Dutch Manhattan - Henry Hudsons Big Mistake | 1


You may sixteen owned nine. You're a sailor aboard a small wooden vessel somewhere off the coast of norway within a few hundred miles of the arctic russian throughout your career doing local voyages. You've longed to be part of a big ocean going adventure and now you are but it's more than you bargained for winds are howling and you're surrounded by mountains of ice. Your ship is practically stuck in it. You've been commissioned by the dutch east india company to find a northeast passage to asia ed. What's your tiny ship was not built for fighting through some of the harshest weather on the planet and it doesn't help that you're captain. Henry hudson failed in a similar effort last spring because now he's even more determined to succeed. You're loyal to hudson. He gave you the job but you're starting to have doubts as you secure align with frozen fingers. His fellow crew member mutters under his breath. When will he give up. It's been two months. It's gonna see all kill. Captain hudson has sailed more oceans than you've had hot meals. He's friends with the greatest map makers of the age. You'll get us to asia. He still believes that pepper nutmeg. There's not enough pepper and nutmeg in the world for this out. Just then the captain appears on deck and surveys the conditions after a few moments he calls after the first mate words. You've been longing to hear. That's it mr jewett. We're done here. Cheer goes up among your fellow sailors and you feel a wave of relief refinery finally going home back to amsterdam warmer waters. Maybe if you're up to it you can all try again next spring but then the captain holds up his hand to quiet the crew through gentlemen our goal is not yet achieved. We will go another way we shall reverse course and make our way across the atlantic ocean at this the crew rops half dutch and half are english fights have been breaking out between the two groups but now they all seem to come together in opposition position to this change of plans won sailor of burly man with heart is steps forward euros mad as they say avoid that would take months he he holds up his hand and what about these frostbitten fingers and the shift has been battered. We need repairs. Hudson is adamant and he is your captain out hear. His word is law. We shall discover the passage to the northwest accrue surges forward on deck clamoring to speak the ugly threat of mutiny hangs things in the air. Would you get an idea you step up to the captain side and whisper captain. You told us before the chart you had from captain john smith perhaps if you show it to the men things for a moment then not the first mate disappears below deck returning a few moments later with a rolled up chart captain often gathers the men and spreads the chart out for them as he explains his thinking heads begin to not and your fellow sailors slowly come around all except for one what what about the frostbite you turn to him. There will be time crossing the atlantic for you to heal that. Doesn't orders are shouted. The captain commands the helm to reverse course make for the west and beat of course across the atlantic true says to work. There's hope and henry hudson's voice as he points westward the the passage to asia lies west we sail for america american history tellers sponsored by the podcast original natural disasters soon amies volcanoes tornadoes earthquakes. 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We'll take you to the events events the times and the people that shaped america and americans are values are struggles in our dreams who put you in the shoes of everyday citizens as history was being being made and we'll show you how the events of the time affected them their families and affects you now the fateful decision in sixteen o nine by the headstrong english of captain henry hudson diverted his battered crew from the frigid waters off northern scandinavia and rerouted them toward north america. It would be one of the most consequential angel chorus changes in history. The first step in the european development of an island called manhattan in time that island we become the most densely populated piece piece of real estate in the united states the churning home to everything from global finance to global fashion. This series is written by russell shorto and based on his bestselling. I selling book the island at the center of the world that island manhattan with part of dutch colony called new netherland that encompassed parts of five future states new york new jersey connecticut delaware and pennsylvania. It's capital new amsterdam occupied the southern tip of manhattan island and became the center of a future american nation because the dutch brought with them too key ingredients tolerance and capitalism but before the dutch could plant a colony they had to chart and claimed territory. That's where the legendary explorer henry hudson and his huge history changing blunder enters the picture. This is episode one henry henry hudson's big mistake hudson was an english sea captain who was by all accounts bold brilliant and bull headed all traits that mariner needed especially in the days of braving the open ocean and small wooden vessels he was also on the cutting edge of recent discoveries and innovations agents in map-making hudson had made several voyages in the early sixteen hundreds in search of a short route to asia none chief that goal but they showed that ships could navigate the treacherously actress lee icy waters of the north sea and they showed that hudson himself was utterly fearless. He became a legend a sailor. Everyone believed was about to change. The world. Hudson made his mark at the end of the great age of exploration. When european nations sent ships farther and farther in search of lands to colonize and exploit the men he admired tired and wanted to emulate where people like christopher columbus who more than a century before had led the first expedition across the atlantic force contact with people in the caribbean and south south america and began the colonization of those regions a few years later the portuguese explorer ferdinand magellan atlanta expedition to find a westward route to the spice islands cabeza. The fact that magellan had died on the voyage was a mere detail to hudson. What mattered was that he had found the way columbus and magellan had traveled for spain the great empire of the day but by hudson's time spanish power was waning it stretches self too far spent too much in its population had been ravaged by the plank make the seventeenth century had dawn and it would be dominated not by the spanish but by two rival nations the english and the dutch both were eager to test their power. You're an established outposts in far-flung lands hudson had made at least two voyages on behalf of an english company called the moscow v company as its name suggests it it had come into being to exploit trade with russia especially for furs but like other companies it was branching out the economies of europe were expanding and there was an enormous this market for goods that until recently had been seen as luxury items finding a short route to the richest of asia was suddenly terribly important hamper cinnamon nutmeg cash asha turmeric such spices. Were not only prize for cooking. Some were considered aphrodisiacs. People use them as remedies against the common cold others it was believed could could ward off the plague. They were so cherished at a rallying cry. Among explorers was for christ and spices finding the best route to the riches of asia had been an obsession for centuries people went overland through persia india turkey and china crossing the gobi desert and enduring bandits and starvation or they went by sea hugging the coast of arabia and india navigating dangerous straits and battling pirates every variation was fraught with peril so finding short round would bring staggering angering wealth and with it supremacy over other european nations but finding a short route asia involved only one of three options at the time the first was to go northeast above scandinavia and russia which everyone knew was treacherous because of the cold and the ice the second was to go west or northwest finding a passage through north america the third which was actually what hudson tried on his first known voyage for the moskvy company was the craziest of all sailing through the north pole but it didn't seem crazy crazy observers had noted that during the summer the sun didn't set at the north pole one writer even speculated that perpetual clearness of the day without any darkness of the night warmed turned up the atmosphere of the poll a prevailing theory at the time held at once you got close enough to the polls of the earth the ice would begin to melt allowing for smooth navigation but when hudson actually tried this approach in sixteen o seven he found it sailing straight over the north pole was exactly like sailing into a wall of ice frigid and foolhardy he he returned to london and failure the next year he tried the first option going via russia and that too was a disaster then after sixteen o eight voyage wage. The muskogee company dropped him. Maybe it was his bull headedness which made him dr cruise beyond their endurance but at the moment the company dropped him a man named emmanuel annual ben matron entered the picture and made her and was the dutch ambassador in london he was brilliant rich and well connected with a network of spies and confidants around london and across europe he understood as well as anyone that the race was on to find a shortcut asia and like others he believed that henry hudson had the guts and know how how to do it as soon as the muskogee company dropped hudson van meter and showed up on his doorstep full of gentility and exhibiting his appreciation of all that hudson had done if the english had lost faith in their greatest semen the dutch were happy to give him an opportunity to achieve the breakthrough that he'd been working to work and made her and invited hudson to pay visit to amsterdam. Some powerful dutch merchants very much wanted to meet him. Hudson didn't have to ponder for very long such a visit would in effect be flirting with the enemy emme but hudson was fueled by his obsession. He wasn't about to let international relations stand in his way. Imagine it's a fall of sixteen o eight. You're the director of the dutch east india company board meeting at your headquarters in amsterdam you look around the heavy table at your colleagues each of u._s. Leather boots lace collars and wide brim hats within the past decade. Your company has opened up trade with asia and major tiny nation into a great power and has also made you very rich but not all your gambles have paid off ships. Sink cargo and men are lost. It takes takes two years for a return voyage from the spice islands. You and your colleagues are convinced. There's a shorter route and that the man you're about to meet confined it when he enters the room you rise smile and speak in halting english greetings captain hudson welcome. Your english is imperfect and hudson's dutch is horrible but hudson has brought a friend a dutch cartographer who is on hand to pave over any language problems with his help able to make your offer clear. You won't hudson to sail for the dutch east india company. You will supply the ship and the crew hudson only takes a moment to respond gentlemen. Your timing is excellent for after many years of trial and and era now certain i know the route. There's a gasp at this news. You lean forward well excellent than it saddled. No doubt you'll want to confer with our chief cartographer for a likely route through the northeast the route we want you to follow it goes by way of noah zimba. Suddenly hudson's face turns dark now impossible. I sailed that way last spring. There's nothing but is it isn't navigable but i have the best and latest information. There is a channel through north america which connects next the atlantic and pacific oceans. It's simply a matter of sailing up the coast and locating. What's your own dutch. Map makers are universally acknowledged to be the best in the world and they i do not believe such a channel exists as director you feel you must take control captain. If you sail for us and we'll be on our terms as you say this you meet hudson's fierce expression. He doesn't look like a man who changes his mind once. It's made up on the other hand. The next sailing season isn't until the spring. You have some months you tell yourself that hudson will come around that time will bring about an agreement between the world's greatest company and the world's most renowned explorer because it has to this. This isn't just about riches. Future of your young nation is at stake over the course of that winter of sixteen exte- no wait and sixty nine spies from other nations got word of the negotiations between the english mariner and the dutch company. He was a crucial time in european politics war or had engulfed much of europe a conflict so vast it would eventually be called the eighty years war at the heart of it conflict between spain and the dutch republic before before the dutch had been individual provinces holland zeeland gelderland you tracked friesland groningen overijssel existing under the holy roman roman empire while the spanish king charles. The fifth was in control. The dutch provinces were mostly content. They paid their taxes to the empire and in return they received protection but when charles's son philip took the throne as king of spain the situation deteriorated as spain's coffers became depleted philip increased taxes on the dutch and finally the dutch broke away spain retaliated sending the dreaded spanish inquisition into the country to punish the dutch for converting from catholicism awesome to calvinism as well as for their political insurrection at the very moment that hudson was meeting with a dutch merchants amsterdam thirty miles away in the hague a truce it finally being negotiated spain was especially concerned by the recent events two years earlier dutch ships decimated a spanish fleet off gibraltar that attack act made it clear to king philip that the world was changing his empire was endanger and could be overshadowed by this tiny collection of dutch provinces and if henry hudson with his experience at supposed secret knowledge were to sail for the dutch and find a new faster route to asia it could mean the end of spanish glory but the spanish weren't the only the ones who were concerned the french who were anxious and they tried to put together their own offer to lure hudson away from the dutch but the power and money of the dutch east indian company was is to huge a draw for an ambitious explorer in hudson eventually returned to amsterdam and continued his negotiations the contract he signed however had a curious line in the you see captain that said we'll think of discovering no other routes or passages than one through the northeast the dutch merchants knew the tendencies of the willful englishman and did their legalistic best to ensure that he would follow their wishes for hudson though words on paper were simply a means to get his plan funded he would make a pretense of carrying out the dutch the east india company's wishes and so he did leading his crew in the dutch ship the half moon up along the coast of norway into the frigid waters of the barents sea despite fight knowing in his heart that this route was surely icebound hudson carried out the terms of his contract with dutch merchants until his crew came close to mutiny and that's when he made his onboard on-board announcement instead of going back to amsterdam they would change direction and follow the only route he believed had a chance of success. 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Today and mail chimp will be there to help as your business grows and needs new capabilities so if you want to grow your business and you're wondering now what mail chimp that's what learn more at mail chimp dot com american history tellers is sponsored by chase well. The search is over. It's been a rough road. The two of you been looking for months getting it bit desperate with a baby on the way but now you found it. This could be your new home. Your family's new home your agent's lining things up on the phone with an offer you open empty cabinets and closet doors not really sure what you're looking for so much to think about inspectors paperwork title companies and a mortgage but that you have covered you've been smart and went with chase. You know the last few years have been a seller's market and that it's important for buyers to be taken seriously chases. Closing guarantee is one way to stand hand out as a chase customer. You'll close quickly or you'll get one thousand dollars getting your first home even faster with chase where more chase dot com mm slash tellers chase make more of what's yours all home. Lending products are subject to credit property approval rates. Program terms and conditions are subject to change without notice. Not all products are available available in all states or for all amounts other restrictions and limitations apply home lending products offered by j. p. morgan chase bank n._a. An equal housing lender in sixteen o nine after defying his orders henry hudson and his crew aboard the half moon sailed west across the atlantic atlantic ocean to try and find passage to asia they went as far south as the chesapeake bay then started their way northward along the coast. They were looking for a particular kind of waterway one that might prove to be a channel connecting to oceans the thinking behind this renegade voyage seem strange now but had had its logic at the the time it was believed that all oceans were connected to each other therefore the north american continent had to have a channel that linked to asia people in the early sixteen hundred still relied relied on the calculations of the ancient roman geographer ptolemy to determine the size of the earth and ptolemy had been a brilliant scientist for his time but he had under calculated by about one third word as a result people in hudson's day believed the earth was smaller than it actually is and they assume that the parts of it unknown to them the western region of north america and a portion of the pacific ocean didn't even exist this all informed henry hudson's thought process. If you could find the channel on the east coast of north america and sale west through the continent he could then reach the japan then all of asia's riches would unfold before him it was september of sixteen o nine when hudson found what he was looking for or so we thought sailing into the future in new york harbor was like entering a vast natural cathedral rimmed with trees trees. When the ship entered the river that would later bear his name hudson believed he had found the channel because the river is a tidal estuary. It was salty. Just as a channel channel between two oceans should be and it was a mile wide and fantastically deep hudson's own impressions of the land and people has recorded several years later by a dutch merchant where if a few sieve it was he said as pleasant land as one can tread upon very abundant all kinds of timber suitable for shipbuilding before long hudson and his crew through encountered native americans members of the wick ask tribe. They were greeted warmly. Both sides offered gifts when i went ashore hudson later said the natives all stood jordan sang in their fashion one of the tribes they met he reported had no houses but slept under the blue heavens some on mats of bullrushes interwoven and someone the leaves of trees at another village further north he found a house well constructed of oak bark and circular in shape with the appearance of having a vaulted ceiling. The people here were also welcoming in his honor. They killed a fat dog and cooked it when he got up to return to a shift for the night rather than sleeping among them they made a show of breaking their bows scenarios and throwing them into the fire so that he would have no fear of them but at other places violence erupted the first mate robert jewett reported in his journal that the a small boat they sent off to explore the far side of the river was attacked by two canoes of natives. One man was shot through the neck with an arrow and died some later encounters were friendly with goods traded but the crew the half moon no longer trusted the people of the river judging from other encounters. It's probably fair to say that. The feelings were mutual. The native native peoples who encountered hudson and his crew reacted to them with a mixture of curiosity wonder where he offers a friendship when things seem threatening violence hudson's since voyage up that river would be momentous in many ways as the ship sailed northward expecting the water to turn to the west jewett made a historic notation looking to his is right he referred to the side of the river that is called manna hata the first written record of the name manhattan hudson's crew had learned the word from the wick ask in their language which it meant place for gathering wood to make bows hudson and his crew may not have even realized that the land they were passing on the eastern side of the river was actually an island as as far as hudson was concerned the river that would be given his name turned out to be a bitter disappointed by the time he had gotten about one hundred fifty miles north the water was losing its salinity eighty and growing narrower. It wasn't turning westward. This was no channel. It was just a river and they were heading towards its source. Finally hudson ordered his men to return home but he didn't head straight for amsterdam where the men who had commissioned him. We're waiting instead he put into the english harm at dartmouth possibly drop off off some of his english sailors their the english authorities have gotten wind of hudson's voyage much international injury was swirling around him now and there was a feeling that hudson had found something value so once they had him on their shores. The english wouldn't let him go around. The clock. Guard was placed on his london home preventing him from returning to amsterdam. The dutch made a diplomatic fuss at this they had legally hired hudson and were entitled to the fruits of his mission. Eventually the english authorities did release the half moon but without hudson its dutch crew members sailed back to answer them and the handed rubber boots log of the boys to emanuel van meter the dutch ambassador the same man who had shown own up on hudson's doorstep a year earlier with the invitation to sail for the east india company. Imagine imagine you're young secretary to the board of the dutch east india company. The board has gathered for a meeting at its amsterdam headquarters. The same place where its members. I interviewed hudson. News has come back at hudson failed in his mission and then board members are despondent so much money and time wasted and we're no closer to finding a shorter route to the spice islands. Another board member has dark thought it can only mean the englishman lied to us. He probably never intended to follow orders. Maybe he intentionally failed. Maybe the whole mission was a stunt men to assist the english. They have a colony in america already jamestown and rumor has it that hudson traded information with john smith of that colony colony. This was all probably meant to distract us while they had already found the asian passage there are rumblings agreement among the other board members but while they have been griping you've been paging through the logbook of robert as well as the account of husbands voyage written by your ambassador and matron. You're beginning to feel excited. It lawrence my i be permitted to speak man who just been grumbling looks at you and surprise with any nonce and you continue to this fox's beaver furs salmon and mullet oaks plums. You see how rich this american lanes as fine a river as can be found it says wide and deep with good anchorage on both sides of very good harbor for all wins. Some of the board members have stopped grumbling. They're paying attention and what what i'm saying is while we must continue to search for the passage to asia. Perhaps we should consider an american colony seems a rich is promising and the best part is the englishman charted at for us. We have here an official written account of all the lands and waters he explored with with this. We can rightly lay claim to all for most of the directors of the dutch east india company. The information that resulted from hudson's voyage was irrelevant. The very name of the company indicated where their interest lay the east indies was where the great wealth that was fueling the dutch golden age came from so plums oak trees america was to them nothing more or less than a distraction and obstacle but other minds took notice. Yes there was money in the east indies but what if the west indies american other words was not just a source of this or that product what if it was something of value in its own right what if mirroring the great east india company they formed a west india company these dutchman began to look at hudson's voyage not as mistake but as there's an unparalleled opportunity mm-hmm during henry hudson sixty-nine voyage he charted much of the east coast of north america but failed to find a passage asia when when he returned back to europe he found himself in deep trouble at home in england prevented from travelling and admonished by the king himself for acting in the service of a rival nation but there were those in in england who still believed in him and some of these people had money sir thomas smith and sir dudley digs or men of means who had backed voyages in the past of course voyages like these are not a guarantee of profit smith's main enterprise the virginia company had cost him a fortune but rather than back out of the exploration game he and digs were all all the more determined to succeed. They wanted to hire hudson and have him try the northwest yet again but hudson was now out of favour. Thanks to his having worked for the dutch watch. He needed a character rehabilitation. They called on their friend henry. The prince of wales the prince met with hudson then in carefully orchestrated maneuver he appeared it in public with a navigator at his side at the royal court at whitehall hudson nodded politely to one in all appearing easy and confident of the prince's side as if they were old friends friends and that did the trick as far as english high society was concerned all was forgiven smith and digs convince some of their other friends to become investors in a new venture they called it the company of gentlemen and bought a ship the discovery hudson raised a crew of twenty three men which included robert jewett his first made from previous voyage as well as hudson sixteen year old son john and on april of sixteen eleven. They set sail once again. The objective was a short route out to asia and this time hudson didn't have to play any games with his backers he had convinced smith and digs that america was the back door to asia. He believed his problem on the last voyage which was that he had not gone far enough. In finding the channel and this time he sailed straight across the atlantic things went smoothly at first though there was grumbling among the crew through when they stopped to pick up a surprise crewman named henry green the others immediately found him suspect he was an infamous gambler near dwell but it appeared that he was a good a friend of hudson's. The captain seemed wanted to have someone he trusted at his side. In may they put into port at iceland to fish shoot birds and bathe in the natural literal hot springs but while they're green the newcomer got into a bloody fight with the ship's surgeon hudson took greenside. The others in the crew didn't like us in june. After skirting south of greenland they reached a region appropriately called the furious over fall a vast stretch of water nearly five hundred miles long and lined with mountains of ice it led into a mammoth inland sea at the northern reaches of canada which would later be called hudson bay the over fall was thick with ice chunks and its current swirled like a vast treacherous whirlpool hemming nodal craft in hudson and crew became trapped in the ice and desperation swept the deck of a little ship the fact that hudson had steered them straight into a death trap set the men against him. They began whispering to each other bowing mutiny. If ever they got out <music> but when the discovery finally broke free of the ice talk of rebellion die down it was august before temperatures were warm enough for them to reach hudson bay day and when they did hudson was delighted he believed that the passage to asia could be located on the western shore assailed across the frigid expanse of the bay and made their way to a neck back of water at its southern end called james bay and here though it was only september they once again became launched an ice nerves quickly became frayed as the realization illustration dawn on the men that they weren't going anywhere they would have to find a way to survive the winter in the limitless canadian wasteland robert jewett who had served hudson the longest turned on him openly he jeered at the captain for having bragged that they would not only discover the northwest passage but being the spy silence of asia by early february hudson became enrage at ju. It's taunting and moated him on the spot. He then called the crew together and began feverishly accusing them of plotting a mutiny he shifted around jobs in in pay grades based on who he believed was still faithful to him that winter was an appalling slog of sickness hunger deceit mistrust and bone deep deep fifty degrees below zero cold in november one man died and they had difficulty scraping enough of the frozen ground properly bury him men began losing teeth teeth to scurvy they boil pine needles and drank the bitter tea to combat the disease hudson himself was at the limit of his endurance as he divided up the last of the bread. He vowed that once the ice broke you get them all safely back home. Finely june arrived they had survived a winter of unending misery and the ice began began to knelt. They realized they would soon be able to set sail and head home. They were all gaunt nearly feral more like wild animals than a train crew began preparing the ship ship with eagerness until hudson announced that he had changed his mind about returning home with the onset of summer. He declared they were perfectly situated to push westward and find the elusive passage. It was a return to sixteen o eight when after getting free of the ice in the north sea hudson had declared that they would try again and sale for america america that time he was able to convince his crew not this time maginness in june sixteen eleven. You are a young sailor in the service of henry hudson. You're in a narrow coffinlike cabin nursing a badly wounded leg and trying to forget your gnawing hunger. You haven't eaten in three days. The door opens. You're blinded by the sunlight to of your fellow crew members wilson and green stick their heads in dream speaks to you in a harsh whisper. We're doing it with us. What oh look. There's not much time so listen. We've less than fourteen days of food and left isis finally melting soon. We'll be able to sail but the master just announced that we're not heading home but continuing the search in human. We don't have to stand for it so we're taking the show. You can hardly process what they're saying. You tried to delay wait. You're both married men with wives and children a returning home. You would be banished as mutineers the worst that could happen as to be hanged and i'd rather be hanged at home and storm this bloody wilderness. Hasn't you've been a good friend. We want to give you the chance to be with us when we take the ship. When you say you shake your head i thank you but i didn't come to the ship to forsake her or to hurt myself or anyone else with such deed but nevertheless u-haul yourself in follow the others onto the deck of the ship watch captain hudson emerges from the whole to grab his arms swiftly bind them doesn't take long for hudson to understand understand the situation and he sees you lock size calls out your name. You've always been loyal to me. Shaking shaking with fear is the mutineers are on you. I'm not part of this mutiny captain one by one then you take those who remain loyal to hudson and load them into a small boat attached to the ship there eight of them besides the captain including hudson's sixteen year old son. One of the mutineers grabs you too but hudson roars at him. Hey did not join your mutiny. Neither decide with me. Man is uncertain eventually takes his hands off you remain on deck staring down at hudson in the small vessel the noise and confusion that follows hudson calls up to you just barely loud enough for you to hear where jewett was the ringleader foul master you take a risk that you will not be heard by the other whisper back. Don't henry green the see the shock walk of this register with hudson green. The man he brought aboard as his personal confidante was the head of the rebellion after hudson and his group of loyalists were loaded into the small boat the mutineers cut the line held it to the discovery ships at sales they filled with air and the discovery began rapidly moving away from the smaller vessel after awhile though the mutineers on the discovery looked back and saw the men in the shallow expertly working the little boats sales and catching up with the ship there must have been a moment of queasy panic as the mutineers who thought they leather betrayed captain behind found him gaining on them they couldn't bear to look into the faces of the men that they had consigned to icy deaths so they work quickly and unfurled big mainsail and discovery shot forward again and soon the little boat was out of their sight for good swallowed up by the white expanse of ice nc henry hudson's tenacity and single-mindedness led ultimately ultimately to his death and icy entombment and the vast canadian bay that bears his name to the end he remained fixated on one goal a short route to asia hudson's obsession meant that he was almost certainly blind to the significance of his earlier and far more historic voyage the hudson river would become one of colonial america's most crucial waterways always a conduit for settling a new nation and with the advent of the erie canal in the eighteen twenties it would link the wider world places as far-flung as liverpool and hongkong song to the american heartland most important of all though was the island that hudson had sailed serenely past one september day in sixteen o nine and island that thanks to him would be claimed by the dutch it would be a place where the dutch pioneered concepts of tolerance and capitalism would breed new civilization one that would express its furious growth growth skyscrapers and teaming neighborhoods packed with striving immigrants and it would begin on the island of manhattan you next on american history tellers twelve years after hudson chartered the river that would bear his name the dutch use his voyage as the basis for a new colony settlers lurs are spread up and down the east coast until a violent encounter with native americans forces them to come together and form a capital on manhattan island from wondering this is american history tellers. I hope you enjoyed this episode. If you did subscribe now on apple podcasts spotify who podcast wondering dot com or wherever you're listening right right now if you're listening on a smartphone tapper swipe over the cover on this podcast find the episodes including some details humaneness also find some offers from our sponsors <music> supporting them you help us offer this show to you for free and if you do like this show we love you to give us a five star rating and review. I always love to know your thoughts and reviews are the best way for others to find the show all your friends and family and show them how to subscribe you can also find us and me on twitter facebook follow the show at a._h. Tellers i'm at lindsey graham and thank you american history tellers has hosted edited and produced by me lindsey graham for airship sound design by derek barons this episode written by russell shorto at by door and marina edited and produced by jenny lower. Beckman are executive producers. Marshal louis created by her non lopez for wondering wondering.

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