Trumps Impeachment Continues, Chinas Mysterious Outbreak, and More
In the coming week the impeachment of president trump moves to the Senate China tries to suppress a mysterious illness ahead of the lunar new New Year and the World Economic Forum. Annual meeting is held. Dabo Switzerland is January sixteenth. Two Thousand Twenty in time for the world next week. I'm Bob McNair Jeans and Jim the. US House of Representatives has voted but to send the impeachment case to the Senate which will decide if president trump is to be acquitted or convicted on two counts. But Jim can you give us a sense of what will be looking for during the week ahead on this. And what is most notable certainly bobbing. Let's note that the trial process is actually going to begin today. And by the time this podcast airs. Three things have happened. Okay one chief justice John Roberts will sworn in all one hundred senators who will have pledged. Make coat the oath. We're here to do impartial. Justice according to the Constitution and laws to the Senate will have adopted by simple majority. Vote the rules that will actually govern covering the trial. And the third thing is that the Senate will ev- issued what's called the rid of summons we'll go to the White House inviting him to participate in the trial and again. There are two accounts that the house has brought against President Trump and impeaching him. One involves the issue of abuse of office the other one involves obstruction of Congress. And and already you scoped out. What looks like a very different process than what we just witnessed in the house over? The last several weeks writes a very different process because one the Senate has a different role. Here it's its role is simply decide whether the facts of the case merit the President's removal from office a keep in mind. The president can be removed if either of the. The articles of impeachment garnered the support of two thirds of the senators. Okay so does it require conviction on both counts. Just one count. The the other reason is going to be different of course that the House representatives is controlled by the Democrats in this case in the Senate it's controlled by the Republicans and so the Republicans. We'll be responding to leadership of Senator Mitch McConnell but obviously to president trump. Who is the leader of their party? Now the actual mechanics of the impeachment trial which probably kick off on. Tuesday are a lot different than we're used to and a couple of things one is. That senators are expected to attend the trial. It's is going to run from Monday through Saturday. Once it gets underway senators. Don't have to worry about getting up early in the morning because the trial won't actually convene each day into one a PM. But here's the key thing. All senators must attend. They have to sit at their desks. They can't talk or even ask questions. Let me quote here on pain of imprisonment imprisonment. They could only read impeachment related materials and this may be the killer for a modern politician. They are prohibited from using their electronics. So no no IPADS no iphones. No Sim some notes or anything. Quite like the sounds like a different world than we're used to a different world and again the senators are supposed to sit there air and act as jurors not being engaged in other business now support not the case can be dismissed it any time by a majority vote but the Republicans skins currently don't have support to do that in the way to work as the house. Managers will present their essentially indictment of the president. That's expected to take several several days. It will then be followed by the president's defense also expected to take several days. Senators will then have an opportunity to ask questions but again there questions must be submitted in writing and the managers and defense lawyers can respond verbally now. One of the big open questions here is whether or not we are going to see. See witnesses come before the Senate last one of the big questions is you know. It's been a lot of talk. On Demands by Democrats at the Senate should bring in witnesses. For example join Bolton former national security adviser Republicans have been very reluctant to agree to bringing in witnesses. But at some point there's an expectation that the Senate and it will vote on whether to bring in additional witnesses to testify and again in this thing if Democrats maintain solidarity to be able to call witnesses. This is they're going to have to get at least four. Republicans to switch sides in vote for bringing in witnesses and so. There's a lot of attention being placed on senators like Mitt Romney of Utah. Susan Collins of Maine Cory Gardner of Nevada the more Alexandra of Tennessee and Lisa Murkowski of Alaska as a Republican to be the most likely likely to vote to bring in witnesses but were probably a couple of weeks away from seeing that happen once that portioned. The trial concludes assuming we do bring in witnesses. And I should note. That won't be like a moment from Perry Mason in which witnesses appear before the full Senate most likely they will give depositions on the sidelines guidelines to small groups selected. Senators that which we videotaped in those portions relevant could be used in the trial. But it's not going to be certified big Hollywood moment so this wouldn't be like what what we saw in the house hearings which involved these in many cases these lifelong civil servants who were coming in to testify about what they knew or heard about this case which is which at its core involves Ukrainian officials who who may have been asked to find dirt on presidential candidate Joe Biden and what the president's role was in that it. It will be different than that if you go back to the impeachment trial of Bill Clinton didn't have live testimony by witnesses. And I will note and this is one of the hard things to sort of gauge is. We'll public pressure build on Republicans to call witnesses now. One of the things that's happened in nearly month since the House voted on the two articles articles of impeachment is that more information has come out about what happened. The dealings between the trump administration and Ukraine most notably in the last couple of days lead partner. Who's WHO's under indictment apparently turned over a variety of documents to the House that had been released which tend to buttress the argument being made by the House? Impeachment managers injures also gave an interview last night to Rachel Maddow. MSNBC which didn't help the president's case in also just as we were sitting under the podcast news broke that the General General Accountability Office says the GAO which is a non-partisan operation of Congress has concluded that the administration violated the law in holding up aid into Ukraine. So how that's going to play out whether that moves the needle publicly remains to be seen yawn and on the Ukrainian side also coming out today. There's been a flurry of news. And I suspect we'll see see. More Ukrainians themselves have announced their mounting an investigation into whether or not the US ambassador at the time was being improperly surveilled by Ukrainians. So there's there's a great deal of concern about improper behavior happening across the board and it's adding to as you said Jim the pressure that is going to mount on the senators about about the extent to which they they dig further into this case or not one thing I just know that people are watching the proceedings on television and one of the interesting questions to fall the will be. What percentage senator of American? TV's tuned into the impeachment. Trial the cameras in the Senate chamber are operated by Senate employees none of the networks or or cable news channels. Have a say about where those cameras are pointed and indeed the president is. CNN has been arguing that CNN should be allowed to have cameras in the Senate so he can make its independent editorial decisions about where to focus cameras just before we wrap the session up. I think they're really sort of two other issues. To think about. One is the question of what what impact is the trial going. Have on President Trump in the conduct of American foreign policy. And I think that's very hard question to answer. We're not really sure but what I do know. Is that every move. The president makes informed policies is going to be subjected to intense amount of media scrutiny and speculation nation about his motives. Well we've already seen the attack that killed custom Sola money. Some people were using the phrase wag the dog in terms of generating News in such a way to divert attention in and support the president's case and so forth. Yeah we're GONNA see a lot more of that because again. I think once it goes to trial with the attention being focused on it everything goes up to to eleven on the one to ten scale. You're going to point out one other thing Jim. I would just one quick question though. Is that a chance. This trial goes up to and beyond the scheduled state of the Union address on February fourth. Because I would be quite interesting drama as well. I think right now nobody knows. How long does trials going last? Sort of the betty money going in is two weeks however. I just think that there's a lot of moving parts here and could end up in a situation where it runs longer than that I think. In that case there may be a move to postpone or delay the the the state of the Union address. We'll sort of see how that plays out and again we don't know what other information may come up in the next several weeks again flipside. Is this trial. How could be over in less than two weeks? I mean the range of possibilities here is quite large the other thing. I just wanted to point out about thinking of how the trial is going to play out in its consequences. Consequences is the effect is going have on the Democratic presidential race. You mentioned February. Four th scheduled time of the state of the Union while the day before February third. That's Camila Caucasus. Correct and you basically have of the six leading Democratic candidates freelancer United States senators. You're thinking senator. The club Char Senator Sanders and senator. Warren they're all going to have to be in Washington. DC while Joe Biden. People to judge and Tom Star crisscrossing is crossing. Iowa were dropping in on New Hampshire visiting South Carolina. And so you know. There's going to be a lot of question of how does that affect dynamics in are we going to see Z.. Disputes breakout in. The Democratic Party will believe the trials being used or delayed to hurt the candidacies of more progressive candidates. You you can see a variety of ways in which this could become very controversial and I will note that Senator Marsha Blackburn of Tennessee Republican yesterday. She called on Club Shar Sanders in Warren to recuse themselves from the trial citing let me quote her here unparalleled political interest and quote in removing trump from office. Now I don't expect Senator Klobuchar Sanders in Warren to remove themselves from the trial but I can also magic on twitter cable news where people feed on controversy discount becoming bigger and bigger issue. Wow high drama indeed okay. We'll hold on here. We go Bob. Let's move away from the impeachment process and talk about China issue. This year. The Chinese Lunar New Year falls on Saturday. That's the twenty fifth and this will mark the transition from the year of the pig to the year of the rat now amid the preparations nations for the Multi Week celebration. There is a concerning mysterious pneumonia-like outbreak in the city of Wuhan in the WHO Bay province of China. This virus is captured tension because it's similar in many ways to the virus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. SARS people boomer member over a decade ago. Saw can you give us a sense of how the outbreak might affect China and surrounding neighbors as literally millions of people travel travel throughout the region. During what is a big time for celebration. Absolutely jemma is very much a time of of movement and usually a very festive atmosphere atmosphere. Both in people travelling to see relatives to go to other places in the country but also that the types of foods they eat so there several issues that are raising concern. Here one as you say. This illness bears very sort of uncomfortable similarity to stars however big difference being the human to human transmission is not been born out in any fashion that we've seen yet it has been cases that have been reported outside of China now at latest report both Vietnam and in Japan people who were afflicted seemed to have recovered covered fully and not spread it to anyone else nor do they seem to have gotten it from another person That is being watched extremely closely. But it's happening also at a time in our colleague John. John Song is written about this for. Our website is happening time when there's also been a really devastating outbreak of swine fever in the country. It's are the two related or there's entirely separate issues that the moment it looked to be separate issues and again this is something that involves pork and involves the spread of illness via the consumption of pork or the proximity to pigs. Pork stocks have plummeted because of the culling of herds to to try to cut down on the incidence of this and we should note. China has is now had because of SARS in particular it has really ramped up. Its ability to respond to this. There were still a number of concerns that it was slow and reporting this latest illness. By a couple of weeks they were oppressed by global. Shed some light on what was happening. Now they have doesn't have the most open discourse within the country on media but they are reporting diligently by appearances appearances where the cases have seen keeping an eye on what's happening in Hong Kong or some cases have been reported or suspected cases When people arrive in Hong Kong there is this whole screening process? That goes is on where people are checked for this illness. And it's it's it's a concern to throughout Asia. Actually I mentioned Vietnam. It's actually was Thailand and then Japan where other cases were seen but there are concerns earns that suspected cases also in Singapore just given the nature of travel given the nature of ethnic Chinese movements of marketing this Lunar New Year which is mark basically until up to mid February they There's just a great deal of caution about not assuming that there is no capability of human transmission of this and so they have to take these precautions. Jim But there has been just far too many of these types that's about breaks in recent years causing a huge amount of unease. And so it's like it's it's it's a test for a country that still has places like Wuhan where there's these major major open marketplaces where disease could spread the animal to human possibility that human to human and it just the general closeness of people travelling together raises the the specter of some sort of infection spreading. So it's being watched very closely again. The good news is that it's not protest levels at SARS SARS ended up killing more than seven hundred people and really caused People recall in the early two thousands of calls the kind of a clampdown on lockdown on travel for a while a while they were trying to get a grip on it and again did trigger better reporting mechanisms for China the whol. Uh other world. Health Organization got heavily involved in pressing Chinese authorities to to monitor and report on this. So we're hoping that this year of the rat kicks off in a way that's not marred marred by any sort of mass illness. I think it's been very interesting to follow this. Both in terms of what happens with this virus and how long it takes scientists to gain the necessary understanding ending of transmission lethality ways to respond to it and the like. But it's also going to be very interesting to watch how the Chinese government handles it. You mentioned you and John Wong Our colleague WHO's written about a lot of this and he has noted that at least this time around the Chinese government seems to be a bit more transparent but sort of the whole all nature being transparent leading information flow letting people know that perhaps the government has done something wrong. Isn't the way of the Chinese Communist Party so in some sense this. This is the exact kind of problem that points to real weakness. Indeed Brittleness in the Chinese political system in one can imagine a variety ways. This could play out. They increase the stresses on the Chinese leadership. Now it's a really good point Jim and again. It's when you have a public health crisis that can jump borders like this. You just can't be in the business of controlling rolling information and so we saw just thinking of another example when the Ebola outbreak occurred in these destitute African countries in that for all the problems there in terms of the way information formation was conveyed. At least you did have pretty up to the minute reporting on where a Bolo is being cited and also the quashing of reports of of a bowl of spreading to places like Nigeria. where it it was pretty much? Any sort of a susceptibility. There during the thirties reacted pretty quickly. Again we're waiting to hear will rely on the fact Chinese authorities not only having a capability to counter after the illness through their own healthcare skills but also the information flow being such that you know people can be at ease and also can make plants whether it's people traveling on holiday or ORB or businesses. Or what have you it has a whole knock on effect certainly does and I think this is going to be something to watch and obviously for people who are in the public health space traditional traditional concern for a long time has always been the appearance of a new virus a new disease particularly Fowleri that spreads easily and that would go from being a localized incident to a global pandemic. That doesn't seem to be the case here but I think watching how governments respond directly to China's come respond to this issue can give you some sense of whether or how confident to be in how governments respond to the potential for a pandemic like instance Jim another migration Gratien of sorts that occurs. This time of year is to Davos Switzerland and that would be the World Economic Forum annual meeting this year about fifty or so heads of state from round the world travel there the focus. This year is supposed to be on sustainability in the environment. President trump plans to make the trip to attend the conference. So a lot to talk about. Obviously can you tell us a little bit about what to expect and why this Conference Matters Da. VOSE is probably the International Conference for Globalization and during the nineteen nineties going in the two thousands. It was the place to see and be seen was really sort of the physical manifestation notion that we were going toward a more integrated connected world with people in ideas and goods going across borders course for the last decade. The trend has been exactly the opposite direction. We're seeing serve the renationalization of politics. We are seeing a backlash against globalization. And that's why in some sense there ironies here in Davos and you note that president trump is going to. At least I should say as of now is scheduled to go to Davos whether he sticks that plan given the impeachment trial beginning next week. Is it's an open question. But as you mentioned the intro. The theme of Davos this year is sustainability and the environment. And there's going to be a lot of work about about how to improve or track progress on Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals but obviously president trump is somebody who a I think embodies ladies the renationalization of politics trend but also is somebody who's been quite hostile to the idea that climate change is a real issue where the one that requires wires action by individual governments just last November. He formally notified the international community that the United States will withdraw from the Paris climate agreement at as soon as possible time in about two years. So it's a little bit of a disconnect between we're global trends are right now and certainly what the president of the United States champion. Uh and we just come through a decade. That's now been marked as the hottest on record so plenty to mine out of that conference that's supposed to be dealing with the environment. But you're right. I mean it's I think about what as you described as sort of the focal point of globalization and discussions and it used to be people who tended to be known as quote Unquote Davos Man. Even if they were woman was Davos man was this sort of symbol of the global figure astride the stage and when necessary Davos man would also exhibit aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility. It's not really clear. What's GONNA emerge from this year's Davos Jim? Even if president trump does not attend a certain land. I think you know one of the big questions that's going to obviously happen. Here is what kind of conversations are going to be happening on the side. These by lattes can be as important if not more important than whatever's formerly on the agenda now. I haven't seen any schedule. Come out of the White House in terms of what president trump's via lateral meeting schedule might look like I do know that at Davos. They're going to be an awful lot of trade and finance ministers gathering around and obviously for president trump trade policy is a big issue. He has been very critical international trade system. We just had the deal wrapped up with China. The so-called China Phase one trade deal which is either a major breakthrough according to the White House or not much of a breakthrough indeed even retreat. If you talk to the president's critics but obviously potential for a lot happening on the trade front as this goes down. I will note that Greta Thunberg the Swedish teenager who you caused some of us in sation. Last year was named Time's person of the year with Dabo's she other climate activists are going to be pushing very hard word for all the Dabo's attendees to halt all investments in fossil fuel exploration and extraction immediately end all subsidies to fossil fuel companies. BINNY'S I don't expect that effort to go very far in indeed. President trump represents the other end to that political debate because he has championed and and highlighted what is a trend that long predates his administration. Which is fossil fuel development here in the United States the development of fracking and the United States? It's really emerging as well. I think now we're the world's largest producer of oil and gas so that's another conversation is going to be at Davos and just to confirm you will not be going this sure Jim Bob. My rule is to go away from snow not toward snow got. It also wasn't invited Bob. Let's move onto our figures of the week. This week's audience figure which comes to US via via our twitter poll is deemed Putin Bob Wisey audience pointing to the President of Russia. Well to the surprise of exactly no one. The president of Russia has signaled that they're going to be some changes involved that position him to continue to serve Russia beyond the constitutional limit of two terms as president so his term as president runs out in two thousand twenty four. He took steps this week. That seemed to look like they will be enhancing the role of prime minister in Russia and in such a way that when twenty twenty four rolls around he himself could assume that role for the time being he has nominated the head of the Russian tax. Service Mikhail Shusen if I got that print station correct to step in and replace as Dmitry Medvedev in factories replacing the whole cabinet and there's a whole sorts of speculation. Obviously there's all it's all about president for life aspect but as well as why now what are the signals domestically. It's not really a surprise in some ways that he might want to shop around things. Domestically Russia has been striding the world stage in in a more muscular way. Recently whether you look to the Middle East or elsewhere swear by domestically its record is quite different. And it's I think the president is looking to maybe read things up on the local front meacham admit of it. The now ousted prime administer had a very low approval rating. Think he was sort of although he's been very loyal supporter of president is now seen as sort of sacrificed as part of this move. which is again is years ahead of time is setting the stage for Vladimir Putin to pivot into a next Sort of position of power. We should know he did this several years ago. I think two thousand eight two thousand twelve period where he was a prime minister who essentially lead the country while Mr Mendieta was president and then he became president again. It does not ogre well for Democratic trends in Russia. And it's a question Shindo about again to what extent these shuffle at the moment is going to lead in any policy change direction that not domestically internationally Bob. If we've seen any early reactions actions among ordinary Russians about this decision I asked because last year Russia saw fair number of local protests about the failures failures of the government are people turning out in the streets saying we want to keep the old system of government not change it not have a leader for life or war is the sense at least now for most Russians just shrug. Your shoulders is the way the world works at the moment appears to be a bit. More of the Shrug Jim than it filling up the streets in protest us. It doesn't mean that people are not concerned about it and that the people who were part of those protests have not voiced concern. We've seen discharge constitutional coup raised and also concerns about Out further clampdowns on public expression among the areas there's concern about is Internet. Russians are still able to convey formation express themselves on the Internet more freely than say China and Putin would like to emulate China model that Xi Jinping Model we should Xi Jinping is a year younger than Putin himself as orchestrated leadership for life model there and and he in prison she and President Putin have been making more common cause recently we should say so. Yeah I think it remains to be seen what steps might trigger Street Creek Protests Jim. But it's certainly a bit of angst by. I'm not sure whether it's going to end up to this point. So that doesn't look to be a viable anti-putin force operating operating in Russia. Right now no I would say now Jim Who or what is your figure? That week Bob. My figured week is a number and I'm going with the number three as in the e U three. That's a term of art for Germany Britain and France and their role in the Iran. Nuclear Deal in the e U three made news this week because they formally formally accused Iran violating the terms of the two thousand and fifteen nuclear deal. They did so extensively in response to Iran's announcement instrument back on January six that it was no longer going to abide by the deal and in fact had scrap limits on enriching the uranium. Now now I want to be very careful here that this move sets up the potential underscore potential for the enactment of what are called. Snap back back sanctions that is to reinstitute the sanctions that the United Nations had placed on Iran before the deal and that were lifted because of the deal it doesn't make that imposition implementation of snap back sanctions inevitable. All this is going to be subject to negotiation and also want to be clear that in doing this the EU three isn't joining the US maximum pressure campaign against Iran. I think what London Paris and Berlin are trying. China do is to get the Iranians to take a positive step that might be able to stimulate potential talks negotiations on this to get a new and and better deal. We will see how that plays out. I will note that the initial reaction from Iran was denounce the European move and so the initial situation doesn't seem conducive to a settlement but obviously when you're negotiating there's no incentive made the other side think you're about to give given or concede something even if may be willing to do so do the European states or the e three at least have much leverage at this point in terms of what kind of business they were doing or conducting their on. It seemed like there was a great deal of if not official and unofficial obeying of the US sanctions. That had been ramping up dramatically over the last several several months so that European firms wouldn't do business even leadership was was saying. Okay reality is no. They don't the fact is the United States is a dominant player in the international economy enemy. Certainly in the international financial system the trump administration is quite happy to impose so called secondary sanctions that is companies that aren't US companies. If they engage in traber there on the United States. Just shut him out of the. US market and as you point out most European firms looked around and said Iran markets small potatoes compared to being in the US market. So doesn't matter that Berlin or Paris or London want us to work with Iran not in our own corporate interest to do so. I don't think any of that is is going to change but I also think that if you look at the European Union it has served two big concerns one is that it worries about what will happen if the Iran deal in fact does come apart. They don't want a nuclear orange and they are skeptical that the maximum pressure strategy can produce regime change that will somehow how save us from having confront the fact of Iran moving toward a nuclear capability. I also think Europeans worry given their proximity to Iran about Aronie and operations clandestine operations on their soil in movement last several months of European countries publicly pointing to malign Linux activities by the Iranians in Europe so I think they also see it as a security threat. Now I guess the consensus in your it would be great if we could come back and get ah a better deal with. Iran's give up some more. The United States and Europe gets more from the Iranians and I think Prime Minister Boris Johnson of Great Britain said he wants to get trump deal and so maybe we will get a trump deal but that's by no means certain and we should note that Iran has always maintained. Officially it is not pursuing a nuclear weapons program not interested in such while it does resent the sanctions against a civilian nuclear program does not intend to and at the moment it also remains within the nuclear non-proliferation trees. UN inspectors are allowed to inspect various sites is correct. I think that's important to state that the Iranians continue to allow I e a Ian inspections and the Iranians have not do this point conducted anything to the best of our knowledge that would qualify as a breakout or surge in nuclear nuclear activity. But what about you Bob. Who are what is your figure? The Week Jim. I figured we person. And it is Mustafa custom this is an American citizen. WHO DIED in Egyptian prison this past week after he had been engaged in a series of hunger strikes protesting his imprisonment? He had been arrested and detained since two thousand thirteen sort of caught up in a crackdown by corruption President Abdel Fattah see after his military takeover. He was visiting at the time. And just as I said got caught up in something that truly seem to be beyond him and yet despite various appeals including right up to president trump he was never able to get his freedom of the president. We should know was able to secure the freedom. Some other Egyptian Americans in recent years but the case of Mister Qasim was not resolved it is unclear the extent to which official US channels are pressing Egypt on what happened here and whether or not there's going to be any a follow up to this but one would think that would happen given the sort of outspoken nature of the president's comments on other Americans held elsewhere in his touting of his track record on freeing them his UH national security advisor actually Robert O'Brien played a role previously in freeing Americans held unjustly and other countries including Iran. But this is a real test for the administration in some ways it also could could be interesting to see whether or not this death and the treatment of Mr Qasim because he was reportedly tortured repeatedly whether this sort of magnitsky style measures by the US Congress businesses in reference to Sergei Magnitsky. The the Russian lawyer who was killed in captivity and has Israeli triggered at a series of serious targeted sanctions against individuals in Russia and elsewhere. Why haven't we heard more about this case Bob particularly given two things one president trump has been quite happy to apply maximum pressure and lots of other governments we certainly have leverage average over the Egyptians but the other thing is you just mentioned? It's American citizen. Who have good reason to believe was being tortured absolutely Jim? I don't know I've been looking for more details on the case it does seem like it's a sort of thoroughly averaged guy who was tragically caught up in this case he was a I think he was a taxi driver back in on Long Island and perhaps APPs didn't have the sounding board he needed to get his his case Sort of escalated. Whatever appeals were made and there were certainly a number of reports from human rights bodies and himself in his own backers? It just did not seem to resonate. I will be curious to see how far this particular case continues persists in whether or not again there is some movement towards getting accountability from the Egyptians options. But the We should note. There's strong security relationship between the United States and Egypt Egypt was a very large recipient of US military aid and so that is a factor as well so it remains to be seen. Jim It's at the moment. It means a tragic case and a case that should cause some alarm for Americans to travel in countries with authoritarian leadership. Certainly really shut. Well that's our look at the world next week. Here's some other stories to keep an eye on U K Africa. Investment Summit is held in London and Russia marks the anniversary of Lennon's death. Please we subscribe to the world next week. Can Apple PODCASTS spotify. or every you get your podcast in Lima's review while you're at it to help us get noticed improved. Show please note that opinions expressing the world next week of solely those of the host or guests not of C. Afar which takes no institutional positions. Today's program was produced by so he calls with senior producer. Jeremy Sherline our recording according engineers were Anthony Berry in Sander special. Thanks in a short bridge assistant. Our theme music provided by Gail Herrero licensed under treated DOT COM. This is Jim Lindsey saying goodbye and this is Bob McMahon saying so long.