'The Moon's Going Rusty'
Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS. Supportive, Asia. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided internal can. Buy ignition sequence spins nuts. To Fatten. Feels good. Hello once again and thank you for joining us. This is the space nuts podcast episode two, one, nine. My Name is Andrew Dunkley I'm your host and with me is always the professional professor of all things. Professor -able. For It I don't profess to be any of us. I couldn't think of a word so I just made one up. To. Come up all the time. The territory where our work hey being well, thank you how how have you been good here. Terrific. Judy audio road trip. Last week, we went at at West of New South Wales northwest, and we went to a an opal mining town called lightning. Ridge I think a lot of Australians will ever heard of it, but maybe people from overseas wouldn't have but It's it's the only place in the world where you can get black opal, I saw a pendant and opal pendant. F- asylum, one of the local shops day for one, hundred, twenty one and a half thousand dollars. Both the Judy. I not just stolen ran away. But it it was remarkable. Beautiful. Jim. Beautiful Jim it's the second. The Black Apple attends ad is the second most Ray Jim in the world. Lay you go on. Behind the pink diamond. But on a on a white for white basis, it is one of the most valuable gems on the planet as well. Quirky plice strikes little price is minds all over the place actually in the town. just to give you an example you. Can Get allocated a fifty by fifty Mehta section of land, and that's your mining entitlement and what they generally do is they drill a hole down about fifty, sixty eight till I get through the sand Stein, and then they faucet around under there in the client for the for the Apple. Same. We went down to mines while we were there, it's just an amazing place. And then we went to the iconic western town of book on the dialing. River and then came home through the the mining town of about that, my Nopal, they my mind, COPPA zinc and gold and Again, the center of the town is just got a massive open cut mining it. It's It's a really interesting place to visit three very different but I connect. places in Western New South Wales because we couldn't get Canada. We called it the nut candidate to not Canada to a pop to. And now we went out West which locals very much appreciate added to. Your. Yes they would of course. But you sent me a picture of the astronomers memorial. So what about? That was really interesting that was in lightning. Ridge which gives you an idea of how quickly the Pisces somebody on on their actual monning allotment you got to imagine Usually, just build a shack on it to to Sorta in while you not working. But a lot of people who've gone out there of if decided to go the whole hog and built houses on them, will someone built this amazing structure and cold at the astronomers memorial I didn't know it existed until I looked up and I went and had a look at it. But there's a bit of a dockside to two freight unfortunately, the people who are ended his sold to a neighbor and dancing the transaction all at will. So she gets very upset when people got to look at it. while. While we were there taking a pay, she came out and I thought she had a broomstick and she was going to smash me with it so. I didn't hang around too long but yeah, there's a I don't know much about it. Apparently, all the famous astronomers listed on wall, in there somewhere. But I think you have to be delayed to be on the wall. Afraid. Not So Say. You're off the hook though yeah strange. And there's there's another mine not a morning allotment where the guy has spent twenty something years building a castle. Yes. By hand. Yes. One Standard at time entities of. Castle as good a courtyard it's got a tower. It's got. You wouldn't believe that it would be in the middle of a place like this until you came across it and it's called a mega as castle on, it is remarkable and he doesn't live in it. He leaves shack at the back. What else would you do? Do. Resort route. It's lightning. Ridge. New Mexico. That's right. Visited Lining region and indeed. Have a friend who had a minor. So we went down the mind and look at that but it was his friends who were interesting people because they were all exactly as you've described real real characters, absolute characters every single one of them had a great time. Yeah. Very, very ECLECTIC, very Some of them are out on the edge. It's strange mazing place but do highly recommended his a somewhere to stop by for a dietary just have a look around. and they do it but they self drive to us and every- everybody sort of identifies themselves with car doors. Yes. So they'll have the. Property they mind on a car door on a on a tray. And I have a car door I have five Kado to it. So you follow the colored car doors to to different. Points of interest. Brilliant Brilliant. They love it. The other thing to watch remember this very clearly to watch out for. All these miners because they're jealously guarding that properties that they've got Doug Saddam wants that you don't mess with. An I remember one of the the the friends of the people I went that with. The dog was tearing at the tires at least four wheel drive the shanking the car. So we didn't get out, we went for the friend to come out. So we could actually. Get the dog under control it was quite extraordinary. Frontier towns in the. It's an amazing town very much worth visiting anyway I. think that's enough of that we've been. Wrong So I've. Anymore. But the topics of the day. Fred. We're going to look at the rusty crust on the moon that sounds fascinating a story that will be disappointing to some by the doesn't mean. It's an absolute. No, but it appears there are no signs of alien technology from recent surveys. I will talk about very briefly. China's X. Thirty seven based by his craft and questions from the audience about Moose scope. And the expansion of the universe. So that's all coming up on episode two, one, nine of the space nuts podcast nap frayed. Let's talk about the rusty crust of the moon. What's what's happening to the moon or is it rusting? I didn't think there was any water oxygen updated do it the mood going rusty? It's not all of the moon it certain parts of the moon but what's happened is The has been a reanalysis of a data from the Chandra Yon Moon Mineralogy Map. Mineralogy I. Beg Your Pardon Meteorology Mineralogy Map. Instrument, and which is a which flew charter yon was. Several years ago it's an Indian space research organisation. Orbiting the moon. Discovered Water, ice on the moon and essentially mapped out the minerals have this mineralogy, my onboard. And so there has been. Basically, a reanalysis of some of the the data that have come back from that. And what has emerged from that a signs of metallic oxide. If I, remember metallic fool's gold noise. Not something else got remember anyway. The Oxide of iron effectively rust. But Hematite is present on the moon probably in small. In small quantities, but it's detaille was detected by the mineralogy map instrument. And a puzzle to understand how gets there because for hematite to form you need oxygen. And the moon is not well placed frogs June. It's got this hydrogen that which is released by the the water. On. The Moon but not accident. and. So the puzzle has been to try to understand. WHY DOT HEMATITE IS A. predominantly at the polls, which of course, he's weather. The water ice is as well in these really deep craters that never get the sunlight. But the the research that's been done. And this is quite a large group of planetary scientists. The the the what they've done actually suggests that the oxygen comes from the Earth and basically is transported along the basically that the magnetic field. So To get this picture in your mind what that might feel looks like we're used to bomb. Magnetic failed in the probably mentioned the field lines being the those kind of things waving my hands around here. You can see me. So let alone listeners could here at that. Hear it. Anyway. You know. What am I gonNA take field looks like but the s magnetic field is highly distorted by the Sun's magnetic field and so the magnetic field. So that trails behind it and The analogy that's usually used as it's just like a wind sock. Halloween saw points in the away from the direction of the winds coming from likewise the solar wind. Magnetic field trials behind it, and of course. The moon passes through that. Every month basically is through that that wind sock because it goes around the earth and that is the suggestion as to how the oxygen has got there. which is reacted with the iron to full this hematite. Really quite quite an extraordinary An extraordinary story and it might sound a little bit speculative and maybe it is but it is a model that works the the you know the the the calculations that have been done a on the on the. Possibility of this happening all come out positively so It's Big News. We could go high and mining the moon maybe not because it's not wonderful. People probably and and not be guilty this. Think that once you get to the limit of the atmosphere that's where the oxygen stops and as you do increase your altitude, the oxygen levels decrease significantly and that's why they have to. have. Oxygen. Supplies for those high altitude, aircraft and and some of the daredevil to go up there just jump off a platform for the fun of it but. It seems that there is some form of oxygen going well beyond that. That's That's right. Seems to be the Asian. Extraordinary, and let me just correct myself. For something I said earlier. Fool's gold is actually I'm Peretti's. Getting my. Compounds mixed up. PYRITES sometimes called power because it looks like go hematite if I remember these blacks. or Rusty Anyway. I have a rock collection when I was a kid, put it together for my scout troop. So I had all of those. Collection, you should have been stratton award. But Yeah probably like. Z. Collect when you're a kid just somehow vanished one. Piece Yeah. Still looking for my first pair of boots. I don't know what happened to them. We will on their own didn't they? Probably were capable of it by the time finish with Miss Indeed. All right. So the the moon is basically rusting and that sort of brings into play the future potential for mining the moon it must have some interesting. On it that people would have their eyes on at some stage I I would imagine. That's right. That's the next step. Of course, is said to go and trash the moon. Yeah, well, we've crashed a lot of stuff into it so and left all junk this. You're on his role gallon a holiday. Yeah. It'll end up looking like lightning ridge. trucked. All right. You're listening to the space knots podcast with Andrew Dunkley. And Fred Watson. Let's take a short break now for a word from sponsor name CHEPE DOT COM as their slogan says searching by domains from name cheap at the lowest prices. 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Thank you for doing that and if you'd like to, it's pretty easy to find us on Youtube. Just in the youtube search engine spice that's podcast is only Eddie putting the annual. Subscribe, but whatever way you like to listen, we appreciate it and thank you and Cape on listening and don't forget to tell your friends, share it via favorite social media platform as well. and Yeah. If you know anybody who is keen on astronomy and learning as much as I can about what's going on out they make sure you tell them about the spice nuts podcast we certainly appreciate. that. Now Fred This next story is going to come as something of a disappointment I. Suppose to many people but there's been a cross section survey of ten million is. and. There is not drop of water on Iraq, which is a metaphor for no signs of island technology. Exactly. At least not in the seventeen hours of measurement that will. By this experiment that was done by people, I know actually over in Western Australia. So the story is comes from telescope called the Murchison Whitefield Array Ray, which is at the Murchison Radio Astronomy Observatory. In Western Australia one of the most radio quiet regions in the world. And that's also going to be the site of the square kilometer array low frequency antennas, which will be one half of the square kilometer array the other half being in South Africa. So the Murchison wide field array is run by. Basically. A. Group called. E. Crou-, which is International Center for Radio Astronomy Research run by good in university Curtin University but gras. And Curtin University work closely together and scientists. Certainly one of them Steve. Tin Gay. And he's colleague Shona Tremblay. Think he's how you say the name. So those. Scientists have been using the murchison wide field array to look at a Supernova remnant, which is very prominent in the southern Sky Villa Supernova eminent was. Damaged. In Cola using the Schmidt Telescope by David and back in the one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, a very, well known image which. Kind of you know. The color imaging with with visible light telescopes. We now have much better images than those because technology's moved on but. That's A. Of tangled tangled massive, rogen. That is essentially the remnants of a Supernova. Loaded if I remember Riley's of the of the order of ten thousand years, old bucks pulling it from my memory. So these scientists have been looking at that region. But they're looking in frequencies then so using the. Wide Field telescope that looking in frequencies actually correspond to the FM frequency band that we use here on earth. And will instrument is extremely sensitive. The other thing I love about the merchant Whitefield arrays that it looks in many directions at once you just look you know it looks essentially a huge chunk of the sky simultaneously wide field telescope in traditional sense of the word. That I used to work on the Schmidt Telescope was also Whitefield one, but that was in visible light wavelengths. Anyway what they've done, the scientists have essentially looked. For a long period. In the Constellation. Villa. Looking. For observations that will allow them to study the SUPERNOVA remnant but essentially Are also because looking at in the frequency band. Almost vertically. But of course they doing, they're not doing it unintentionally, they're also looking. For any possibility of intelligent signals or artificial signals. So Shino excited. The. mwa Much wide field array. Is it unique telescope with an extraordinary wide field of view that allows us to observe millions of? Stars, simultaneously. We observe the sky around the constellation villa for seventeen hours looking more than one hundred times broader and deeper than ever before with this data set we found no. Signatures no signs of intelligent life. Now, that's you know that some. I guess a to to some extent to be expected but if You would think in those millions of stars they've observed if one of them, how the planets on it going around it with lots of FM signals escaping from, and indeed they do from the earth the FM band actually escaped from the Earth. Then you would think that we might pick something up. So they estimate about ten million straws. At a variety of distances have been surveyed by this technique in the seventeen, our snapshot. There was another comment. which may have come from steep in Gheorghe Steve Tanguy says. Quote that I love a lot because of used it myself as Douglas Adams noted in the HITCHHIKER's guide to the galaxy space is big really big and even though this was a really big study says the amount of space looked was the equivalent of trying to find something in the earth's oceans but only searching volume of water equivalent to a large backyard swimming pool. So they how So. Paper people disappointed with the news that they've found. Nice on Valiente technology could breathe a sigh of relief. We might have just been looking in the wrong place. Well, try this only smoke. Just hand with his seventeen, our study, it's. Could've had blackouts simultaneously Thomas. Schreider meet. You know who knows what kind of technologies They're using this this specifically, I guess looks for. A. Civilizations like our own the particular point in our own evolution technologically. Where we've got to. Where we all leaking radio signals into space. And the NWEA is a great to for finding that if if it exists, of course, the same applies. To the self, the square kilometer array because that. is in many ways even though we're look a bit different is a kind of giant version of the NWEA works in a similar frequency range. What is effectively the VHF band? FM Frequencies until that instrument will have a much bigger range and as. Often trucks out because I love this statistic apparently can detect an airport radar fifty light years or it will be able to build. Of course it's not construction hasn't started yet. We hope construction of the ESCA we'll stop thanks for the square kilometre right the kind of giant version of the Yeah. I actually looking at a photo of the am W I it's. It's amazing. It's might up a four thousand and ninety, six die Paul Antennas that sit on greed. Resembles, a spot away from these things actually look locked spot it's. It's a I ninety s and tenor riot just looks if you're driving pasta looking at it, you go what the? That Hit. It in fact the the photograph you probably looking is really quite dramatic. He's from a very low angle. Actually these things are only about. Eighteen inches or two feet high. Right. At quite compact. Remind me of COQ, ten is as well. But. Like Now. So the. Self Will be similar except the antennas that bigger that. Should have more than the height of certainly more than my heights. Which is one point nine three. meters. Six foot four. They're like Christmas, trees that the kind of different design from W. I. Antennas. Just. Like a forest of Christmas trees and for the ESCA in Western Australia there will be one, hundred, thirty thousand of them not just for. That's going to be a lot of tinsel every year. That's right. Exactly So Ari. And you said you six foot four before before the total knee replacement, he was six, sixty two. So. Who knows obviously? The but only had one Neyla Don Zoe sort of standing up it probably. All right we'll be still hype for life beyond Earth at, of course, the other thing to consider is, as you said, we're looking for people. Or? Life forms that have reached the same stage in evolution as we have, but they could be cave persons. Yeah or they could or they could be planets that have just got animal life. And then. They can't sort of tell us anything about anything. So a worker. Possibilities what's with with what's the planets with only marine lush you know that's An all you can you. Say. My theory is that. The civilizations are looking housing going. FM. Well. True as well. That could be the case as well. Maybe. You're listening to. Space Knots. And in some cases on the F. M., band certainly the radio station I worked for broadcast on the F.. with Andrew, Dunkley and Fred Watson with. Life space nuts, and again, we say thank you to those supporters who choose to go the extra mile and pay us a million dollars a month to listen to the podcast. It's It's wonderful. Generous. View. It's sexually closer to a A dollar fifty a month. Now it it doesn't matter because if you have decided upon yourself to to deny it to the podcast it is greatly appreciated. Thank you. If you do want to become a patron, you can do that through the Patriarch website. Patriot DOT com. Slash space nuts. Or if you prefer to use another platform, you can do that through super cast or a cast all the details on our website space knots PODCAST DOT COM But thanks again to our patrons. Of course, as a patron, you get an ad free early edition, the spice nuts podcast, and we do add a bonus material for Patreon or patrons. Every opportunity we get. So stand by for some of that in the not too distant future of his plenty there the moment to work your wife through. Now Fred we've gotTa talk about something that China's up too but on guessing that There's not much to tell because I. assume this is all fairly top sacred. Yes that's right. This was A. Harks back to a story that you not covered a couple of times, which is the. The US military's X thirty seven B spacecraft which is something that looks like a a quarter scale version of the space shuttle. Suspension essentially launch vertically on a on a noble rocket launch vehicle but lands like a glider just as a space shuttle. We have had an announcement that the Chinese have got something Simla it was. Launched a think about two weeks ago. But on the sixth of September. The Xinhua News Agency announced that this the had successfully tested what they calling a reusable spacecraft. And it had returned to to shed jeweled landing site after two day mission in orbit. It launched actually on. Friday. The full of September. There you go. There's the date from a shoot come I come printing knocker incorrectly, but it's a satellite launch center in the Gobi Desert. So. Really interesting. A snippet of news from. Shinwa, that a perhaps the Chinese have got very similar vehicle to the x thirty seven. B that. May Well. Be Doing the same sort of research that the x thirty seven B is doing. Apparently we do know. From independent observations that this vehicle reached altitude of three hundred and fifty kilometres, but it also did something that I know. The. Exit seven be self was built to to try out. This is back in the late nineteen ninety s pity seventy I initiated. And that was to. Be An inclination changes so we believe that the Chinese version. Of the report read says it was initially launched the no-bid link clinician of about forty five degrees but then performed a dog leg maneuver to change its inclination to fifty degrees sharply after launching that comes from the phobes account of this of the. Flight. So that's significant change the angle of the orbital spacecraft it it means your you're you're actually A. Versatile makes you more nimbly Norway's, and of course I guess that will be something that. Is is always of use to the military because these things certainly certainly, the US one as a military space plane. We're not quite sure about the Chinese one because we know so little about it. That that was a hint in the south China morning. Post. From an unnamed source suggesting that. You know to. To get an idea of what the Chinese version is like. You should look at the US x thirty seven B so off. Very similar. Yeah interesting stuff. But. space craft a very mysterious because a lot of the time we don't know what the X. Thirty Seven Bay is doing. A lot of speculation but sometimes I just don't tell you what it's doing it spends. An incredible amount of time in. Orbit. Vs Indeed. That's exactly right. Rather extraordinary I'm guessing Johnny's a looking at shaving sign kinda thing. That's that's the semis. That's right. we we are really. Clutching at straws at the moment but it's. It's an interesting development and We look forward to. More about it. Indeed. It's the new space race into China's catching up fast just one part of it. That's right. Yeah. China's doing well indeed. Great. All right. Let's move onto some questions frayed and first question comes from Nathan in Melbourne Australia. Hello Fron injury. Nathan he coming from stage look down in Melbourne. Sitting in front of the pizza oven on. Father's Day enjoying. A quick guys this does. Injury. Great job with the old you in putting this together and Fred thanks for your time. my question is the. Able. To say. Bhandari. Star. One is Caesar will the alternate name is is is zero, two, zero, eight, one, zero, two. Can definitely say them close together. Come, looking out. When I use the APP, but only shows the ones. So I just WANNA save. That's possible. Also I just wanted to save you guys ever just go out look at the stars without using the telescope and enjoy that just as much. Great Sherry and you have a great week. Thank you. Thank you Nathan now, hopefully, will be relaxed in the not too distant future for the people of Melbourne who've been going through a second wave of coronavirus innovation suffering through does significant lockdowns but the number starting to work back in favor of of Melvin the the case load starting to drop, which is good news but the et thoughts a with you Nathan and thanks for your kind words. ACI He mentioned a binary star system on sure you've heard of it Fred. Yes. So what Nathan talking about is a, it's a pair of style us. which is a little bit more than a reveal here in a minute but I'm they they called. Moose Copay so mu is. The something Fletcher of the Greek Alphabet. What we call a bio letter and it's you know we've got Alpha Alpha Centauri and all the rest of it. That's how they named the the order of bright stars. In a in a constellation. Named in basically in order brightness when you get to you in the Constellation of Scopus you've got you scope. So Mu scope is actually a pair of stars and exactly it's next and says, you can separate them with the naked eye. The separation is actually a tenth of a degree and Just for comparison. The Moon is half a degree in diameter. So the separation is a fifth of the of the Moons Damato, which is pretty easy to to see. With the naked eye. Just as an. Aside here. A, because of that figure attentive degree. On the twenty first of December this year, we will have a conjunction of the two giant Planet Saturn and Jupiter in the western sky whether separation will be a tenth of a degree is a very, very close conjunction apparently the closest. State Twenty twenty-three They have been they get close to twenty years or so but they haven't been this close. For almost four hundred years. So with a look on the twenty first of December, that's just a plug for something that we will no doubt talk about later in the year suming, we're still going by and. GOPI. Okay. So the two styles. That you can see with the naked eye. One of them and this is the one with the Saao number that that Nathan mentioned an essay. Sorry say Oh number I say refers to the Smithsonian after physical observatory. They produced a catalog of stars many many years ago, which is to use using my research back in the nineteen seventies. So this particular needs is CEO two, zero, one, zero, two and that as new ones GOPI. So that's what just one of the components of this pair of stars but me one itself, the Seo Startup just mentioned is actually a binary system. And is one that you cannot say that the stars. So close together, they're almost touching they are in orbit around one another. and. Essentially the only way can detect the parts of a binder systems by using. Professional equipment you can't see them as a pair you can see. The effect of the fact that they are moving around each other in the spectrum of the two stars so It's I. Actually also what we call eclipsing binary, where won't component one of the Tara Stars passing from to the other until they the brightness changes. So, yes. It's a an interesting and complicated system, but I'm I'm really glad Nathan mentioned because the last part of this question do go outside and just stare at the stars well, I do all the time. AGO and have a look to see what this guy's like and just remind myself of what's happening up there. And yet. So tonight is probably going to be clear in Sydney tonight because it's raining of the moment, but I will go and have a look at Moose. And see if I can pick out stars in the tail. And and Essentially. The start of the tail of the scoping this, that's where the stories I'll have a look. What I can find. I to Nathan, DO A. Pop Out. saw it and have a look around when it's not too cold and specially on beautiful knots luck we've had lightly and stare up at the at the heavens. I don't know what I'm looking at because on. Amino what's up there I know the names of things but I've I've never been able to really track things down. as easily as someone like Fred could but I use those interactive statutes from time to time. If there's something I want to identify they're very handy. But yes, I do lock to look up there and see what's going on and I always hope that I see something unusual so that I can talk about it on spice nuts but no not lately though Mars has been making a prominent appearance in the Houston Scott he lightly in its quarterback to say even with the naked eye light it not. So. Thank you nice and few question knife also said that he was talking to us a recorded message father's Day which may come as a bit of a confusing thing decided to known astrid. But in Australia, we celebrate father's Day on the first Sunday in September. whereas in other countries I celebrated at different times I think it's in August in the US But yes, it was filed as day last Sunday here which is always a frustration for my wife goes father's Day often falls on her birthday and she really doesn't like that so. We're going to be careful. Going to Cape Okay. All right. Thank you. Let's go onto our next question. I under a friend of the show. I have a question about the universe expansion. Mentioned this several times and if I understand, it? Correctly. The UNIVERSE IS EISSA TROPIC SPOUSE equally in all directions. I. Can't get my head around this expense equally in relation to walk. I. Think you also said that there is no center of the universe. How can that be if it expands equally directions? This Kennedy implies there ESA Centre for. Thanks and keep up the good work. I can't wait for the next episode of the PODCAST. Thank you for your question and I think you and I've had this discussion before about if it's going at in all directions at the same time at the same speed that has to be a middle. Well that's what he's asking inc.. and. We don't know his name, but we appreciate the question. Did you pick the accent? I could yes, I wanted. To Australia. Could be. It's too soft, be German. From uncontrolled anyway. Nas to hear from you and yes, it is a confusing issue. The expansion of the universe I fred will solvable for you right now. Thank you. Thank you and good night look. COMES DOWN TO. What we observe because that's really the the significant thing. What we observe ace galaxies moving away from us in old old directions they move away. At the same rate. Proportional to the distance. So the what we used to call the Hubble but is now called the Hubble limit for low because. Matto, who was a Belgian priest who she did a lot of this work in the one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety s always been neglected a bit. So when we now include him in the Hubble law, what that says is that the speed? A galaxy is moving away from us is proportional directly proportional to its distance. The further away a galaxy is the foster. It is receding from us, and that is true of the whole sky. So the Hubble the metro works over the entire sky. In other words is actually is a topic that means that the recession velocity is changing at that rate. Everywhere, the same of not projects pressing that very well. So what you might immediately in infer from that is that we are at the center of the universe because everything's racing away from us, the universe is clear expanding, but it's actually not the case that's just an artifact and the the example analogy that has always been given. In astronomical textbooks is to imagine a fruit cake. Which is which is basically expanding in the oven as he cook it and all the current in. A moving away allegis separation is just increasing as the expansion goes ahead and no matter whereabouts you wearing the fruitcake. You'd see things the current expanding away from you and that's the same with ourselves. No matter where you are in the universe, you are going to see this Hubble effect. You'll see the galaxies moving away at. A rate that is proportional to their distance. Bank account. The does exactly that. Everything moves away. Well. There you go. This is. For More Patriots. Could be. Folly of it's doing that at the moment to. Never mind anyway that's a different story. So Yes, you could imagine maybe where the center of the universe but we're not. We are just a random point in the universe. Now, the big question is we really don't how big the universities and we don't know whether it's any boundaries these. Things that people study and. There are various theories that relate to these ideas, but we don't know for certain universe could be infinite. Bid. Middle. Yes, that's right. Well, that's right. So there's no middle and that also links with the idea. which basically is is turning the Hubble on its head. If everything's expanding away from everything else then the must've been appoint when everything was in the same place must have been a time. That's why I'm we what we identify with the Big Bank thirty point eight, billion years ago. So, if the current best bet theory which is based on lunchtimes theory of relativity is true. Then at this point in the distant past thirty point eight, billion years ago. The Universe was singularly, it was appointed with no dimensions a and now physics dot let us handle at the moment but that's the inference from what we can measure. And, that means that everything in the universe was in the same place. Then expanded and. Now the everything that was next to each other the star. is now widely separated, but any point in the universe could be regarded as the middle because it was it came from something with no dimensions. That's the the tricky. It is totally counter intuitive Andrew I absolutely understand why this does people's had in heads just mining too but that I basically, if you think about what observations we can make it. So that makes more sense that I saw the expansion comes directly from our observations The Universe is expanding same rights in all directions. Okay. Hype that help with your your confusion it is a very very. Odd thing to try and get your head around us confess. But appreciate a question. Thank you for for doing it as an audio question. We certainly doing courage that which she can do on the tab on our website space nuts podcast dot com click on the. Tab if you've got a device with a microphone. it's as simple as saying, hi, I'm Fred from Sydney and I have a question about Andrew Gulf game. How good is he? Really? It's got nothing to do with a stormy, but it's got a lot to do with physics but Yeah. That's simply if you want to ask the question we love Odia questions but we do get them on text as well, and we're more than happy to take them that y you do not have to speak if you do not desire to do so but we did we did actually get a really big batch of them the other for it which is great. So we gotTA dedicate next week show episode two, hundred, twenty, two answering as many questions as possible because we've got quite a backlog at the moment now, Fred. Have another reason. Is Not a question but I did have a bit of a winge about more sore back last week. So somebody sent me some advice Elo injury. So sad to hear of your trouble. But a little bit of advice from someone who's been neck. Energy paid to give you a referral to a nearest bonds specialist. Digital car brighter. It's real help. Short Sir Way to go. Now I don't know where the nearest neuro- spine specialist to DUB would be but I'm guessing it's at least a six hour drive. So back in. Word, which would well, my back was terrible after the driving last week. So yes, you're right. But Thank you. For the advice I will. I will look into into other possibilities, it. It it's a lot better. It's still saw but I can get up and down without Any trouble on even put my socks on now it was that bad or couldn't bend over to put my socks on which is tragic but it is getting slowly better. I'm now advised that I need to do some core exercises to build up strength in my lower back in gluts so that the the spine is better supported to avoid the problem in the future. It apparently, Fred. a a side effect of acid entry society is that gluts become useless? When that happened all the all the work moves to another part of your body and Wham Bam. Thank you Ma'am back pain. Simple as that. Back, is is everybody. I can tell. The. physio for the for the knees keeping the those call muscles working properly. So I do my. All right. Enough of 'em medical conditions I think. Pair of who we are. Body. That's why they might say. Which is Which is Stuck my knee together by the way I kinda guest that. A wonderful. Time we go. It's time we got going. This is turning into the. Conversation. Not a problem at all but I look forward company again next week. Fred thank you. Thanks. See you later. Fred Watson Astronomer, lodge, part of the team he on the space, and that's podcast for Andrew Dunkley. Thank you for listening. We'll catch you on the next edition as notes. To this. PODCAST. Available at Apple podcast, Google podcasts, spotify radio, and your. Plan you can also straighten on demand God still Paul. This is GAS PRODUCTION FROM DOT COM.