Morris and Lona Cohen Pt. 2
September nineteen sixty sturdy. Bungalow sat quiet at the end of a residential street in the London suburbs. Let's but as the evening sunset there was a knock on the door. Helen Kroger grabbed a book from the kitchen as her husband. Peter Open the door. It was ruth search from down the block. To what did they. Oh this unexpected visit. Peter's Voice was warm and boisterous and just a bit forced. Helen disappeared back into the kitchen. Ruth had baked them a pie fresh out of the oven. She was so grateful grateful to have such kind and caring neighbours. The way they doted on her kids asking about their schoolwork and giving them treats it was just so appreciated. Helen reappeared next to her husband. Her book nowhere in sight. Peter and Helen thanked ruth for the lovely pie. They'd certainly enjoy it tonight. Ruth bid them goodnight and left. Helen and Peter meanwhile cut slices of pie and waited finally another knock and this time it was the visitor they'd been expecting suspecting Helen once again retrieved her book her book of ciphered Russian messages. Helen and Peter weren't your ordinary middle aged couple. They were spies. Their real names were Morris and Lona Cohen and this is espionage. The new park asked original exploring the missions behind the world's most incredible spies and what brought their covert operations into the public eye. I'm your host Carter Roy throughout this show we'll explore real world spy tactics required to impersonate exploit and infiltrate the most confidential places in the world. You can listen to all all of parkas shows on spotify or anywhere else you listen to podcasts. New episodes. Come out every Friday. We're also on facebook and instagram at par podcast in twitter at par cast network. This is our second and final episode. On two of the world's most infamous atomic spies Morris and end Lona Cohen or Morrison. Lona were American. Born activists turn communists and eventually Soviet spies in nineteen forty five. The couple provided these Soviet Union with a complete diagram and description of the allied atomic bomb expediting the development of Russia's own a-bomb and giving them a substantial advantage during the Cold War last week we explored how Morris and Lona Cohen went from agitated Americans ends to devout communists to dedicated and shrewd Russian operatives. This week we'll follow them as they're forced to flee we. The United States will learn about their new roles as Russian spies in Britain and their Ultimate Capture Morris Cohen was honorably discharged from the US army on November. Sixth nineteen forty five. He was thirty five years old and Lona. Nearly thirty three they returned to their unassuming life in a small apartment on east seventy first street. LONA LONA found a part time job in a library. Veterans were offered Free College tuition so Morris chose to pursue his master's degree in education at Columbia University University. And that was all they were doing. Morris and Lona had been deactivated. Their intelligence work was completely on ice. This around the same time that Morris was discharged to Soviet intelligence agents defected. One was eager. Sergei Vich Goose Yanko a cipher clerk. At the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa Guzzi INCO had been recalled to Moscow but he was intent on staying in Canada to provide a better our life for his family so he came forward with more than one hundred documents. Proving that Canadian officials had been secretly passing intelligence to the Soviets the second defector was Elizabeth Bentley in February of Nineteen forty-five. The Moscow centre relegated. Her to a dead dead end clerical job angry and humiliated she turned herself over to the FBI nine months later and told them everything she knew you about Soviet operations in the US. In an effort to mitigate further exposure Morris and Lona were instructed to cease all covert over actively destroy any evidence of their espionage and maintain ignorance if questioned by the FBI. They remained sidelined line for two years until the Moscow Center. Once again needed their talent. It was the spring of Nineteen nineteen forty seven Morris made his way home from the university. He in Lona had just sat down to supper when a knock on the door rang out a courier with a letter. Not so unusual in the nineteen forties but as Morris went to close the door. The courier offered a few extra stra words. Morris stopped in his tracks. He squinted looking the young man up and down could it be. He asked the courier to repeat himself. And the man did whispering a phrase so specific only Morris and lona would recognize it before they they had been deactivated their handler Anatoly yet. Pskov had given them a password. Something by which they could be contacted in the future. Sure and that was the Password Morris and Lona tore into the note. They were being summoned to Paris to discuss an important matter summoned by their Soviet masters. The long hiatus was over. Finally they could get back to serving the communist cause that Summer Morris and Lona were flown to Paris at Russian expense there. They were reunited with Anatoly. Yachts cove their former handler. They took their seats across from him in a dimly lit office and listened intently as he brought them up to speed after loan as successful delivery of allied atomic plans in her already infamous tissue box operation another Soviet agent Klaus. How's Fuchs was tasked with obtaining a written description of the atomic bomb however this description didn't reach Moscow until October Bernanke forty five and was still missing crucial information despite having obtained a decent amount of intelligence the Russians? We're still far behind the allies in the development of atomic weaponry. The Soviets were convinced that the allies were planning a nuclear war and the successful zestful development of their own weaponry was a top priority. Moreover they suspected the allies had moved on to developing a hydrogen bomb or Org H. Bomb while atomic bombs blast effect was measured in thousands of kilotonnes of TNT and h-bomb could be measured in up to to millions of kilotonnes of TNT. Moscow wanted information on the H.. Bomb immediately but this this was easier asked than done. The coens returned home from Paris at the end of the summer of nineteen forty seven. They resume their activity as couriers in recruiters. This time under the guidance of a new control officer Yuri Sokolov available. Soviet documents aren't too clear on on what exactly was accomplished. Perhaps their missions were thwarted perhaps the US government crackdown. Spying made it difficult to find new sources. What is evident is that while the coens dedication to the cause remains strong? Moscow grew frustrated with the lack of progress from their camp. Perhaps a new control officer would help the Moscow center replaced Sokolov at the end of nineteen forty eight Morrison. Luna's new supervisor would be William August Fisher in older and more experienced officer. But even under Fischer's guidance they made little progress and and on top of that every day brought increased tension and higher stakes to the COENS espionage efforts antagonism between Soviet Sylvia and use atomic projects was growing exponentially considering at the FBI was now aware. The Soviets had infiltrated the Manhattan project. They would not rest until they figured out how and took down every Soviet operative involved. It didn't take long for their efforts to to put the Cohen's in imminent danger. The reality set in one sweltering New York night in June nineteen fifty during a tense meeting at Morris Wrestle Loan as apartment on seventy first street. Sokolov the Cohen's former control officer and constant friend had been sent to visit his former assets on a risky but necessary visit. He scribbled down his messages on paper. Lona burned the notes as he wrote them Morris SIP on a glass of water to his best to stay calm and collected none of them resist. Speaking in case the apartment had already been bogged. Sokolov explained that the F. B. I.. Were following Intel from the defections of Bentley and Guzzi Yanko. Their search leads into British physicist. Assist Klaus Fuchs. Who had helped develop the allied atomic bomb and passed along information to the Soviets while doing so once apprehended folks immediately confessed and directed the FBI towards his then courier Harry gold who admitted his involvement as well? Gold led the FBI to another courier David Greenglass and his sister and brother-in-law. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg now they they were in the clutches of the FBI. The rosenbergs spy ring had been rolled up. According to the spy museum a roll up occurs when an operation operation goes bad and an agent is arrested agents were dropping like flies. It was only a matter of time before the trail l.. Lead backed the Cohen's Morris and Lona needed to leave the United States immediately. Morris replied that they still had a chance to do more work for Moscow they were fighters and they'd fight on. He insisted for the communist cause but soak love shook his head. This was no time time for discussion. He had his instructions and now they had. There's so the meeting. The Cohen's had no choice. Respect acquiesce still. They were casual in their preparations after years of possible exposure. They couldn't quite fathom. Just how different this time might be. I they cashed their savings bonds. Then Morris returned home to the Bronx to say goodbye to his parents. It's telling them that he'd been offered a good writing job in California. This was the same story. They offered their friends at a going away party but one night the reality of their compromise state made itself gravely apparent while the exact details are unknown. It's clear that something startled the coens. Perhaps they'd been visiting with friends. Perhaps they'd gone for a walk. Perhaps they'd been returning from the store when they saw them men in suits outside of their building waiting for them. Morrison Modem made their way around the corner casually visually not hesitating in front of their door for a moment. This was the moment they'd been trained for and Heart's pounding in their chests. They knew exactly exactly their next step. They had to leave now but there was a problem Luna turn to Morris panicked. She wasn't wearing proper close. It would look strange if they were traveling in the wrong clothes. Morris opened his mouth to argue. That time was more important but the sound of footsteps APPs nearby reminded him. They didn't have the luxury of discussion. He nodded gesturing for Lona to follow him. Jack Morris a friend from his time fighting for the loyalists in Spain opened his front door to find the Cohen's looking rather frazzled. Lona explained that they had to leave unexpected trip but she didn't have proper clothes. Would it be possible to borrow something from Jack's wife though. It seemed a bit odd odd. Jack's wife of course agreed then when Lona in her new dress the collins fled the United States never to return uh but the law already had their sent coming up. Morrison Lona the identities. He's of Peter and Helen Kroger. Hi It's Laney. I'm excited to tell you that podcast. Our cast has an incredible new show. You must check out. It's called dictators. And it lets you delve into the minds of some of the world's most feared leaders. You can here new episodes every Tuesday here host Kate and Richard to tell you more. Thank you so much. They are natural born leaders with a never for ending thirst for power through force and deceit. They rise through the ranks towards radicalism. Eliminating anyone who stands in their way and the only thing more inevitable than their rise is there ruin discover the true stories of power greed deceit in the podcast original all series dictators. Every Tuesday dictators examines the reign of a real life tyrant exploring the unique conditions that allowed ouled them to seize control. Each dictator is analyzed in two part episodes with the first giving insight into the rise to power and the second chronicling aling the impact of their downfall hear more about the men who claimed to love their country but were intricately responsible for killing millions of their own people. Men such as Prime Minister Benito Mussolini Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un and even Julius Caesar himself discover the governments that fell the lives that were destroyed and evil at its highest level. Follow dictators free on spotify over. Wherever you get your podcasts? Now back to the story. Nineteen Fifty Soviet agents CELONA and Morris. Cohen were forced to flee the United States. The capture of the Rosenbergs spy ring had left them susceptible to exposure. The United States was no longer safe for them. They arrived in Moscow in nineteen fifty one where they were forced to flee once again. Stalin was was on a hunt for Jews so Russia wasn't safe either despite their service to the country still the Cohen's brushed off the betrayal. Well this was a temporary political conflict. Not The real face of communism they remained committed to their ideology and their work towards supporting it at least the Moscow center the USSR's intelligence headquarters still new their value. The center sent them to Poland. And where it got more as a cover job teaching English then in nineteen fifty five. They were relocated once again. This time to England where their new identities were Peter and Helen Kroger an ordinary suburban couple. It was a hot summer evening in nineteen fifty seven. The Kroger's home in rice slip just outside. London was full and the air was dance. Ends with body heat but it didn't matter. The company was good. Helen Kroger set out appetizers in Peter refilled drinks. They weren't amiable couple and had quickly become the town. Matriarch Patriarch the neighborhood. Children often played in the Kroger's backyard while snacking on Auntie Helen's homemade. who made cookies? They did have a couple of odd quirks. Helen claim to love photography but the photographs she shared with friends weren't very good. Certainly not good enough to merit converting the bathroom into a dark room and they did keep their lights burning late on Saturdays. But apparently Peter's Peter's antiquarian book business had orders that needed filling on despite these auditees. They seem to be lovely people this particular evening. Helen chatted with the women. Peter fired up a game of bridge with the men then. Peter Glanced at the clock. His program was on. He made his way over to the radio. Well bill searched out the cards. Several men raise their eyebrows as Peter. Turn the dial two radio Moscow. One Gentleman delman joked about Peter spying for the Russians. The group of men shared a hearty laugh at the thought. Peter himself offered a witty response. None one of the neighbors suspected that the innocent remark was wholly truthful. Peter and Helen Kroger formerly Morris and Lona Cohen. Were not just in. Rice slipped to play cards. They were there on assignment. They had been tasked with collecting details on British underwater weaponry and then coding or siphoning that intelligence from OSCO according to the international spy museum siphoning is this system for disguising message either by replacing its letters with other letters or numbers or by shuffling them. The Kroger's worked hand in hand and with Gordon Lonsdale a Russian who worked at the Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment at Portland. His agents on the inside of the establishment went. Where Harry Houghton and Ethel G Houghton a communist sympathizer worked as a clerk at the naval base there? He successfully romance g who had top level military clearance. He then convinced her to photograph classified documents for him. Many on the sonar. Dr Technology Britain was developing for its nuclear submarines. He gave her plenty of reason to do so. I there was the cash but but then there was the patriotism. He told her the British Royal Navy was cheating the US Navy out of the information she was providing but he was rectifying the situation bypassing the documents to the US her efforts would facilitate the flow of information between Britain and America who needed each other as close allies after all this was in the interest of everyone Brits and Americans this tactic is known as false flag. Recruitment g believes she was helping the Yanks when in reality Houghton was passing her photographs graphs to Lonsdale and her efforts were supporting the reds Lonsdale. Intern was passing the documents to the Cohen's who were coding. Them Him at first the operation seem to be going swimmingly but while the Coens and their accomplices were busy smuggling British naval secrets to the Soviets another critical arrest occurred back in the US on June twenty first nineteen fifty seven Willie Fisher. Who would act as one of the Collins? New York control officers was apprehended. The FBI and US immigration agents raided his room and discovered covered four thousand dollars and two photographs. One of a man and one of a woman. This couple would later be identified as Morris and Lona Ona Cohen the FBI would send wanted flyers of the couple every NATO nation but perhaps the flyers were lost in London shuffling paperwork or or buried under more pressing reports because for reasons still unknown leads were not investigated in Britain at least not yet. Meanwhile in Rice slip just outside of London the Cohen's were hard at work. None the wiser. It was an ordinary Saturday night. In one thousand nine hundred fifty eight. The Community of Rice lead retired to their respective homes for the evening. Peter Kroger situated himself health in front of the television while Helen finished preparing dinner then a visitor. Peter opened the door and found a smiling. Gordon Lonsdale what a pleasant surprise but it wasn't a surprise at all Lonsdale was right on time. The scene played out like like a movie script. Lonsdale quip that. He was in the neighborhood and thought he'd see if they had room for one more at dinner he loved Helen's cooking. Peter warmly replied lied. They'd be honored for him to join. Peter took Lonsdale's coat and invited him in. They gathered around the dining table once. Helen had finished preparing supper sharing a bit of small talk over the meal. But this is where the script ended. They weren't here for pleasantries. Not really there was real work to be done on. Gordon reached into his pocket and retrieved a roll of film film containing. Jeez pictures of secret naval documents from Portland. This was Helen's Q.. She got up to clear the table taking the role of film with her after. Stop in the kitchen. She made her way over to the bathroom the bathroom she had converted to a darkroom expertly. She developed the film when it was dry. She would put it under under a micro dot camera in photographic again according to the spy museum a micro dot camera is a tiny tiny easy to hide device. That can photograph documents. And produce reproductions less than a millimeter in diameter. MICRODOTS is so small and entire entire document can be reduced to the size of a punctuation mark in a newspaper. Once the film was developed into a strip of microdots Peter inserted served strip into the spines of books the ones he claimed were part of his book business. Wrap them up in address them to some special customers he had on the European continent then he wrote a message informing the Moscow Center. What he was sending sending a message to Moscow was quite quite a process involving many steps to ensure a secure delivery after coding and siphoning his message Peter further disguised it by putting it into recorded Morse code using special tape recorder called a burst encoder burst encoder was then plugged? Into a short shortwave. Radio Transmitter which sent the message over the air to Moscow at very high speed over two hundred words per minute. This reduced the Airtime for each message to just seconds. Luckily because the shortwave radio transmitter interfered with the neighbors radios and televisions each each time Morris plugged in the burst coder. He hoped that no one noticed their TV screen plinking in out. This was the kroger's Saturday night night. Routine this is why they kept to themselves on the weekends and this is why they're lights. Were always on so late into Saturday evening evening. But they weren't the only ones with secrets. The law was getting closer to their little bungalow in the spring of Nineteen fifty eight. A letter was sent to the CIA field office in Berlin. Alerting officials of two Russian spies stationed in Britain. The unknown defector signed. His letter head can shoot SAT German for sniper. He would later be identified as me call. Golan Yavlinsky ski a Soviet agent installed in Polish intelligence but to the CIA. He was simply code-named sniper. His letter provided scant scant but compelling Intel onto unidentified British spies code named Lambda One and Lambda two. All sniper renew for sure was that lambda two was working for British naval intelligence. He thought the name was Horton. which the CIA noted was similar to Harry Houghton Naval intelligence employee and like Houghton this spy had previously served in Warsaw the CIA CIA was convinced? Harry Houghton fit the profile. They were right. Harry Houghton you may recall was a member of the kroger spy ring and the source. First of all the Intel. They were sending back to Moscow. But Peter and Helen Kroger had no idea about this new threat Honing in on Their Well Oiled espionage Asia machine. They were confident. They had the neighbors fooled with their suburban bungalow in charming smiles. But even the best spies can be uncovered uncovered when their allies start to go down. Because of the information snipers letters Harry Houghton was placed under constant surveillance by naval intelligence agents and M I five. They just needed proof that he was a spy before they moved on him. And ideally all his allies allies one July afternoon in Nineteen Sixty Houghton Ethel. Gee were observed at park chatting chatting with another gentleman. They handed him Brown shopping bag and received a white envelope in return. Then the man sped off in a white H. studebaker after running the car's license plates. M I five determined that it belonged to Gordon. Lonsdale Lonsdale was placed under surveillance surveillance as well. Investigators watched Lonsdale like a hawk noting his every routine. They followed him through traffic using parallel street. Read so as not to be seen and eventually they noticed that some evenings he broke his routine by driving out of London in a westerly direction. A carefully orchestrated tedious. Tailing was initiated leading officials. Straight into riceland coming up the CIA. Okay A. and M. I.. Five move in on Lonsdale and the krogers now back to the story. It was a crisp autumn day. Like any other in nineteen sixty Helen Kroger and her neighbor. Ruth search shared a cup of tea. While Ruth's children played in the kroger's living room. Helen was as usual the perfect host after awhile. Ruth begrudgingly got up to leave. She had to get dinner dinner on the table. Helen hugged the children goodbye and the searches returned home later. That night as Ruth was preparing supper an unexpected visitor visitors showed up jim scarred him of the security service he asked Ruth if he could come in and nervous and confused Ruth acquiesced she showed him to the living room and offered him tea but he kindly declined he had come on business. Jim opened his briefcase. And took out surveillance surveillance. Photographs photographs of Gordon Lonsdale. He asked if ruth or her husband recognized him. They didn't but they agreed to keep an eye out for him but that wasn't all scarred needed to use an upstairs room of their house to survey the neighborhood on Saturdays and Sundays. The researches made a small protest but scarred and firmly explained that the government wasn't asking for their cooperation as much as demanding it the searches is had little choice. They allowed police to set up shop in their house. Only yards away from the kroger's but that didn't mean the British operation was seamless one afternoon in nineteen sixty. The entire operation was almost blown. Helen stopped by the searches. Unannounced as neighbors are want to do. She noticed the purse on the kitchen table. A purse she knew wasn't Ruth's Helen. Question wrote about it and Ruth casually dismissed it as her daughters really. It belonged to one of the officers hiding upstairs concealing surveillance from the neighbors neighbors who seem nothing more than a benevolent couple was proving extremely difficult for Ruth but the search family played their part for national security purity as they were ordered by January of nineteen sixty one. Police had spent months in their suburban home. The investigation team monitored Gordon Gordon Lonsdale's activities watching him come and go. They noted radio interference in the neighborhood and correctly surmised it was coming from the Kroger home home. The case was building but it had yet to be cracked. They still couldn't prove Lonsdale's true identity they just have to keep watching and waiting until the time was right but then everything changed. The CIA's contact sniper was under suspicion by Moscow. The the Soviets might alert Lonsdale and his team to the possible exposure any day and allow the agents to escape. The British agents had to act now now on Saturday January seventh nineteen sixty one. Peter and Helen Kroger met Lonsdale for lunch they. They shared the micro dot letters. They'd received from his family in Russia he gave them a response which they would microdots and send back. They plan planned to meet later that evening as usual then the kroger's returned home to tend to the day's chores not knowing that in the meantime the London Special Special Branch arrested Houghton Gee and Lonsdale on Waterloo road but something about the afternoon did seem strange to Peter after wrapping Napa few books for shipment. He made his way to the post office. He saw bill search across the road washing his car. Peter called out to him but but bill offered only a short reply. Strange normally bill would have been much more talkative then out in front of the post office. Peter noticed a radio detector van. These vans occasionally patrolled the neighborhood to ensure that all radio and TV signals were licensed but this particular van had come down on their street for several days now. Peter wondered if they're signals were causing noticeable interference. He stifled his anxiety. He was probably over for thinking. But then the most alarming thing of all. When Peter Returned home he noticed strangers walking up and down the road people he'd never seen before inhabiting? They're quiet isolated corner of the London suburbs. Peter began to sweat something and was terribly wrong. He slipped back into the House to tell Helen what he'd seen had they been discovered. Perhaps they should leave now. They risked their lives if they were caught. But Peter and Helen were loyal to their people and to their cause they wouldn't leave. They would wait shortly shortly. This was mere paranoia. Surely Lonsdale would be backed at night and it would be business as usual but the hour came and went in Lonsdale never arrived Peter. Watch the clock nervously missing. An appointment was entirely out of character for him. Still they try. Try to remain calm. They dinner they read. They listened to Radio Moscow in case any of the reports concern them. And then the heavy middle knocker at the door sounded Peter's heart sank. It wasn't Lonsdale not this late and it was unlikely that a neighbor would stop by at this hour either. Peter composed himself for a brief moment and then made his way to the door. He braced himself for the sharp breath and turned the handle. The gentleman at the door introduced himself as G. G Smith an officer making inquiries Peter flushed. His fears had been right. He tried to shut the door but the officer blocked it with his foot behind him. Peter could see cars pulling up to the House the unfamiliar people surrounding them. This was it this was a raid. Well so be it. Peter would go down gracefully like the skilled spy he was he composed himself and invited the officers in. They asked to see Helen as well. When the krogers were both present? The Superintendent asked for the name of the man who visits them on weekends. The Kroger's vaguely replied that they they had a lot of friends. He asked them to be more specific. They rattled off a few names but none of them were Lonsdale. This omission was significant enough enough to merit detention under the official secrets. Act Smith could take them into custody for refusing to divulge the name of someone they were suspected. It of harboring the krogers were under arrest. Still Helen was determined to do. Her part to protected did their work when they were told to prepare for departure. She made her way over to her purse turning her back to one of the sergeants she then asked to. I use the restroom. The sergeant finding her behavior suspicious approved the restroom. Use but only with supervision. This foiled. Helen's plans man's undeterred. Helen again thought on her feet she asked to stoke the boiler before they left since she presumed they'd be away from the House for some some time. Why did Helen want to slip away to flush something down the toilet or perhaps burn it? Helen hastily closed your coat over her handbag egg but the move was to obvious. The detectives yanked her handbag away from her and after rifling through it found to glass slides with with three microdots sandwiched between them and a page of Soviet cipher instructions. The game was up. Bethell G Harry Houghton Gordon Lonsdale and the krogers came to be known as the Portland Five. They went on trial together on March thirteenth. Eighteenth nineteen sixty one lonsdale attempted to assume all of the blame believing that if they all went to prison he would be released. I in a swap exchange exchanged by the Soviet government he maintained the Kroger's knew nothing of his espionage. Peter supported the statement. Helen did as well though her voice was much less confident than Peter's she knew what the investigators had found in her purse. After eight days the jury came to a verdict in another two hours. Each of the five were guilty as charged meanwhile their fingerprints were delivered to the US embassy in London and they were forwarded to Washington where the bureau confirmed. They belong to Morris and Lona Cohen. The Cohen's were each sentenced to twenty years in prison but in nineteen sixty nine after just eight years behind bars the USSR secured their release. As part of a prisoner exchange. Morris was fifty nine years. Old Lona was fifty six and finally they were being rewarded by the country. They'd spent their lives serving. They received one of the motherlands highest awards. The order of the Red Banner. The activists turned communist sympathizers. Were now bona. Fide lied Soviet heroes after their deaths. The couple were even given the posthumous title hero of the Russian Federation by President. Boris Yeltsin with good reason morrison known as work save the USSR years of research during one of the most I critical arms racists in history. Thank you for listening to espionage. We'll be back Friday with a new episode for more information on Morris and Lona Cohen and amongst the many sources we used we found operation. Whisper the capture of Soviet spies Morris and Lona Cohen by Barnes. Car extremely helpful. You can find more episodes of espionage as well as all of our casts other shows on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts. Several of of you have asked how to help us. If you enjoy the show. The best way to help is to leave a five star review and don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram at par cast and twitter at podcast network. We'll be back next week with another deep dive into the world of clandestine. Operation espionage was created by Max Cutler Cutler and has a podcast studios original executive producers. Include Max and Ron Cutler sound designed by Dick Schroeder with production assistance by Ron Shapiro Carly Carl Madden Aaron Larson and Joel Stein. This episode of espionage was written by Natalie McKiernan with writing assistance by Kate. Gallagher on Carter Roy podcast listeners. It's Carter if view love espionage. We'd love to hear from you. By taking a quick survey your feedback will help us. Continue Making your favorite shows better than ever please visit. PODCAST survey dot me slash espionage to answer a few short questions. It may seem small but your input really matters i. That's podcast survey dot me slash espionage on thank you for your continued support and for listening listeners. Don't forget to check out. Park has fantastic new original series dictators. Every a Tuesday dictators examines the reign of a real life timer and exploring the unique conditions that allowed them to seize control. Discover the governments that fell the lives that were destroyed and evil at its highest level search for dictators in the spotify APP. And listen free today.