172: Tabbys Star Theory
In fifteen seconds guidance journal and nine ignition sequence spence nuts three to to kneel good hello and thank you for joining us on another edition of the space ice nuts podcast episode one hundred and seventy two. My Name is Andrew directly your host if you're joining us for the first time if your joining us for the one hundred and seventy second time I'm sorry I've Said My name one hundred seventy times and with me as always for the one hundred and seventy second time is professor Fred Watson however Ed. Hey Hey how you doing andrew. I'm good. The question is how you you're jetlagged fool bits of still somewhere in the Indian Ocean. I think the most most of me here and that was a bit grumpy bit so that's always the big ticket time I now. Where did you go so I was. I had to weaken in Munich or in a small town near Munich. Co Gagging thing which is where the European observatory has its headquarters so there's a very pretty impressive headquarters building an all the other things that as well as a rather marvelous planetarium the Supernova planetarium which was only opened last year and so that's an exhibition commission it if anybody's ever in Munich and interested in astronomy that is definitely the place to go sessional Expedition Exhibition the the planetarium itself is state of the art projection. It very very good so I was at a conference. They're talking about education in astronomy which uh was something close to my house and yours too and then I had the weekend in Rome a half hour before it was actually because I spend and most talented motel room preparing tilk mill deny at the Australian embassy ahead engagement that in fact how the lovely day of meetings at various very interesting organizations like the Italian Space Agency enough the headquarters of the Italian Astronomy Research Organization also accompany a coal telespazio which is a company that does a lot with with the space agency that they do some amazing things on observation and things of that sort and wound up with the Nuclear Physics Research Josh Institute whether they're actually collaborating with scientists in Australia in Melbourne to to build a adopt matter matter detector in a in a disused mine to play skull style which is between I think between Melbourne and Bharat so that was interesting interesting but another highlight which would really only be interested straddling listeners. I think is on Sunday morning. I was at a memorial service. He's not in the Vatican but not very far away for ten. Fisher a former deputy prime minister nizing black. I met him a couple of times interview a couple of times over the years. I have never come across a politician who genuinely came across as as is a true gentleman that he stood head and shoulders above so many people in in such a ruthless game as politics and and he always seemed like he made he was just a fabulous fabulous guy yes. He's somebody very sorry never to have met because I would love to talk about with him because he was a train and Choosey off his stride but he towards the end of his life he was actually the Australia's embassador to the Holy See which is why there was a memorial service for Rome and so it was an honor to be invited to attend that and as a guest actually the president embassy to the Holy See so that was that was very good in very very moving and very very fitting to yes very fitting for a great man. He wasn't quite honorable blog now speaking of the Australian government one of the things we'll be talking about today as a strategy is gift to NASA has gone down like a lead balloon in the local media I might add we previously talked about tabbies star and the mystery surrounding the reason that it sort of if dims and then doesn't and then it deems again and now they have a theory we also look at Venus could have once been habitable well and what went wrong. I suspect the occupants of Venus burn fossil fuels for a couple hundred years and then all hell broke loose not that that's what's GonNa Happen here and we'll answer some questions about gamma-ray bursts gravitational waves and their effect on atomic clocks and whether or not a blue shift indicates indicates a universal collapse. Somebody's got plenty of spare time or just really really worried about the future. We'll get onto all of those very very soon but damn what have we given to NASA frayed. Oh it's well. It's that's interesting bit because yes it's a gift to NASA of one hundred fifty million dollars spread it over five years from the straddling government via the struggling space agency to support NASA's plans for trips to mas in the end and of course the moon as well which is regarded as a stepping stone to Mas however it's interestingly you know yes a gift Anassa but released a gift to Australia because they deal. I think means that most of that money we'll probably come back to Australian industry. It's all about engaging Australian into industry to support ticipal NASA with is technology and with you know some of the some of the ideas that needed to to to bring about text production not so there's a headline I read today about some of the autonomous vehicles used in the mining industry. Have you know they've got characteristics. That might be useful in developing vehicles my bell to explore Mars I mean Nassar's got a pretty good track record on that with three very successful rovers four if you think it was pathfinder as against Alga but no I mean I think I think it's an interesting area of of research and I think I think it is actually a good thing that we visibly supporting Nasice a you work in it is of course only eight point seven percent of Nasr's annual budget that we've given to them but that's all right. That's still gonNA make a difference and of course of course you know the the negative press that sort of came along with this announcement is obviously based on on very very narrow focus why putting money into the draft instead et Cetera et Cetera but we've got to be there for the future. We've got to be involved in space travel and space exploration and space industry otherwise we're going to be a very lonely country in the long term future. Gotcha and in this game things one hundred and fifty million dollars not a lot out of our budget Ada. I think one of the the one of the telling statements came from Andy Thomas Strategy is first astronaut actually wasn't Australia's first astronaut but that was Paul scully power but a well known Australian astronaut Mary Todd and on the made the point that you know he's been a big supporter of this strategy. Spicer at agency was instrumental in getting it going instrumental in the fact that he's moving is going to be based. His permanent base will be not alight light is currently based in Canberra but will move to Adelaide probably around the end of the year but he's coming was great to see the space industry as the space agency engaging with human spaceflight because most of what we do in Australia in the space in terms of spice presence is about scientific and industrial applications but not necessarily human spaceflight whereas this is definitely directed towards that goal so it expanding the the horizons of the Space Agency. I think quite a good way stuff all right now. Let's move onto tabby star. We've talked about tabbies star before it's an unusual situation because it has this strange habit of dimming and they haven't really been able to understand why this is a star. We've known about for a long time but now they seem to have come up with a possibility as to what the answer is here for it. Yeah that's right some some work. That's that goes. A paps puts a another a block of stone in the edifice our understanding of this object. We should give it its proper name which is k. for six to eight five too young to me only went down. Ask often known as bought by Jan Star. I'm not sure whether I'm pronouncing that correctly but it was but John who noted they you know they the curious behavior of this style which is basically aw I mean it's very unusual fluctuations in his light so it came out originally from the the Kepler Space Telescope program which was looking thing for the dimming of stars planets passing in front of that parent stars and we as spoken about many times before that netted the current total of just overfull at the current total of just over four thousand known planets around other stars there are other ways of detecting them but the so called transit method which is what capital's done actually is the one that has been the most productive. It's been eminently successful way of detecting planets in Kepler. Now has a follow up mission cold tests which is doing a similar job on in the whole sky so tabby star is in the constellation of cygnus. It's about is getting on for fifteen hundred light years away as the crow flies so it's not a another nearby star but what mocked it out was these very unusual fluctuations. Russians in its brightness not the kind of thing that you would get from planet passing in front of it which would Jupiter sized planet passing in front of the some jockeys his live by one percent so this knots the typical thing you're looking for when you're looking for extra solar planets but Tabby Star drops by up to twenty two percent which is huge and Dosa in peculiar ways not a planet planets planets aunt blocking the lot. That's something is blocking the light but but not planet and I think my recollections looking at previous. Welcome tabby style. There is a sort of quasar periodicity by that amendment you know the the drops in brightness whilst they're not strictly periodic by that's with regular frequency they they have that they're vaguely superiority it kind of put it that way so although they vary. I think the twenty two percent one was a one off and the other thing is that a astronomers have looked at measurements of the brightness of this over very long periods of time because what you can do when you know that you got something interesting you can go back to Kabul photographic plates taken over the last hundred years or so look at how its brightness has changed if it has so how how how its brightness is held up and it turns out that this the star has faded in Brian is by think it's fourteen percent over about the last hundred years is not in itself is a curious curious phenomenon that doesn't really seem to be explained by astrophysics of the Star itself which is actually a similar start the sun. It's actually an type star. Gt On starbucks it's it's similar similar type of star so people have proposal pose all kinds of things like swarms of comet one. I think you talked about is the possibility of dyson sphere being directed around the star dice. Fear is hypothesized. Edifices put out star by an alien civilization to collect all the light light yet but only energy from the start so that that was another suggestion I think that's probably the far end of the hypotheses. He's it's it's only now though that I think a reasonably coherent picture of what might be going going on has been put forward and it's come from a group of astronomers who I remember rightly. Let me just check where they they are at Columbia University which is an interesting place because they're gonNA be publishers of the new book when it comes out in the United States just as ask why not exploding stars Visible Planets Cola in Australia but that's alright so strongly present Columbia University of built this model level of what would happen if you had another planet in orbit around the Star but the moon of the planet that has been pulled away from its parent and planet by the styles gravity and he's being destroyed basically by the style and it turns out that the all the numbers add adop- if you've got this situation that this basically you've got a a moon that is falling to pieces. It's evaporating and the kinds of dimming of the parents that you see match what you would get from this model so it sounds like a fairly complicated construction construction the the theory that led to this but it seems to be that it does fit all the pieces. Actually one of the authors says is Let me just say he's actually one of the one of the one of the researchers working on this says. The team's team's model is unique in each hypotheses what drives the original planet towards the Star in the first place so that the planet itself is also being disrupted it actually results in the often exo moons ending up on highly eccentric which means as long as it orbits with precisely the properties previous research research had shown when needed to explain the dimming of tabby style no other no other previous muddle was able to pull all these pieces together gather so this model for all seems a bit contrived actually fits the data and that's that's the good thing about it so it suggests that it's you know this this exo moon's an extra mode of course is a is a moon around the next to a planet planets around another star. It's got this dusty out to layer of ice gas and perhaps cable carbonaceous rock as well and basically this is all foaming this around tabby star and giving us these peculiar variations in brightness including as the dust builds up a dimming of the star itself over a long period of time yeah I would as the dust thickens the the light gets held back bit by bit by bitten. Yeah it reduces the amount a lot. We detect it makes perfect sense. It's a simple explanation in the end of things. Isn't it yeah that's always you always apply what's called otms razor which is the simplest explanation possible and whilst this is a complex. It's nevertheless similar to what we've already a well. I'm sure it'd be more learn once they the daughter together on Tabby star but it does sound like they're run on the money with the with the explanation you're listening to space nuts. Andrew here with of course Professor Fred Watson. This episode is brought to you by Xerox today. 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It's not mandatory. We're not going to crack you either the hey if you don't it is a certain you know it's only an option and it's totally up to you but the thank thank you to everybody who has supported us through patriotic dot com slash space nuts it. It won't go unnoticed and we really appreciate your support. What now frayed we are guided talk about the planet Venus now. This is a place that's hideously warm has gotten at righteously out of control greenhouse effect going on but now a new study suggests that at some stage in its dark past it may have been a habitable until something horrible went wrong. I'm thinking you know inhabitants burning fossil fuels but I could be wrong about that so yeah. What's what's the the story behind this. This is fascinating it is it's some very interesting modeling of of Venus that has been done with some as you said quite surprising results also yes. Venus is closer to the sun than we are but that is not the full story when it comes to planning my Venus is so much hotter than the earth because the surface temperature in the region in four hundred fifty degrees. Celsius is quite a lot hotter than the days it. That's all about the the greenhouse in house environment that that decision in other words atmosphere so Venus's atmosphere like yes has not been in it but is also rich richer in carbon dioxide than the sin so traps the heat and the surface temperature rises enormously and then comes as with all kinds of very peculiar effects on the atmosphere things like sulfuric acid drizzle that happens a high highs in Venus's atmosphere it. It does make a place that you shouldn't put on a bucket list for holiday. So why is it like got well. There's a greenhouse you know a runaway greenhouse effect has exactly exactly as you said but I think what's interesting about. This piece of research is that people have actually really salted seriously looking at why should being you know what was it inevitable that that would happen. with the planet that is near to the sun the Earth is and the answer is apparently not what what this group of scientists have done these people who based at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies so it's not you no. They're not fly by night astronomers or anything like that. Although most astronomers a fly by night against the nation so looking at they've looked at the things like the topography of English the the actual structure of the surface they've looked at the what we know about Vulcan Ism Venus which is that it was in fact we know at Venus actually has more volcanoes than any other body in the solar system so it has has had a very active volcanic past but they've also looked at the you know the kind of phenomena that we know stabilizes the atmosphere and what is Ketu the atmosphere big stabilized is actually play tectonics as I think we've discussed before the fact that a plate tectonics he's a means of getting carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and into the into the crust of the Earth a basically the the carbon dioxide either goes directly into the oceans are subject to carbonic acid is absorbed that way but either way eventually finds its way down to the seabed and you get carbonaceous rocks building up. I mean I'm talking now about geological Michael Time that is then subjected under the under the continental place and that is a great way some of it comes back up through volcanoes but it nevertheless stabilizes the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere so what the model is who have done this work have have built into their idea is that Venus actually was a world similar to the Earth for most of its history plate tectonics tonics. did that thing the atmosphere to perfect level surface liquid water. Perhaps perhaps a stable climate very much like that of the Earth then they speculate that may be a billion years ago perhaps seven hundred million years of something that sold something happened to change that and the they they run a whole of hypothetical scenarios in that muddling and come out with something that actually fits the bill rather well which is up for a seven hundred million year ago event that would have basically stopped the the plate tectonics in that tracks and stop this. you know this carbon dockside sink. What suggesting is that a some sort of? Vulcan ISM probably released a huge amount of gas pass into the atmosphere Venus and effectively a you know that that that gas basically was it was produced by some intense balkanisation which together with highly gaseous envelope also oh so the sealed up the surface with with what would it be multi magnet but then solidifying on the surface and stopping the plate tectonic cycle and that happened at a global level not a global level. Yes so something really very very significant. Nothing like the kind of things that for example we know that there was five hundred million years ago. Earth was allowed scale outgassing into the atmosphere from from vulcans which produce something called a Siberian traps which I think if I remember right near that lava flows there was a mass extinction as a result of that but but that's small beer compared with what evidently must've happened on Venus paps roundabout the San Antonio Mora Brasilia in order to produce what we see today which is a planet with a runaway greenhouse effect. It's it's a really interesting idea. They the you know you are once again relying a muddling to get this impression of a of a nice you know temporary temporariness before this event happened but it is it's based on belly solid research so it it does have a lot going for it. Particularly what is written by people who are in a one of NASA's actually most eminent planetary scientists institute so that that's it's amazing and one wonders what would have been like as a habitable world if if it was not dissimilar in terms of its topography griffey in and water notions and that sort of thing what what compared to us what would it have been like well it would have been much the same but with the sun slightly lightly bigger in the sky and maybe rather warm of this suspecting that the surface temperatures might be higher than what they are talking about twenty to forty degrees. Celsius on on average for the whole planet whereas here on the average temperature pretty sure it's fifteen degrees Celsius the average that attempt temperature of the planet got it so that's putting into Fahrenheit terms that twenty to forty degrees go sixty eight Fahrenheit which is the twenty degree mark to about one hundred and four degrees degrees Fahrenheit so she's the extremes would be much higher in so why would would have been hotter but you still only talking about temperatures like what we're getting US Chilean judge that very true yeah. It sounds like it would have been quite a livable place so one now wonders assuming they theory is spot on whether or not they did have life yeah that sounds maybe one day we will have the wherewithal to explore. Venus robotically county module whatever Wilkins Venus with those temperatures but who knows what sort of things we might find with with a robot strolling around Venus Bustle. Oh there's another one alta although if you've got super volcanoes sealing the whole surface with Mike Meyers probably not going to be much left of the fossils suppose not but they probably found the smoking gun Nado Cadillac that'll be that'll be the reason what happened now. These fascinating quite amazing and that sort sort of makes you think well. Hey Hey hang on a second if that happened at Venus and we look at Mars and go well you know at one stage had possibly liquidations and he's earth. I mean Holo suddenly there are three potential livable planets in solar system and the only one left and only what left and when messing it up yeah. Eh Guy well probably be more on this not fast track so we'll keep it on that story as well because twelve with reviewing you're listening to space nuts the podcast with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson space nuts did send the shadow early at two patrons through patriarch dot com are also locked to send a shot at Fred to youtube follow is we're starting to build quad little audience audience in Youtube. We've got two hundred and seventy subscribers that now listen via Youtube which is wonderful. We've decided to set a target so we would like to reach one thousand because apparently that's that's a good number that really understand youtube and have the numbers work but getting to one thousand is something that that benefits the benefits youtube obviously but also benefits space nut so we'll we'll we'll push on. If you'd like to become a subscriber to space nuts via youtube just do a search youtube apple whatever it is you use and yourself to a growing list of subscribers on youtube space nuts channel. That would be fantastic now we we got some questions to get through Fred. We've got a few today a couple of will be easy and one will be easier or maybe harder at this one comes from Bentley from Boda Entry Rick Bentley from boulder jury doesn't have an accent like that because he's in Colorado to the dynamic duo Andrew and Fred. That's the first time we've been called that and it will be the last time would blow shifting light from distant galaxies be assigned that the universe is beginning to collapse back on itself. Is the big a crunch or to slow down the free. That's a really interesting question. Light gives a lot of the lot spectrum gives a lot of way when when you're making observations in space what would it blue shift indicate fred will it would it would certainly tell you more than that. The Universe is expansion not Muslim down because in order for the light from a galaxy to be blue shifted the the galaxies go to becoming too so you're already in a scenario you were the universe is collapsing. If you see blue chips we see blueshirts actually up for a few nearby galaxies where the individual of the motion of the galaxy is enough to overcome the expansion of the universe. Uh Excuse me it's really only when you start looking relatively distant galaxies that the expansion of the universe is the most I you know the the most obvious feature of the spectrum so you get the redshift so they're blue two galaxies but there in fact what we what we distinguish between something called the Hubble flow which is the speed of galaxy as a result of of the expansion one of the universe and something called the peculiar motion which is the motion of a galaxy. That's peculiar to that galaxy might because by the fact that he's got a knee nearby my neighbor like we have with the andromeda galaxy and pulling together gravitationally that will be enough to overcome the the redshift because they you no the distance between these objects is small so we do see blue chips but not on a what you might call a cosmological scale not in the white universe. We only see red shifts so there's no danger that we're going to wake up one day and find all these galaxies that hitherto you have had redshift of now got blue shifts. That's not going to happen but in a in a different universe from one with that would go to collapse on itself. Yes yes. That's what you would see you would see blue shifted galaxies so a good question. Thank you Bentley for that. Could the expansion of our galaxy of Al Universe be pushing another one back on itself. Is that right yeah. I'll be there are ideas that was just one of many universities and maybe they are all jostling muscling for some sort of hyperspace nudging one another out of the way but that is at the moment beyond the realms of anything that we can we can actually do who was a observational discovery. All you can do is speculate aspect relations. I think can't do as good as anybody else's yeah. I'll take it okay. Thanks Bentley great question now. We've got a question from Christopher poorly. Christopher Christopher message had a question on before so he he he has another one that we thought we'd tackle so professor Google and her Research Assistant Youtube tells me that gamma rays cannot penetrate air atmosphere however however a lot of scientists feel that a gamma ray burst could sterilize large amounts of planets in galaxy assuming they have life. They told me me that a Gamma Ray burst is spinning supermassive star that is collapsing and turning into a black hole the source of some of the biggest explosions in the universe. My question Chen for Andrew Baja thought I'd read that bit for you for it is Google Rod. Does our atmosphere protects us from memorize. If so what about the Gamma Ray burst would rigby that scientists think could turn earth into a post apocalyptic wasteland love the show Cape it up. That's yeah that's exciting. Isn't it. The answer's Yes you know if you've got a gamma ray burst which is directing its its gamma rays the earth and it's not very far away it does strips the atmosphere of electrons and suddenly you've got nothing that's breakable and things start getting and pretty bad very quickly with the the reason why we know about. Gamma-ray bursts does is it interesting itself because they were not soon until it was the nineteen seventies when various nuclear protection treaties were an enacted acted a global treaties banning atmospheric nuclear tests and they were monitored by a fleet of small satellites satellites which were designed to pick up the gamma rays from anybody who broke the law by detonating a nuclear weapon in the atmosphere and what this commemorate satellites found was not stop coming from the ground but stuff coming from space. I detected occasional blasts of gamma rays which were a very mysterious for a long time in fact. I guess fantasize. It's really only been in the last ten to fifteen India's that astronomers have understood the mechanism by which Gamma Ray bursts work and is it more or less a as Christopher uh-huh says that if you've got this highly massive star maybe a neutron star that's spinning and something happens to it that causes it to collapse into a black hole then you get this huge burst of energy which doesn't last very long. It's it's a matter of I think. The gamma rays are over in a matter of seconds to minutes but often there is an optical flash visible. COUNTERPA actually very useful if you say that to to what can how distantly things are. We know that they are great distances. They're in very distant galaxies so for a while and I think this woke still goes on there was a a system setup whereby if a Gamma Ray was detected by one of these special gamma-ray detection satellites allies than you will be optical and radio astronomy communities and getting them to point to the place where the Gamma Ray bursts came from to see if there's any afterglow the the US happened is being detected not how we know of it more about the physics of these things the fact is that these gamma-ray bursts does that have been observed role a very very long way away so they gotta raise pretty weak by the time they get to the solar system but if he did have one in our galaxy addicts jet of material was directed in the right direction. Sorry is jeter. A highly energized radiation was in the right direction then yeah we could be Friday could strip the the planet of its atmosphere so I think the answer is that both Google and a a on youtube where right yeah thanks Chris forgiving us one more thing to worry about really appreciate it but now it is is fascinating. The odds are very very miniscule aren't they. Yes they are the the very slight this. I think we've discussed star recently. Soleil my rings a bell look to my brain is still over the Indian Ocean Khan remember it but I do remember. This was a candidate in our galaxy for aw possible. Gamma-ray burster might be to Corinne actually which is a very large and unstable star but it turns out that the the axis along in which the gamma rays would be directed is not actually pointing does so we might we might survive if he does go few. Thank you for your question. We'll move onto the final question for this episode from a double Banger because I think this was a discussion that was on the a podcast group on facebook and someone else to question someone else responded to it so I'm going to get credit both Damian Huxley in Brit Campbell for this one they say I wonder if Andrew Dunkley can ask Professor Fred. How does the maths work when looking at gravitational time dilation if if everything else is the same for both planets except for the mass one is a one hundred thousand times bigger. What is the change inch in time if you were able to watch all the atomic clocks on the satellites as a gravitational wave move pass. Would the clocks change time lime very very good question love time questions. Dodge questions are really think this is good stuff. It is good stuff so and we actually have had another question which is very similar to the second part of a of this one. We had another question in about atomic clocks detecting gravitational waves so the question we've got here is is as you said. He said two component one. What's the change in time for the you know when when Moscow's up by touch of a hundred thousand I I I don't know the answer hand in terms of the mathematics bud it's relatively straightforward when he looked at the equations of general relativity it they are a bit Excuse me they are a bit horrendous in other things called metrics which evolved matrices of large amounts of numbers an a- An- any all goes into something called tensor calculus which between you may Andrew Hope. Nobody's listening to this. I've never really understood probably because I've never really ready up properly but it what what often happens is these things boil down to a relatively straightforward equations and so sometimes it's just a question of proportionality while there's usually the speed of light involved in there somewhere which is a constant rise to seminomas power often say to the full both when you look at gravitational distortions disturbance have spiced by gravitational waves so I'm I I can't give answer to how much gravitation the time delights how different today's from one planet to another except to say that it is gravitational time time dilation because of the Earth is actually a very small amount you talking probably Nano seconds that kind of level when you compare an and people have compared clocks in aircraft and clocks on the ground in clocks in satellites and clocks on the ground and he suddenly measurable excuse me with Modern Technology but how different today's from planet to another. I don't have that number fingertips. I'm actually in some ways more interested in the second part of the question. which is if you were able to watch? All the atomic clocks on the satellites is the gravitational wave moved past with clocks change time and I guess just because gravitational wise our distortion of space time the answer is yes but I think the numbers would be infinitesimal compared with what we can detect now is a related question from Damien Huxley which is a any talks about caesium clocks and strontium clocks with these very very high frequencies but I don't think they're any wendy a high enough you've to detect the change in time caused by gravitational wave. That's an opinion pulled out of the from what I know about the effective gravitational gravitational waves on on space which is you know absolutely Chinese ex exactly as new not spoken about before on the line go experiment in the USA. These folks along interferometry arms the capable of detecting a movement of the mirror off one ten thousands of the damage of approach on a not as you know it's just astonishing is about the mind is nineteen meters and so oh your equivalent time distortion will be a similarly infinitessimal of level and I I'm pretty sure I we'll check this because I know people in the time world I will check it but I'm pretty sure that we have no way of detecting the kind of change that would occur gravitatational wave past. They go well. We managed to knock off forty seven questions in one there I think we should we left a good enough to keep going about five hundred. I suspect it does thank you to everybody who all those related questions much appreciated and hopefully the answer was well. They they ask questions because I don't know the answers so they might have had some theories but maybe maybe we help fill in some blanks for them for and thank you. It's always a pleasure we covered covered a lot of ground today in some really fascinating topics as well so thank you very much as jetlagged and dazed as you are. I Yeah I'll of course we'll not remember any of this conversation and so good thing recorded it. It is just as well yeah. Thanks a lot audrey good to talk to you. We'll speak again next week. We will indeed Professor Fred Watson. Astronomer Lodge joins US every week here on space net says as to you and keep spreading the word the more the merrier and we'll catch you next time on another edition of space nuts to this space nuts podcast waited subscribe to the podcast on Itchy and stitch-up or your favorite podcast distributed. This is another quality podcast production from thoughts dot com.