The Lost Secrets Of The Harlem Renaissance
This is one A.. I'm Todd Zelic in Washington Harlem in the nineteen. Twenties was unlike any other place in America in a piece published in crisis magazine Poet. Langston Hughes describes what Harlem Lim was like in one thousand nine hundred eighty six Harlem and it's Love Nights. It's cabarets and casinos. It's dark warm bodies. The thunder in subways the arch of the bridges. The Mighty rivers hold me. I am amazed at the tremendous of the city. It's the versus. It's many many things. I cannot tell the city how much I love. I have not enough kisses in my mouth for the avid lips of the city. I become dizzy dancing. To The jazz tune nights ecstasy wearied in the tire days the fascination of the city is upon me burning the five in the book that was one eight producer. Morgan givens reading Langston Hughes description of New York's Harlem Neighborhood Hood in the Mid Nineteen Twenty S. It's been nearly a century since the Harlem Renaissance and while artists like Louis Armstrong Langston Hughes and Zora. Neale hurston still endure dozens. If not hundreds of works from that period have been lost or forgotten or in some cases never even published will now. Many many of those are coming to life for the very first time this week a never before published novel by Jamaican born poet Claude McKay was published ninety years. I think it was written and another novel by writer. Jesse Faucet was also republished this week for the first time in nearly a hundred years will why are these forgotten works resurfacing now and how did they change our understanding of this cultural movement. Joining me from Saint Louis. Public Radio is William Maxwell professor of English Russian African American Studies at Washington University in St. Louis Professor Maxwell great to have you good day. This is a presser maxwell and from the city in which Langston us was inspired to write the Negro speaks of rivers about one hundred years ago actually wonderful and so great to have you joining us from that place lace as we talk about the Harlem Renaissance in joining from NPR in that very city of New York. Is Morgan. Jenkins author of this will be my undoing living at the intersection of black female and feminist in White America senior editor of Zora magazine. Morgan welcome to you. Thank you so much. Hits Morgan Jerkins Jergen Party. Thank you I appreciate it. Thank you so much also joining from NPR. New York's autumn Womack Assistant Professor of Nineteenth and and Twentieth Century African American literature at Princeton University. Professor Womack welcome to you. Thanks for having me Morgan. Jerkins you wrote in the introduction. To Jesse cassettes novel. There is confusion which was republished. Just yesterday who was Jesse for set and why has she largely disappeared from a conversation about the Harlem Renaissance. Yes so Jesse Faucet I would say it was just a a multi hyphen it artists and she was a poet. She was an essay as she. He was literary editor of the Crisis Between Nineteen Thousand Nine Hundred Nineteen Twenty Six Under the stewardship of WBZ boys and She also was a mentor. I mean she cheap. She published Langston Hughes first home. The Negro speaks of rivers. She mentored county Colon Jean toomer Claude McKay and it's fascinating remaining also said in a sense that she was lost to a public imagination I would say For many different factors and I think one of it is because it was a woman a black woman and she often was overshadowed by her black no counterparts. Well Morgan in a piece that you wrote for for the New Yorker you talk about a dinner that took place in downtown New York nineteen twenty four now. This dinner largely considered to be the event that led to the beginning the spawning of the Harlem Renaissance take a minute. Take US inside that dinner. Tell me who was there who was around the table blend. Also what happened. That was pivotal for Jesse Facet. Oh man so that dinner was legendary in a sense that it was just a WHO's who oh black luminaries and also white people there as well but anyone you can think of that. You know they were at that dinner to celebrate black back office but the word was that that dinner was supposed to be in celebration of Jesse Faucets debut novel there is confusion and she was told by Charles. Johnson who at that time was leading opportunity magazine that it was going to be an honor of her will. The problem got what happened was because because Elaine lock who was also considered one of the midwives of the Harlem Renaissance By Langston Hughes words he was the master of ceremonies and he did not at like Jesse Faucet to this day. I don't not sure why because they were both very educated black people the kate himself in a certain way. Hey Jesse Faucet I just want that known. Yes yes we we different. She was really kind to him. Took them out to dinner which he desperately needed so yes yes he did not like her. It was a very sharp disdain. So because he was the master of ceremonies Monet's instead of centering Jesse Faucet he made it just a general celebration of black writers and it wasn't until years later that faucet actually wrote a scathing letter to lock about how the party was actually intended for her. So this sort of overlooked aspect I I would say. In retrospect was a harbinger of things to come. Even in the afterlife. This was her party and in a way he didn't even invite her. She was there Elsa no she I know she was there but she wasn't. Honored is what I mean to say. She wasn't invited into the circle. I mean she was excluded. Yeah yes well Professor Fester Maxwell you've already put in your vote for Claude McKay. And the way he treated Jesse FA- set shock. I know I have someone else. We could indeed my favorite. I want you to talk about Claude. McKay because you're the CO editor of romance in Marseille. That's a novel by Claude. McKay was published for the first time. Also yesterday they now McCain is maybe another lesser-known writer of the Harlem Renaissance. So who is he. And why was Claude McKay import. Well the first thing I'd like to say is that the reason other than the fact that Claude McKay wrote this book between Nineteen Twenty Nine and nineteen thirty. Three that we have today is because of my co editor Gary Holcomb who for this is not an exaggeration about twenty years. Press to get this into publication. But who was Claude McKay I think it's fair to say he is if not the most radical writer of the Harlem Renaissance Certainly one of them and you can measure that on traditional political spectrum. The one that we inherit from the a French National Assembly he's the furthest to the left of all the Harlem Writers He's a very important early black communist And he would be important in the history of twentieth century ideology political life if he never wrote a sonnet So he's quite radical politically also becomes one of the first black anti Stalinists so he breaks with the Soviet version of communism in advance of the generation of Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison who are more famous for that break who wrote major novels around it. he's radically international He's born in the Clarendon hills of Jamaica in eighteen eighty nine migrates greats to the United States pretty much. The first moment he can winds up at the Tuskegee institute hates what he sees. As the militarized culture. There moves to Harlem but significantly leaves Harlem Justice. The Harlem Renaissance is really taking off and this might be one reason for his relative marginality though. He's very much back back. In Vogue in the best ways so nineteen twenty-three comes around. He's just written the first significant book of Poetry from the Harlem Renaissance which is called Harlem shadows and he gets on a boat and he works as a stoker and he's trying to get himself to Europe and then eventually to Moscow for a meeting of the common tern. Why why why did he leave? Just when things in Harlem for an artist were really starting to harm was he over at all. Was it not for him or did he just have travel. And he's over for it all I. I think that he would have been invited to the famous nineteen twenty four dinner that we were just talking about but I think he probably would have felt pretty badly Afterwards on May not have attended in in the first place I mean he was a hard core Bohemian Wanted a renaissance that was based on both absolute truth telling and on the UNMEDIATED culture of black working class people themselves where he always located wisdom so he was always skeptical of the desire to use the Harlem Renaissance essentially a form of black middle-class uplift politics which is not to say that everyone else in the Harlem Renaissance was interested in that but some of the grandees some of the Great Entrepreneurs Land Lock W. E. B. Two boys James Weldon Johnson and others were certainly in that camp and he was a communist best so maybe also look a Harlem. Renaissance also meant a certain degree for some writers commercial success. I might guess he Disapproved of that Well he wanted more commercial success than than he found believe me but he does argue in public and private With two boys about both both ideological and aesthetic matters And you know. Deploys writes the most scathing review of Mackay's career in which he talks about the novel that was published in Nineteen Twenty eight home to Harlem probably McKay's most notable work at least in Contemporary Times And says after reading it's pages I I feel distinctly like taking a bath. McKay wrote him a very scathing personal after that. So there's a lot of back and forth. It's not just political that's important but they're also aesthetic matters that separate them artists Having their debates in there and their conflicts Especially back then we've talked about some of these lesser known writers Jesse FA- set Claude McKay. But here's a writer that Alice. Here's here writer Alice Walker by the way talking about a Harlem Renaissance figure that many people probably have heard of I think my junior year in school in high school. That was the year that Zora died and I had no idea she had ever lived. I had it never heard absorbable Hurston. I had no idea none that there were black women writers. There's Alice Walker talking about Zora Neale L.. Hurston a writer who Alice Walker helped revitalize in the nineteen seventies Professor Womack Zorno Hurston is an interesting figure gear because most people have heard of her now but she died largely in obscurity. Until as I said Alice Walker kind of revived her legacy in the seventies seventy. So why did she receive so little acclaim while she was alive. And then why did that change so. She actually received quite a bit acclaim while she was alive in the earlier. Part of the What we think of as the Harlem Renaissance so the late nineteen twenty s and the nineteen thirties? I mean she was quite a well. Well known and Prominent Person Artists Anthropologist Personality in the Harlem Renaissance There's a couple of different reasons. I think why she died in obscurity. I mean the one one of the reasons is that she ran out of money And so she. She claims that in many people did too that the onset of the Great Depression a lot of the patronage dried up that was driving and funding these black writers and the Harlem Renaissance She also wrote in a style that was not entirely conventional right so she was really dedicated to capturing during the vibrancy and the pulse and the dynamism of black southern culture performance voice sound so many writers in this time period. We're turning their attention to in New York into urban centers. She was really intent on locating the subject of her writing In the black south although she did write some stories about the north and about New York that had been recently recovered. I'm if we're talking about LAS tax She also I mean. Many people think that her what we what was thought of as our conservative views around around segregation led to her trump and popularity so she was not entirely in favor of the nineteen fifty four Brown versus board of Education decision. Not because she thought that Black students deserve equal education. But she didn't think it should be funneled through white institutions right. I mean she grew up in all black town and she. I was very proud of that and committed to the idea that the institutions should be equal on their own terms. Let's listen to Zora worry. Neil hurston in her own voice. Bowl is around. I five Come on that colored car Monday cover let him out some trouble with the walk. Come on Professor Autumn Womack in two thousand eighteen essay. In the Paris review journalist. Shantelle tattling described Hurston. This way a mud Ed slinging proto feminist novel folklorist play writing ethnographer not to be crossed. Now that is a world Ling description. What was she like in life? I mean she was a master of reinvention She was constantly negotiating. All of these different a friend spheres and places and geographic domains. I mean we hear her voice right She was she was had a strong voice. Both on the page age and in writing I mean. There's very many accounts for walking into spaces in Harlem and very performance live Nature Right I'm she was committed to the stage. She was committed to black feeder. She was committed to embodied performance To dance to movement she did did a ton of field research in the American south and she lived amongst the people that she wrote about. I mean it's what's her community so I mean. In her autobiography. Strikes is on the road she talks about you know living in Turpentine camps and getting in fights with people and you know having to go undercover to to who duck and dive and move through all of these important and interesting scenarios So I think that that characterization of her as being kind of extra ordinary Harry is is right on point. Well Professor Maxwell back on Claude McKay. He introduced a number of openly queer characters which was revolutionary. For the time. We're going to take a break but take just a minute talk quickly about this subculture around Harlem Artists who wanted to explore not just race gender class sexuality things that a lot of people were not writing about right well you could say that that subculture is continuous with the whole second generation of all. This stotts writers. We're not just talking about McKay. Who actually worked with Zora? Neale Hurston Gwendolyn Bennett. And Richard Bruce Nugent nugent and others on some smaller publications McKay himself was a kind of mediator. Various subcultures he brings together are gay. Lesbian subculture in New York City is fairly openly bisexual man. During this period he hooks that culture up with the black radical culture or the proto communist culture of uptown the Jamaican radicals who are so important in the Harlem Renaissance People Zero Briggs. He Hooks that culture up with downtown. Lyrical left. Culture the magazine's the masses the new masses. The Liberator Crystal. Eastman Max Eastman so I would say. Say He's somebody who's cements these various sexual political subcultures together Almost single-handedly during this period well Jones tweeted this I. I took a college course on African American literature in the early seventies at West Virginia University introduced me to authors. I would not admit otherwise and for that. I'm grateful full. We're talking about the Renaissance of the Harlem Renaissance William Maxwell Professor of English and African American Studies at Washington University in St.. Louis Morgan Jerkins. An Automobile Mac are here as well. We'll take a pause and we'll talk a lot more about the Harlem Renaissance in just a moment I'm todd listening to one A.. From WMU and NPR support for this podcast and the following message. Come from Uber. Uber is committed to safety and to continuously raising the bar Dr to help make safer journeys for everyone for starters. All drivers are background checked before their first ride and screened on an ongoing basis and now uber has introduced a brand new safety feature called ride. Check which can detect if a trip goes unusually off course and check in to provide support to learn more about Uber's commitment to safety visit Uber Bird Dot com slash safety. Do you talk about the news with your friends. Your family or perfect strangers. Get the facts. You need to be up to speed on this busy news cycle so you can share what you know on the news. Roundup find the podcast in your feet every Friday. What's good Yo as you know? February is black sued month and all throughout that month. NPR's codes which is going to be running a special series about the history of black resistance because as long as black folks have been oppressed in this country country. which is you know forever? We've also been fighting back. Listen and subscribed. Well let's get back to our discussion about the Harlem Harlem Renaissance Authors whose work has been lost and this renaissance of the renaissance. Let me set the scene for you once again to get us back into the spear we're here is probably a person reading a poem that maybe you've probably heard of. I've known rivers ancient of the world and older than the flow of of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I did in the eighties when Don's were young. I don't my hot near the Congo. And as allow me to sleep I looked upon the Nile as the pyramids above. It hired a singing of the Mississippi. When Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans and I've seen its muddy bosom turn turn all golden in the sunset that was Langston Hughes reading? Probably one of his most famous poems. The Negro speaks of Rivers Morgan. Jerkins Erkin is here. Autumn Womack is here and William Maxwell of Washington University in Saint. Louis is here as well in twenty eighteen Hearst INS book bear coon about one of the last Africans to be brought over to America through the illegal slave trade was published for the very first time almost almost a century after it was written. Now Professor Womack Zora Neale Hurston. She really struggled with the story. That would become Beira. Koon Wai was writing this story. Such a such a hard time for her so she began to write the story That would become Barracuda in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven So that was the first time that she had gone down. South on a research trip sponsored by Carter G Woodson and Franz Boas who was her professor at Columbia Columbia University where she was studying anthropology as a student at Barnard So she began to write it in nineteen twenty seven. She returned in Nineteen Twenty eight twenty nine to to spend more time with him to create more full length. Version immense. She moved across different genres so she in her letters to various folks including on one of her patriots. CHARLOTTE osgood Mason. And she said. I'm going to try my hand at putting his story in a series of parables He tried recording him right. So maybe film would be the medium. Am that would best tell this story. So one of the things about. This is very characteristic of her sentence. She was always looking for the right form to tell the story of black life right and in particular this subject of slavery it seems posed a particular challenge for her and she was trying to figure out a form that would tell this story about a thing. That's supposed in the past right but that's still ongoing so there's this temporal kind of tangle that she was struggling within grappling with and I think it's really beautiful in her movement of men across these forms we really be impossibility of ever telling the story of slavery as something that's in the past right and that's something that I mean. Contemporary Scholars talk about in terms of the astrolabe from slavery. But she was theorizing this. I think in her movement across forms and trying to get it right and struggling to tell the story in a way that conveys the complexity. And you've Britain you've written about how she struggled almost from a scientific perspective. Her background as an anthropologist and wanting to give of her subject his voice in telling his story not being too emotionally involved in it at the same time how. How can you not be an insert of that that at that history telling narrative writing but scientific approach is a tough one to navigate right and I mean the thing? That's so brilliant about Hurston is that she figured out her our own way to do it right so she was. There is no way that I can be totally detached objective observer of this cultural life that I am a part of So she totally rejected this idea of scientific objectivity right And she also spent so much time with this man I mean. She went to his house in her. She talks about how she he brought him fruit. How they became friends how she took photographs of him right And so really refusing that binary of subject and researcher And I'm thinking holistically. About how do I approach this as a human right and has a story that we all need to hear as opposed to an object objective knowledge. Morgan Jerk I want to ask you about Jesse Redmond. FA- set again you. You mentioned that she wrote about the black middle class. She wrote about upwardly mobile black people during the Harlem Renaissance and she caught a lot of criticism from other black artists for focusing on this slice slice of black life. Now now Professor Maxwell made it clear to Claude. McKay was nice to her and despite the fact he was a communist she was nicer to. Oh so she spent more money on anyway no she was very kind to younger writers. Even those who were politically artistically oppose. Well Morgan Jerkins. What about Out Jesse for set and this writing about the black middle class. Did she catch a lot of heat for it. how did she navigate that. I mean it was hard. I mean you the historian at the Harlem Renaissance. Even though there was a lot of black people creating at the time there were a lot of opinions oftentimes controversial ones about how to to write about black people So as Professor Womack talked about with just with Zorno Hurston she wrote about black southern people with regards to their dialect in their vibrancy and she often caught flat from other people. Like Richard Ryan were example for Jesse Faucet you have to understand. She was from South Jersey Jersey. She was Ivy League educated. She came from. I would say like black intelligence. ooh People South Jersey Philadelphia so she wrote of these people often the style of. Would someone consider today like Jane Austen for example. Some people like in There's confusion to Jane Austen's work and some people had a problem with that because he said you know that doesn't really represent black people as a whole and now we have this time. We're in the spotlight now. Why aren't you speaking to a larger swath north of black people but she wanted to write about what she knew and explore the complexities right there? Can I. Can I leap in and please something. That common is really productive interesting to the one thing that we can say about the Harlem Renaissance which is really difficult to define is that. It's a moment when African American artists make it very clear that there isn't a singular black identity. Exactly right that you know. African Americans indeed people from the African diaspora come from every kind of region from every three kind of sociological position. Every kind of ethnicity speak every kind of language you can imagine. It's you can't define the central all style the Harlem Renaissance Right it sponsors working all these different modes fascinating. Well we heard a little bit from Langston Hughes at the very top and I did that for a reason because I want to get back to Langston Hughes in his relationships with some of the artists that we're talking about here we go now commits here. Everybody's excited let's let's Let's hear from again though we heard a little bit from Negro speaks leaks of rivers. Here's a clip from that same recording Langston Hughes explaining the inspiration behind the poem. Let's speaks rivers one one of my earliest times written in nineteen twenty. Just after I came out of high school I was going to Mexico to visit. My father. Father lived in Mexico City and on the train going across the Mississippi River. I looked out the window and I saw this great mighty river flowing down onto the height of the south and the think about what this river meant to the Negro people. Now Professor Womack Zora Neale Hurston Langston Hughes. Were very very good friends right. They had that okay. You you sound like you were prepared for that question until they weren't right okay. Exactly they weren't they weren't they both so this is complicated. They both had what was referred to what might be referred to as a patron a white patriot and then the relationship between them got complicated. So I know you've been waiting for this one So they had a really lovely lovely enduring friendship which I think is important to highlight. There's a beautiful book out now That tracks their friendship. Zora and Langston alinksyites or I apologize eligible for not getting the title on right now So they were the best of friends. I mean there's beautiful correspondence between them when Hurston was on a Research folkloric collecting trip in the late. Nineteen Twenty S. I mean she would write to him she would say I'm finding things for you. I'm collecting I've been sharing your book. I've been giving out copies of it Of his poetry. I've been reading it so they were really committed to fostering each other's Personal success They also as you said they shared One quite white Patriot and Charlotte osgood Mason And they had different terms of their contract may different relationship with her and that might have had definitely had something to do with the fracture. But it really I mean as the legend goes it. All Came to a head when they were working on this play mule bone together and they were supposed to collaborate and and maybe this is a lesson in the difficulty of collaborating with best friends But the legend has it that Hurston submitted copy happy rate for the play with her name. Alone then there's all these this drama the triangulation of the person who was working with them as well The play never actually got stage because everybody got turned off by the drama at all huge. Felt like he was blocked out of it. Hurson said that's not true. I didn't try to do that Eh. From there things Went from bad to worse. One Listener tweeted this. What a great conversation on the writers of the Harlem Renaissance Thank you? I knew a little about some of these writers. But you are really going in-depth with the knowledgeable experts. I will listen again and read more of these writers works. I agree we've got great experts. spurts who who really wanted to lean in on the relationship between so our Neil hurston Fox News. I'm todd relic. You're listening to one This message comes from NPR sponsor. LEGALZOOM legalzoom can help. Make sure your small business is set up for success this year. LEGALZOOM has helped more than two million Americans incorporate form an LLC and more you can also get advice on contracts lease agreements and other legal questions through legalzoom's network of independent attorneys since they're not a law firm more information is available at legalzoom dot com slash. NPR There's more to watch and read these days than any one person can get too. That's why we make pop culture happy hour from NPR twice a week we sort through the nonsense share reactions and give you the lowdown on what's worth your precious time. Listen subscribe to NPR's pop culture. Happy this is one A.. We're talking about the Harlem. Renaissance and Langston Hughes Professor Womack why he has Langston Hughes endured as one of the most widely read and recognized recognized figures from the Harlem Renaissance. When so many other writers is we've been talking about have either peaked and then receded or never been published in the first place? I mean I think a lot of it. It has to do with the gender aspect that Morgan brought up in the beginning. I mean it's not coincidental that Jesse Faucet and now a Larsen Larsen right and Hurston to a certain extent have kind of fallen by the wayside I mean Hughes was a masterful poet and writer. I mean that's part of it. I mean he was. He produced an amazing output The output though I think is a large part of it I mean he produced a ton of poetry and prose. He traveled internationally nationally in a different way than somebody like Hurston so we had a different kind of global footprint which also had a lot to do with it. He had a different kind of financial support So Oh Hurson was really financially dependent on Mason for a while Hughes had a different a different number of thousands of funds and money Kirsten also kind of embargo on the production of her work so as part of her contract with The patron she was not able to publish anything although she did she started needed it and got in trouble so there was a moment where she couldn't actually put out as much work as Houston So those are some of the reasons I mean he also just was. Does I mean people loved him right In a way that I think all of the figures that we're talking about today had a different they rubbed against the institutional on Norman away that I think was a little grading for some folks Morgan. Let's let's talk about Jesse Facet A little bit more And there is confusion. You've said that it raises questions that still feel urgent today. A black artist have to reflect the larger ideals of his or her community in individuality reserved only for white people. And I think Professor Maxwell kind of got at this the leeway that black artist has to write about broader broader classes of people than people want her to write about. Is that a challenge for you. Do you still feel it today. Absolutely when people ask me who who do you write for I often wonder if they're asking me that because I'm thinking out should I answer like a writing for the little girl you know. How or are they asking that because they know and I know that the publishing industry's still white dominated and there's only a certain few that get through that door and when you get to their door what you're GonNa do you're gonNA leave it open? You're gonNA close it and so when I think about this idea of individ- individuality and cultural obligation and I try to find a balance with but also the mamas over it's still a business and not everyone has the same opportunities and privileges as myself. And how do you contend with that also trying bright just you want to write. I don't think you can always do that. Because we don't live in an equal world. Can I say about that on the question of business business in the Harlem Renaissance. I mean I don't think it's ignoble to suggest. I believe this is the truth that one of the things. The Harlem Renaissance permitted was better business relationships between tween younger talented black writers many of whom were drawn to New York City. Because it was the center of American publishing and really important emerging Publishing firms arms like Alfred enough live right and others and people like Locke for all their difficulty with some of the younger generation made it contracts happen right. It was a marketing wing of the Harlem Renaissance. which again is not an ignoble thing? This is what eight modern renaissance requires. It requires a commercial official presence and it requires readers and it requires willing to buy a book well We have to go. And I'm sorry to say it because I think listeners. Yes I know. Listeners are loving this conversation just one second of autumn ALMAC. I'll leave it to you. We've been talking about. We've been talking about so many authors adjust. Just give me one recommendation. If people are interested in the Harlem Renaissance. They want to catch up on the history. Who should they read? What's what's what's out right now? Oh now like a book like a a writer from the Harlem Renaissance or contemporary anything. You want give us one idea. I I know the correct answer. Yeah I can I give to say two things that I think we are trying to say lane locks the the new Negro and then fire which was Hurston and Co's renegade kind of response to it which is like the radical younger voices saying anti institutional all black antagonistic people in people should catch up on those titles. That Autumn Womack has recommended if they want to get more out of this new renaissance of the renaissance assange. That's autumn Womack Assistant Professor of nineteenth and Twentieth Century African American literature at Princeton. Thank you so much professor. Thank you Morgan. JERKIN senior editor At Zora magazine Morgan. Thanks to you. Thank you and Professor William Maxwell at Washington University in St. Louis Professor. Thanks to you as well. Thanks for your opportunity tune. It was a real pleasure great to have all of you. This conversation was produced by Haley blasingame and edited by Matthew Simonsen to learn more about them and the rest of the team. visit the website website at the one. Eight DOT ORG. This program comes to you from W. Amu part of American University in Washington is distributed by NPR. Until we meet again again. I'm todd thank you so much for listening. This is one.