The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis Pt. 1: Storming the Dubrovka


This episode features discussion of terrorism religious, extremism and mass murderer that some people may find offensive listener discretion is advised especially for children under thirteen. The house of culture in Nebraska was above the year was two thousand two and the audience was returning to their seats for the second act of nord-ost. The biggest play of the season the lights went up on the stage to reveal an on samba of dancing pilot cadets the audience cheered as the show resumed. The crowd was captivated by the spectacle on the stage. They were so enthralled that they didn't notice the men in ski masks lining, the aisles on both sides of the audience. The audience wasn't alarmed at first when one of these men walked onstage brandishing an assault rifle, nor does was a military themed production. So maybe this was all part of the show. But then he fired his weapon over the crowd. The actors on stage froze as the realization hit the citizens in the auditorium. The gun. Was real. And they were now all hostages. Welcome to hostage on the park cast network. Every week we tell the stories behind the most captivating hostage situations, and the people inside them will examine hostage negotiation tactics. And what the human brain does when held captive. I'm Irma Blanco than I'm Carter. Roy. You can listen to all of par cast podcasts on your favorite podcast directory. New episodes come out every Thursday. We're also on Facebook and Instagram at par cast in Twitter at parkas network. If you enjoy the show the best way to help us is to leave a five star review. Wherever you listen. This is our first episode on the Moscow theater hostage crisis on October twenty third two thousand to a band of forty heavily armed Chechen rebels invaded the house of culture in the debris cut area of Moscow. During the performance of the hit play, nor toast approximately nine hundred. Audience members and show crew were taken hostage. The terrorist goal was to use the hostages as leverage to force Russian President Vladimir Putin to withdraw forces from Chechnya this week will take a look at political forces that ultimately led terrorist leader mauve cyber to lead the attack on the house of culture will also introduce a handful of the innocent hostages who lived through this horrific event. Mix time in part to we'll dive into the hostage situation itself and the series of events that led to all forty terrorists being killed along with over two hundred of their hostages. First, let's talk about the leader of the Chechen rebels mob. Sar Bareyev we know mob was born around nineteen seventy nine in the Chechen Republic. He was raised Muslim and grew up in a torn and embattled country surrounded by extremists mov, SARS native Chechnya is a small country located in the southern most part of eastern Europe while officially a federal subject of Russia. A significant number of Chechen citizens reject Russian rule because of this the country has both a regional government officially recognized by the Russian state and a separatist leadership, which is classified as a rebel organization. The two countries have been in conflict for most of Chechnya's recorded history. The resentment between the Chechen people and Russia Rennes deep, and what has now been classified as an act of genocide. Russian leader Joseph Stalin, deported, the entire Chechen population in nineteen forty four as part of a broader political scheme, nearly half a million Chechens were booted from their homeland and forced to work at the labor camps in central Asia reports various to how many perished, but some state that it was more than one hundred and fifty thousand Makita Khrushchev later allowed the Chechens to return to their country in nineteen fifty six, but this horrible human rights. Violation was not forgotten. Muffs are variety of grew up hating Russia. The hatred ran in his family variety of zongol was the infamous Chechen warlord Arbi Bareyev. And by most accounts, the two were close in September nineteen ninety one when mob Sar was around twelve extremist members of the all National Congress of the Chechen. People storm the local government building in their capital city of. Rose ni in declared independence from Russia. Three years later in nineteen Ninety-four Russian forces invaded independent Chechnya and incited the first Chechen war, many Chechens took up on in joined the resistance though. It's unknown. When this practice began Russian authorities treated Chechen boys twelve and older as adults the age when they're able to pick up and assault rifle this meant that even though they were adolescence they could still be shot as an enemy combatant. It was during this conflict under the instruction of his uncle that moths Arbor af began to learn about hostage-taking as an effective tactic. Rb beret of had eagerly joined the Chechen separatist side and fought against Russian soldiers eventually becoming a field commander in the Chechen army arby's name became synonymous with hostage-taker as during the war. He frequently captured in ransomed Russian civilians. In order to pay his soldiers. Rb Berea wasn't the only one who thought hostage-taking wasn't effective military strategy. One of the most notorious figures to rise during the first Chechen war was a man named Shamila Besigye who would come to be another influential figure in Mafa varieties life. Chechen forces utilized strategy of guerrilla warfare in its conflict against Russia. Shamila Besigye of one of Chechnya's most effective guerrilla fighters in nineteen ninety-five seven years before moths Sar variety of attack on the theater in Dubrovka. A convoy commanded by Besigye crossed the border into the Russian city of Budenovsk seventy miles north of the independent Chechen Republic of each carry the convoy contained eighty to two hundred Chechen separatists as the most recognizable of the group Shamila road in the back of one of the vehicles of few hours into their excursion the convoy came to an abrupt halt. They had hit a police checkpoint unable to provide the proper paperwork. The soldiers were rerouted to the local police headquarters in the city centre when they reached the Budenovsk police station in the city square Shamila signaled his soldiers to attack they burst from their trucks and opened fire on the police. Their attack was decisive and soon they were occupying the police headquarters in the Budenovsk city hall a green flag with three stripes along the bottom. Two white one red was raised over both these buildings the flag of independent Chechnya. However this flag wouldn't fly for long Russian forces were on the advance. Shamila Besigye into soldiers watched the Russian forces rally from the captured buildings Schimmel besides forces quickly abandoned, the police station and move to the local hospital, which they quickly took over. Messiah then his men now had control of a hospital building with well over a thousand hostages hours after the initial capture a man emerged from the building hands held over his head. He was one of the doctors and he had been released to relation meal. Besides demands they were simple an end to the war on Chechnya withdrawal of all Russian troops and reparations for the decades of harm Russia had done to their country. These demands would be repeated often during Chechen hostage taking missions, including the two thousand two siege of the house of culture in this case. Russian President Boris Yeltsin refused to negotiate parliament was considering filing articles of impeachment against him. And he could not afford to look weak three days later Russian special forces spits NATs in f s v troops storm the hospital. The soldiers found themselves face to face with armed desperate terrorists who were using the hospital personnel as human shields that didn't stop the Russians and a deadly firefight. Ensued? When the smoke cleared over a hundred hostages were dead and the Chechen terrorists still had control of the hospital. Brute force wasn't going to win. This battle in the weeks following the failed assault Russian officials attempted to deny giving the order to attack. But the damage was done. Russia had failed its people. This marked the beginning of the end of Boris Yeltsin's presidential career and a turning point in the eyes of the Russian people. They no longer trusted the government with their lives. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin attempted to persuade the Chechens to release the hostages and negotiation, which took place over national television. And only embarrassed the government further when it failed eventually chairing Amiruddin backed down and agreed to a ceasefire and peace talks in spite of the horror and chaos. They had witnessed some of. The rescued hostages insisted that they had not been mistreated by their captors to them. The Chechens were freedom fighters rather than terrorists. In their nineteen Seventy-eight report on hostage survival experts. JR rubber L W singer and FM Watson contend that the key to survival. As a hostage is quick adjustment to their new lives as hostages the doctors and patients at the hospital. Many use to caretaker role started to empathize with the desperation in the Chechen fighters during the length of their captivity when the hostages were released some even Baid tearful farewells to their former captors the surviving insurgents Shamila besides included were granted safe passage back to Chechnya. They were even granted a refrigerated truck to transport their dead with them to the Chechen soldiers, the success of this nineteen ninety-five operation proved the validity of the taking of mass hostages as a military operation to accomplish political goals. However. Ever mauve Sarb Araya would have to wait before he could overseas. Such an operation on his own in nineteen Ninety-six, the Russian government under Boris Yeltsin brokered a peace treaty which allowed Chechnya to maintain its independence for the time being many people credited Shamila besides forces and their actions in the hospital with ending the war chief among them was mauve Sar Berea. Coming next. We'll cover the second Chechen war, and how mom Sar beret of rose to power. Hi, it's Irma and Carter, and we have some very exciting news to share with you. We're having a black Friday and cyber Monday weekend sale from Friday the twenty third through Monday, the twenty six you can get thirty five percent of all park cast merch if you haven't checked out the store yet, we have some great t shirts and coffee, mugs, got a podcast dot com slash merch to check out. All our new podcast gear. Don't forget to follow us on social where you can see Irma me and all your favorite park cast hosts modeling, the new merch feel free to tag us when wearing your park ask gear. So we can share head over to park cast dot com slash merge. Now. Now back to the story. The period following Chechnya's independence from Russia was far from peaceful. As was the case in many war torn nations Chechnya was saturated with organized crime like many Chechen military commanders Rb beret of had to find new ways to continue his life of combat. He felt compelled to continue his war against the oppression of Russia to that end. He founded a combat unit which he commanded for the rest of his life. This was spur the special purpose. Islam ick regiment, a primarily Muslim country Chechnya proved to be fertile ground for religious fundamentalism to take root many Chechen insurgents, including moths are variety of identified as warriors of Islam in his book. The true believer thoughts on the nature of mass movements. Eric Hoffer provided an explanation for why religious extremists. Is so appealing to people in desperate climates Hoffer claims that the type of person most likely to become part of a fundamentalist movement is a person, quote who for one reason or another feels that their lives are spoiled or wasted. And quote, the Islamic fundamentalism in Chechnya appealed to this excess stencil desire for meaning as well as the generations of resentment toward their oppressors in Russia in the two thousand three book terror, and liberalism, Paul Berman described the common factors between contemporary Islam ick terror movements and historically oppressive regimes among these are longing for a pastoral idyllic past and a tendency to blame some exterior or interior force for the evils of the present. And Russia gave the long-suffering Chechnya the perfect exterior force to blame with everything. Russia had done to Chechnya. Nia? It's unsurprising that a number of Chechen turned to religious fanaticism in an effort to save their country their anger against the Russian government turned into righteous fury against the people of the country itself in the mid to late nineties Rb beret, Fs spur was linked to a series of high profile crimes, including the murder of several Red Cross employee's and the kidnapping of journalists and aid workers variety of was not restricting himself to Russian targets anymore. In the years immediately following the first Chechen war mob. Saw bribes uncle Rb had some difficulty with Chechen government, the relatively moderate Chechen, president Aslan Maskhadov knew that he had ceded a lot of political control to men like Rb variety of who commanded splinter factions of soldiers and function essentially as warlords in nineteen Ninety-seven Moskhadov attempted to placate these men by giving them government positions. He appointed Shamila beside as his vice prime minister input RB beret of under the command of the Chechen interior ministry ever, the rebel beret of refused. The appointment so must KADO forced multiple members of the spur to publicly confess to kidnappings on television. Enraged beret of went rogue taking hostages and even going so far as to engage. H Chechen government forces in a large scale gun battle alongside some Islamic allies. It's unknown. If mauve cyber riot was involved in these campaigns. But given how close he reportedly was to his uncle it's certainly a possibility between fifty and eighty people were killed during Rb bribes mutiny, and he was subsequently stripped of his military rank and declared an enemy of the Chechen people from this point onward, Spurs relationship with the Chechen government became a dubious one at best and violent at worst. Meanwhile, Shamila Besigye resigned his post as vice prime minister and also returned to his life as a combat commander in nineteen ninety eight Shamila and his ally. Iban Al Khattab invaded the adjacent Russian Republic of Dagestan in an attempt to establish an Islamic caliphate. This coincided with bombings. And the Russian cities of Moscow Volgodonsk in raise on that following September, the state controlled media and politicians in Russia pin, the blame for these bombings on Chechen terrorists most notable among the outspoken Russian leadership was forty six year old future Russian President Vladimir Putin who was then head of the federal security service. He took a strong stance on crushing Chechen resistance. But rumors persisted that the Chechens were not behind the bombings and the Russian federal security service or FSP had in fact organized these attacks as it turns out FSP agents were caught planting secondary explosive devices in the city of raise on Russian humanitarian Sergei Kovalyov noted, quote, we don't know who carried out the bombings of the apartments, we do know who used it. It was the campaign staff of Ladimir, Putin and. Quote, Chechen president must call dove subsequently declared a Gazave hot or holy war on the Russian army in retaliation for the perceived attempt to frame Chechnya for a terrorist attack. The moderate who had won the election was no more president Moscoso found himself fighting alongside Shamila Besigye have and it all Khattab the human rights violations committed by both Russians and Chechens against each other throughout the nineteen nineties has had some academics questioning the use of the term terrorism to describe anti Russian Chechen attacks Olga nuts. Kula a professor of political science and crack off one stated that the conflict between Russia and Chechnya was simply irreconcilable according to her research. Russian leaders are intent on keeping Chechnya from having independence using any methods necessary and. Chechen 's in turn have adopted the motto quote, death or freedom. Unlike the first Chechen war, the second conflict went largely unreported in Russian media Chechnya was so dangerous that few journalists dared venture there for a story and the state controlled Russian media was intent on stoking anti Chechen sentiments among the public the Russian media did tie Chechen guerrilla fighters to some of bin Laden, if an all Khattab claimed to have met bin Laden and undergone training in Afghanistan alongside members of Al Qaeda, and some of the Arab militants who trained Khattab were spotted in a home video of moths of training in the woods for many. This is a strong indication that mob Sar and his comrades were supported in some capacity by Al Qaeda, while they employed similar strategies any actual collaboration between Chechen insurgents. And Al Qaeda seems to be sporadic. The relationship seems to have been more based on bartering for supplies than collaborating on battle strategies, the ties between Islam terrorists in the Middle East and the Islamic fanatics in Chechnya is not inconceivable, but many believe that Putin's government exaggerated their ties to win support from the west. There was one common tactic used by the Chechens, and Al Qaeda suicide bombings in June two thousand sixteen year old Luisa Magomadova and seventeen year old kava Brian plotted the first recorded suicide bombing carried out by Chechen terrorists. Kava was rby beret of sister and mauve cyber ent- Louisa in kava. Drove a truck filled with explosives into a Russian special forces barracks. Just south of grows. Ni according to a spokesman for the Chechen rebels cover pariahs last words were quote, I'm going willingly to my death in the name of Allah and the freedom of the Chechen people end quote. After breaching the perimeter the women detonated the explosives killing themselves and around twenty seven Russian soldiers. This bombing had a monumental impact on the methodology of warfare between Chechen 's and Russians, suddenly and tragically bombings became a horrific. Norm. RB variety was finally killed on June. Twenty second two thousand one in a raid by Russian special forces after his uncle's death mob. Sar now in his early twenties. Took command of the spur mov shar. Now, how does own squad of loyal soldiers willing to die in the fight against Russian oppression. He had seen firsthand how the tactics of taking hostages and employing suicide bombers worked as a -ffective terrorist strategies as mob saw Berea plan to take hostages Russian artists. Planned, a landmark theatrical production. In the mid nineteen ninety S Russian folk musician Georgi Seila was inspired here just witness to production of the acclaimed musical Les Miserables in an idea was forming in his head. He had never seen a production of such scale in his home country and desire to bring Broadway spectacle back with him to Russia a savvy businessman as well as a musician facilit- had invested in the nineteen ninety cellphone revolution in central and eastern Europe his portfolio afforded him the assets required to fund a new play. His first idea was to purchase the rights to Les Miserables, but eventually Vesey love and his songwriting partner. Alexi Eva shaneco decided to go a different direction. They realized that it would be a stronger statement to write a musical of their own rather than in port one from the west the duo. Took a cue from Les Miserables and phantom of the opera and wrote a musical based on a popular piece of literature in this case, the iconic Russian novel, the two captains by venue mean covering a shameless -ly melodramatic piece the play was intended as an affirmation of Russian pride Vassilev described it as a story that elevates us and our history. It's a story that enables us to look at our history. Not as the history of class struggle wars and repressions, but a history of people in personal achievements. The live and Eva shaneco founded their own theatre company and set about producing the play themselves. Hiring actors technicians and production crew to make the show as big an unforgettable as anything on Broadway. According to some accounts, they developed the hardware and software for six separate computer systems to handle the elaborate. Special effects lighting and sound cues necessary for nor dosed. Perhaps one of the reasons this particular production was a target for pariahs group was the escapist nature of the show for the people of Chechnya war and strife was constant while in Russia thousand citizens tonight night could sit down and watch a Godley musical about the cost SaK spirit without even thinking about the damage, they're military caused in their neighbor state. The musical was a tremendous hit with Russian audiences its most ardent fans were teenagers and young adults while not quite Broadway. Prices. The tickets were fairly expensive for Russian theatre standards. The equivalent of about fifteen to thirty US dollars exceeding the prices of Russia's famous Bolshoi theatre by Tober two thousand and two nor dosed had been running for over year and had amassed a massive fan base is a Broadway style. Production extended to the shows. Extensive marketing campaign. The producers of nor does plastered billboards all over Moscow in a way that few other Russian stage shows ever dared. Imagine if Times Square featured only advertisements for cats. On the night of October twenty third two thousand to the audience was a mixture of Russian citizens and international visitors. One of these attendees on that fateful night was Veselin Ned cuff who would later write a book on the terrifying. Ordeal. He was about to experience Ned cough bought tickets to the show as a gesture of gratitude to arena, Philip ova, a mosque of IT teacher who had been giving him English lessons in preparation for his moved Canada. There were a number of children present that day both in the audience and backstage, nor dosed featured a number of child performers including Alexander rose of sky, Christina kurban Tova into our semi Korolenko. All of whom were thirteen years old as the technical crew bustled backstage to get ready for the start of the show. Alexandra's mother spent Lana Sergi Anco went backstage to help her daughter get into costume only one. Of these three child actors left the theater alive. Up next. We'll dive into October twenty third two thousand to the night of the Moscow theater hostage crisis. Now back to the story. The first time viewer of nor does the first thing that stood out as you entered. The theater was the astonishing set design the stage was not concealed by traditional curtain. Instead, the theatrical space was concealed by a series of gray. Sliding panels dressed to resemble chorea gated iron these moving metal panels pulled back to reveal a stage, which was comprised of six long ramps and an elevated walkway all of which could be raised and lowered based on the needs of the scene. The house of culture was not a traditional Russian theatre, which was exactly what had made it. The perfect fit to house, nor toast, the venue had been specifically chosen by the show's producer due to the extensive technical requirements of the show the crowd on Wednesday, October twenty third wasn't sold out the house of culture had a seating capacity of twelve hundred still the audience. Of nearly thousand was considered quite sizable for a week day show. The press coverage and cultural focus on the show at all. But made it a target to any potential extremist attacks. Intermissions in Russia are generally longer than the ones in the United States around half an hour. However, even with that extended time one couldn't get through all of nor does lobby decor on top of programs merchandise and refreshments the theater lobby was lined with children's artwork. Depicting the story of the play driving home. Just how much of a cultural movement this production was in fact, there was so much memorabilia in the lobby that entering and exiting the theater was something of a hassle. A fact that would only make the ensuing crisis. All the more difficult. Intermission ended at around nine pm the lights flashed signaling the audience to go back to their seats. As this citizens were filtering back to their seats. Anticipating the next act of the show three vehicles were pulling up outside the theater entrance. As the great. Metal curtains raised in the second act began armed men unloaded from the vehicles and advanced on the building according to witnesses, the vehicles were left with their lights on and engines running the Chechens clearly weren't planning on leaving the same way, they came in marina cry Lova, the house manager had just finished clearing the lobby after the last audience member returned to the auditorium. She was returning to her office to oversee the rest of the show when she heard a loud crashing noise concern that whenever staff had gotten into an accident. Marina headed back to the lobby to investigate. When she reached the lobby. Marina found herself face to face with a group of masked men armed with pistols and assault rifles the terrorists grabbed marina, and then proceeded to round up what theater staff they could find according to marina. She had an opportunity to flee, but she decided to give herself up willingly. She worried the audience wouldn't grasp the seriousness of the situation and marina wanted to do what she could to help she stayed back with her staff as they were all forced at gunpoint into the auditorium marinas instincts proved to be spot on as many survivors of the incident recalled not knowing it. I this act of terror wasn't part of the play the initial bursts of gunfire fired by the terrorists were paltry in comparison to the sound levels of some of nor toasts other sound cues many audience members only came to realize. That they were no longer watching a play when they saw the plaster falling from the ceiling a sign of fresh bullet holes the actors on the other hand new immediately. There was caused for alarm, but they're prop weapons were naturally. No match for the real rifles the terrorist. Brought onto the stage the company could only watch in horror as mob Sar variety of mounted the stage and announced his intentions in Russian quote. We are from Chechnya a war is going on there. We have just brought that war to Moscow and quote. The terrorists were all masked except for variety of he sported a black cap which allowed his face to be seen. This was his moment. And he wasn't planning on hiding who he was show creator and producer Georgi Vesey. Live was checking with his crew in the control room. When the first shots were fired nestled above the balcony, the control room was one part of the building that the Chechens didn't capture in their initial raid on the building from the safety of the control box. The live watched in horror through security camera footage as his show and his guests were taken captive by armed extremists. A few of the crew who had not yet been captured made a break for the exits the seal of however did not move though, he knew he likely had enough time to get out before the terrorists locked down the building. He knew that he had a greater responsibility to the people who had already been taken. Stage the Seila chose to enter the theater of his own free will in surrender himself to the terrorists. In his own words. The people in the audience were his guests, and he wasn't going to abandon them. The terrorists were efficient hurting all of the people in the theater into the central auditorium in a short amount of time. They pulled the actors from backstage and force them into the audience as well child actors, Alexandra rows of sky, Christina Kerber Tova, and our cine Korolenko had been rehearsing backstage and had barely heard the initial shots on the stage variety of oversaw. The implementation of the next step of his plan. Suicide bomber backed security several the terrorist. Unloaded large canvas bags from the wings. These were filled explosive belts, the female members of the group maybe eighteen or twenty in all each donned. One of these suicide. Belts and prime them. Bri of introduced these explosive clad women as widows all of whom had lost loved ones to Russian violence. Each woman had a pistol in one hand and a grenade in the other with a safety ring around their finger if any of them were attacked, they dropped the grenade which would set off every explosive in the theater, these individuals would later come to be known as the tonight of Adoga or black widows, the black widows were following the example of kava, Brian Etta, and we're ready to give their lives for a free Chechnya. If the government didn't accept bribes terms or if Russian special forces attempted to rescue, the hostages, the women would detonate their vests and kill everyone in the theatre. These Chechen women had all experienced incidents of heartbreak during the Russian occupation some of their relatives had vanished for weeks. Only for opportunities to show up and sell the grieving family information on where they could find the corpse others had family members leave for work and never come back. This kind of loss is an uncommon motivation for terrorists in two thousand eleven a conference on violent extremism brought together almost one hundred x Neo Nazis jihadists and other reformed extremists as reported by the economist, many of these individuals found a common ground in their upbringing, regardless of the ideology, they turn to many it struggled with feelings of abandonment and loss after introducing the widows mob saw Bryan briefly conferred with a man known only as Abu Bakar, then mobster turned to the crowd and demand. Did that they rela- his demands to the authorities with their cell phones. He added that they should call their loved ones and say their goodbyes the captors unfurled banners on the stage black banners with Arabic letters on them. By this point, the theater was thoroughly rigged with explosives, the largest of these was a gas tank, stuffed with an artillery shell surrounded by nails ball bearings and metal fragments according to Russian bomb experts. This nail bomb was powerful enough to bring down the whole building. It was positioned near the front of the theater guarded by one of the explosive clad women beret of addressed the crowd again in Chechen most likely enquiring whether there were any Chechens in the audience. No, one moved beret of continued. Now, he asked in Russian if there were any Muslims in attendance. Some people stepped forward and identified themselves as Muslims. Variety announced that all Muslims were allowed to leave. However, according to the survivors, none of the Muslim hostages elected to leave. They stayed remaining in solidarity with their fellow hostages the Chechen continued their work of transforming the theater into a deadly prison. The captors divided their crowd of hostages into Russian and non Russian groups, a native Bulgarian Veselin Ned cough was placed among the non Russian group. However, he did not want to leave his English Tudor behind. He approached one of the terrorists a clean shaven Chechen named. Yes. Year who to net cough seem to be the most approachable of the male Chechens on net. Cavs instruction Berina, Philip ova. Claim to be Ned Cavs American wife who had lost her passport. The pair of them didn't want to be separated in the event that Chechens chose to release the group of non Russians. Yes. Seer was dubious at first but arena, attempted to reason with him in English not wanting to prolong the process. Yes. Sear permitted her to join the non Russian section of the crowd the coffin arena made their way to the back of the theater with the rest, the noise and the auditorium had reached a low murmur some audience members were still on the phone with their families and many were still sitting frozen in their seats when they were relocated to the back of the theater with the non Russians Ned cough turned to the nearest Chechen terrorist. She was older than me others in seem to command some authority Ned, cough asked this woman, why they were doing this her terrifying. Emotionless response was that the Chechens were all prepared to die. They wanted to die more than the Russian hostages wanted to live over the next two and a half days. The Chechen terrorists would see this wish fulfilled, and they would bring many of their inner. Recent hostages with them. Next week on hostage. We'll follow the negotiations between mov Sabra end, Vladimir Putin, the psychological toll. It took on the captives in the theater, and how Russian special forces chose to break this dangerous stalemate, you can listen to hostage and all of our casts other podcasts on apple podcasts. Spotify Stitcher, Google play cast box tune in or your favorite podcast directory. And if you enjoy the show the best way to help us is to leave a five star review wherever you listen. We'll be back next week. In the meantime, don't take your freedom for granted. Hostage was created. By max Cutler is a production of Cutler media, and as part of the par cast network. It is produced by Maxon Ron Cutler sound design by Michael Lang's ner with production assistance by Ron Shapiro and Paul Moller additional production assistance by megi admire and Carly Madden. Hostages written by Robert teams DRA and stars Irma. Blanco in Carter, ROY.

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