'Sounds Of The Unborn'; Whale Calls Help Map The Ocean Floor
From npr and wbz. You are impure o'dowd and i'm tanya moseley. It's here and now people in texas are miserable right now. After the entire state was hit by a winter storm that brought snow and frigid temperatures. Millions of people have already gone more than two days without power. A lot of people don't have running water and it's not over more. Snow and freezing. Rain is falling today in parts of southern central and eastern texas. Let's bring in dominique walsh. He joins us from san antonio. He's with texas public radio and dominik. Some people are going into their third day with no power. Give us a sense of the scope of these outages. it's still massive urquhot. Which is the operator of the state grid here in texas or cut. Says they're stole two point. Seven million households without power. And you know that's not two point seven million people that's two point seven million households with families lots of people talking about millions and millions of people who have now gone forty eight hours more without power What what are these power companies saying today about win power will be restored in why. The storm caused such a massive power failure in texas. So as for the second part of that question. The y It's the same problem that we saw on sunday. As the snow started. Falling temperatures started to plunge demand for power for heating surged at that same time of power. Plants were knocked offline by the weather because they were not properly whether as for a winter storm. So you had surging. You had surging demand and dropping supply. That's why these rolling blackouts started since then. The storm has also taken offline. You know various pieces of equipment so you have a mix of demand driven blackouts as well as equipment damage driven blackouts as for wind. That will be resolved. There has not been a definitive timeline. Laid out just yet What urquhot and other companies are saying. Is you know hold tight. They're working on it but really might not be resolved until the temperature starts to rise which might be later this week into the weekend but again no definitive time line okay. Dominic to add to this misery misery. As i mentioned there are people in the dark and without running water or with very low water pressure and and there are boil water notices in some areas. What's going on with the water. Yeah so the situation really depends on where you are. I can tell you my apartment in san antonio. The pipes have been frozen since late sunday. In other parts. Power to water treatment plants have been affected so what a treatment plants in some rural areas have been knocked on offline so those areas other shutdown water or have put you know. Boil water notices in place in other areas like like houston. There's very low water pressure because people have been dripping their faucets. that's affected the water quality. Houston now has a boil notice for its water. But here's the thing about these boil. Notices in texas a lot of homes rely on electric stoves. if you can't heat the water you can't bring it to a boil so yeah it's a problem for a lot of people across the state and even even even if you do have water and supposed to boil it. You might not be able to if you don't have electricity There's another storm bringing snow and freezing rain today. People in texas are not used to navigating roads in this kind of weather and without power. We're hearing that stoplights aren't working. How are the roads right now. The roads are still terrible. Officials saying do not drive. If you don't have to. I believe tomorrow will mark the one week. Mark of that awful pile up in fort worth more than one hundred vehicles. Six people killed in that pile up Things have gotten worse since then so the messaging from all the officials is stay off the roads. If you can yeah. The weather has also ended food and other supply chains or grocery stores and pharmacies and other businesses. Open them are. It depends on where you are what business it is. Some of them are. But you know trucks haven't been able to make consistent. Frequent supply vans said. The supply lines have have fallen short. We're seeing a lot of photos and videos of empty grocery stores shelves targets. Heb's here in texas walmart's all of them are starting to run short on supplies so even if they are open they might not have everything you need and because of covid nineteen precautions. There are often long lines outside of the grocery stores stretching for blocks and blocks people having two hours to get inside to a grocery store. That doesn't have everything they need. Yeah we know. There are warming centers and food. Pantries open a lot of these nonprofits are asking for donations dominic. You mentioned that your pipes were frozen. How are you doing. I'm okay so i actually left my apartment and more coworker who fortunately does have power because they're on the same circuit as critical service for folks who might not have power or water though the thing to do if you are you know looking for help is if you're in his city call three one one. If you're in a rural area call two one one. They should be able to give you resources in terms of where to go for warming centers food pantries other things like that is also lots of mutual aid. Work going on right now but even all of these services have been impacted by the weather so and also covid. Nineteen is complicated. Some of these warming centers so various cities are starting to open up more resources and again three one one for cities to one one for rural areas to find those resources. Thank you so much for that reminder and you stay safe dominic thank you so much. Thank you tanya. That's texas public. Radio's dominic anthony. Walsh in san antonio former president trump could still face legal consequences for the capital insurrection despite his recent acquittal by the us senate democratic representative bennie thompson of sippy has filed a civil lawsuit against him accusing the former president of conspiring with far right extremists. That stormed the capital last month. Here's thompson on cnn. Last night i'm convinced that he acted irresponsibly. We're bringing this action. I look forward to having my day in court. Emily brazilan has been following this and other legal problems pending against trump. She's a senior research scholar at yale law school and a staff writer at the new york times magazine. Hi emily so congressman thompson is invoking something called. The ku klux klan act alleging that trump conspired to interfere congress certification of the electoral college count. What's whose argument. His argument is that president. Trump made specific threats. This is what that he would have to show to win the congressmen including actions that threaten the right to vote and prevent federal officers from doing their job. So this is a law that was passed in the eighteen seventies when there was a lot of concern about the ku klux klan. A threatening black people terrorizing them and terrorising members of congress in a way that threatened the right to vote and so the idea is to take that law and apply it to trump's role in the assault on the capital on january. Sixth has that law ever been used in modern times. It's been used rarely not because it couldn't apply but because the supreme court in the eighteen seventies and eighties was pretty hostile to it and blocked a lot of claims by black lit against and so it kind of fell out of favour recently. The nwa see legal defense fund and the couple of other groups have tried to kind of resuscitate it. And so. that's what you're seeing. Here is the idea that this historical law could be relevant in modern times given these very particular facts. Well this is interesting. Trump was acquitted by the senate in his impeachment trial of course and it was considering some of these same questions but of course what thompson is doing. Here is a civil lawsuit. So what kind of legal hurdles does he have to clear in order to win so he has to show that there were specific. Threats made that would prevent federal officers from doing their jobs. That was the The thing that congress was concerned about in the eighteen seventies was the idea that there were members of the kkk who were preventing the federal government from ensuring the right to vote and that was a particular context in you know our tortured history about race in this country and then the question is whether trump's remarks and encouraging of the capital seldom refusal to stop it really is applicable here because it was also a threat that didn't let federal officers address the right to vote. We'll this of course not the only lawsuit. The former president is facing is also under investigation by the attorney. General of new york and the district attorney of new york. A those cases touch mostly on his business dealings. What kind of threat do they pose for trump. I mean the the most basic way to think about this is that it's an inquiry into tax fraud and this question of whether trump and the trump organization have inflated the value of assets. They own to get favorable loan rates and to get tax write offs and weather. This could even merge virginia criminal activity. So that's what both the new york attorney general and the manhattan. Da's office are investigating. There's also what's going on with georgia. Prosecutors they're investigating trump's attempts to overturn the state's election and that phone call that he made the secretary of state. What are the range. We've talked about a couple of cases here. What are the range of consequences that the former president might be facing well in some ways the georgia increase the most serious because this could lead to criminal charges against former president trump. the district attorney in georgia is investigating whether the facts of that call to the secretary of state that encouraged him to you know quote find votes that would presumably flip the election whether that is criminal solicitation to commit fraud We usually give public officials in pretty broad range and being able to challenge election results. Because we wanna make sure that those results hold up but if trump was doing something that was actually pushing election officials to change the results fraudulently and if he knew that was what he was asking that could be fraud. Emily babylon senior research scholar at yale law school and staff writer at the new york times magazine. Thanks very much. Thanks for having. President biden back in washington today where he's pushing to get his recovery package through congress and just last night in milwaukee the first town hall of his presidency. He made some bold promises about vaccines in schools. Reopening npr national political correspondent. Mara liasson joins us now in march. Let's hear what biden said at the cnn townhall last night when he was asked about vaccines we came in office. There was only ah fifty million that are available. We have now by the engine. July will have over six hundred million doses enough to vaccinate every single american. Big promises the on track to get that done well. He's on track to hit it if a lot of other things fall into place if the supply keeps up if he finds enough what he calls vaccinate tours people who can actually administered the shots and the white house put out a vaccination progress chart today with the seven day. Average daily doses. And they're going up. They started january thirteenth less than a million doses of vaccines day administered now february tenth through sixteenth. One point seven million a day and kept on going and that rate yes. You'll meet his target all right. Well we're gonna keep a close eye on those numbers. Meanwhile on the issue of education The white house has had some miscommunication recently about schools reopening but last night biden said that his goal was to open the majority of k. Through eight schools in the next one hundred days that is different. Mara than what. We've heard from his from his press secretary. He corrected that his press secretary headset a remarkably low bar of what he meant by school opening. She said that it meant having half of them. Having in person instruction one day a week by the end of the first one hundred days last night in that meeting by said that was a mistake in communication. He wants to see k. Through eight classes back five days a week And it's important to do this because school. Openings is becoming a huge political issue. A republicans are saying the biden administration is aggressive enough to get kids back into school that they're kowtowing to the teachers unions Opening schools too. Many americans is the single most important signal of getting back to normal. In addition to the many many reasons why it's so important for kids and parents to get schools open again so this has become a political issue and the president wanted to correct the record last night and this was his first big appearance in public after the impeachment trial. He likes these kind of events. Hasn't gotten to do them very much. Because of the pandemic how did he do in the spotlight. Would you think. I thought he did fine. He was all the things that biden is. he was empathetic. He seemed to know his brief. He also was very loquacious and also kind of boring. He went on and on at times but he didn't make any big gaffes which is always the concern about biden as a political performer. But this is a a format that he likes. He likes to engage with people many times. He said two questions. Could you stay after. And i'll see if i can help. You will give you some information. So i think he did fine. Npr national political correspondent morrison liasson. Thank you so much. You're welcome what you're hearing is a selection of luca. Japan keys debut album and it was created by her parents before luca was even born parents. Are elizabeth hart the basis from the band's psychedelic ills and producer. Ivan de as matei they used synthesizers and bio sonic devices to record and translate the sounds of elizabeth's womb and elizabeth an iv. Join us now. Welcome to the show. I think every new parent when they first hear those sounds of that first ultrasound feel like this is music to my ears but you actually took this one step further. Take us to that first decision to turn the sounds of luca into an album elizabeth. Well if he had been Working a lot with this By sonic midi device with recording plant music. So as i had progressed in my pregnancy we recorded this album. When i was in the last trimester so eight months seven and eight months We wondered what it would be like to try this technology on me. Yes and so. I haven't been playing around with this. Let's let's talk a little bit more about this technology. As as elizabeth said it's called a amid it's a device connected to elizabeth stomach that fed data into synthesizers. That were at your hands. Can you describe more about how this works. And actually how long this process was ivan. I think the simplest example that is accessible to everybody is the polygraph you have. Electrodes connected the measure of receive your electromagnetic impulses and the changes in that current every living being hats. Yes people have developed technology from which this same electromagnetic impulses are translated into me. Notation for people that don't know what mediais meetings of musical language that carries or contains information of what notes in what position for how long dusting formation at from lizards and lucas bodies combined. That is translated into this score is like if they were the musicians choosing what to play and synthesizers are the sounds. I choose to apply to that information that is being picked up. This took quite a while right. Each session took about five hours. The first session was kind of like dipping our feet in the ocean. Trying to understand what we could get from this experiment. Both elizabeth and i would be in the studio and she would sit in front of the speakers and we will blast the music pretty loud because we wanted her to be immersed in this music that she also was producing in real time to be influenced. What you're producing is very interesting. This is so interesting because what you're saying here is you. Also we're trying to keep the integrity of of luca's musical autonomy As you put it specifically as you describe a way to allow her message to exist in its raw form. Let's listen to the song on the album called v four point three two. Hi you know Elizabeth than i ever would so so powerful and wonderful about music. Is that the interpretation of it is in the hearts and the minds of the listener and a lot of times that's separate from the original and ten of the artists. But what you're saying here is this. Is lucas message. So i want to know from both of you. What messages do you hear when you listen to this song. I'll start with you elizabeth. Well i think for me it was just sort of you know you wonder things especially as it gets closer to the time when you're going to meet your child of what are they thinking. Because i when i was pregnant i kept feeling like she was really quirky or something. I dunno things make me laugh or i. The thing about this technology and the thing is that it's it's actually not intellectual music that you know. These sounds aren't chosen. Like i would choose to write something bass or guitar other things. It's just what's created by the impulses and so to me. That's i don't think it's a direct message but it's an interesting way of thinking about it. You know it is. I mean for you. Are you thinking this way to right. It's not intellectual music. But as elizabeth said she was trying to think about the personality of her child. Any person who's been pregnant before knows they're making a lot of movements in the air and once you can actually hear that on an audio level it kinda changes the dynamic in what what. You're actually hearing. What do you hear when when you listen to lucas music for me. The most beautiful outstanding part of the project is this was saying that the no intention behind when we play music. There's an intention anti those feelings that we want to convey with this like autopilot withdraw the driver and send. You're going places that you wouldn't go yourself. Yeah so for me an engineer. He was a beautiful. If you were a kook and they bring you great ingredients a cool experience for sure. Let's hear another song elizabeth Luca is fifteen months old right now and so now you actually know her personality very well. And there's no guessing has she heard the album has. Has she responded in the way. That only a fifteen month old can at this point if she actually is heard it will. She has because When we were mixing the album she was always there so she was exposed to it a lot during the nixon process and she did seem to recognize the music like one time we had something else playing and then switch to this and she kind of looked at both of us like i know what that is yeah. I thought this mix was done. Well how should listeners. Approach this album. I think this was going into a lab without having any chemical background. He was like okay. Let's play this playground of sounds. Let's see what we can do this new way of generating musical writing. Music certainly took us through a totally new journey. Well thank you for allowing us to be on your journey through this album. That was elizabeth hart and yvonne de as my day on the album sounds of the unborn created using the sounds of their daughter while she was in the womb. Lucas also will officially be released in april elizabeth and ivan. Thank you so much. Thank you turn support for here. And now and the following message come from sudi. Why spent months coating when you can build powerful customized applications in days zuhdi offers an affordable solution to build apps for your business apps that integrate into all your current systems and data sources and you're zuhdi subscription always includes unlimited apps and unlimited users. Learn more at zuhdi dot com decades before the civil rights movement of the nineteen fifties and sixties. Marcus garvey attracted millions of followers with a message of black self sufficiency and black nationalism in africa for our black history month special series the seismic influence in complicated legacy of marcus. Garvey listen now to the through line podcasts. From npr president biden is meeting with labor union leaders at the white house today on the agenda infrastructure and green jobs. The meeting follows a new report from a former secretary of housing and urban development. The couldn't form biden's long-term infrastructure plans here now transportation analyst. Seth kaplan has more on this story. Peter hey so. What are the unions on from the white house. And what do we know. So far about president biden's plans what unions always want is jobs good. Jobs and president biden wants to invest a lot in infrastructure particularly clean energy clean transportation projects. He's argued that that can go hand in hand with jobs. He started off on kind of a bad foot with labor unions because one green initiative was to initially To immediately cancelled the keystone pipeline. First day on the job for him and that resulted in layoffs so now he's back to showing look he wants to spend trillions of dollars in that that's going to create a whole lot more jobs in his view than than the keystone cancellation a cost. He's probably learning very quickly. That there are competing interests on every issue right so for sure. there's a new report from the former hud secretary henry cisneros and the kinder- institute for urban research that may be guiding some of his thinking here on infrastructure it identified about eight thousand nine hundred product projects that biden should focus on. Let's take roaming. we're not gonna take through all of them but let's through at least what you think. The priorities look like. They could be right. Well they said there are three big categories. He said essential infrastructure after the pandemic climate resilience and urban rural connections. And one thing. I thought was interesting. One thing in particular that showed up in two of those three categories and that's broadband and peter s. You know for a lot of us. We can joke now about the the dial up internet days but for a lot of americans in rural america especially those days are still here. They still don't have fast internet and that is now essential infrastructure and the report makes that point that infrastructure isn't just what we picture traditionally is infrastructure. You know bridge for example But something like broadband which is still lacks in in a lot of america would require some public investment to get there because the problem. There is that it's just so expensive to do that. The companies that provide a lot of us with fast internet service aren't willing to do it on commercial terms in rural america. What are some of the big ideas for transportation. You are transportation after all you a to clean transportation so that means electric vehicles. First of all we've seen a big movement recently in terms of the big automakers really embracing acknowledging that that that's the future but there to sort of a gap in terms of an opportunity for public incentives to get that going in that of course could create jobs as well and then when it comes to energy focused this week. This report was a long-term project not not prepared with what's going on in texas than elsewhere in mind but we see now all all kinds of needs in that regard to alternative energy could perhaps diversify the the energy supply and help when a situation like this comes up in the future. This is all great in theory. It'll be tough potentially to get any of these things through congress. But we'll see here now transportation analyst. Seth kaplan thank you so much for your time. They feed her. The state of georgia is looking to overhaul. Its citizens arrest statute. It's a statute that was used to defend the three white men that chased shot ahmad arbery black man last summer. Who was out jogging. The ability to arrest citizen dates back to the civil war in it allows citizens to detain someone if a crime is committed in their presence or with their knowledge. There is no evidence that aubrey had committed any crime. Emma hurt from member station w. a. b. e. in atlanta has been following the efforts to change the law and she joins us now emma. Welcome hi tania. Hi so a group of mostly democratic lawmakers began advocating for the repeal of this statute back in may how at this proposal which is spearheaded by the way by the republican governor. Change the ability for a citizen to arrest someone. Yes sir right now. As you mentioned the statute is really vague. Allows anybody if you witness a crime to arrest. Somebody else doesn't say anything. I should add about killing someone. Which is what happened to ahmad aubrey. As we know in this new plan would repeal that statute and replace it with one. That just allows really specific kinds of citizen detainment as they're calling it like a shopowner who witnesses shoplifter and it. Also explicitly prohibits any use of force except in self-defense. Okay as i mentioned this dates back to eighteen sixty three and this. This law was established during really one of the worst periods of racial tension in our history and it's remained unchanged as you said. What was the original intent behind it. Yes provision like this really date back to medieval times kind of the ideas when police couldn't arrive on time or law enforcement wasn't around citizens had to take things into their own hands and the georgia law as you said dates back to eighteen sixty three in the states original code which was which was drafted by secessionist. But we don't know exactly why we don't know what the intent was. We know that georgia leaders have decided that it really leaves too much room for what they're calling vigilantism so people taking the law into their own hands. That's what the men who are in jail for murder. Say they were trying to do. Even though there's been no evidence that he committed the burglary they accused him of. And it's also why are brees. Death has been called a modern day lynching because this really does evoke So much of what we saw in in the south especially in decades past. What's the next step in this process of overhauling the statute. This is a really good chance of passing. Got the governor support other of the state's top republican officials and democratic leaders in the legislature. As well who've been calling for this since may and you know if the past is any indication there was a similar push To pass georgia's hate crimes law in the summer after our brees death and that sailed on through. So we're expecting this to move pretty quickly and smoothly. This is really a second promise that lawmakers made to the brunswick community along with citizens arrest after after the outrage. That's emma hurt with member station w. a. b. in atlanta. Thank you so much. Thank you for having me. Tanya the republican senators who voted to convict former president trump continue to face backlash from their own party. Republican senators bill cassidy of louisiana in richard. Burr of north carolina are the latest to be censured by their state parties. The chairman of the north carolina republican party. Michael watt lee explained his decision today on morning edition. You know as a member of the senate you you have the absolute right to vote your conscience how you feel but at the same time we felt that it was important to put out a statement saying that we disagreed with those actions. Let's get another perspective from douglas. High used to work for senator berries also a former spokesman for the republican national committee. He's on skype douglas. Welcome thank you. And what kind of statement do you think. The north carolina republican's made by censoring senator ultimately adum one. I've known michael watt for a long time. I liked michael but if you look at the statements that he's made he's tried to bend over backwards to say. We still like richard burr. He can make his vote of conscious. But we had to make a decision here. He knows this is the wrong thing to do. And hundreds of state activists doesn't represent the broad swath voters and let's remember richard. Burr wasn't elected to represent republicans he was elected to represent the entire state and then meanwhile since the election in north carolina alone more than fifteen thousand republicans have left the republican party and have registered unaffiliated if i want to elect more republicans north carolina. I don't spend my time fighting one of our own. Who's been there for twenty years fighting for north carolina. I try and register more voters and look to why voters are leaving my party. You say he knows it was the wrong choice. But this vote was unanimous dissent at all. Even in the decision to censure this senator so really no yes i look. I i on cnn with john berman. Yesterday where again. He went a bend over backwards to say. Richard burr. still a good senator. You know having worked for richard br. I know that he focuses on doing the right thing. Burst and doing the politically expedient thing second. So what's going on. i mean what. What are the conditions like out. There that are that are forcing these republican party members to do this why it's a loyalty to donald trump first and foremost and some of that is fundraising. Some of that is wanting to be a part of that team. Even though it's a team that again is hemorrhaging voters in state parties throughout the country. What they're doing unfortunately means that as the party gets smaller it gets trump or so there listening to those loud and angry voices even more but county chairs and st shares are not voters as you know. This is not just happening. In north carolina we've seen essential votes since the election really in places like louisiana arizona wyoming in pennsylvania republicans are considering censoring. Senator pat toomey who voted to convict trump. And here's a county. Republican chairs. name is dave ball. Talking about to vote on k. D. k atv in pittsburgh we did not sent him there to vote his conscience. We did not certain there to the right thing or whatever setting the way we sent him there to represent us. Did you ever think that you would hear something like that from someone in the republican party. Absolutely because i already have. I remember in two thousand fourteen when i worked in the house of representatives are republicans. Were pushing a series of bills that we caught making life work to deal with things like employment training and flex time for working parents and a republican member on the floor said to another. Why are we doing all these things to help people. And so it's not a surprise to me because donald trump is as much of symptom as he is the cause of where republicans are this predated. Donald trump it will outlive donald trump. But the reality is for that. County chair pat toomey. I can't speak for pat toomey but he wasn't elected to serve a particular county party. He was elected to serve all of pennsylvania. And let's not forget that joe biden won pennsylvania right. I'm looking at what happened in utah. Sure you saw the senator. Mike lee voted to acquit. The former president senator mitt romney voted to convict and the state party as republicans. Were talking about century romney. The state party released a statement this week. That said the differences between our own utah. Republicans showcase a diversity of thought. In contrast to the danger of a party fixated on unanimity of thought. What do you think about that statement. And with the what's going on in utah the approach. It's refreshing to hear something like that part of that though is donald trump is not popular in you talked. He underperformed there Last time utah. Republicans no proceed at your own peril if you want to be a part of team. Trump is a dangerous road to be on. We often see national politics through the lens of congress right but how much power do you think. These state and county parties actually have in shifting the dialogue and the direction of politics in this country on the local and state level. They have enormous influence. They have an impact on the structure of the republican national committee. But it's not moving anything. Broadly when it comes to voters in his statement. Michael watt lee talked about the one hundred county chairs but there are a lot more than one hundred republican voters in the state of north carolina. Just as there are in any state and those voters aren't focused on the internal machinations county or state party there looking for issues and results and as republicans spend time going after their own again especially when they're losing. Republican voters is says at twenty twenty two which historically should be a good year for republicans may not be because they're willing to give away voters in the name of trump. Douglas high used to work for north carolina. Senator richard burr also a former. Rnc spokesman. thank you thank you. Scientists trying to map the pacific. Seafloor got an unexpected assist from the world's second largest mammal. These fin whale songs are usually treated as noise by seismologists because they muddy data gathered at the bottom of the ocean but new research published this month in the journal. science found the lao chirps that fin whales. Make actually have a similar effect as the advanced instruments. Seismologists used to peer into the earth's oceanic crust vaslav kuna is a post doctoral fellow at the institute of geophysics in prague. This discovery was part of his research at oregon state university and he joins me now to talk about it. Welcome to the show. Oh thanks for having me. Let's hear a little bit more of what these fin whale chirps sound like these are fin whale calls. That have been sped up ten times so they're audible to the human ear bit. Tell us about when you realize. These sounds might be more than just noise. It was actually quite a coincidence. I was working with seismicity. And we had these ocean bottom seismic stations on the on the ocean bottom and searching through the data and looking On something that was irc related. I realized fin whales. And because i found out that there might be some signals. That are actually not just the water waves that are traveling food water but also some subsurface signals. Give us a sense of how loud these whales are so very long without those are one of the loudest sounds in the ocean. They are about one hundred eighty nine decibels which is comparable to Engines of ships so they are very very loud. Were you surprised. No one else thought to us. Well songs in this way before. Actually yeah. I was quite surprised because for me. I'm being as ice marches. This is kind of an obvious Use of them. But i suppose that mostly female calls and other organizations there have been studied extensively by biologists and by people who are interested in wales themselves. And not that much seismologists that would be looking at it from different perspectives. So yeah. I was quite surprised that nobody has fought of this before. Okay let's break down your work a little bit. So what exactly are you trying to figure out about the sea floor. And how do you typically go about getting that information so in sizemore g. It's a quite common task that we are trying to display. What's underneath the ground. Meaning if you are trying to find out what. The fitness of crust layers are and also the seismic of all city in those layers. And we need to know these things for many applications spike. Oil and gas industry uses this information a lot. But also for scientific applications for geology equatorial g and insides me too so we always need to have some kind of a source of signal that travels beneath the crown and then bounce off layers in the ground and then receivers that can receive these signals and based on the time that the signal travels from the source to the receiver we can calculate the thickness and the velocities within the crust and the source is usually something that is called an air gun which is like a quite large pressurized chamber about those are very expensive and also they create a lot of noise in the ocean that is being debated for ocean wildlife. Oh that's interesting with the air guns. How do the will calls compared to the air guns. They are not as loud as arrogance and also defend wales. They've quite narrow frequency range and the arrogance the much more broadbent so they go from these low frequencies to hundreds of hurts so characteristics of the sound or of the signal definitely favors the however the females are just out there already and you have recorded so many of them and also we just don't need to create artificially those signals that made the wildlife out there. Do you think this Finding reduce the use of air guns in the future. Well the can on definitely replace against because they can penetrate deeper and we can get. Higher resolution of the subsurface using arrogance is very expensive and also is being quite a bit regulated. So i think at some places where we cannot Either afford or cannot use organs for ecological reasons we may get like some supplement from well calls and we can use them in a similar manner butts. Love you're a- seismologist benefiting from biology. But could it go the other way too. I mean finn. Wells are endangered. Could this research help. Biologists and conservationists actually protect them. I think in a way it can also has been studied on ocean bottom seismic stations previously. So i would not say that my study is the first of its kind in this manner studying or using seismological tools to study. Wales is definitely possible. And and we can track whales and we can maybe estimate quantities and yeah methods similar to what i showed him. The paper can be used and can help vialli butts. Kuna is a postdoctoral fellow at the institute of geophysics in prague. Thank you so much for sharing your work with us. Thanks for having me and here. Now is a production of npr. In wb you are association with the bbc world service. I'm tanya moseley bureau this is here.