Failed Conspiracies: Catiline Conspiracy
Due to the graphic nature of this episode listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of torture and execution. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen on january first sixty three bc e. marcus tully. Cicero was elected as one of two consoles. Rome's two most powerful leaders. They presided over. The roman senate approved laws and commanded the army during national crises. It was a huge accomplishment for anyone but especially cicero. He didn't come from established society family his city was conquered by the romans hundreds of years before as a result he was considered an outsider. But over the years. Cicero established himself as roma's best lawyer. This gave him the support to enter politics where he earned a reputation as a fair and efficient leader from there. He achieved the console ship. There was hardly time to rest on his laurels. Though being console in sixty three bc meant dealing with rome's intense superficial unrest. The lower class believed the wealthy were taking advantage of them. Cicero suspected that they along with a handful of double-crossing senators. Were plotting something devious. But he had no idea what this was probably on his mind when he went to bed one night in october sixty three bc just a few hours later a servant cicero. It was a matter of life and death. Cicero got out of bed in greeted. His guests led by crassus rome's richest man. They told cicero he was right about the plot and should call an emergency session of the senate they needed to discuss what to do with the traders. Cicero was grateful. They believed him but they needed more evidence to which crassus handed him a pile of letters. Cicero read one then another and another. They all said the same thing. Some of the senators were planning an uprising but it was far more brutal than cicero had imagined. The letters revealed their plan to gruesomely butcher. Their political opponents before taking control of the government in cicero was their number one target. Welcome to conspiracy theories a spotify original from par cast. Every monday and wednesday we dig into the complicated stories behind the world's most controversial events and search for the truth. I'm corduroy and i'm only brandenburg and neither of us are conspiracy theorists but we are open minded skeptical and curious. Don't get us wrong. Sometimes the official version is the truth. But sometimes it's not you can find episodes of conspiracy theories and all other spotify originals from podcast for free on spotify or wherever. You listen to podcasts. This is our fourth and final. Episode of failed conspiracies series where we blow open the shoots and what he fs of history's biggest blunders. Today will uncover a plot hatched by a roman official named caroline. He wanted to assassinate his fellow politicians and seized power for himself in this episode. We'll take a look at the rising political careers of align and his arch enemy cicero. We'll discuss how this led to their inevitable. Showdown in the roman senate and the citywide battle that ensued and since our whole episode is one big conspiracy will end on something a little different. We'll dive into an alternate world. Where catalans plot actually succeeded. We'll have all that and more coming up stay with us hi listeners. Just a quick reminder that starting in august conspiracy theories is moving exclusively to spotify since joining the spotify family. We've been fortunate enough to have the opportunity to improve our podcast listening experience. And we can't wait for you to check it out. Find all the cover ups conspiracies and controversial events from history by downloading the spotify app for free and searching conspiracy theories. Give it a follow and start enjoying. That's it we can't thank you enough for listening to conspiracy theories and we look forward to seeing you exclusively on spotify in august. This episode is brought to you by three m three m has always been driven to improve lives with science and innovation. It's this forward thinking mindset. That led three m to invent household items. You've come to know and love like posted notes and command hooks but three m believes they have a responsibility to use their science to improve lives in even more ways. That's why the responding to the cova nineteen crisis by working on solutions for some of today's biggest challenges as a leading provider of personal protective equipment. Three emma's producing critical products for healthcare workers and first responders and donating to local and humanitarian aid partners around the globe. They're also making more respirators than ever before with plants working around the clock producing more than ninety five million respirators per month. The us helping those in the front lines. Continue the fight. Three m science applied to life. Learn more about how three m is helping the world respond to the cove in nineteen pandemic at three dot com slash kovin. This episode is brought to you by volvo cars. The future is electric so by twenty thirty. All new volvo cars will be fully electric drive a volvo that helps protect your family and the planet we all share learn more at volvo. Cars dot com slash. Us rome was founded in seven fifty three bc e and quickly the italian peninsula in its early history. The city was ruled by a monarchy. It flourished under the reign of at least six benevolent kings for two hundred years. However the seventh lucius tarkwa superb was a tyrant that the romans eventually overthrew. The king's power was spread out among annually elected magistrates in the roman republic was born in five. Oh nine b. c. In this new republic adult male roman citizens were allowed to vote on bills laws and other policies there was also a senate but unlike our us senators today. There's warren elected. They were appointed by two leaders known as consoles and later by other elected officials known as censors. The consuls held the most powerful positions in all of rome. They handled both domestic issues and international affairs but a console could only serve for year than the senate nominated more candidates and the people of rome voted on who'd be seated next as the republic concord. New territory the senate grew to three hundred members. They were split into two political parties. The optimize as represented those in favor of an oligarchy and the popularize represented the voices of the people. Both groups came together to meet in the curia. Ha stelea similar to the. Us capital today from their politicians made their speeches and proposed bills. Four hundred years after its founding. Rome had ballooned into a city of approximately one million people. It was the capital of an imperial republic. That would eventually cover territory. In present day. Italy spain france syria and africa. Maintaining this growing republic was difficult. The roman legions were constantly at war with other nations however victorious they were abroad. The fighting put a massive strain on the republic's economy especially lower class farmers. Most of them couldn't sell their harvest. Mainly because of the importation of cheap goods from newly conquered provinces in the influx of slave labor as a result. Many of these farmers fell into debt in order to repay those debts. The wealthy repossessed their lands while the poor lost everything. The rich got richer causing a strain between the classes. It reached a boiling point in between eighty seven and eighty six species. E a general named guy marya saw this imbalance and took action before rising through the ranks of the military. He'd been part of the lower aristocracy. He believed that the wealthy optima days were corrupt and needed to be replaced to put the popularity in power he. Along with his co-conspirator lucius cinna used their army to invade the city of rome since the rest of the military was dispatched to fight in other countries at the time the capital film easily. Marius and cinna took over as consuls and many members of the optum matei party were killed. They rushed to send for help. From another general named lucius cornelius sela but sela stayed fighting in greece and even asia for a while before returning to rome with his armies meanwhile. Marius grew weak and died leaving center. In charge of the republic. Sola finally went back to italy in the spring of eighty three bc and crush the republic's surrounding forces. After a year he recaptured rome and executed thousands. Who were against him. Especially those in support of the popularity is the bloodshed didn't end there with both consoles and half the senate gone. Sola declared himself dictator arom. He kept the senate in place but it was largely for show. He filled it with wealthy optimize. Sei's who supported him. Then he authorized a hit list called a prescription. It was a register of popularity as senators nobles and other citizens who fought for his opponents. Everyone on that list was labeled an enemy of the state meaning. Anyone could hunt them down and arrest them. The captors received a reward. The prisoners were put to death without trial. Warm mercy but so's policies hurt more than just as political opponents. They also affected impoverished roman farmers. He took away their land and gave it to his soldiers as a reward for their service. Not that the soldiers were pleased. If anything they had little use for the land they preferred a cash reward and ended up selling their land to rich magnates. That is until a man named lucius. Sergio's catalina championed their cause otherwise known as catalin guideline came from an old aristocratic family. Although they had money they were nondescript cadillac though wanted history to remember him his desire for greatness led him to join the military at nineteen years old as a roman soldier he helped put down a rebellion in italy and served with distinction when that ended he entered politics and joined saleh's army in their capture of room but catalan was always strategizing on how to get ahead. Many scholars believe he married. A woman had a child with her solely to advance his career. Her brother marius. Marcus credit lyonnais was a high level judge in rome. He was also the nephew of guys. Marius but the political winds shifted. When silla conquered rome catalin feared that his connection to grata. Dion us and marius would now make him a political target so he turned on his brother-in-law contemporary sources believed that cadillac line went after granted. Yoenis in order to win the favor of a man named clinton slough tidiest could tell us a political rival of his brother-in-law's who was consul. Seventy eight bc. He captured grad janas and forced him to march through the streets of rome whipping him as they went then he took him to. A cemetery mutilated us and decapitated him. Catalan then took his head in paraded. It back through the streets before presenting it to sala as a of his devotion. Solas regime lasted for three years until he retired from politics in seventy nine. Vce he died the following year afterward. The popularity slowly started to return to the senate. Rome eventually stabilized while. Everyone's lives quieted down. Cadillac lines was disrupted in seventy three bc. He was accused of a crime punishable by death. Having sex with a vestal virgin one of these six priestesses of the goddess vesta fabriga. The vestal virgin in question had taken a vow of chastity which held the punishment of death. if broken. this often meant being buried alive. Cadillac was also sentenced to death. Catalin was in serious trouble but could tell us the man whose favor cadillac had one earlier came to his rescue. He was now a leader amongst the opt to monte's any wielded a lot of power. He helped exonerate both caroline and phobia. Somehow the scandalous affair was soon forgotten by the senate five years later in sixty eight bc. Cadillac was made a judicial official a year later. He became governor of north africa. It was a lucrative position that gave him access to the ports along the mediterranean while carolina enjoyed a cushy government job. Back in rome. Another enterprising man made a name for himself. Marcus to liaise cicero. Cicero came from a wealthy family who possibly made their fortune in textiles and farming while he had money. The romans still viewed cicero as an outsider because his ancestors had come from. Rpm a town in central italy about sixty miles from rome because of this cicero had an intense desire to prove himself. As a valuable roman citizen he became a lawyer and took on as many cases as he could. He was so dedicated to his job that physicians told him he destroy his health if he didn't slowdown to save his career. Cicero then took a two year sabbatical in seventy nine b. c. He visited law schools throughout greece and asia to strengthen his craft when he returned. He held several political offices. In sicily and rome. He gained a reputation for fairness integrity and modesty. The people of sicily loved him. He was the first choice to prosecute a high profile. Case in seventy ce sicily's former governor guys. Varis was on trial for extortion. He'd made a fortune looting. Greek works of art. Cicero jumped at the chance to prosecute barris but even with all the evidence in public outcry he knew. It'd be a hard case to win. Cicero soon found that many of his key witnesses backed out or disappeared likely due to various reputation for brutally punishing those who tried to stop him plus various had employed one of rome's best lawyers at the time a man named quintas or ten ceus horseless cicero's meticulous. Preparation paid off though reportedly. His opening argument was so persuasive. That hortensia gave up his right to reply. He knew he couldn't win. He recommended varis go into exile knowing his days were numbered. There's fled the city then. One day of courts. Cicero had beat rome's best lawyer and taken down. Its most corrupt governor with this accomplishment. Cicero had established himself as a force to be reckoned coming up. Caroline and cicero lock horns in the roman senate. Imagine living with a secret so big that if anyone ever found out it would change everything. Imagine carrying that secret with you every day. Desperate to one day. Get it off your chest. Do you think you could take a secret. That to the crave i'ma stephania haeggman host of the new podcast series. Deathbed confessions the show where we dive deep into the most explosive things people have admitted to while drawing their last breath from murder fake identities heists illicit affairs and even top government secrets this season. On deathbed confessions we investigate cases like frank thorogood the construction worker who claimed that the drowning of rolling stones founder. Brian jones was no accident. Margaret gibson a silent film actress who wild dying of a heart attack confess to one of the most famous unsolved crimes in hollywood history and fca officer. Howard hunt who on his deathbed confessed to playing a role in the assassination of president. John f. kennedy deathbed confessions is a spotify original from podcast. Airing episodes weekly starting july twenty first following. Listen to deathbed. Confessions for free on spotify. This episode is brought to you by the volvo. Xc forty did you know that. There's a bike shortage around the world right now because more people are seeking socially distant modes of transportation. Chances are you'll be sharing the city streets with more cyclists the volvo xc forty. Suv is made to help. Protect people in and around the car with detection technology keeping an eye out using high tech cameras and sensors and can automatically apply the brakes to help avoid collision the xy forty for everyone's safety visit volvo cars dot com slash. Us to learn more now back to the story. Caroline and cicero began their careers after rome. Civil war in eighty three bc. Cicero established himself as an upstanding lawyer and politician. Meanwhile catalan was appointed. The prestigious role of governor in north africa in sixty five e c forty three year old cadillac returned to rome with his experience ruling vast territories. He felt like he was ready to become a console. Remember console candidates could only be nominated by the senate. Then citizens voted on the two new consuls each year the requirements for candidates were extensive. Not only did they need years of political experience. Men had to meet the forty three year old age minimum and pay for much of their own campaigns. Few people were that experienced in wealthy so it was unlikely that more than five people ran had time. Caroline was fully prepared for the undertaking. He was about to throw his hat into the ring when his political opponents put him on trial again this time for extortion while governing in africa without verifiable proof though cadillac managed to skirt punishment once more but his time in court did take away from his campaigning as results to other men became consul that year so catalan ran the following year in sixty four b c e one of his opponents was a man named gayus antonius hira. The other was cicero. That first cicero tried to be friendly with cat line during his extortion trial. Cicero offered to help but caroline declined his offer. And the rivalry form between the two instead. Catelli made a pact with hybrid. They were determined to thwart cicero's candidacy with the battle lines drawn. The candidates set out to cam came during which caroline hybrid engaged in massive bribery to secure votes. This enraged cicero. He decided to do something about it. By giving a historical speech he stood before the senate and reminded them of caroline's and hybrid as corruption. But it seemed mostly targeted caroline. He detailed how he killed. His brother-in-law slept with priestess avesta and abused his power as governor of north africa this severe reminder to the senate obliterated cadillacs chances when the citizens voted cicero and hybridoma one the console seats. Catalan wasn't ready to give up. Though he doubled down and prepared for the following year's election but he knew he had to change his tactics since nearly all of the optima taes in the senate had abandoned him after cicero's speech. He turned his attention to the popularity party instead. Many farmers were still embittered at how they'd been treated during solis rain it had ruined their livelihoods and put many into deep debt to win their favor. Cadillac and made them a promise. He told them if they supported his bid for console he'd introduce a bill called the clean slate. everyone's debts would be cancelled. Catalin said he'd introduce a prescription of the rich and divide their land up amongst the people at this point. Cadillac wasn't just campaigning for console. He was proposing an all out war on the rich. It was a radical move. But he'd say anything to win the console ship. Many popularize politicians offered their votes to caroline word spread throughout the city of rome and the commoners were elated. Ironically one of the most supportive groups were the veterans who fought for solid during the civil war might seem like a surprising departure. Granted sola had been a champion of the rich but in reality many of silla soldiers were unhappy by how their general had treated them after the war had ended. They weren't paid for their service and they didn't know what to do with the land they were given. Most of the soldiers weren't farmers so they weren't able to make a living of the property. As a result many of them fell into debt. And to catalyze surprise there were plenty of rich nobles that backed as well after overspending on extravagant celebrations like feasts shows. The idea of cancel. Debts was lucrative to them to cicero saw caroline gaining more popularity and tried to slow his success. He accused catalina of bribery. While the claim was true. Cicero pushed the envelope. He tried to get a law passed. That vanished those who committed the crime to push caroline over the edge. He decided more powerful action was needed to knock the consul off the board and stop cicero's interference for good in order to do so. Catalin gathered a few trusted supporters and hatched a plan while citizens were placing their votes catalin. Supporters would incite a riot during the confusion. Others would then kill cicero and if you of his colleagues. Fortunately for cicero he was informed of the assassination plot the day before he called an emergency meeting of the senate and postpone the voting process additionally he urged them to initiate a law called the ultimate decree of the senate which would label capitoline as an enemy of the state. Cadillac could be executed without a trial. But the senate wasn't prepared to initiate the decree without more proof the voting thus proceeded as planned cicero though wouldn't be stopped either. He said about a new tactic to win the sympathy of the voters by sending out some of his followers into the city. They whispered rumors that catalan was still going to kill cicero sometime soon. On the day of the election. Cicero arrived at the polls wearing a quote broad and conspicuous breastplate to the voters. It looked like cicero was trying to protect himself. From catalans attack the stunt worked enough of caroline. Supporters cast their vote for other candidates cadillac had now lost three elections in a row. He was angry and humiliated. Caroline turned to drastic measures to seize power shortly after the election. Catalan called another meeting with his key. Supporters outlined a new plan. They would raise an army of those sympathetic to their cause. Like solas veterans angry commoners. Most of them lived in a province called a true area date invade rome on october. Twenty seventh then the conspirators. Still inside the city would inside a riot and let catalans army in to kill cicero and his followers. Since the real roman military was fighting in other countries they believe the city would fall easily immediately after this meeting. Cadillac sent one of his key military. Commanders man named guys manliness to a trea. it was time to rally solas veterans to their cause. Everything was coming together but catalin still had to be wary of cicero and what he might find out. Cicero suspected applied was unfolding. He just didn't know the details. Although cicero soon became privy to the plan thanks to one woman close to caroline's inner circle. This was fool via the mistress of quintas curious trusted cadillac supporter. He joined cadillac after he himself was expelled from the senate for having one too many affairs after hearing rumblings of the plan she convinced curious to confide in her. She wanted to know all about catalans conspiracy to overthrow the city. Curious believe that once cadillac took back power. He'd regain his position and his wealth but unbeknownst curious she warned cicero of the plot. She believed there were too many lives at stake to stand idly by. Cicero was grateful for the information that we had to find a way to leverage it. He didn't believe the senators would take full visas. Word for it. In the meantime cicero continued searching for more evidence of this conspiracy and almost by fate on october twentieth. Such proof finally arrived that night and unknown messenger left a packet of anonymous letters at the home of crisis. Rome's wealthiest man crassus had financed some catalans earlier campaigns but it since withdrawn his support. The letters were addressed to crassus and various other politicians. One specifically to crassus warned him that cadillac was going to kill the senators against him and seize power on october. Twenty seventh crassus was so startled that the same night he gathered some of the other optimize sei's and went to cicero's home. They didn't know who'd written letters but they were convinced. It was rock solid evidence at last cicero had proof. That carolina was initiating a coup. He convened an emergency meeting that morning. The senate was sure to declare cadillac an enemy of the state the following day on october twenty first cicero and the other senators met in the curia. The room was bustling with a nervous fearful energy. Cicero passed out the letters that had been delivered to cross this doorstep after the senators read them they were convinced they passed the ultimate decree and declared catiline an enemy of the state. Legally they were allowed to kill catalin but there was hesitancy to rush into anything instead. The senators ordered that he be taken into custody and placed under house arrest. They would wait and see if there really was an uprising before making their next move to prove his innocence. Catalin insisted he stay in cicero's house but cicero refused. Believing catalan was homicidal. In fact everyone was so terrified of caroline that hardly anyone let him stay at their home eventually. His fellow co-conspirator named marcus marcellus took him in october. Twenty seventh came and went without a battle. The calm surprise the roman public making them wonder if catalin really was innocent. The shifted the narrative yet again as people started to believe that cicero had made the entire matter up perhaps he forged the letters himself but cicero was vindicated. When one of the senators received a report from itera catalans commander manley as had amassed an army of twenty thousand soldiers. The coup who was about to begin coming up catalyze play to kill cicero. This episode is brought to you by the volvo. Xc forty did you know that. There's a bike shortage around the world right now because more people are seeking socially distant modes of transportation kansas are. You'll be sharing the city streets with more cyclists the volvo xc forty. Suv is made to help. Protect people in and around the car with detection. Technology keeping an eye out using high-tech cameras and sensors and can automatically apply the brakes to help avoid a collision. The xy forty for everyone safety visit volvo. Cars dot com slash. Us to learn more. This episode is brought to you by hp plus in a world full of smart devices. Shouldn't your printer be smart to it is with hp plus these printers. No when they're running low so you always get the inky need delivered right when you needed. Plus you save up to fifty percent on inc so you can print whatever you want as much you want anytime you want. That is pretty smart. Get six three months of instant inc when you choose. Hp plus conditions apply visit hp dot com slash. Smart for details. Now back to the story by sixty three b. c. e. after failing to secure the consul ship three times in a row caroline raised an army to kill the senators who opposed him but cicero discovered the plot and placed cadillac line under house arrest when the riots failed to happen on october twenty seventh. The senators wondered if cicero had just blamed catalin since they were political rivals. But cicero was right. Caroline was still orchestrating his conspiracy behind the scenes cadillac plan to flee house arrest in leave rome. It wouldn't be hard considering the house belonged to accomplish. And he wasn't being monitored his co-conspirators would stay behind disturbed the uprising on december nineteenth. That would give capitoline enough time to meet up with his troops in a trivia in march back to rome. Catalan even told the group that cicero needed to die before. The coup could begin a nobleman named guys. Cornelius and a senator called lucius var. Guntis volunteered to do the deed fact. They promised they'd kill cicero before the sun came up. Cornelius an organ is planned to assassinate cicero in his own home that night but a few hours before their arrival cicero had heard of their plans through curious mistress fool via who continued to spy for him. Cicero told his guards not to let cornelius in valencia's in he then invited other optima days over to prove catalin had ordered an attack as planned. Cornelius and bargain tius showed up in the early morning of november seventh. The centuries overpowered them and eventually drove them away for cicero and the other senators. This proved that catiline and his co conspirators were guilty of treason but cicero was confident to play the long game. Rather than call the senate that day he gave cadillac nine time to flee. The city believed his absence from the meeting would solidify his guilt once and for all as planned. The senators gathered the following day instead on november eighth. Cicero observed the crowd with no side of catalan. He was confident. The trader had left rome. But that wasn't the case just before. The meeting convened cadillac in walked in and took his seat. He was greeted by uproar. Senators called him a traitor and an assassin. Caroline tried to defend himself but was drowned out by their cries. Catalin promptly fled the gathering and return to his house to reconsider his options. While the odds were seemingly not in his favor is conspiracy had been blown. The senators were against him. Cadillac decided before john. He still had his most loyal followers and an army of twenty thousand men that night. Catalan left rome and made the march to a trea where he met up with manly s. He'd put a man named puja lous. Cornelius lynch euless in charge of starting the riots in rome before he left. Meanwhile cicero was aware that cadillac had fled and prepared. The city's defenses. Knowing that lentil us was the ringleader. Cicero worried more about an attack from within the city. The proof was a letter. He'd intercepted from lentil us to his followers on december third. Cicero ordered linton. Mrs arrest along with four other leaders. Some senators suggested the five rebels be stripped of their titles and imprisoned for life. Others said they should be put to death. ultimately the decision rested with cicero. He opted for execution cicero escorted them to a tiny room and they were executed one by one brutally by choking when cicero emerged from the grisly scene. The people of rome cheered for him. He'd saved the city from rioting with this internal threat defeated. Cicero could now focus on when he ordered catalans former ally hybrid to pursue catalans whereabouts. When news of cicero's victory reached cadillac signs legions. More than ten thousand men dropped their weapons and fled. Most of them were impoverished farmers. Who wanted an easy victory. The only soldiers that remained were those hopelessly in debt or disgruntled veterans who needed catalyze revolution to save them. The chase played out over days in january of sixty two bc. Cadillac tried to flee to the northern region of gaul as he crossed over a mountain pass. He saw moore roman legions. Waiting below a man named mattel's keller had been fighting in that region when he heard about catalin mattel's turned his troops around. They would wait for him to fight him. Capitoline was caught. Between two armies faced with the choice of surrendering or fighting one of the generals. Cadillac chose to fight hybrid soldiers. He wanted to attack the forces that had come from rome perhaps as symbolic revenge for the city. That betrayed him. Capitoline mustered his men on the plains below the mountain's he gave them one final encouragement to fight bravely and then they charged. The battle was ruthless to the very end. Not one soldier and catalyze army survived hybrid. Oh was victorious. And therefore cicero had won. Their victory marked the end of a seven month. Power struggle back in rome. The people welcomed an end to the plotting. Paranoia and bloodshed mood in. The city was an odd anomaly. Even though caroline had died a traitor some people admire the fact that he confronted his enemies head on in the end. Cicero reap the glory. The senate created a new honorific forum. Hailing him as the father of the fatherland. Though this ended with cicero as the victor our world might look very different today had caroline one instead as we discussed. Cicero was a prolific lawyer. He wrote over seventy books essays and legal speeches if the plan had succeeded and he been killed and sixty three bc. Many of those works wouldn't have existed works. That had a massive impact on global history in thirteen forty five and italian. Scholar named patriarch stumbled upon a collection of cicero's personal letters. The majority of them had been written years after the catalan conspiracy. But when the roman empire fell in the middle ages began they were stowed away and forgotten. Petrarch discovery marked a watershed moment in european history until that point science medicine math and nearly everything else in the west was mostly based on biblical ideology but cicero's writings showed patrick a new way of thinking. One that prioritized human virtue rather than spirituality to help others scholars break free of this doctrine. Petrarca helped develop a new school of thought known as humanism. It focused less on secret tax and more on works from the classical era in subjects like grammar history and rhetoric. Intellectuals throughout europe also adopted this mentality shifting thinking away from the spiritual and towards the humanistic. It marked the dawn of a new age the renaissance if cicero was killed before he could write those letters. The renaissance may have been delayed or never happened at all that would have set human advancement back decades and we might not have some of the inventions that came out of the renaissance. Like the printing press microscopes or perhaps even whiskey. If catalan had succeeded the effects would have rippled through rome at the time to cicero. Wouldn't be the only one who's career was cut short. Julius caesar may have never impacted history either sixteen years after a cadillac died in battle. Caesar took power for himself during his quest for power. He conquered territory in egypt. France and britain to connect his empire. He made a vast network of roads. Experts believe they did more than improved trade. they also spread christianity. Once jesus died his followers used the roads to spread his teachings without them. Perhaps christianity would have faded into obscurity. It's impossible to say what the world would look like without one of its largest religions but we know for sure that the crusades have never taken place. These were a series of wars instigated by christians against muslims in order to recapture jesus is homeland and limit muslim expansion. The wars lasted for over two hundred years and claimed millions of lives. If catalan had survived his political goals would have left a greater mark on history to reforms. Like land redistribution and debt. Cancellation would have been one of the earliest forms of socialism. Roman socialism if it provided food medical care and transportation to its people may have had an unimaginable effect on the united states. Over two thousand years later. America's founding fathers greatly admired rome. They used the republic as a model for how their new society should run. If they'd seen the romans experiment with socialism they might have done so as well if the us had been created as a socialist nation. It's even possible that the more dire events associated with unregulated free market capitalism may never have happened. There may have never been a great depression. Granted every system has its merits and its drawbacks. Experts continue to debate socialism's pros and cons especially in terms of government control over the economy in the end. One thing scholars agree on. Is this catalogue. Story is a testament to what happens. When people pursue power above all else the aftershocks ripple beyond the present moment potentially altering history in the centuries to come thanks for tuning into conspiracy theories. We'll be back next time for a new episode. Among the many sources we used we found charles. Oh dolls the rise and fall of the cattle and aryan conspiracy extremely helpful to our research. You can find all episodes of conspiracy theories and all other spotify originals from podcast for free on spotify on until then remember. The truth isn't always the best story and the official story isn't always the truth. Conspiracy theories is a spotify original from podcast. Executive producers include max and ron cutler sound design by anthony vowel sick with production assistance by ron shapiro trent williamson carleen madden and travis clark. This episode of conspiracy theories was written by rob heckert with writing assistance by lori. Gottlieb in mackenzie more fact checking bhai adriana romero and researched by bradley klein conspiracy theories stars molly brandenburg and quarter corduroy.