The Mars Rush of 2020 Is On
In fifteen seconds guidance been journal and nine technician sequenced. Spence. Nets. Three To. One space. Bill. Good. Hello. Once again, thank you for joining us on the space nuts podcast episode two, one three, my name is Andrew Dunkley. You'll host joining me as always is astronomer at Lodge Fred Watson. Hello Fred Millennia Andrew how're you doing? I am well, you have set a cat amongst the pigeons, my friend or more to the point a rooster amongst the hen house given that our good friend, Gregory Peck made a an impromptu appearance on the show last week and people are loving him. He's looking around outside. So the the might be more of Gregory. Today. I don't know. Extending from where I sit I can tell you some almost needs. We almost earplugs when he really gets worked up. Hopefully. Their demands for photographic evidence. Well I've talked to his agent and she's GonNa tell I think people are to talk to your people will. Provide. Until of t shirts I, know I've heard that. Someone actually brought that up as. It could become the new logo. Vice Rooster. He's. I understand he's a very dark I have to say very handsome rooster so he'll do long. pays on t shirts. I'm sure I'm count white. or I will. If we do manage to do some kind of graphic Dale, we will certainly posted that photo on the space nuts podcast grape on facebook for those who have requested such I understand you have a new addition to the family as well. Yes. We suddenly as you know, we sell, they lost a beloved cat man do. But there is a A. Fairly, large ish after six year old kitchen that now frolics around the place whose name is Moscow. It's it's just part of the pasture deal. Because money's business. Of course, was travel leisure all destinations that she's take a groups to and things like that. We were in Moscow last year in fact but anyway must is is is not certainly not a man do but he does have a character resume is I'm sure. Sure. Yes. He makes any impromptu appearances He will be much to welcome you. Fastest thanks to the moment. Does a Lotta sleeping yet? That Y LAS TEENAGE BEHAVIOR Okay. On today's edition of Spice Nuts, we're going to discuss the launch of necessary a mission to Mars. Now it's due to leave Thursday us time, which will be past tense by the time this particular podcast is. Your take and with a permitting but we do WanNa talk about that upcoming mission. And we want to talk about the RIF project and this is a project where Fred. my have a bit of an inkling as to what what goes on because he was the project scientist. So. One would hope but stranger things have happened Politics is a good example anyway we we will look at the right project I think It's it's focusing on movement of stars if I'm not incorrect, which is not uncommon anyway and audience questions Sir from in Australia and petty in Sydney about the International Space Station Space Junk in creating a magnetic field to protect astronauts from radiation. All sorts of things a guy to be discussed to die on the spice nuts podcast. Now Fred, let us begin with this twenty twenty perseverance mission to mas which by the time this podcast is released will hopefully have begun. We hope. So that's the I. So the the. As you know we've talked about this before under coast there's a window for lunch. That window as a started about A. Couple of weeks ago an extends into August. The United Emirates and the Chinese have already taken advantage of this window which gets you to. With minimum energy obits that's the whole point of it So the Perseverance rover is the last of the trio we we have a launch window begins actually. On Thursday, the thirtieth of July, and as far as I know. NASA. Is still go loan should that earliest opportunity? It's four fifty am Pacific daylight time on the thirtieth of July that makes it if I did my calculation correctly. So the way to clock in the evening here in eastern Australia. So we hope all will be well. As things stand now where one day twelve hours, thirty, three minutes and thirty thirty seconds into the countdown. Of the countdown it's counting down and we hope to bring good news in the next edition of space nuts. But I thought it would be worthwhile. Just reminding Ola stained listeners. What this is about the space craft is a rover of. I guess a similar design to curiosity. Obviously, these things evolved from one style to another but. Certainly true that when you look so severe and owes a lot to the the design of curiosity six wheels weighs approximately. Tom. A. Powered by the traditional. G. Radio, isotope, thermoelectric generators, a little boxes of plutonium. They sit on the back of the of the spacecraft, and then there's the mast with the cameras on top. There's a whole lot of upper artists on the robotic arm, which is at the front of the of the vehicle and. Uniquely. Spoken about before. Helicopter which is power. And solar panel. The helicopter called Ingenuity helicopter weighs about two kilograms. It's not you know it's not a flimsy thing. This is fairly solid device. One little factoid that we didn't discuss when we talked about ingenuity the helicopter a little while ago is that it's for carbon fiber blades will spin two, thousand, four, hundred pm not said huge speed. And I guess that's necessary in order to bite into mazdas rarefied atmosphere. Less than what into the atmosphere pressure that we have here on earth. and from what I've read about the ingenuity is that it's going to pave the way for future exploration of Mars. It could well be the the the next phase of of interplanetary exploration because helicopters will be able to go. To places that Rove his cannot and they'll be able to get they faster. Could it could be quite a a menace achievement if they can make it work and that they will I mean yes. We you and I've talked about some of the catastrophic failures of the past in terms of further of certain. missing the mark or hitting too hard and those are the risks you take but. Most, most mission same to do do rather well and Launching a helicopter and another planet I mean, who? Who Thought about it twenty thirty years guy. But now it's it's going to happen. Yang is crossed. It's got to happen. So. Exactly. As you said, the the the the reason for the helicopter certainly in this case, and it may be used for different things later on but it's just a scout out that the terrain ahead of the head of the rover to look for. Places of interest geological interest within the rovers range to look more especially for obstacles if they're over comes over the brow of a Little Hill and then finds that the way ahead is blocked by bowlers. Something of that sort it'd be nice to know about that before you bother to drive up the hill. and. So that's what the engineer to helicopter will be useful. Really looking forward to seeing what kind of. What kind of imagery we get from what sort of performance it has just a final two final points on this of course, the whole point of reference as the idea of looking for signs of past or present life on Mars that's White House. It's drill to try and extract core samples and things of that sort. And and also. The other thing was it was going to tell you probably probably. Due to land roundabout February next year. I'm going to ask you how long this journey will take it. He's a long trip Tamaz. Isn't it? It's quite away. That's right but. Yet all social systems ago at the moment as far as I know everything is on track as it is with the two other spacecraft already on their way to Mars. If. You're going to take the kids to Mas. Make sure you've stopped up on those. In carrying detainment DVD's Orion. ORCA. Why Pat downloads because. They're going to get bored real quick we they. Think will happen many times But. The other thing is the the landing point which you and I've mentioned they've chosen I believe river delta area. Yes. That's right. Jasser Crater is the name of the location and it does go to River Delta A. The the the was at one stage Mosey history, a flowing water over the shallow region within this crater and. A. Thought. The riverdell tres. A very efficient places for the dumping into the terrain of any kind of biological material. Of River, deltas on earth very rich in biological material is carried down by the river. So the hope is that they might the evidence in that region of. Up perhaps past life you never know the might there might be signs of micro of metabolic activity there now but pass life I. Guess He's what what is the focus? One other thing just about perseverance is that? It will gather samples as well. Which? Intended then in future Mars mission to be brought back to Earth for analysis. So it's One of sailing, even more ambitious. And the other thing they doing which sham sorta hasn't really been raised too much in the media although I spotted at the at the Diana had to mention it on the radio is the taking back a rock from ause? Landed on six, hundred, thousand years ago. One of the Martian meteorites in which there are about three hundred known I think yeah. It's being taken back a calibration sample their for their experiments. Fabulous stuff. Imagine meteorite that came from us being taken back there to debris left on the surface. And they'll probably go what are we supposed to do with this? Guy. Lacoste comeback. Oh my gosh. We've got plenty of them. But very exciting, and now with three missions bound from is there'll be a lot to talk about well next year basically when all of this starts to unfold I, imagine yeah. We'll have to change the puck customers nuts andrew rather than just. Bang. Special Mass Not Sedition for. Three months. So it's not. comes. All right we watch with interest in Hopefully, by the time you hear this, that mission will be Nominal and headed mass you're listening to space nuts with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Now, let's take a little break and find out more about our sponsor express VPN writer number one tech radar. This is the one I use. I've been using it for a couple of years and I love it when I joined expressive AP. Now, that will brand new new to the market, but I read a lot of reviews and did a lot of comparisons. and. It was just something about the business model that I particularly locked couple years down the track honestly can't complain their interface is very easy to use the service is second to none. I've had to contact them a couple of times about. Certain things that I wanted to do and I were brilliant. So you may be wondering why I do need a VPN at all. It's all about privacy. Do. You really want big tech companies, governments and others knowing. What's going on with your online activity? Even if you're having nothing to hide, it just feels downright creepy. I think you'll agree and governments are getting more and more interested in what you're doing every day and so protecting your privacy is what vape Ian is all about and how often do you run across websites that you want to get information from only define that the GEO blocked this is becoming an increasing problem but expressway pin Seoul that problem for you. Now. If you got to ask special URL, you'll see quite a list of things. This service can help you with things you might never have thought of before as I say, it's the one I use secure fast and it just works. So, protect yourself online today and find out more about how to get three months free at try express VPN DOT com slash space that's T. R. Y., A. X. P. R. E. S. P. N. dot com slash space for three months free with a one year package try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more and you'll find the link day towels in the show notes and on our website now back to the show. Awesome. Nuts once again, just saying hello and thank you to our social media followers whether it's on facebook through the official space nuts facebook page all the spice snouts podcast group at we are on twitter we are on Instagram, we are on Youtube, and if you are interested downloading the podcast via YouTube we're looking to get out monthly download figures to around four thousand and or you can listen on your favorite podcast distributor of it Social media seems to be a place where we gather a lot of followers and particularly with the spice podcast group. It's A. It's a good avenue for you to talk to each other and I noticed it's very, very busy group in Dade Ana occasionally pokemon hidden and have look around and say what everyone's talking about. But whatever platform you listen to us on. Thank you for supporting the space nuts podcast and you can also show that support through patriotic or one of the other platforms where we give you the opportunity to contribute to the show financially through on super cast or cast, and it can be for as little as three dollars a month it's purely voluntary. We're getting more and more people sign up with that option every week. So we thank you for supporting and of course, as a as a m financial contributor. Or as a as a patron you do get a few extra benefits including bonus material which will pop up on whatever platform you follow us on which You finding most enjoyable. We are certainly having fun putting it together now let's Have a bit of arrive with Fred who is wanting to talk about the the the latest information from the radio velocity experiment otherwise known as Rave Fred. You're pretty close to this one indeed. Yeah. I wasn't actually I'm the project scientists that was the role of one of my colleagues in the University of Louisiana in Slovenia, his name is Thomas Vita. My job was to be the project manager. So it's a rave was actually quite a large. Consortium of something like sixty scientists. From twenty patients internationally many of them located in Europe in fact, it was led by. An I suppose technically still as all get to that in a minute is led by. Professor Doctor Matthias Steinmetz who is The head of astrophysics at the KNITS institute roster physics pots down in Germany. So. Toll Match, and myself were the three what you might call managers of this project. But there was also a board, an executive board which will members of then the consulting itself set sixty scientists. So, what is it? It is a project which had sin section back in two, thousand three I remember meeting. On a chilly morning in Cambridge UK where we discussed the possibility of using the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope. At Siding Spring Observatory here in Australia A. Equipped than with a with a robotic fiber optics machine called Sixty F that stands for sixty green field, the field of view of the telescope. which would allow you to gather. Information on the velocities of stars accurate velocities for stars. and. This proposal was actually. On the back of a spacecraft that was being planned now remember I think it might have been Feng the spacecraft that was being proposed by the German Space Agency. The idea was that the spacecraft would. Would make measurements of the velocities of the stars across the line of sight and we would then from the ground do the equivalent. But along the line of sight, and if you combine those you get what's called a the the. The trivial of the. So. The whole idea of this radio velocity experiment radio the los just velocity of star on the line of sight was to build a database of stars using the Schmidt Telescope. And indeed, it got kicked off it went through all kinds of tribulations, any sally days but he started. We started pilot observations in two thousand and three in two, thousand five. The Rave Project became the only project that the Schmidt telescope was undertaking. So it was undertaking it through throughout the whole year rather than just on selected dates each month. And and the project grew. So. Actually grew in many ways that the initial idea was to gather velocities of stars and it might just out. I've got vested interest in this not boasting about him from any personal point of view but we did great things. There's no doubt when we started. The total gullage. Of the total sum of Stellar Star Radio Velocities was about twenty thousand that been gathered for the previous hundred and fifty years, and within the first year we had more than doubled that we've gone to forty or fifty, thousand Contra member the number but it be quite obvious that this was a very effective way of improving. Knowledge of the velocities, the motions of Stars in the Suns neighborhood a galaxy, and that's why the project then kind of took off. and. Basically, we observe for a roundabout ten years. It was the final observations were made by somebody called Fred what's the I think it was the fourth of April two, thousand, thirteen, it was in the wake of the. The one belong fire that nearly took out the observatory I. Did some think it four nights observations in April of that year just to prove that it wasn't the fire that brought the project to an end. In fact, we essentially run out of funding however. In not ten years, we measured five hundred and thousand, nine, thousand, three, hundred, eighty, seven spectra that means the data points for four, hundred, fifty, one, thousand, seven, hundred, and ninety three stars you go. The final number so The observation stopped in two thousand thirteen. Seven years. Later, what is happening is the final. Basically, the final catalogue of all these data has been released pack was released lust actually. Ended last big nose last week twenty seventh of July. Twenty, seven, th of July twenty twenty. That was when we released what was what's called six the sixth data release of the Rafe Catalog. and. It's the sort of final product. This is the end product of what the survey has been all about shut up from it. So you can ask you a question but what not start again am I just give you some insight into what has been discovered from that Andrew? Well. That's that was my question because you you've done all this work I've is such a long period of time and I'm sure that you've been. Crunch the daughter and and come up with with some revelations and I'm just looking at. Some of the information has been released and. Talking about things like how Fast Sti- has to be moving to escape gravitational pull. I'm quite intrigued by the results confirming the dock Meta. dominates the massive at Galaxy. I mean, it's it's something. We don't know much about if you've been able to confirm that it is a dominant force in the universe. Yeah that's right and certainly narrow galaxy. So what you're doing is you're using the speeds of stars to essentially reveal something about the gravitational field in which that moving. That's. That's basically how. Is One of the ways that you can tell what sort of gravitational pull styles of failing. And sure enough we get the same result that most of the massive all galaxy is in is in dot matter. That other result you mentioned it plays into the same idea in fact because. The idea of determining the minimum speed needed for star to escape the gravitational pull of the milky. Way. Is actually one of the first papers that was produced from right back in about two thousand and four fairly result. What's called the escape velocity of the galaxy that gives you a a mass of the galaxy. But of course, that mass includes not just the as you can see, but also the matter. And in more detail rave shown. The, the the disc of our Milky Way? And is wobbling lightly because of the satellite galaxies light with to Jelinek clouds, the way they are interacting with our galaxy. So the has wobbles in it. And we've also found streams of stars which are probably the remnants of. Dwarf galaxies the have been pulled apart and. The first one that was found. Probably back in about two thousand, six thereabouts with something called the Aquarius Stream it was the dawning of the stream of Aquarius that was the title of the paper. I think. So th that's Dwarf Galaxy in ripped apart they have merged with the Milky Way, but we still see their evidence in the movement of the stars. So it was a pretty neat project I have to say and. Let me say the I am very honored to have played a party. My role was essentially supervising only observations is a team of half a dozen of us who did they observing I was managing not group has the stronger in charge of the observatory. But also as the is the right project scientists project manager, he spent a lot of time wearing about budgets and where money was coming from spent a Lotta. Time. Worrying about the fact that the fibers fiberoptic machine kept breaking and also have stuff is why Andrew I've got virtually. Rave. Put Big learned my shoulders but. It was worth every. Every lost terabytes because well over hundred. top-class scientific articles have come from the life project that that's just a brilliant output. So It's kind of R.I.P rate because the six data release really represents the end of the project and the fact that. Those data are public. Any of our listeners could go and access them. You've got to go find them. At the. Institute for astro-physics in on their website, but it's pretty easy to do if you just Google rave and it will take straight there off to some party or the of sand. We're not supposed Fred with all the information you've collided and released. It may will pave the way for future studies and and We may through other avenues learn a heck of a lot more about stas and and maybe even doc matter. In fact, goose studies already underway Andrew Yooglie. Yes. So a similar survey, but in a little bit more detail because it's a big telescope that's going on with the anglo-australian telescope three point nine meter telescope siding spring that's called gala. Gala is galactic archaeology with Hermes Hermes. is another of these fiber optics, factory us, but working in a different way but the one thing that really has I think. Sort of Sean the way ahead and actually has has allowed rave data to be used in a completely new way. That is the guy at spacecraft guy is a an ISA spacecraft which is measuring the positions of stars with microbes second accuracy. And you can combine the data coming from that with the rave data to get really extraordinary detail. The way things are operating in our galaxy, not just the movement of Stars in the Galaxy, but they chemistry the temperatures, surface gravities. All of that stuff comes from this this combined a set of of day. So it's really a really powerful to. and. And you also Mesopotamia it looked tried to find some of the very, very first stars I mean that must have been. Interesting and difficult I imagine it is exciting stuff as well. So what you're looking for a stars that have got a very low metal content in their atmospheres. Principally I am. The lower the amount of iron there is in the atmosphere of a star. The earlier eight must have been born in the history of the universe because I n is enriched gradually throughout the history of the universe. So rave had the potential to to to find those and fact I think a couple of times. Stars found with rape where record holders for the earliest known star that's a moveable feast is like the most distant known object. It's something that. Keeps changing as new technology comes along. But yes, they pointed to bury alley styles clues about the state police have stopped. and. The chemical evolution in the Milky Way as the press release says. Indeed. Fantastic well, well done fred. De. Fantastic. Shit. Yes, and it's it's good that you have arrive about rive. Play around trumpet occasionally, and that's that's what you do I. Mean You you. You work in this arena and I think people would be really came to to hear about some of the the direct influences in hands on work you've done so. Fantastic. Effort. You always being true. The spice nuts podcast with Andrew and professor Fred Watson. Space Nuts as always I would encourage you to visit our. Way You can go shopping we have a space in that shop we have space and that's bookshop and you can record your audio questions through the Ama tab on the spice nuts podcast dot com website. It's very easy url you'll notice it'll change when you loaded that. that. It's it's it's an illusion space nuts podcasts, dot com. Way You'll find our official spice nuts, web page and from they can have a look around all episodes and just If you do want to ask an Nordia question, all you need is a device with the microphone plugged in and you can most certainly. Send in audio questions but we'll still take them in text for more than happy to do that if you. Don't have the capacity to record a bit embarrassed, your voice or you just don't want to. Terezin speaking of audio questions for let's get stuck into some of these. We've got one from Martin who is in Australia Andrew Elfriede. This is Martin from Austria. Question about the I assess so I can absorb it with the naked eye. But in various quite a bit Some question is, why does it vary that much is because of adjustments the Isis has to do. If. So how do they do that and? What other things they have to bury mind do they have to look at the space junk or satelites or the stuff? Yeah we'll be good if you could explain that and Yep been a fan of your show for two years killed the good work. Greets must ya but Thank you. Great to hear from you and he's awesome. Interesting questions I suppose Fred. It's something we have touched on before because in the not too distant past they did have to actually move the s because of a potential collision with spice junk, which is something Martin asked about. But I suppose, the first part of the question was about the variation in the observe ability of the Isis, which you can see with the naked eye but sometimes, it's more difficult than others. Why would that be? Yes. So the Yes exactly it's the brightness that's burying. And actually part of what is the reason for that is exactly what Martin says. The orbital adjustment so The International Space Station it's nominal altitude is about four hundred kilometers, but it can't just stay at that height. If you don't do anything because it's such a huge object with a gigantic solar panels. and. Acreage of real estate as well. It actually interacts with the very tenuous atmosphere. There is even at that time. So if you don't do anything it just gradually. Reduces in altitude and so what happens is exactly as mountain suggests, there are orbital adjustments to the mission control is to essentially the rockets station keeping rockets they call basically these are the thrusters that actually boost the International Space Station to a higher orbit. On if I remember rightly on the heavens above website, I don't know whether it's still there but it certainly used to be heavens hyphen above dot com think the URL. that. A chart of the altitude of the International Space Station over time, and it's a kind of Sawtooth. Graph. Because the you know the thing gradually comes downwards and then they boosted always upwards slightly. To, tonight, the the sole tooth shape I'm now that. That probably changing altitude by fifty kilometers or something like dot com, the exact details, but that's enough to. Because of the geometry of the way, we see the fact that we are seeing the space station illuminated by sunlight. And you know that's that that ten percent or twenty percent or whatever it is. Changing. Altitude is enough to change the brightness of the space station that we see but I think the biggest. Cause variability is just. The, the attitude that the space station has as it transits across your field of view because it is shining by reflection and you can imagine these enormous solar panels They have the not what you call specula- reflections acting like mirrors basically just scattering scattering the light. But depending on the exact orientation of the spacecraft as it flies overhead you're going to see some difference in the amount of light is reflecting. So it is quite variable exactly as Martin says. It's always pretty bright to suddenly the brightest of all the artificial satellites around the earth and. I have to tell you I. Always get a Buzzword I. See going fast such A. Such a motive thing that you know that four hundred kilometers up there. There's an international crew of of of experts actually doing working spikes. Fantastic thing. Oh it is. Yeah and four hundred kilometers isn't really that fireman you and I are almost that firepower of this, right? Yeah. So when you think about it, that's that's not a great distance in the scheme of things. So all from up there the view on my gosh. I would love to or would just love to go up they adjust to take a look at us from from that vantage point I think. I'd I'd I'd even think fighters do justice I think the The naked eye, the human eye view from the International Space Station. Especially, if you're outside would be a just mind blowing I, I envy. Those people are now that worked hard to get there and you know it's all business but I I think that get sick of it do you. They probably quite enjoy the job. Yes is worried. Now he also mentioned spice junk and space junkies a an ongoing problem because there's just more and more of it turning up there and with so many satellite launches happening. At the present time, this is the capacity more space Junkin. Collisions Rob are always a affected that we need to be aware of. Exactly. That's right. So Yes As Martin said, do they have to look out space junk's specs junk? They do that's all done through mission control the the the thing you know things. NORAD radio radar. These are the facilities that actually allow us to track. Daybreak down to about one hundred millimeters across. In orbit and as as you said at the beginning there under the there are occasions probably two or three times a year when the over to the space station has to be adjusted slightly because there's a danger that it might come within. Range of some piece of space junk this. In a similar orbit of course, the smallest stuff stuff that's not able to be tracked. That's something you can't really guard against. That's why. The space station itself, his family solid just one final thing if if the if the space station. Is under threat from a piece of space daybreak they would adjust the OB to try and avoid it but the results so. I I know the astronauts have congregated in the in the it's escape modules just to be safe if An encounter like that. And you can never be too careful in space. As as quoted by. The character in the Moshen spice does not cooperate, right? Give. The very hostile environment as well. Martin if you questions very enlightening and glad we could talk about some of those things. Let's move on to our next question from petty in. Sydney. And Andrew. Patty from Sydney. Sorry Andrew Fridge Mike. Question. Along with. Molten later Bolton medals. Using. Around. With. That they white to create a magnetic field to protect textiles. It's possible be concerned. About the country recently. On, how to do that? Different metal was a really lower. Point. Sure if that's possible. If. It could be strong enough. Actinic failed to protect the astronauts. Greg Lincoln. By this. Thank you Patty knows to hear from you in person yes. He's asked a Roofer and he he I think was the one that asked us about roof tiling mas pretending astronaut. Right. So now the question is, can we create magnetic failed to predict astronauts in space using molten metals? Do thinking because he so it was about how we you know how we create an environment that will protect astronauts particularly. A on Mars but also heading to Mas and I haven't actually heard of this idea of using. Fluid metals to create the magnetic field. That's clearly how the US magnetic field is created by the sloshing around of. Of Molten Iron. In the CAU-. I think. In practice, it is going to be down to. Using much more conventional shielding. To protect astronauts in space. Lettuce. Lead is a pretty good way of stopping. The radiation from the sun penetrating inside the spacecraft to to to astronauts but it's pretty lettuce pretty unforgiving as well. Just let experienced. Very heavy getting it up there would be a nightmare. So I know that some of the designs that are being suggested actually use water as as the shielding. So you know maybe you you you've got a water tanker in over. Seventy spacecraft up there, and then you fill up the tanks. To provide the shielding. I haven't followed that in detail. and. Patty suggestions interesting if you've got a low melting point battle. Creek capable of generating and by. That would be interesting way to do it, but I'm I'm really been following this so. I shouldn't comment without actually looking at what results people are suggesting that great thoughts. Thank you. I will. I will check up on that Patty. Yeah. What about Mercury would that work? No I don't think so. I. Don't think mercury you would work I. Think. While it doesn't necessarily have to be a ferrous metal I think he's going to have certain characteristics Luke I'm guessing year Andrew and making this. Long. But I will check up on because he's such an interesting an interesting thought. It is. How do they protect the astronauts on the I s to bring you today's two questions together. What what what protections there from radiation. Will. They don't really need it because within the the the Mike. Bubble that the self provide. The red. Once you get outside of that and do a bit of a long hold trip. The starting on yourself expires? What about going to the moon they exposed in that trip? Yes. They are and what sort of help to not regard. With the astronauts. They pull astronauts of course they were. There only in environment for week of so. Out of earth. Orbit. An all the basically, the risks were thought to be tractable for relatively short periods of exposure like that. Enough but I think the problem is. When you are talking about a mass flight, it's at least six months. And that's a very different kettle of fish from six to seven days. In the full radio radiation field of the south. I'm starting to think the solution lies in the alien conspirists who ran the heads I died I. think that might be the guy. Will have not. Rama. Had all the time Ondrej. Just, to make sure. All right Patty thanks for the question you've you've got to Fred. He might have to do some homework to come up with something on that yet is is really clever thinking wrought outside the box. So good on your mind good to hear from you too Fred I think that's just about it. For another week I certainly encourage people to to send the questions in Vira website that always good to hear from you whether it's in written form or verbal I. Please do that You can record by the AMA TAB which I mentioned earlier at spice nuts podcast dot com. Thanks as always Fred another episode in the can as they say in the industry. That's right to know. How to Gregory silent today I think is across the paddock some west. We'll see what happens next time under thanks Raymond. Now a great pleasure thanks Fred Fred Watson an astronomer at large out of the team he on space not send. Thank you if your company looking forward to catching up with you next time. To this. Available Apple podcast Google podcasts spotify. Favorite podcast Playa you can also straighten on demand at God stuff. This is now the quality podcast production from thoughts dot com.