Part Two: Edward Bernays: The Founding Father of Lies
Would not rob story that you tell off. My daughter was beaten to death and Catherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts Helen gone and I'm heading back to Arkansas on a new case to find out what what happened to Janey Ward on September ninth in one thousand nine hundred nine when there's no justice done it hurts a lot of people listen to hell and gone. That's H.. E. L. L. and gone on Apple podcasts or on the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcasts eating my bags of I'm Robert Evans this behind the pastors the show where I talk about terrible people and try new intros. This one was inspired by something soapy said minutes. It's before I started this episode. When Jamie Loftus expressed a concern that someone would hear her chewing and would attack her for it on the Internet and Sophie said that person could eat a bag of Dick's which is why the show opened that way? I like like the context Robert Your stugotz providing historical context everything including things that just happened. It's necessary. Everyone needs to understand why why I say the things that I say and why open this show with what's eating my bags of Dick's. I understand why people are bothered authored by <hes> an occasional eating sound on Mike but I encourage everyone to remember that this is entertainment that is free and if you don't like it you can simply go pay for something now or you'd a bag of digs according to settle rita bag upticks eat a bag of Dick's and then other people will hear you chewing now I do. I do have to have a lot of sympathy for people who just like for whatever reason <hes> can't stand the sound of other people chewing because it it bugs me sometimes with certain people like I can't stand the sound of other people eating eating cereal. It drives me fucking nuts other foods. I don't have an issue with but cereal. Isn't that something you can control and so I don't judge people for having issues with it but it is an occasional part of life. It is an occasional part of life. People eat food <hes> and that's just the world in which we live in one day robots will do all of our eating for us but that day is not today now now. Let's start talking about Eddie Lebron as again so at the start of our last episode I made the case that it would Bernice deserves to be considered one of America's founding fathers he invented the tactics publicity stunts N._p._R.. Flax masquerading as journalists that so dominate our national discourse today you can look at that vogue article about Asthma al-Assad which we discussed in the bizarro Assad episode. It's just one of many descendants of Eddie Brenes tactics. He got women smoking. He helps make thin be vogue. He invented fo- socially conscious add tactics that cloak capitalism in robes robes of charity and perhaps more than anything else he invented bacon as a staple of the American breakfast yes yes I don't know what do you call the kind of person who will not shut up about up bacon besides obnoxious eaters every time because I I love Bacon. That's great I who doesn't Love Bacon. Even if you think it's unethical to eat you agree that it smells tastes incredible. I Love Bacon but I dislike when people I feel like it is a talking point for Marez. I've like anytime anytime an R._A.. COMES UP. They're like oh look Jimmy Mom. She doesn't even like like Beer Babes and bacon like this. I've I've been people have invoked the three BS at me before it is a weird talking point and I would like to hold Edward Bernez personally responsible for it. Yeah I mean it's it's one of those things we're like. <hes> the the story of how Bacon became what it is right now which is like this internet famous like everybody does these <hes> Oh look at this thing that's made I made a Burger Patty entirely woven bacon or whatever like all of these. It's clicked Bacon. Yeah yeah like that's a tactic to get people because people were eating less bacon so they were like head. We Make Bacon cool. It was incorporated into like the random culture of the mid-2000s. I feel like everyone kinda funny word yeah everyone would like an invader invader Zim Sleeve of tattoos talks about Bacon too much and if you're like a company that produces a product and you can have it be that kind of popular where like people are making random Internet jokes just because the word Word Bacon is funny and then it you know it and then they eat more bacon like it's one of those things it works because as I was researching how Eddie Brenes Made Bacon go viral in America I craved Bacon. I and I bought a whole fucking pile of Bacon and ate it because I desperately wanted to eat bacon after reading everything that had been you see a bunch of in it's the same thing like you see a bunch of Bacon memes on twitter and it's like these are dumb and like doc understand how stupid they are but Bacon is delicious and now I'm GonNa go eat some help. When the product is fun to consume yeah yeah it really does now in the mid nineteen twenties beech-nut packing company who is one of America's major bacon producers had noticed their sales were starting to plummet this may have had something to do with the thinness craze that Eddie Brenes had actually helped spark whatever the cause Americans were eating lighter breakfasts and going without bacon more mornings than the not so beech-nut packing company hired Bernez to turn shit around now Jamie the average standard adman move might have been to attack the competition and try to steal market share from other bacon companies but Brenes knew there was no point in doing that beech-nut stood to make way more money by just changing America's breakfast habits to include too much bacon? He instituted this change the same way he got America smoke by finding doctors in bribing them to light of the country going going to quote from an ink dot Com article here Brenes contacted a doctor he knew and who also had substantial financial ties to his agency and Commission to study on the Health Effects of Bacon when the physician came back with was that Bacon was in fact the perfect breakfast food food and that it replaces the energy you lose during sleep. I fucking I I love twenties like bad medical advice reasoning cigarettes. Go Your Own Bacon replaces. Your sleep energy just like inventing things that don't actually exist well yeah of course you're going to have less energy after sleeping so you need bacon is exhausted. ZSA ZSA contradicts the very concept of sleep. Yeah it's it's it's amazing. It's incredible once assured of these results as ask the doctor to communicate his findings to the medical community which he did by distributing them to a list of five thousand M._D.'s across the country with a no time doctors from coast to coast. We're recommending that their patients eat bacon for breakfast and the eating habits of a nation were transformed so there we go thanks Eddie. I mean that that is I think one of the more positive things that he did for the world I mean it's never good to lie about something being healthy. That's not healthy but that's certainly wasn't his idea and innocent was he's idea to say that a healthy I that's been happening since before before Edward Bernez that low lying about something being healthy. No I mean not just lying about something being healthy finding a doctor to cook up a fake study. You got something being healthy to make that go viral so that people would start eating all of the Bacon in the world like you can tie so much like our modern health bullshit to Edward Bernez getting a doctor to be like Bacon replenishes your energy and and now it's like it's come down to be like no K._o.. Juices like you gotta fight cancer and stuff but at all it's descended from the same tactic by Dr has wouldn't be possible without Edward Yeah Yeah because before like yeah you'd have lies where people would be like this morphine. Cough Syrup is good for your kid but after medicine started to really become a thing and like antibiotics were real and like it was clear that like doctors were more legitimate that they'd been in the old saw bones days. He's right rene was the first guy to be like okay. We'll I've got a I've got a kick this up a notch. I can't just lie about something being healthy. I got a bribe doctors to lie about something being healthy and that's how we're GONNA fuck it. Get this shit on the road and it worked and it worked and I'm <music>. I'm not mad about it. It's a it's a bad practice but I like Bacon breakfast so do I it's delicious and he was objectively right that it's a fantastic breakfast food but I did feel see I'd be remiss if I didn't talk talk a little bit about the health consequences of all of this bacon consumption on the American people so I found an article yeah I found an article on the Guardian about an announcement made by the World Health Organization based on the conclusions of twenty two cancer experts and ten countries reviewing more than four hundred studies on the health impact of processed meats like bacon quote the W._H._o.. Advised that consuming fifty grams of process me today equivalent to just a couple rashes of Bacon or one hotdog would raise the risk of getting bowel cancer by eighteen percent over a lifetime eating larger amounts raises your risk more learning at your own risk of cancer is increased from something like five percent doesn't mean like six percent may not be frightening enough to put off bacon sandwiches forever but learning that consumption of processed meat causes an additional thirty four thousand worldwide cancer deaths. A year is much more chilly so if we're if we're calculating the death toll of Eddie Brenes on top of that two hundred million dead cigarette ladies we had another thirty four thousand a year from Bacon can bake and edge Lawrence. Wow wow that's brutal. Okay that is brutal now. I'm a fair man Jamie and unlike with tobacco. I don't think we can blame burn as for purposefully harming here because back in the twenties whiskey was still medicine listen and while he knew that his medical expert was paid lying schill to get people to eat more bacon he did not know that Bacon was going to give our grandparents bowel cancer so you can blame him somewhat for that because he knew he was lying for money but it's not like with cigarettes where he knew he was getting people to give themselves cancer. He had yeah like where you had the research and had a counter argument prepared yeah okay yeah. I almost like willing to defend him for this of just like yeah. It's not good to have a like a snake oil Dr Cop for your product but if the product ain't delicious if the pro damned if this is fucking taste you know now over the course of the roaring twenties Bernez gradually refined his strategy <hes> create newsworthy stories by any means necessary and use that to generate demand for the product he was representing. He eventually turned it into something like a science by nineteen. thirty-one Brenes was raking in more than sixty thousand dollars a year in profits which equates to more than nine hundred thousand dollars a year in modern dollars by nineteen thirty five he was earning five times that much but Edward Bernez was not just content being good at his job and making he money he wanted to be seen an intellectual titan a serious scholar of mass consciousness so he started writing books propaganda in nineteen twenty eight which was about well. You know propaganda. This quote from the book is telling about how Bernez ideology developed quote the conscious intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in a democratic society those manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute. What an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country? We are governed our minds are molded our tastes formed in our idea suggested largely by men we have never heard of it is they. Who pull the wires that control the public mind? He writes this considering considering himself a good guy which is amazing because like this is almost exactly what Alex Jones believes about the world. He just thinks it's a different group of people had brigades. It's like this is what we're doing. It is so funny like how books of this era that it's just like you sound like a villain but but he is of the time he sees himself as the good gay for shirt and Bernez considered himself a liberal but he was also very elitist liberal so not a populist not a socialist socialists. Certainly he was one of those people who feared and reviled the masses much of his work in the cynicism behind it came from his strongly held belief that the masses were fundamentally dumb in dangerous they had to be lead and molded by men like him who could channel channel. They're unconscious desires in productive or at least profitable directions cool so not not an ego issue with him and dotted all no not an ego issue thinking that he knows what's good for the world better than the people of the world. Everyone not not at all but me and I'm going to kill them with cigarettes exactly any Brenes. That's a that's a fucking epitaph. Someone find his his gravestone and carve that in their everyone is trashed opened me so I'm going to get them hooked on cigarettes amazing. There's eighteen thirty yeah SARS. WHO's the jewel equivalent of Eddie Bernez today? I'm just one I mean he's the guy who runs Joe. Maybe yeah who runs Israel all right. I'M GONNA investigate anyways continue <hes> in one thousand nine thirty three. He published what would become his most influential work crystallizing public opinion. His focus in this book was on what he called the engineering of consent a phrases horrifying five yard. It's it's sounds horrible right like that's bad. That sounds like some Tucker Max Shit Yeah. That sounds like a little tucker maxi okay. What does that what does he the goal all of engineering consent he says is to provide leaders with the ability to quote control in regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it consent like yeah yeah? I just have to remind hi everyone at no point did Brenes consider himself a bad guy. He's saying this shit and he thinks like but I'm in the right here. You hear this stuff. It's no wonder that however many years in the future his daughter's like no he wasn't that great like. Michael he was he was kind of a piece of shit on his daughter seemed kaieda consistent about that use the phrase piece of Shit but they're very critical all the fact he's able to be like on the feminist I did kill like one million ladies killed all of the women who were alive in my day other than that. I was very progressive. Yeah now obviously while burn as considered himself a good guy he was very popular among long bad guys and starting in the nineteen twenties he accrued a new in increasingly influential fan a fellow you might have heard about by the name of Joseph Gurgles now yeah <hes> there we go even though Bernez himself was Jewish gurgles loved him. He kept a copy of crystallizing public opinion in a place of honor in his office and utilized all of Brenes well-worn techniques to create a cult personality around Adolf Hitler according to an article unborn as in the conversation quote Bernez learned that the Nazis were using his work in nineteen thirty three from a foreign correspondent for hearst newspapers. He later recounted in his nineteen sixty five autobiography. They were using my books as the basis for destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany the shocked me but I knew that any human activity could be used for social purposes or misused for antisocial ones this observation what's that they use the phrase antisocial purposes to describe the Holocaust is very diplomatic. It's also interesting because it's exactly the terminology Nazis used they called people like homosexuals. People like Trans folks and Jewish people themselves a social that was one of the terms they used to talk about the people who they later exterminated interesting to me now this Observation Lead Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter to warn Franklin Roosevelt against allowing Bernez to play a leadership role in World War Two describing him and his colleagues as professional poisoners of the public mind exploiters foolishness fanaticism and self interest which is very true yeah. That's a lot more direct yeah yeah which is why vibrant as does not get to have as much fun in World War Two as he had in World War One real tragedy there now. It's shocking to me that Bernez was surprised to see his tactics used for evil he had not confined himself to the political ethical realm in one thousand nine hundred four he'd helped popularize President Calvin Coolidge by creating the nonpartisan committee for Callen Calvin Coolidge and basically hiring famous people to come to the White House and chill out with the President Coolidge hetty reputation for being cold and utterly a a humorous sober nays made sure that we're headlines about Al Jolson the most popular comedian of the day making him laugh three weeks after this article ran coolidge won reelection so he made coolidge seen cool man. It's it's horrible but sometimes when I hear news from this era I'm like well. Maybe people just shouldn't have been so fucking stupid there. It is though it's the same thing as donald trump showing up on Jimmy Kimmel show or not Jimmy Kimmel. What's his fucking name? Jimmy Fallon the Jimmy Fallon show in having his hair tussle. It's the same thing it's like. This guy has a bad reputation put him with a famous popular comedian and that'll make him look nice. Those people are yeah. That'll make him seem at least hume yeah exactly it's exactly what worked Don coolidge networked with Donald Trump. Your Life is hell. Brennan is also worked with Herbert Hoover. He advised the president's administration is it fought to sell the nation Huber's disastrously incompetent policies aimed at mitigating the Great Depression Bernez influence on hoover is obvious in this line from speech hoover gave to a group of advertising executives you have taken over the job of creating Ziya and transforms people into constantly moving happiness machines machine which of the key economic progress constantly. Let's do not know your evil. If you're calling people happiness machines living happiness machine sounds like a shady R._e._M.. Song no it sounds like a great r._e._M.. Album sevens sevens constantly moving happiness machines. Yeah that is basically an R._A._M.. Album right there was a shiny happy. People like yeah yeah sounds just weird in areas enough to be in our album constantly moving happiness Venus machines. It's so uncanny valley. It's fucking wild fucking Herbert. Hoover says that the guy who sees the Great Depression and it's like clearly this solution to this is more capitalism. We we just didn't go far enough. It was a commitment issue. It was full yeah. It was a commitment issue. Yeah all right yeah yeah so Bernez advised Herbert hoovers campaign and it's attempt to defeat the rise of Democratic candidate edited Franklin Delano Roosevelt according to the father of spin quote I he would enlist his cadre of disinterested experts from Business Labor in academia only this time he was out to win over the entire nation which meant signing up as many as twenty five thousand group leaders to his nonpartisan fact-finding committee hoover it would get out the word that the economy was about to turn around and they would help puncture the inferior personality of Roosevelt by convincing voters at the Democratic candidate was not the progressive people thought he was and that he has been subject to Tammy and political nickel Jabari dividing the opposition was the key to comp conquering Brenes believed in this case persuading the fifteen million Americans who had voted for years before for Democrat Alfred Smith to switch to hoover right in Smith's name or simply stay home on election day one publicity campaign would spotlight leading Democrats who thought it had been a mistake to nominate Roosevelt instead of Smith and other would show hoover to be a courageous humane leader who brought the nation piece if not prosperity Brenes also made clear as he had in his corporate campaigns that the best way to win over for the public was by appealing to instant rather than reason always keep in mind the tendency of human beings to symbolize their leaders as Achilles heel proof his strategy paper advise also that the inferiority complex of individuals will respond to feeling superior to to a fool create issues that appeal to pugnacious instincts of human beings now you may recognize all this as the exact same strategy that worked in two thousand sixteen literally feeling very familiar vince leftists to say home convince them that the person the other Democrat who lost the nomination that they should right in that person's name instead and get them to what to fight in order to like like focus on the instincts that make them angry rather than the stuff that brings them together like it's the it's the same strategy that worked in two thousand sixteen eighteen but fuck fuck crucially. Thankfully it didn't work in this campaign which is why the United States did not turn into a fascist health state like Germany and why the Nazis Lost World War Two so thankfully F._d._R.. was just to fucking good at running political campaign to lose to this but it worked a century almost singer later so many thoughts and I'm GonNa none of them allowed at this time. There is oh boy you know it'll clear your your minds pal Jamey forever. I just really need some capitalist messaging to do me through the next couple of minutes on a couple of products a servicer three and then we'll be we'll be we'll be on the fucking road to a happy town the exact baking pallet cleanser. I'm seeking all right now which are type of product in a lot of emails Ellsberg cold-case all the time and usually when I look at a story I can tell him. The first five minutes probably happened but this one is really strain. I'm Katherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts Helen gone in hours asking people which wrong so much room and we're getting the sheriff's office he said James Dan no explanation. Janey Ward was sixteen years old when she died under mysterious circumstances she was at a party at a cabin in the woods in the small town on of Marshall Arkansas story that she fell off my daughter would be today. I'm heading back to Arkansas on a new case to find out what happened to Cheney Ward on in September ninth nine thousand nine hundred nine listen to hell and gone. That's H.. E. L. L. and gone on Apple podcasts or on the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcasts we're back. I hope you'll enjoy those ads for Raytheon. <hes> which which you know <hes> is the finest provider of of missile guidance equipment. I'm going to use the discount code. It's funny money. Were joking about Raytheon a bunch but I grew up in Plano Texas where they're headquartered and like my scoutmaster is a kid like the Guy who taught me how to start a fire. Survive in the Wilderness did something for Raytheon and we don't know what he all he could could save his job is that he worked for Raytheon and he was the kind of guy who like whatever he did. The way that he relaxed every year was by spending a month alone in the bottom of the Grand Canyon like he's been doing some any any person who needs to take a very specific alone dark annually is doing something good for a living like what he would sometimes go with a friend in one year that friend broke his leg and so he had to like us a flair to get the guy helicoptered out and then he he continued alone for weeks after that like that's whatever he did it work like that's how he what he needed in order to like get straight again afterwards and he would return from this feeling cleanse and ready to Fuck Shit up for eleven nine months. I mean it's one of those things. I don't know what the fuck he was doing. I'm sure it's horrible. He also like taught me everything I know about wood crafting and I'm I'm always be grateful for that he was that he was an incredible woodsmen man a complicated man the odor. I've gotten in the more I've learned about Raytheon the more at started to be like Oh my God. What the fuck were you doing? I'm thrilled to be descended from a long line of weed smoking remedial algebra teachers and it's very uncomplicated implicated existence. People never hurt nobody nobody and they certainly never taught nobody anything about Algebra. So when we last left off Edward Auburn as head invented Donald Trump's twenty sixteen election strategies so it's fucking wild hurt my heart to here yeah yeah now obviously his attempts to stop F._D._R.. From winning the election did not work. They weren't even close hoover got one of the most resounding defeats in the history of American politics tone-deaf weird out yet. He was a tone deaf Weirdo. He was terrible president president. He was a terrible terrible president. One of the worst we ever had but Eddie's tactics for engineering consent worked more often than they didn't Bernez knew that well and as a clearly intelligent man he should have known that writing out a how to who guide for manipulating mass consciousness could be used by Nazis just as well as it could be used by people who wanted to sell cigarettes but Bernez wanted to be regarded as a great unserious thinker in the only way to do that was to publish a book and make sure everyone knew how smart he was. What Bernez did with crystallizing public opinion was the propaganda equivalent of Phil figuring out how to build an atom bomb with household materials and then just throwing the instructions up on read it now? It's like yeah you how to make a bomb inside of fight club up like what why put that in the thing need now. The grossest part of the story is that many of the ideas Bernez wrote about in crystallizing public opinion weren't even his own ideas originally years before an academic named Walter Lippmann had published a book called public opinion according to an article I found in the International Journal of communication quote what Bernez represents is a friendly reading public opinion in his own quickly crafted sequel to Lipton's book crystallizing public opinion in is actually a calculated reversal of argument Lipman was of a human critic of propaganda who condemned the manufacturer of consent by public relations when that field was still in its infancy crystallizing public opinion converts and subverts Lipton's radical critique into an apology apology for P._R.. So this Guy Littman who's a serious scholar represents what people like Bernazard doing recognizes it sees it as horrifying and writes a book outlining y what they're doing is dangerous and then burn as basically flips that around into uh-huh. This guy wrote out really well what we're doing. I'll just turn it into a how to guide to make it easier for other people to do just strips but nobody deaf explain how to do it. Let's just take out the parts where we talk about. Why it's culturally he says this is a nightmare? You did tell us how to build the bomb. Just delete it. All the stories about people dying with bombs yeah about the consequences of bomb US okay so once Bernez book was out and into the hands of men like Joseph Gerbils Brenes finally started to get what he wanted respect New York University. Let him teach the very first P._R.. Course in academic history while Lipman was in remains respected in the Industry Bernez ideas took a much deeper hole. Unfortunately those ideas included stereotypes are awesome actually going to quote again from that International Journal Communication Article Quote Littman was consistently critical of the manipulation of public opinion by wartime propaganda in the transfer of propaganda techniques to peacetime endeavors conversely Bernez contends that propaganda has positive social value in creating unified purpose in wartime agreement on industrial purposes in Peacetime Brune as regards stereotypes as quote a great aid that the Public Relations Council in his work because they can be grasped by the average mind even though he acknowledges they are not necessarily truthful pictures of what they're supposed to portray no matter according to Brenes P._R.. Practitioners can you stereotypes to reach a public and then add their own ideas to fortify their position and give it greater carrying power P._R.. Can and also create new stereotypes to advance clients interests. He does however acknowledge that stereotypes have one disadvantage demagogues can use them to take advantage of the public the only disadvantage of stereotype as long as he. Set there well I mean this is at least we're getting into <hes> the cartoon villain territory that I've come to expect with this program because I was feeling to challenged at the beginning. I'm like oh no he descends into egotistical mystical madness okay yeah he's literally saying like well. Stereotypes can be used to create fascism and they're also usually lies but they help you sell shit usually come and people who have no negative stereotypes about themselves South Yeah Yeah but it doesn't burn as well. This is actually another interesting thing better. Bernez was Jewish by like birth but he was an atheist and he was like angry that people considered him Jewish <hes> because he he just didn't WanNa be <music> identified as religious at all but like you'd think he would understand how dangerous stereotypes it sounds. He sounds like he always understands that but would but needs risk the respect and like the whatever our glory can come being the father of spin more than he cares about any one. It's like I mean I understand like based on the kind of like figure he's trying to be. I understand why he would divorce himself from any identity Kennedy at all because yeah but what a good he'd be you know I'm GonNa tool. I'm just like stuffing my face with Bacon. I'm stressed Oh. I'm going to eat so much bacon. After this fucking episode still winning. He can't winning yeah. Edward Manet spent his life taking advantage of the public after World War Two that meant fighting the Cold War in the name of capitalism. He convinced President Eisenhower that the right reaction to the threat of the Soviet Union was to urge Americans Americans towards an irrational fear of communism in order to drive spending Eisenhower's first political campaign directly tied consumer culture to patriotism dominating. Oh yeah culminating in his you auto by slogan Kurato is in Car Eisenhower was telling Americans it. was there patriotic duty to buy more things. That's how you beat. The commies is by embracing consumerism well now raytheon yeah yeah really on like raith like a wonderful people literally the on yeah now the bulk of his anticommunist work of Bernez anticommunist work would however be done in the name of a corporation not the United States government in that corporation was the United Fruit company now how United Fruit Chiquita owned a huge chunk of Guatemala in the late forties and early fifties they had secured the Central American Empire by basically bribing and cutting wildly beneficial deals with the corrupt government in the area this allowed them to grow and export bananas at very low cost but it also completely screwed over the local workers and insured they made virtually no money from the trade and that the nation of Guatemala itself did not benefit in any meaningful way from united fruits booming sales the whole state of of affairs owed an awful lot to Edward Bernez for one thing he helped make bananas popular in America United Fruit hired him in the late forties with a mandate to add the fruit to America's Diet Brenes achieve this goal by using his usual tactics he founded doctor who said bananas were good for people and then engineer to state of new stories around the country about the amazing health benefits of Bernie of Bananas Classic Bernez which is not a bad thing in our great for you. Great thing is approach is so unwavering whether he's like Yeah Bananas Bananas cigarettes like reds fire kind of all the same yeah all right fine someone with a fancy title to light to America Yeah Yeah which is still works today. There's still like whole T._v.. Channels AH dedicated to yeah yeah fucking Dr Phil like if it was just fill nobody would give a shit so as time went on Edward Brenes made his actual visits to Guatemala it became clear to him how bad add conditions actually wear for most Guatemalans under years of corrupt rule Guatemala's leaders exempted the United Fruit company from most internal taxes. They let it import goods duty-free they gave it control of the nation's only Atlantic seaport and almost all of its railroads they capped workers salaries at no more than fifty cents a day since united fruit was the country's largest employer and landowner this effectively locked the entire nation into perpetual serfdom to an American fruit company now Edward Burn as was above all else the kind of guy who didn't need to see himself as a hero and this was more than he could bear according to the father of spin quote when he returned from a month-long company-sponsored trip to Guatemala in Honduras in September nineteen forty seven Brenes wrote his company clients a long memo warning eating them about low worker morale in substandard living conditions goodwill of all groups towards fruit company is poor he said ignorance conscious and unconscious distortion by Politicos and power or seeking powered by fellow travelers and communist influences all contribute their part Guatemala isn't a state eight of transition. All these situations complicate the issue and make the company vulnerable unless certain things happen he advised united fruit to basically share just a tiny tiny tiny bit of the wealth they were making in order to alleviate conditions on the ground and reduce unrest being gigantic capitalist behemoth helmed entirely by racist to believe Brown people were sub-human United Fruit was unwilling to do this Bernez later wrote the people in the tropics were remote from Boston. They produce their banana quotas and that was what counted fruit company executives in the tropics tough characters who come up through the ranks they were action oriented men. Whatever posed must've seemed like mollycoddling? I got no reaction to my voluminous report now based on his own code of ethics which he outlined in his nineteen twenty eight book propaganda Bernez should have quit he'd written a good p._r.. Man Quote refuses a client whom he believes dishonest a product which he believes to be fraudulent or cause which he believes to be antisocial his resume look at his fucking resume yeah yeah yeah and Bernez clearly believed that united fruits behavior was antisocial but he also knew that they were paying him one hundred thousand dollars a year so he continued to work for them and as left-wing movements rose in the country and agitated for taking back some of Guatemala's natural resources from United Fruit Bernez advised his employers on how to fight back in one thousand nine fifty two he wrote this whole manner of effective counter communist propaganda is not one of improvising could only be fought by the same scientific approach that is applied. Let us say to a problem of fighting a certain plant disease through scientific method of approach now the disease in Guatemala from the perspective of United Fruit Edward Brenes was a fellow named Kobo Armez. Now our best was not a communist but he was a socialist in nineteen fifty one he'd been elected president of Guatemala. His big campaign issue is land reform upon taking office he'd launched degree nine hundred a program that confiscated four hundred thousand acres of unused united fruit land and redistributed to poor Guatemalan farmers in nineteen fifty yeah. It seems like a great idea in nineteen fifty. One only about ten percent of Guatemala Land was actually available for purchase for the ninety percent of its people who might want to own it united fruit had bought up everything else in their tax filings. They'd reported on the land is being almost valueless essentially Barron in order to pay less money in taxes so when Arbenz seized their land he only paid them back the incredibly low value that they'd assessed for its value now. This would seem like Karma justice. If everything about to HAP- talk about hadn't happened the next so yeah yeah I it's it's really kind of like united fruits like oh no this land almost worthless so they'd have to pay much taxes on it and then when our best buys it back he's like well okay then I'll pay you the worthless price for the land and <hes> yeah yeah unable to Duncan him yeah yeah I one of the only things that this shitty man hadn't done was <hes> ruin country that wasn't his own but oh he's got around to that as he got around to that shit real quick and also oppressing people <hes> nationally great now united fruit went to the Eisenhower administration and wind that the seizure of their lane was clear example of people communism sneaking into Latin America. They warned the president that it wouldn't stop it. Just returning Guatemala's land to its people united fruits inconvenience would be the first domino to fall eventually taking all of America freedom and capitalism with it now. That's a rather hard line line of bullshit to sell thankfully united fruit had the greatest salesman on the planet the year before the government had started its land expropriation program Bernez had actually suggested United Fruit launch in media campaign to quote induce the President and State Department to issue a policy pronouncement comparable to the Monroe doctrine concerning expropriation his idea was to convince Americans specifically Americans in power that the Arbizu administrations totally just land reform was the same as say Joseph Stalin murdering five million Ukrainian peasants through starvation genocide he planned to start by picking tin popular magazines including Reader's Digest in the Saturday Evening Post and convincing their editors to run similar stories about the crisis in Guatemala quote from grenades in certain cases stories would be written by staff men in certain other cases the magazine might ask us to supply the story and we intern would engage in most suitable writer to handle the matter so yeah just so just not a lot of fact checking going on at this new yeah. He's he's providing the facts to journalists yeah now. One that still happens another thing that has not stopped happening. Yep Yep Yep cool once Guatemala land expropriation really got started in earnest United Fruit Greenland Brenes campaign. He engineered a whole spate of stories aimed at making Cobo Armez looked like a Mayan Mao this culminated on a two week to a two week tour of Guatemala in which Bernez led several journalists through the country in nineteen fifty to here's the father of spin quote within the publishers of Newsweek the Cincinnati Inquirer the Nashville banner in the New Orleans item contributing editor from time the foreign editor of scripts Howard and high ranking officials from the United Press The San Francisco Chronicle Michael the Miami Herald in the Christian Science Monitor Brenes insisted in his memoirs that the journalists were free to go where they wanted talk to whoever they wanted in report their findings freely and he reacted angrily suggestions in later years that the trip was manipulative but Thomas McCain who in the nineteen fifties was young public relations official with United Fruit wrote in his memoirs the trip and others like it were under the company's careful guidance and of course at company expense the trips were extensively together information but what the press wood here and see was carefully staged regulated by the host the plan and represented a serious attempt to compromise objectivity moreover it was a compromise implicit in the invitation only underscored by Brenes and the company's repeated claims to the contrary so that's cool so he's just generating a bunch of bullshit that by the people that he can then I mean it's just like a different version of what he did with the doctors but more yeah like Oh well Janice journalists are credible so let me find someone who will and their name to a whole pile of bullshit. That's too much for people to read on their own. The noticed be like all right works for me yeah. He knew what sort of newspapers everyone on the White House was reading and he made sure that they all published stories about how Communism was overtaken Guatemala right simple as that all right okay cool well. I A fucking hate this guy you know what I don't fucking hate Jamie what Robert the wonderful products and services that support our program. I'm honest. I can't wait to hear about more of them. I hope it's Chiquita banana add Dan. I hope it's an Ad Chiquita for I hope it's an ad for the new Chiquita wire guided <hes> bananas which which of course manufactured in part by Raytheon guidance chips yeah educated Banana Amazon Prime Crossover Yeah Yeah Yeah. Let's get all of the big companies working together to to drone strike bananas into the mouths of hungry people love IT products. This podcast began with a simple premise but things don't always go as planned and something happened during production something no one expected. I'm going to let you in a dark secret secret south that have tried to hide from almost every one of the past few years. I can't sleep at night and when I am able to sleep I have nightmares not the kind of nightmares that had child might have but the kind that can only come from the mind of a grown adult who scene and read a little too much. I'm hoping that if I can give this off my chest maybe just maybe I'll be able to shake these killers out of my head long enough to get some much-needed rest from iheartradio and ten foot TV muster presents INSOMNIAC listen two months to presents INSOMNIAC on Apple podcasts or whatever else you get your podcasts. We're back hind. We're talking about Eddie Boo and he can. He get worse. Yes yes <hes> <music> spoiler alert in like a minute NAFF. We'll be talking about genocide so long. The worst smell yes the whole banana yeah now true to form Edward Bernez also commissioned scholarly studies in order to lend extra legitimacy to united fruit she commissioned a twenty five page content analysis of seventeen thousand words spoken by Guatemala's new left-wing leaders and then compare them to statements from Soviet leaders. The conclusion of the report was obvious the our best administration were hard line commies quote every item mentioned it almost verbatim form is frequently found in Soviet propaganda messages. I love some good false equivalence. It's like literally all the Shitty memes on the Internet that like reply guys get into your mentions and they're like oh well. You said this and this fucking murderer also said this word so you're murderer dude in yeah fun and they're the same guys who will tell you it's not valid to point out when somebody literally repeats Nazi Propaganda Verbatim. It's a quite quite amazing and like the thing that they're calling communism here. I WANNA point. <music> out like our beds was was a socialist was not a communist was a guy who like his most radical stance was like no the old incredibly corrupt leaders of our country sold all of our nation's national resources to a fruit company for pennies pennies on the dollar so that they could get rich and it's locked our nation into a form of slavery and we're just not gonna let that happen like you don't get to own the whole country because you bought it from a corrupt asshole twenty years ago fuck that that's what he's saying. It's the people as yeah yes yeah yeah and he's not even kicking united fruit out. He's taking the land that they hadn't developed at all. They were just holding onto in case and saying we're going to give this to people like the company could've still made a shitload of money like I. It's one of those things communism gotta major hold in the country after everything that we're about to talk to happened because when these moderate reformers came along we fought tooth and nail entreated them like they were Joseph fucking Stalin reincarnated reincarnated like it's very frustrating the paper said Robert so <hes> so brunet's propaganda and united fruits lobbying did it's work. He managed to get his work all these articles and studies into the hands of top men in the White House and in the national security apparatus the CIA began to train arm and insurgent movement the Liberation Army under a piece of shit named Carlos Castillo automous armas was a military officer living in exile he and his two hundred C._I._A.. Picked guerrillas entered Guatemala Mullahs on June Eighteenth Nineteen fifty four with C._I._A.. Air Support Bernez ensured coverage of the coup in called them an army of Liberation Army forces took over Guatemala within a week and he was quickly named president shockingly the C._I._A.. Backed military dictator later did not have the best interests Guatemalan people at heart armistice. I act yeah I know really surprising his first act was to return all the land taken from United Fruit back to the company. He told Vice President Nixon. Tell me what you want me to do. You and I will do it many Guatemalans. We're of course unhappy with the state of affairs by the nineteen sixties. The situation had degraded into a brutal conflict. The banana wars had begun according to the council on hemispheric relations. I it's a shitty war. Dude that's true. I guess that's not really the focus of I mean. It's just accurate these are a war started over fucking bananas fucking bananas the civil war between the newly formed leftist guerrillas and the government lasted for over thirty years costing approximately two hundred thousand lives mostly people of my in dissent when the U._S. assisted in modernizing the government troops in nineteen sixty five kidnappings and assassination significantly increased in systematic manner the wars victims included farmworkers student activists Catholic priests and labor leaders who are part of a nonviolent social movement. The war was devastating. More people were killed in this conflict than in any Latin American war the valiant efforts of the Guatemalan historical clarification commission which the government initiated the end of the war identify genocide in the my in communities. This is atrocious and horrible and I just <hes> I mean a little beside the point but however I never heard about this before. This is like shit of Yeah Yeah. It seems like if you're going to talk about this is one of the things that frustrates me. A lot and people will bring up the the huge death count of communist regimes around the world totally valid absolutely worth talking about the tens of millions who died under the Mao in the millions who died under Stalin but then they pretend like there's no death toll for capitalism they ignore the twenty or thirty million who died in India as a result of the east India corporations reform land they lowered the hundreds of thousands of people who died in Latin America in are still dying as a result of like it's because history education in the United States is criminally incompetent at a systemic level well and it's just yeah it has to ignore the evils of capitalism or young people might start asking questions yeah yeah and I you know one other fucking thing we have to blame for we have burn as to blame for is Shay Guevara t shirts because Yeah One observer of Yakubu Arba's overthrow was a young young Argentinian traveler named Shea Guevara. He told his mother that the army coup was the moment quote that I left the path of reason as New York Times writer Daniel Kurtz fell in wrote in his two thousand eight article big fruit so to did Latin America that day mark turning point the end of a hopeful age of reform in the beginning of a bloody age of revolution in reaction over the next four decades hundreds of thousands of people were killed in guerilla attacks government crackdowns and civil wars across Latin America. This is fucking cool fucking horrible I this I can't even this myth cigarettes. I can wrap my head around the bacon fine. This is just I mean this is next next level. This is just like propaganda. Warfare will yeah it's a fucking nightmare and you mentioned not having heard about any of this before I mean I guess that's pretty common among our listeners. The only reason I had is that when I was in my early twenties <hes> a group of friends and I lived in Guatemala for several wonderful months and it's I fucking love Guatemala. It's unbelievably beautiful like maybe the prettiest place I've ever been it certainly like up there on that list of just like lands that take your breath away but it was impossible to not notice all the scars of like decades of civil war there were there would be times where we would like be driving through a field and you'd notice that it was like it was covered in grass but the texture of the land was like the surface of the moon and it was because so much mortar fire had filled it with craters that had been gotten grown over with grasp. There's thousands of craters or you drive past old buildings covered in heavy machine gunfire like holes for machine gun rounds wants or you'd be walking down the street in Antigua and you would see fifteen or twenty old men missing arms and legs like lying on the side of a building begging for money all clearly with like war injuries and stuff and so I started like really what the fuck happened here and that's where I didn't let about as at that point but I learned about United Fruit and the fucking banana wars I mean the fact you had to physically be there to even learn that this had happened like speaks volumes yeah yeah yeah and it might like my study of that started when I was in these little Mayan villages around Lago audit lawn and people would explain to me why the because you see soldiers all over the place in Guatemala because it's it's one of those countries where they don't have laws like we do like the military doesn't do like law work in the United States like they don't keep the peace that's for police to do. Guatemala doesn't have laws like that so you see soldiers a lot <hes> on the street and stuff but once we got to these little Mayan villages there would be no soldiers and I started asking the people. I met like why that was like Oh. We don't let the military in here because of the genocide they committed back in like a couple of decades ago so reason yeah reasonable reasonable. That's very reasonable reasonable and I mean I like joking and shit or on like how could Alka people not like realize that things are going to kill them but it's like and then there's you know at I am probably most people people in this country. Have this huge blind spot that is just like intentional erasure to make it easier to be okay with Howie. How we live well God Robert? You're really really killing me with this. One in this is it's it's fucking bad brenes about this. Wow Edward Bernez died a millionaire on March Ninth Nineteen ninety-five he was one hundred ridden four fucking years old he left behind a world scarred by the wars he helped to incite there were other Latin American Moore's by the way that he got involved with like this is just as much as I had time to write about it went so great and a world utterly dominated by the propagandistic techniques that he pioneered. Perhaps the most insidious piece his legacy is the possibly fatal damage done to the field of journalism when Bernez started manipulating the media P._R. was a new field and the handful of extant P._R.. Flex blacks were massively outnumbered by reporters and journalists by two thousand nineteen that situation had completely reversed itself. There are currently six P._R.. People for every journalist in the United States like the alleys full of money. They make a lot more money which is why if you look into past Pulitzer Prize winners an awful lot of them. Go into P._R.. Because it's like like I can't even blame them. It's like okay you worked your ass off making fucking nothing when you you told an incredibly important story and got recognized now it's time to ensure that you can retire someday. Men Having ethics means that you're GONNA be seen a lot of groupon doctor on the upside Jamie Edward as also advise the multiple sclerosis foundation to call themselves the M._S. foundation because it was better branding so like you know it equals out you cause a war you help foundation make more money dicon in the last episode how dare you the and then and then you throw the banana wars at the last second. How dare well you can be a feminist icon and also helped spark a brutal genocidal civil war in Guatemala? You can't be feminist icon and and kill every woman you know with cigarettes and you can't. He didn't know not not as wife because he got her to stop smoking. Women women except my wife Argument Bernie Bernie Bernie Burn as Eddie booed the cried. All villains live forever. Well villains live forever yeah old cube head so that was so there's no more or is there nope. That's the fucking tale of Hebron as much of it as I'm gonNA tell. There's a lot more the book the father of Spin is a fine book. If you WANNA learn more about the guy but I feel feel like this is a enough to know about Edward Burn as Yeah Yeah I certainly learned. I certainly learned a lot and now I understand why his daughters hate him. So much EIB isil Yes ebusiness coupon himself <hes> oh Cuba so Jamie you got any plug ables to plug hide yeah not that they're doing in the zone. Yes as you can listen to the Bechtel cast <hes> Meinen Caitlyn Toronto's podcast every Thursday at Bechtel cast. You can follow me on twitter at Jamie Loftus help albeit at Edinburgh Fringe Festival Evil August. If you want come see show you can do that so fringe out with your hinge out fringe on my show. It's my is. It's my <hes> the Elizabeth a bit homes show basically I mean actually you could do a really good like comparison to hang out with your your Wang out there. Using a local British isles synonym for pubic hair dish that people will hinge out with your minj out your men Jr.. Yeah never say that again. Robert Never Save me. That's that's that's. That's a slang term in the place. You're going to be going God you so cute about all his you know what you know what fanny means up there to right but right. No it means vagina in the aisles it means Vagina. Fanny is slang for Vagina and the British isles so this is very important for you to know you endanger. If you don't understand yeah so I I mean not that I've ever said fanning but if you said sit on it people would be confused very very sit on your fanny means a very every different thing in the British isles yeah okay well good. Thank you for these travel temps. They do need them. Yeah also blood pudding surprisingly tasty really fucking good like everybody. Everybody talks talk show about the British. I think they have the second best breakfast food I've ever encountered. They're not better at breakfast than the Irish but they're very good in my opinion. I'm a big fan so enjoy yourself. I don't know anything about Scottish food. That scares me so I have no idea yeah. I'll just have to find out when I get there yet. Drink a lot of TALLEC though I do I do recommend that all right well. Jaime Loftus fringe festival watcher be the champion Queen of comedy that we all know her to be cheer her on her journey me through Scotland and listeners online. If you know of other slang terms that she should know before she goes there hit us up on twitter and warned her. I Don Yeah. I don't WanNa get killed for saying the wrong thing yet. That happens a lot. The British violent people and I'm getting them just pre brexit so it's going to be stressful time. Oh yeah everyone's going to be swinging tally packers that seems like a British lane for a weapon. It sounds like something well. I'm Robert Evans. This is behind the bastards has been behind the bastards. It's not anymore because it's over. You can find me on twitter at I right okay you can find their show on twitter and instagram and F._S._U.. Pot you divide t shirts on public <hes> AH looking for behind the district on public and that's it. That's the fucking episode Joe Robert. Thanks for being on. That's the goal with every episode of behind the bastards is to leave you feeling worse than you did support and I usually don't end by shouting products but I did why why I'm just thinking there will always it will be an ad after this. You know that filthy it would not story tell my daughter was beaten. I'm Katherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts.