open a new door on space nuts, too, and I appreciate the question Thank you John, wasn't it? Sending constellation Adrift Month break as well. It's. Starting to get into the. well, I. Wouldn't call it science fiction, but it's it's. It's theory. but it's starting to soda. Crack into the reality saw it of things. Might become yeah, as you said might become a mainstream science in. IF I can make some more discoveries in more understand more about what's going on. It's it. It's just one of the fascinating things about astronomy just keeps throwing up all these curveballs that you've got to try and figure out and. Now more and more questions to. That that's what it's. All of AAC GOING ADILA or no questions left to answer, which could take a long time. Yes, he got lost you at. Most most possibly. but anyway thanks John Appreciate the question and hope you well up in Sunny Queensland. And staying safe? Let's just about it for us for another week Fred. Thank you so much. It's a pleasure always good to stretch. The brain will see. Feels quite stretched. Yes, all right catch you very soon for it. Watson astronomy at large and don't forget to visit us if you're a facebook follower. On the spice nuts facebook page we have caught following nab. You might also like to join the space, and that's podcast group on facebook and talk to each other, because that's what the group was created for so that the space not fans could all get together and Chit Chat about astronomy and share the astronaut, Michael Photographs and just articles that they've come across. It's a great platform to keep in touch with each other, so you might want to consider that or you can do what I do and wait till the next edition of space nuts. I'll see you then. You'll be. Available at Apple podcast Google podcasts spotify I have radio favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand at God still. This is another quality podcast. PRODUCTION THOUGHTS DOT com.