Life On Venus?
Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal. Nine ignition sequence uh space nuts. Three To Our. report it feels good. Hello. Once again, thank you for joining us. This is the space knots podcast episode two hundred and Twenty Names Andrew Co host joining me as always is professor Fred Watson Astronomer Lodge, afraid Andrew. How're you doing today? I'm pretty excited this wait for it. Really did you H- Golf Bolo Did that very well, but Maya audiobook has has been released as of as of yesterday. Very good. Austin. The the terrain Ian Enigma is now available as an audio book, download it from your favorite audiobook distributor, and now it's on Google and now it's on Apple. It's not quite on audible, but it will be they stumm. They're a bit slower than the rest to get get the ducks lined up and I think in all. There are forty three audiobook distributors that a guy to carry it. So. That's very exciting. Now, getting the would out if you because this is this is by yet demand people asking to get an audio copy so I decided or on old it and runs. Five hours. Yeah. Five hour listening. Is the one that? When you play voice very similar to the one on talking to now. Would Bay. Sometimes. It went sound like because I go into character. Rather than just right right. So I haven't been I like the sound of the. This is fantastic. Well done. Liking up voices very difficult I might add. That's right a couple of times, bizarre? Anyway. It's Ole ready to roll. So if you're if you're interested, you can you can download it today. Fred coming up. We're going to be answering audience questions almost exclusively today although there's one story that's hit the headlines this week that we can't not do. FEM accent but. WE'RE GONNA look at the use of lies in spice in some of the issues facing that particular situation measuring distance in spice why we use terms like plastic. Relied sickened or things along those lines. A couple of questions about Venus One is obviously focused on the potential life on Venus, which is hit the news this week. So we'll talk about that but there's also a mission headed Tamaz the Venus? I should say wanted to discuss and we we talked about the journey of light from the center of the Sun recently somebody's brought that one back to to us. So have a crack at that and the effect of Binary Stars on planets. So why plenty to do today it's a jam packed program I must say but Fred let's get straight into it with our first question from Evan. In Sydney. This, even from Sydney Australia. Recently I talked about astronomers using lices, for adaptive optics. Rumor. The US astronomers had to get permission from US spy agencies before turning on their laser for fear of blinding spy satellites. Is this room a true. What would they do to ability to shed? You'll talk on the telescope. What happens for sudden events like a Supernova role and neutrons stack lesion Does this affect astronomers in Australia? And Do Australian astronomers need to get permission not just from spy agencies in the Yusei but also in Russia and China. Hey I really enjoy the show space Nazis I on what put costliest. Thank you. That's lovely and offer to you. It really Aloe. Started about my audiobook. Probably here we. Now, Evans brought up some interesting issues and little bit of clouds and dagger in there as well lies in spice spy agencies permission. What's that about? So the technology that we're talking about here is the use of late. What lies a guide straws? And it's all to do with the elimination of the distortion to star image is caused by the atmosphere. And the technical technology of adaptive optics lets you sense the distorting effect of the atmosphere. And a compensate for it by using flexible mirrors. The nicest demonstration of this is one that can't do because she's needs a visual age a visual light, but if you get a sheet of paper. And look at it, hold it up. That is what the way front of the light from a star looks like it's crossing space. And if you then take your piece of paper, screw it up. Flatly tells again, that's what it looks like. It's coming through the atmosphere. It's very, Very Ari gold. The difference between the bid a paper in the atmosphere is that the crackling exchanging one thousand times a second atmosphere whereas on the paper if just one one sort of snapshot and that's what adaptive optics is trying to do to use flexible mirrors that can essentially reproduce that crinkled way foil. And and restore it to the perfection of what it would have been like coming to expes an the technology is actually moved on enormously in the last decade or so until a number of telescopes use this technique, none of them are in Australia. That's maybe not quite true because there is. There is an opposite of the tree of monstrum low observatory in camera a have A. Basically a satellite station on the same site which is operated by ers electrical systems who do use lays a lasers for. Basically. Satellite ranging. May well be that they have adaptive optics systems built into that, but they're looking very much at you know things in Near. Rather than. Rather than distant objects of let me. Change that and say for astronomy their unused in. Australia because. Our atmosphere in Australia is not really good enough. To to to eliminate the crippling wave front. By doubted optics. I did some experiments with the Montreal Johnny Byrne Professor at Sydney University. This is Mrs Twenty five years ago we did these. With the anglo-australian telescope? To to look at the possibilities of using adaptive optics on that telescope and we did experiments called Lyda away you use a laser to. Measure the turbulence in atmosphere different heights. Brilliant. So Excuse me we weren't using. We weren't using the best observing time, but there were there were. Multiple lands of. Turbulence above US above the mountain top that mountainous full thousand feet high. About eleven hundred meters. You need to be much higher than that to get rid of some of these turbulent leads and sewing, Hawaiian Chile. That they are the main places where that. Adaptive optics used any particular why's guide stars are used? Why do you need a laser? Well? In order to make adaptive optics work, you've got to build a sense. What the way from doing and you do that by looking at what's called a guide style. And E can do with you know with real styles if you've got a star which is near the object of interest and it's got to be fairly bright that's the the downside. If, you've got that star then you can use that to sense the way front and that that basically will correct the whole image. So the object that you're interested in which is next door to the stuff. That will be corrected to, but often there isn't a bright enough star near your objective interest and that is why. These. Scientists generating artificial star using a laser. Typically to sodium atoms at about ninety kilometers above the earth. Now the question that I haven't made was a basically about the you know the problem of hitting something by mistake. On I am sure about the the the US I I think he's right that there are times when you cannot use the laser guide. Star systems in Hawaii. And that is possibly because of. Because of US government's use of space. For reasons that we might not be told about I. Think they get periods when that prohibited. That is. It's more than a rumor I've heard this from some of the scientists involved. It's more especially the case that you want to avoid. Aircraft going through the bane nuts multi game situation. and. So certainly, the laser guide stars that the. European Southern Observatory uses on the very large telescope down in Chile. They have aircraft avoidance systems I. Think they have senses that maybe write I'm not sure exactly how it works, but they shut down the lasers. With an automated aircraft avoidance system when an aircraft is near the beams I suspect. What effect would. That have on an aircraft it. It's not powerful enough to. Penetrate the skin or anything like that. But clearly, it is not the sort of thing that you want pilots of aircraft to dock adopted in that cockpit with. A blinding light hitting their craft and of course, reflecting off all the. All the all the surfaces. Shiny surfaces of the aircraft which then find his the carpet. So the last thing you want to do is point Elisa at an aeroplane people sometimes do it and get arrested shortly afterwards. So yes. So you do have to be very careful about it. Said straddling observatories don't use that because we don't have the atmospheric conditions that are good enough to to make laser gun styles with while. He's also asked about sudden events like supernovae. Neutron Star collision things like that. Yes Oh. So if you have A. Not Quite, sure what what he's getting out there because we. We. Supernova want you want to see is the SUPERNOVA. You don't wear one of those is going to go off and so that's very much the you know the the. It will be the target of opportunity if a if a Supernova in your field of view you be delighted. Neutral collisions. Rare enough events. That I and also in deep space. So the usually the the light we get from these fairly weak. But these what you might call transient events. Telescope specifically looking for transient events and they are going to be very important in the future we think the the transient universe. Popping off. Getting Bryce in faint again quickly, Light Australia I wish you and I've talked about many times The Transient Universe is very much future strawberries something we've been getting used to over the last decade. IT'S A. Strong as the transient universe now also includes satellite constellations as well which you have to deal with For sure. All right. Evan. Thanks for your question. Hopefully, we filled in some of the blanks and we appreciate support Thanks again, freight. Let's move onto the next question we donahue this is from came in text form. Hi Andrew Hi Fred Astronomy enthusiasts use light years to express distance but professional astronomers used past six one in vented in the Early Twentieth Century the Pasig was at the center of Popular Research is that still the case or is this just an historical tradition? It seems the past sick is very earth centric. Would be meaningless to non by distraught him as of which I hope there are many out there. It's only the use is for staff ships during the Kessel run a long time ago in a galaxy far far away for that matter. The light year is also with century. while the lights second can be universally described would appreciate your thoughts would recorded this but could not find how to turn on the microphone plays Diane mentioned that last whoops. News for. Law and. I love the about the Kessel run. And a very important lesson to learn that parade everything. Now he didn't say that but anyway, light-years Pasig slots seconds. What's the story? So strong professional astronomers universally use pass X. So it's not. Listener asks and it was at the center of Popular Search, but he's still the case. But absolutely, and the reason is the past is the only thing we can measure. You cannot measure the light year. It's derived unit. It's nice convenient one to get your head around. So most people can understand. Light years but it's it's not anything you can measure stunned up this top watch and say, oh I'm going to take pass is the fundamental unit and yes itself centric. So we. And maybe if the irony. Earth based astronomers. To, be honest not only not. Only neighborhood, but if there are any and then they would use A. Something similar probably for that for that definition of distance than we'll use. Whatever unit angle corresponds to a second of ARC? They use that I should've just explain what a pass I is is the the distance of an object. Which? We've sometimes an angle of one second of arc offer for which the radius of the SOB. Nine one second of Arc. So if you imagine a triangle with the sun, the earth, in extreme position in Hobart. As. The base of it and then a very, very long thin triangle to the star an that makes a one second. One Second Angle one, three, thousand, six, hundred of the degree they're not star is one passed away and that shit around any styles apnea. Pasig is about three point, two thereabouts light years. They go. All right hopefully that sorta out and. The. How how long did it take? to do the Kessel run what was the record? I don't know. Total. The answer to that. I can't remember either but they did did bring it up in a lighter episode of Star Wars and he had to correct. The the climb because somebody go wrong it was funny but yeah thanks. Thanks for your question hopefully Again, we've managed to come up with a reasonable answer for you but. Still, a thing you're listening to the space nuts podcast with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Let's take a short break now for a word from our sponsor name chepe dot com as their slogan says search by demands from name shape at the lowest prices. 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Thank you to as social media, supporters and followers on all sorts of platforms we love to hear from you we get cards and messages. Messages and and sometimes some brilliant gifts on facebook that people put up about some of the discussions. You can follow us on the officials space nuts facebook page. Of course, just do a search for space nuts in your facebook search engine or you can join the space nuts podcast group on facebook, and that's a group dedicated to you talking to each other and quite often people ask questions there that Fred and I have no idea about. So go to the podcast group and now answer it for you. What what I love visit everybody's got an idea. To, put forward when it comes to a complicated question and get some real really interesting answers and sometimes a bit bitter debate but it's all in good fun and it's well worth while Sarah, if you'd like to join the space nuts podcast group on facebook place to yellow, find on Youtube, which is growing in numbers and downloads are increasing for that. We're on instagram. We're on twitter where on. Any posters on bit disappoint. We gotta get in a billboards or something I think that'd be pretty cool. But that's very old school. Isn't it Never Mont now now let's go onto. Next question and or do you want to you want to talk about Venus? These two questions, a dedicated Venus but there's a huge news story this week about the phosphene having been discovered in the atmosphere of Venus. Should we go there for just do that to to introduce because? A remarkable discovery announced this week. By scientists something I know actually I talked to one of the mail. He said, nobody's asked him about the vaseline Venus, which is a shame because I've spent most of this week talking about Voss phenol Vince but never mind. The fact is I'm surprised now in spoken to him because every news report I've seen is basically said, oh there's life on Venus. Being a journalist knowing had journalism works they going with the sex he saw it at the story going with the with the the grab. By I've seen counterarguments saying hang on a minute hang on, it's not life may be an indicator of the potential for life. So what is it really? Yes. So what what's been observed is the presence of phosphene in Venus's atmosphere phosphene is. Three molecule made of phosphorus and hydrogen. Phosphate common in the atmospheres of John It. But that's because lots of hydrogen there John, John Planet Earth mostly, hydrogen, and so this plenty of it to to. To make the chemical from. Noble Chemical Processes. On the rocky planet like Venus. That isn't that prevalence of hydrogen and so phosphene. For quite some time has been held up as a potential biomarker. This predates the discovery. that. We found phosphene in the atmosphere of a rocky planet beyond the some A. Another star we might be we might be able to say that. Life their. Butts and. That's great. Actually because what this discovery fostering on Venus means is that we can actually test that I prophecies because eventually we'll be able to go that with the spacecraft and take samples of the upper atmosphere Venus and find out what's in it, but you're absolutely right the authors of the paper themselves are very. Cautious in the interpretation of what they found they have worked very, very hard. To. Basically, to to to find other causes for the appearance of fostering chemical natural chemical geological causes and they've looked at Vulcan isn't live look at the effect of sunlight looked micrometeorites. They've looked at lightning in Venus's atmosphere. They've you know they've they've looked at all these different aspects that could pass 'cause phosphene to be there none of them can make enough. phosphene to to compare with what they've actually seen and so life is their last. The last. Had basically the the last suggestion for what it might be but. They're still. In themselves still skeptical. But yeah, of course, they know that this is a big discover he. Made with James. Clark Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. That's why the people who I know work. But folded up with Alma, the Atacama large millimeter array, and I think there are more observations that can be done without that might tell us a little bit more about it. But very exciting stuff. Very very exciting but the as as the saying goes in journalism never let the truth get in the way of good story. That's right. It's written on Pike. One of your journal Journalists Study Manual when you go to university. I'm sure. Now while we're on the subject Venus, we do have a couple of questions about that particular planet silence Goto the question I from will in Phoenix. For this will penis again thank you for answering my question last week. That was awesome. I have another question about Venus fascinated by the planet. It's so similar and so different from our results time I. I've learned that Venus rotates. Backwards But very very slowly. And that is very weird I. think because it's such a large body and I know that as bodies it larger, they tend to rotate faster because it can serve any momentum and then wondering. Why is Venus so slow? Why does it rotates? So so I think even rotates backwards. I don't know if there was like a giant impact or if we have evidence of some other eventual or series of answer. I, don't know I would love to hear. We guess think thanks for the thanks show. Thanks. I have a very quick and accurate answer to his question as to what famous is so slow and I'm going to hell for this one because she's a blond a. I'm not going to touch one hundred. I didn't think it would I didn't think you would. But I think they'd probably be a more scientific reason why is slow is is in fact slow? Yeah. So what? What will says is absolutely right So the the year on Venus. As two, hundred, twenty, four days effective actually two, thousand, five, hundred, and twenty, four, point six, five days. Excuse me. That's how long Venus takes to rotate once around the sun. But it. Gives me the dreaded frog in the throat again that? Buddies, rotation. is two hundred and forty three days. So it rotates on its axis one, thousand, two, hundred, and forty three days. What that means is it by the time it gets the end of a day. It's already gone once around the Sun. So two, hundred, twenty, four days for the rotation two, hundred, twenty, four, point, six, five. Two hundred forty three days, twenty, six minutes for. Sorry two, hundred, four, hundred, twenty, four days for the revolution around the sun going to get the words right revolutions going around the sun rotation is the planet spinning on his access two hundred twenty, four days a to revolve around the sun two, hundred, forty three days to rotate on its axis and what that effectively means exactly as we'll set it rotating backwards and to believe the younger. In your dreams if If you live there, you'll be fried. Hundred and sixty degrees. Celsius surface temperature. So in Layman's terms because I need to talk that. Why it? It's it's year is shorter than its die yes. That's exactly correct. That's not just a layman's terms. That's what they. Say Wants to know why yes. So We don't really know. The the the to some extent there will be a tidal friction fact. You know that's what happens with the Earth and the moon is the title friction between the Earth and the moon effective gravity acting on both bodies that have slowed down the moon's rotation. It was probably spending quite fast when it was born but he's now rotating once per revolution, which is why we always say the same side pointing towards the Earth. So what you've got is a similar situation with Venus, but it's kind of slightly over shots because the the day is now longer than the year. They may have been as will says, you know the May have been impact? That may have been A. Catastrophic interactions with other planets where planets come close to it in the early history solar system but I think the the rotation. Is is really linked to the fact that it is so close to the sun it's a large body. So the title effects of the Sun on on Venus going to be significant, and that is probably the bottom line. That's why it slowed down. Mercury also has peculiar rotation. It's it's not tightly locked like the moon is, but it's got. One and a half two, one resonance between the rotation. And the revolution. The rotation is fifty eight days. I think revolution if I remember is eight, hundred, eight days. So. There's another slightly peculiar effect bath. Slow rotation. So both these welt. Effectively rotates slowly as you said, probably due to the fact of the of the nearby, some slowing them down Nagar. Thank, you will love the way your brain works i. The way you phrase your questions. I think that's fabulous Do the conserve angular momentum. Think of that stuff. Good Grief You took clever for me while we're on the subject of Venus we we know of emission going the David wants to know about that Guy Goes David here just following up on the recent episode involving the Veritas Pride that's going to Venus. Just. had a thought the weather, the difference in the two planets, earth, and Venus by Biju to the impact from thea. And something to do with the energy lost in that collision that preps gave us the Mon as I think. I enjoy the show. Thanks very much goes keep up the good work. Okay So, he's wanting to find out whether or not a new collision issue could be a differential between the planets. Where it's Veritas up to at the moment is still a proposal mission. But. It is really. Designed to look the tectonic and impact history of the planet and so. You know we as we were just saying a minute ago in the in the unto wills question an impact is a possibility. David mentioned the mass size object that we think collided with the Earth and generated the moon. Possibly An impact. That impacts with the earth. May Have. To some extent had any effect on Venus over. The distance is a big enough. that. I think. For any facts on the rotation Venus what we've just been discussing whether it was due to an impact with another body. I think that would have had to have been something separate rather than. Anything to do with the THEA. And maybe very tasks will give us some insight into that down the track when it finally flies and we. We get some really detailed data. What I'm wondering is whether. The very mission is going to be modified to carry an with it can. Drop down into the upper atmosphere of Venus and have a look see what's there whether the fostering is actually coming from living organisms or not. I'm getting very excited for it because helicopters on is. A. veinous submarine. Where going to send the submarine account remember. But These are all concepts or no, but well, now the helicopters really happened but it's very exciting and I, you know the more the more we find out that we want the we want to prove these theories about various aspects of solar system. And we'll get there eventually it's just time it's time and everything's go to sort of fall into place properly and. You could be fingers crossed I guess yes that's right we. We really need to live for a couple of hundred years to say all these missions You know take shape the. Washington progress especially for once the solar system wait. Very Long. Journey. Journey Times, but that's not really on the agenda moving. Air Enough. David hope we managed to fill in some blanks for you today as well. You're listening to space nuts with Andrew and professor Fred. Watson. System. As Nets, thanks for listening to this space nuts podcast, and thank you to our patrons for supporting us with a few dollars every month, and if you would like to do that there are a few ways you can do it through how mind distribution platform a cast is it donation? Option there you can do it through super cast, which is where patrons can sign up for package deals and get multiple podcasts for a yellow monthly fee if you desire or you can go to patriotdepot dot com slash spice nuts and sign up for as little as three dollars a month that's three dollars US and That's Hilarious to it. Now it's optional it's not absolutely and utterly something that we are. Going to ever make you do it is totally up to you, and if you do that, we ever thankful but it's optional. You do not have to to our patrons thanks as always for supporting us. Of course, you get the benefits as patron you get finest material you get an ad free version and you get it early, which is one of the benefits of more view the benefits of being a patron. Fred, we've got a few more questions to knock ever. So let's get straight into them and let's hit you with the next one. Injury Fred, it is thought that the asteroid sixteen psyche is an exposed in core of a proto punit. I would like to know if the upcoming. Psyche, probe. Will determine it and is it possible that some if not most of the debris that makes up to asteroid belt is part of the outer shell of this planet. Thank you very much. Love your show. Looking forward to hear more. Okay. Thanks to your question Tom know you. But that's okay the substance of the question is asteroid sixteen sake maybe an exposed core of a proto planet. Yes freight. It is thought to be exactly that yes a sixteenth psyches close to my heart because when I did my masters degree one, hundred years ago. Researching the orbits of Asteroids Planets as we call them then sixteen psyche was the first one that I did observations of is well known asteroid. But yes, good stuff a lot of fun. So tell. Observing. With telescopes. In minus fifteen or sixteen degrees Celsius in winter in Scotland. If you could call, it was in some ways anyway sixteen psyche. As what's called an anti asteroid and them son for metal I think. It's basically may divine and now comes the determination comes partly from its mass. Well, we can measure size. We've noticed mass. That gives you its density. It tells you that it's made if I on. But you also have radar observations made from Earth and that that they to. Essentially speak of an iron nickel composition. Exactly, like some meat here is that we see nickel meteorites. And they. You've probably seen these in museums andrew an iron meteorite sliced through and it just looks like a lump of iron. It's kind of. Slightly in color, but basically shy the and we think that's what psyche might look like. Interesting. To Imagine the Cold I n Cau- of approach, the planet that has been exposed perhaps by a violent collision with some other objects. Back in the history of the solar system? Although early enough. To prevent the formation of a what we call the differentiated pro warm weather the heavy stuff to the middle. So. Some sort of collision. It Strip off the outer crust of the of the proto-planets leaving an exposed iron core and that is why psyche so interesting because. Certainly. Interesting. Enough to have its own space mission. This is one that is not in the decades ahead the launches in two years time a plan for August twenty, twenty two, and we expect the spacecraft to go into orbit around Psyche a early in twenty, twenty six. So with a good chance that you and I will be still talking about the these things by then. So hopefully, we might get some news directly from sixteen psyche maybe even images of what must be a remarkable looking object if the radar observations tell you that he's got an iron nickel surface, then it must be really quite spectacular to look at and he's great that this. this. Space Craft, which is called psyches as Assam Listener said. that. That is actually been approved. It was approved a back in twenty seventeen I think and is now well on its way. Another. Just one of the thing about the the the mission Andrew That's interesting. It uses so electric propulsion. So That means basically Solis solar panels generating electricity, which will accelerate a plasma from the exhaust of the of the space craft to to give it the you know the. Ob changes that needs the orbital adjustments mid-course maneuvres. Thing will be done by Sola Electric Power. Isn't that clever a love stuff yet? Scratch D- Now, just one thing that wanted as a consequence of of the question and get a sound like a blunt myself now. What exactly is a prototype planet? Yes. So it's what we think. You. Know Planets. Basically emerge from. This multilayered process you start off. With the cloud of gas and dust, he collapses under its own gravity. The Central Park collapses so much pressure goes up and you get a nuclear processes kicking off that becomes the star but the daybreak, the dusty debry foams along with residual gas forms into a disk. And the dust particles stick together by actually electrostatic forces are thought to be the initial things that stick dust particles together. But eventually is gravity things build up to bigger and bigger objects. They collide with one another so they get smashed up but then they Basically aggregate again a new you wind up with them proto-planets, which is significantly bigger than something called planet symbols which. The forerunner of that these smaller objects and protoplanets Almost like planets themselves but smaller and by almost like that, they like we've just been discussing differentiated into the different labs as gravity pulls. The iron down to the middle because of course, is molten because he talking about very high temperatures as a result of the collisions. So protoplanets is what will eventually become a planet when it? Creates more material. So to sixteenth. Sakis. Obviously, never going to do that because it's been bumped out of whatever older after it's been smashed up, and actually that reminds me of the second part of this question. Is it possible that some if not most of the debris that makes up the droid belt is parts of the outer shell of this planet certainly, some of it will be probably not most. Suddenly some of that would be debris from a whatever psyche was before he became a metal asteroid. Thank out. All right. Let's move onto our next question from Andrew. Alert Andrea and Trent. This is Andrew Mitchell here from noble Strega. was very interested in your discussion about what's journey from the center of the Sun to us. As I understand it. A fight on gets absorbed in remit remitted ray emitted many times ninety million times on of light to the. Outer Atmosphere of the Sun before comes to US earth. But. Is it really one fight on that's making that whole journey. I don't think so. It's not the science told markets absorbed and remitted that energy gets converted into energy within the at. And then that's another financial stocks. I was wondering what you think about that perspective. Once Jenny that it's actually different photons. Thanks. Love you work Bonnie. Thanks Andrew Van Just Cape Ann on your bird because mascot is prowling around at Fred's place. And he's GONNA ready alert. I get here Andrews Chipping in the background I even being a little allies ing. Sounds good. Yes, I must dose of a bell for. Look. Andrews. Andrew Mitchell crack questioner is absolutely right. I, kind of glossed over that is not the same photon. It is exactly it's under says. The center of the Sun Effect. Not Gamma Ray photons very high energy photons and. Interact with atoms and the remitted. Graduate the energy of becomes low. I think I said. Pull this number out of the when we spoke about less time about two million years for the journey and if suddenly that number before. I would refer Andrew to a really nice piece, which is actually on the Goddard space flight center as a NASA. Webpage just Google journey of light. An it's an article by current Fox, and that gives some lovely graphics but a bit more detail on how light gets from the center of the. To the edge and. The. The revised estimate for how long light takes to travel through the sunseekers and these the sounds different ways. He's forty thousand years not a million years but still longer than you might expect for what starts offers a Gamma Ray photons emitted by. A nuclear reaction in the center of the some to bounce its way being reb remitted as a different votes on his under says right to the surface and to shine forty thousand years it's quite a long time. So. Yeah. Take check check out the journey of light of website. Very. Good. Thanks Andrew and a final question in this episode comes from Barry I guys. I'm Barry from these five in Scotland. Fed without. Fish eggs episode really got me thinking That our solar system might once hottest can start attached to it. got. ME. Wondering about the impact on the orbits of planets and on the conditions of those when there's a second son. I was thinking that for a planet orbiting one or both stars in the in system. You'd expect there to be It constantly being food closer to one or other of the stars or to both of them. The big question for me is how significant those changing forces and movements would be. And whether they might lead constantly changing conditions on the planet committee, even affect the potential for advanced life developing. Complicated equation. I'm sure there more unknowns, nunes that love to hear your thoughts in the Joe. Guys and facts. Regret you. Thank you Barry and I might just point out that I've done a fair bit of family history research and a significant element of my ancestry is centered around five in. Scotland. So I yeah on very excited to come a connected with somebody from Scotland even as he's nab? Yeah. Great accent too by the way, not could even understand him fred. Well these SNOOKA five Barry's absolute barry's absolutely right. I, know it. Well, in fact, is a spiritual home. I. Have on this planet that's where it is because that's where Saint Andrews is where I. fabricated. My. Indication. And of course, I might add some one of my daughters lives in still so. Connections that Guy Back. A couple of hundred years to to connect with my family and five but yes. They did it or originate they. As you know through one branch, my family, which is very soothing to discover. Or is thought I had scored his blood well. Whether you've you've got, you've got that Scottish chip on your shoulder, which I'm sure I have to that comes from origins. Like. Spending money which. Glad. Lovely I'm hit Barry's accent. PFEIFFER and a great question as well about being. The idea of what happens with the planets of multiple stars this is actually being studied. In quite a lot of detail A. By. By the theoretical people who model the gravitational influence of of things of this sort and you under I think there are already examples both of. Planets orbiting one star of the binary system and a planet orbiting both styles of a binary system which are two very, very different. Scenarios. And exactly as Berry says, you've got constantly changing gravitational forces. It's it would. It would result in. Some tendency toward instability would imagine in the orbit of a planet, but you could find situations where. You know the the the resonances between the various obits if you've got a binary system, what that line do? Buy. A pair of stars orbiting one another my impose a particular orbit on the planet of one or both of the stars that might result in stable situation. So. I'm not an expert on this but I know people at work and the possibilities of that there will be. There will be. Scenarios where we do have planets, orbiting multiple stars, and so exactly as Barry says, how does that affect the evolution of life? You would think it might be quite disruptive. I mean one of the reasons why we? Believe life emerged to the form out to the level that it has on our own planet is because of the stabilizing influence of the move because the moon stopped the earth from changing its axis of rotation of time and I think. If, you can find stable situations way you've got very very long periods with climates you know confounded constant climbers which. we have had on our own planet, the climate does change we. Over time, but it's relative changes are relatively slow at least until now so that. that. That suggests that maybe. It would be completely detrimental to life to have multiple styles of about which. Planets orbiting and then he can you know flights a fancy of multiple sunrises and sunsets and things of that sort. It's great stuff. It's worth chasing Barry few. If you got the opportunity, just have a look planets have multiple stars on on the web. And you probably find all kinds of interesting bits of information that relate to what we've been talking about. Thanks very much question and thanks for phony getting into. It's very nice to hear the firefighters and again. It's lovely. I despise he got the idea from how son using having once had a a monory. I would plus together lock he's talking about. They probably very, very long way apart I. Don't remember the figure we talked about a couple of weeks ago. But it was. It was a widely separated binary system which we know things that do exist in the in a part of the galaxy. Okay thanks, Barry Love the question and thanks to everyone who contributed to this week's episode. Really do appreciate it, and of course, if you do want to ask questions were more than willing to accept them The truth is we don't get to all of them these guys because we get so many. So we Kinda hand pick them and. that's just the way it has to be. So no disrespect we just We just can't get to the mole. Absolutely. That's why we dedicate. shows to or questions to do a bit of a catch up on many that we do get but we do appreciate it and you can certainly record your question. Var at websites space nuts, podcast, dot com, click on the TAB. If you've got a device we microphone, it's really that simple just press record and a wii ago who I you way of from what you question and it will be recorded and we can do what we did today in and put it on the podcast love to hear all the all the different voices from all over the world. And that brings us to the end of another episode Fred Thank you again. Anytime. You. Can probably put that Maria. Okay. Sounds Great. Thank you. That's professor Fred Watson Astronomer Lodge Proud of the team he on the space and that's podcast for me. Andrew. Dunkley thanks again for listening. Catch you on the very next episode. He's Available at Apple podcasts Google podcasts spotify iheartradio, your favorite podcast. You can also stream on demand at God stuff. This is paying now the podcast production from thoughts dot com.