10: The First Supermassive Black Holes
This is space time series twenty to ten for broadcast on the first February twenty nineteen coming up on space time new clues about the creation of the first supermassive black holes a last ditch effort to try and save the opportunity mouths Rover and physicists looking for a successor to the world's largest atom smasher, the large Hadron collider all that. And more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. A new study suggests that the very early universe. And we're talking just after the big bang third implant a two billion years ago may have seen conditions in which normal staff. Mission was overtaken by the birth of monstrous supermassive black holes her findings reported in the journal nature. Also suggested these gigantic black holes may be far more common across the universe than previously thought. Black holes are the most intense, gravity wills in the universe. They regions of infinite density in zero volume regions with the gravitational police, oh, strong that nothing not even light can escape stars planets. Gas clouds and other matter attracted to the black hole by intense, gravity starts, swirling around the black hole. Integration disc like water draining out of a sink material in the equation is crush stretched and ripped apart at the subatomic level in the presence, releasing vast amounts of. Of energy before passing a point of no return and called the event horizon and falling forever into the black hole. Singularity some of the superheated matter and the Christian disc is deflected along powerful. Magnetic field lines away from the event horizon out towards the black hole spin axis where it's exhilarated to relativistic speeds forming intense jit's could quasars which are the brightest known objects in the universe shining out like beacons visible in the night sky, more than thirty billion light years away, small stellar mass black holes a form by the death of some of the most massive stars in the universe in powerful explosions called supernova supermassive black holes, which millions to billions of times larger a found at the centers of most if not all galaxies. However, we don't know how these monster black holes formed now new supercomputer simulation suggests that when galaxies assemble extremely rapidly. And sometimes very violently instead of forming stars. The process can lead to the formation of extremely massive black holes in these rig alexy's normal star formation is disrupted and black hole. Formation takes over if true. It means massive black holes in dense, Dallas regions that are growing rapidly. Turning upside down, the long accepted belief that massive black hole. Formation was limited to regions bombarded by powerful radiation from the abide galaxies the key criteria to determine anyway, massive black holes formed during the universe is infancy relates to the rapid growth of pre collected guess clouds that are the forerunners of all present day galaxies. One of the study's authors associate professor John wires from Georgia Tech says there what this means is that most supermassive black holes have a common origin forming this newly-discovered scenario dunk matter collapses into halos that are the gravitational blue for galaxies and early rapid growth of these halos prevented the formation of stars that would have competed with black holes for gaseous matter flowing into this area. Why says the simulations of uncovered a totally new mechanism that spock's the formation of massive black holes in particular dark matter halos instead of just considering radiation. Astronomers need to look at how quickly the halos grow. How the dog matters distributed and how gravity affects that forming? A massive black hole requires being in a Ray region. With an intense convergence of matter when the research team, I discovered these black off formation certain in this immunizations were stumped, the previously accepted paradigm was that massive black holes could only form expose the high levels of nearby radiation. Make it impossible for matter to form you stars. However is the author's dove deeper. They saw that these sites were undergoing a period of extremely rapid growth. The violent and turbulent nature of the rapid assembly. The brutal crushing together of the galaxies foundations during galaxy birth all work to prevent all star formation from occurring. And instead led to the perfect conditions needed for. The creation of a supermassive black hole earlier theories relied on intense ultraviolet radiation from the by galaxies to inhibit the formation of new stars in the black off forming halo, and while ultra-violet radiation is still a factor. The new computer simulation show. It's not the dominant factor. Then you computer models were based on the renaissance simulation. Sweet a seventy terabyte data set created between two thousand eleven and twenty fourteen to help scientists understand how universal Volve jury. It's early years to learn more about specific regions where massive blackouts will likely to develop the researchers examined the simulation data finding ten specific data halos that should've form stars given the masses, but only contained dense gas cloud. They then re simulated to these halos each of their two thousand four hundred light years across at much higher resolution in order to understand the details of what's happening in them some two hundred and seventy million years after the big bang. Why? Says it was in these overly dense regions of the universe that black hole. Suddenly began forming the dark matter creates most of the gravity, and then the guests falls into that gravitational potential work in either form stars or a massive Blackhall. The simulations allowed the oldest zoom in and observe. The very earliest stages of the gravitational assembly of this pristine gas composed mostly of hydrogen and helium and code matter leading to the formation of the first stats and galaxies. In fact, the resolution the simulation was so good. It allowed the scientists to see turbulence in the inflow of gas and clumps of matter forming as the Blackhawks precursors began to condense and spin, and they growth rate was dramatic. Astronomers observed supermassive black holes that had grown to around a billion solar masses in just eight hundred million years a process requiring any tense convergence of mass in that region. Another discovery with these types of halos, still quite rare may still be more common. Than previously thought enough to produce most of the supermassive black holes in the universe today. The authors now hoping to expand their computer simulations in order to see how these monstrous black holes will evolve into the future anytime, I'll tell I'm Stewart Gerry this is space time. Nassar sending you sets the commands to try and force its mouth opportunity Rover to respond the six we'll go kart. Sized Rover went silent on June the tenth as a global dust. Storm invoked the red planet for months on end blocking out the sunlight needed. The charge opportunities batteries Oppy as its fictionally called by its mission manages as remained silent ever since despite the dust dome. Having long cleared away opportunity most likely experienced the low powerful emission clock. Fold and an up lost time of fault all trace back to the loss of power and the draining of the batteries mission manages expected the Rover to return to full operational status. Wants its batteries were recharged by the solar panels. But the road is being solid ever since ignoring more than six hundred calls from earth mission managers think the most likely reason is that dust from the storm is covered the solar panels, preventing them from receiving sunlight and charging the batteries not. Really strong mash and winds which usually begin to blow around November would have glowed away that dust but still there's been no contact necessary. Even tried we've been bit commands designed to nudge the Rover to send a response. Once the road is powered up, again, even if it's intermission clocks felt because of the storm, but still Oppy has not phoned engineers with Nasr's digs space communications network have now devised a new set of more powerful commands, which they hope will force opportunity to make contact with earth. The new commands designed to deal with the possibility that opportunities to expand radios have both felt for some reason there that's unlikely mission managers running out of options trying pretty well. Anything than you commands, we'll hopefully force opportunity to both respond and change communication systems. However, there are now reports of fresh dust storm activity Tom to kill mid is west of opportunities current location, and while that's primarily tracking south it's nevertheless lodge enough to be. Effected to increase the tau that is the OSI at opportunities location over the next few days this last ditch effort to bring the little Rover back to life comes just a day after NASA celebrated the fifteenth anniversary of opportunities landing on Mars spacecraft. Touchdown the Mary d any plan. Many of the mash equator on January the twenty fourth two thousand and four for what should have been a ninety day mission opportunity had been launched from the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida three weeks after its twin Rovers spirit on July the seventh two thousand and three spirited touchdown through before opportunity on the other side of the planet in Gusev crater spirit continued operating for two thousand two hundred and sixty nine days until finally getting bogged in a sand dune with solar panels pointy away from the sun, it said its final message back to work on the twenty second of March twenty ten more than six years after landing, of course, Oppy continued operating much longer covering well of the five thousand. And three hundred days on the Martian surface. Examining rocks and minerals and traveling more than forty five kilometers to its current location perseverance valley, a galley leading off the rim of indicator. You're listening the space time, I'm Stewart, Gary. Okay. Let's take a break from our to talk about new sponsor MOVA Globes. These Globes are really cool. And they great conversation starters or anything like me, you want the whole collection of the science ones because they've got all the planets, asteroids and moons there as well. It's all really cool. So just what I'm over glowed. Well, they rotating Globes powered by using little photovoltaic sills and magnets north to provide movement. So there's no need for batteries or messy power chords. And they're available in forty different designs, including world maps, the outer space themes are mentioned before as well as famous artworks in sporting rotates. The outer a space collection fitches graphics provided by Nassar JPL, including planets, moons, asteroids, and even constellations they're so cool even Ilan Moscow won the MAs one I believe which is sort of rather appropriate considering always carries right now. 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New atom smasher would be some four times larger and six times more powerful than the current large. Hadron collider and cost between ten and twenty two billion dollars to construct the future circle. Collide is collaboration. Team says the new facility would take particle physics Fabio on the horizon of the current large Hadron collider in the process significantly expanding. Science's knowledge of matter in the universe. The ultimate goal is to build a one hundred kilometers superconducting proton accelerator ring with an energy of one hundred Tera electron volts and beyond meaning an order of magnitude more powerful than the large Hadron collider. The new facility would provide electron positron pro. It on proton, and I on iron collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities offering the possibility of electron proton and electron ion collisions as well. The discovery of the Higgs bows on the large Hadron collider in two thousand twelve opened a new path of research pets because the Higgs could be a door to new fundamental physics. The Higgs is an elementary particle acting through a Higgs field to give all the other particles their mass. That's why some members of the press, of course, the God particle. The new facility would move scientists to the Nick step in understanding the Higgs properties. Any would hope scientists understand how the Higgs interacts with other Higgs particles the different options being explored by the future. Sick. Clyde is collaboration team will offer unique opportunities to study the nature of The Hague's the new particle accelerator? Could also explore the role of electro weak symmetry breaking in the history of the universe. That's when the electromagnetic and the weak nuclear forces split apart. It would allow scientists to access unprecedented. Entity Scouse looking for new massive particles. It would collide have the ions sustaining a rich heavy ion physics program to study the state of matter in the early universe, and it would start to tackle new physics beyond the standard model things like diet matter and dark energy, and the a symmetry of matter of antimatter, none of which can be explained by the standard model of particle physics, which is the foundation stone of modern physics building such a massive particle accelerator will be done in various stages. Firstly there'd be a highly minosity ninety two three hundred and sixty five Giga electron electron positron machine such a Kalat that would be a very powerful factory making it possible to take new reprocesses and measure, the known paddock was with precisions. Never achieved before these more precise. Measurements would in turn allow five greatest sensitivity to possible tiny deviations from the standard muddles expectations, which could be a sign of new physics beyond the standard model the cost of the initial light circular electron as. Detroit Kaleida would be somewhere around nine billion euros. That includes five billion years for the civil engineering work needed for a one hundred kilometer long tunnel. But such a collider could serve the worldwide physics community for up to twenty years. The new physics program could start by twenty forty at the end of the high luminosity large Hadron collider the cost estimate for a superconducting proton machine which would use the same. Tell would be around fifteen billion euros and that machine could start operations by the late twenty fifty s the large Hadron collider is a twenty seven kilometre long ring buried one hundred meters beneath the Franken with sport in each Navea part of a large complex of particle accelerators synchrotron and other high g laboratories the large Hadron collider includes four massive detectors Alice. Atlas CMS and the L A C B H located in a massive underground cavern packets of protons and other subatomic particles are accelerated within ninety nine point nine nine nine percent. Speed of. Of light in opposite directions in two panicle beam lines around the ring guided by cryogenically, cooled superconducting magnets, the beam lines can intersect at any of the four detectors colliding the panicle packets at thirteen Tera electron volts and creating the sorts of conditions pressures and temperatures that occurred just after the big bang thirteen point eight to his ago. I'm Stewart, Gary you're listening to space time. Japan is launched a satellite designed that apply in artificial Meteo shower of Russia, the Japan aerospace, expiration agencies Epsilon four rocket blasted off from the space this out of Tokyo carrying seven miniature satellite payloads into a five hundred and fourteen kilometer high orbit while six of the satellites will undertake very scientific experiments. The seventh carries four hundred tiny bowls designed to burn brightly once released rain down back through the atmosphere. The Turkey obey startup company behind the so called Shooting Stars on the man service says the spacecraft's program that employ up to twenty of these tiny chemical balls at a time designed to glow brightly for several seconds before completely burning up. The flight was the fourth mission for the Epsilon solid fueled rocket and the first to carry multiple payloads. China's Caridad sick twenty nine thousand nine carrying four new satellites into orbit the solid fueled long match eleven launch vehicle blast the draw from the zoo Kwan satellite loan center carrying the jolly in one spectrum zero one zero to hyper spectral imaging satellites. These will join a growing constellation of miniature observation satellites developed by Beijing using multi-spectral and infrared imaging systems also aboard the flight with the link, Hugh, one verification satellite which will test communications between orbiting satellites and the Josh Jiang one zero three satellite, which will test radio communications and remote. Sensing technology launch was the two hundred ninety ninth mission for the long might series rocket. This is Andrew Dunkley host of the podcast space nuts, along with my good friend. Dr Fred Watson, astronomer lodge. We provide a podcast every week looking at some of the things happening in the astronaut Michael world and to a certain degree. That's what's inspired my next venture. When I'm not working on radio doing the podcast or working for the Salvation Army, which is actually my full time job. I liked to ride racing wrote an audio book which turned into a paperback and enabled called all. I see is mud a World War One story about my grandfather. I also write a sports psychology book to help golfers who get angry on the golf course called five lines. Don't float bit a tongue in cheek book that had a lot of fun with it. But my newest book is science fiction. This is a story called parallel. X it's available as a paperback, and you can download the book through Amazon and other able distributors. And it's a story about a man who gets thrust back to his birth. But the interesting twist he is that he retains all his life's knowledge. So he knows what's going to happen for the next fifty years. But the twist in the tale is that he's not the only one, and this strange corporation appears in his new life called parallel x and they want what he knows. So downloaded as an e book or you can buy it online at all the major online bookstores or in a real bookstore. It's available as a paperback. I do hope you enjoy parallel x and you'll find links to all my books said Andrew Dunkley dot com and timeout to take a brief look at some of the other stories making news science this week with a science report Greenland is melting faster than scientists that previously thought and will likely lead to fast sea level rise. Thanks to the continued accelerating. Warming of the earth atmosphere site is concerned about sea-level rise of Longford. Based on Greenland south east in northwestern regions. We're massive glaciers stream iceberg sized chunks into the Atlantic Ocean. Those chunks float away eventually melting. But a new study reported in the proceedings the National Academy of sciences is found that the largest sustained is loss from two thousand and three to twenty thirteen came from Greenland southwest region, which is mostly devoted large. Glaciers whatever this was it could be explained by glaciers because the runt many there. So it had to be the surface mess. The ice on the ground was melting inland from the coastline that melting which is largely caused by global warming means that in southwestern part of Greenland growing rivers of water streaming into the ocean during summer, and this is likely to be a major contributor to sea level rise. A new study claims Wrigley use of anti inflammatory drugs such as aspirin ibuprofen. Could hope patients with head and neck cancers site is found that regular use of these drugs lower the levels of inflammatory molecules found in patients with head and neck cancers hoping to improve survival and recovery you can read more about the findings in the journal of experimental medicine. And you study throws into question the notion that today's crocodiles alligators in Cayman have a simple evolutionary past previous researches pointed to crocodiles came in. And alligators starting with land-based answers to some two hundred million years ago, and then gradually moving to fresh water to become the semi aquatic ambush predators there today. But a new analysis published in the journal scientific reports officer different story claiming that modern crocodiles came in. And alligators came from a variety of surroundings, beginning the Jurassic and various species occupied a host of different ecosystems over time including land as she ruined fresh water marine transitions between land fresh water and sea or more frequent than thought and the transitions themselves not always from land fresh water, or from freshwater to marine scientists piece together crocodile came in and alligators and sister, but analyzing allied family tree showing the history of living and extinct crock. Cadel's came in. And alligators. And you study is found that postmenopausal women who regularly ate fried food have an increased risk of high related death and death from any cause the findings reported in the British medical journal based on questionnaires assessing the diets of one hundred and six thousand nine hundred and sixty six women aged between fifty and seventy nine researchers found that foods such as fried chicken or fried fish or shellfish associated with a high-risk of heart related death. Especially among women aged fifty to sixty five years fried chicken was the deadliest fast food eating it every day increase the risk of death by thirty percent and the risk of heart related death by twelve percent up to a third of North American adults. Eat fast food every day. Previous studies had already suggested that a greater intake of fried foods was associated with a higher risk of type two diabetes and heart disease. Anti vaccination being blamed for thirty percent jump in Mason's cases that huge increase in Maizels has been sending both Europe and the United States. However, the trend has not been repeated in Australia, we government programs designed to encourage immunization of paid off with immunization coverage rating children hitting record highs. Tim Mendham from a strange skeptics says the figures from merica in Europe shows how dangerous the Atty vexes can be really scary stuff. I mean, it's a major increase in measles cases around the world seems to be a real boom in the anti vaccination the impact of the anthrax next way back when when Andrew Wakefield did he's report on supposedly autism linked to the vaccine and up, right? Why didn't you came measles? Vaccination dropped and cases amazing sword. And then that seem to dry out a bit. When those prehistory wakes was shocking. But since then the maze was has come back dangerous that people did not seem as who's anymore. When I was a kid Maizels. Seriously, damaged by Maazel. Okay. We used to dive things because through vaccination to die that and suddenly people have become complacent and it's come back and come back with a vengeance. In Europe, especially in the US, and increasingly Australia. The numbers of cases of missiles says increase we had to Maizels of hot was killing about two and a half million people year a lot of countries that dropped in about two thousand sixteen. I think it was too bad eighty thousand a year dying with people who have been damaged by Houston has been set the license. Also things that killed by Maizels was drafted ninety now back up to about one hundred twenty thousand a year people dying of this every almost had walked out except the anti vaccination movement. Kid making comments that oh measles killed. Anybody can have Maizels Totti's where you can bring you need the long Emmanuel catch measles. And it'll be great for them title stupidity. Totally responsibility. People paying with their lives, and it's little kids by Losch who pain is price because their parents are not doing the right thing. That's t. Mendham from strain skeptics, you're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary, and that's the show for now. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast on itunes, Stitcher. Bites dot com. Pocket costs soundcloud. Youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on June in radio, if you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images media stories, videos and things on the web. 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