Coca-Cola | The Perfect Package | 2
It's early eighteen eighty nine in an Alanta basement illuminated by oil comes ISA candler and Frank Robinson are about to shape. The future of Coca Cola. Candler is the drinks new owner he arrived in Atlanta twelve years ago, a fresh faced twenty two year old with little formal education and less than two dollars and his pocket. Now, he's one of Lantis most successful pharmacists, and the new owner of Coca Cola short Primin man, who always seems ready to explode bottle of shaken up. Pop Robinson is coca Cola's recently reinstated advertising and sales chief level headed and slightly plotting. The moustachioed Robinson is Canada's opposite. But today both agree that Coca Cola needs fixing since buying the rights to the drink cameras. Put Coca Cola back into production. Using the original recipe created by the late pharmacist, Dr. John pemberton. They haven't sold much of the surp- yet. But already they've received written complaints from soda fountains Robinson, flicks through a pile of complaints. Primary complaint appears to be that the the surp- is turning ranted or for mending. I'm not sure what we can do about that Ken Laird may lack Pemberton's flair for inventing new remedies. But as the maker of tonics like botanic blood bomb, he knows plenty about producing medicines Kamler examines Pemberton's handwritten Coca Cola recipe. Let's see good. God. No wonder the syrup turns rancid, there's no preservative of any value. Mr. Robinson, making note to reformulate the beverage with glycerin that'll fix it. What's next some customers say the drink taste metallic Italic? How can that be? There's nothing in the recipe that could unless Mr. Robinson. What containers? Are we using for the Serb? Wooden barrels mostly tin cans for small orders. Candler rolls is is throw away the tins. Mr. Robinson, the acid in the syrup reacts with tin next. Coca Cola is slightly bitter. That'll be the Kola nut reduce it to a trace the nut harms the flavor. Besides it's expensive, and it's health benefits are overstated substitute the loss caffeine with additional caffeine extract. And while you're at it reduced. The coca leaf to trace his wealth at this point in history. Many still dismissed the idea that cocaine is dangerous, but candler doesn't want to do anything can put his new product in jeopardy. Why don't we just remove the coca leaf fan? The Kola nut candler looks at Robinson. With disdain are you a fool, Mr. Amundsen? How can I still a drink cold Coca Cola that contains? No coca and no cola. We will lose our trademark now. Once you've reformulated the drink. I want this recipe kept secret. No one. But you, and I must know what is in it. No one. This must be a secret formula. This new formula is only the first of cameras plans for Coca Cola. He is determined to make a national success of his soda, but I you'll have to persuade people to drink it. American innovations is sponsored by ADT. This is real protection when it comes to something as important as your family's safety. You deserve real protection. From ADT. Real protection means the nation's number one smart home security provider is standing by. And there for you. When you need them. Real protection means having a safe and smart home, custom fit to your lifestyle with everything from video doorbells. Surveillance cameras stream to your phone smart locks and lights and carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. Real protection means wherever you go. The safety net of ADT is with you with their eighty go app. An SOS button. No matter how you define safety for you, your family or your business ADT is their visit ADT dot com slash podcast to learn more about how eighty can design and install a secure smart home. Just for you ADT real protection. From wondering, I'm Steven Johnson. And this is American innovations in this series. We're telling the origin story of drink. That's become an American institution. Coca Cola taste, so ingrained in the American psyche that not even the Coca Cola company can do away with it the lesson. We company learned the hard way when it debuted new coke in nineteen thousand five death, and Texas and the picture of George Washington, the dollar Bill those are along with you constants in a changing world. But now another of those constants maybe changing Coca-Cola is about to announce what it calls the most significant development in its history. The formula for Coca Cola is called merchandise seven x a recipe. So secret that it's locked inside this Atlanta Bank vault so successful that it's been tinkered with but never dramatically changed nearly a hundred years. But tomorrow Coca Cola company will tell a thirsty world. It's putting a smoother sweeter taste. It into the most instantly recognisable bottle in the world new coq summoned a public backlash so passionate that within weeks the company had little choice but to back down. I'm Don keele, president of the Coca Cola company when we brought us a new taste of coke. We knew that millions would prefer it and millions do and we knew that it would beat the taste of our major competitor. And it does what we didn't know how many thousands of you would phone right? Asking us to bring back the classic taste of original Coca Cola. Well, we read and we listened, and you know, the rest, they're both yours, the new taste of coke and Coca Cola crisis your right of choice is back. But just how did this fizzy beverage? Get started on the path to becoming a national treasure in the previous episode pharmacist, Dr John Pemberton, invented Coca Cola, a new kind of soda made from cocoa leaves and cola. Nuts could sickness and Chris. Addiction to morphine can find Pemberton to his bed and forced the penniless pharmacist to sell his recipe shortly before dying now, he's a candler owns the drink. And he's trying to turn this innovative phys into an American sensation. But as the eighteen nineties begin that dream is still a very long way away to make it happen. He's going to have to battle imposters take a marketing risk and come to terms with one very problematic ingredient. This is the second and final episode of our Coca Cola series the perfect package. December eighteen ninety one and a shopowner named Isaac Himes is waddling down the cater street in Atlanta. Georgia Himes is returning from a big lunch and running league. He checks his pocket. Watch three minutes to to just enough time to open his clothing store before the post lunch rush. He reaches the store takes his key from his pocket and unlocked the door as the door opens Himes his jaw drops. It's raining inside gooey drops of steamy jam like liquid dribbling through the ceiling splattering, his stock of secondhand clothes sticky. Sweet puddles us across the floor. Oh, not again. He storms over to the neighbor shop in hammers the door with his fist door at once. Get down here. Eventually a young man drenched, sweat and wearing a dirt. Thirty unbuttoned. White shirt opens the door Haimes immediately starts jabbing his finger at the man's chest. You and your goddamn Coca Cola pouring through the ceiling again. All my clothes are ruined. The ruined. I tell you. I'm very sorry. Mr. Phillips leap in the cattle bubbled over. I don't want your excuses. I want compensation I will be sending a Bill to as a candler. He'd better pay after Hines stomps off the sweaty man heads back upstairs back to the Coca Cola syrup plant if you can call it a plant. Coca Cola's signature syrup is being produced in one modest sized room with a large copper kettle fixed above a small wooden furnace here. The bubbling syrup mixture is stirred by hand using large paddles and then poured into barrels once his cooled humble setup to be sure. But it's better than the old basement operation underneath candler pharmacy. At least this place has ventilation things are really picking up for Coca Cola. Kamler is much more astute businessman than Pemberton ever was his careful attention to detail has given the soda business. The stability. It's morphine hooked inventor never could slowly. But surely the drink is gaining a solid following and soda fountains around Atlanta in the past year candler sold enough syrup to make half a million glasses of Coca Cola. But with each glass, costing only nickel money is tight. So. In January eighteen ninety two candler takes the next big step for his growing business. He officially founds. The Coca Cola company and boards. Northbound train in search of investment. He visits bigwigs in Baltimore, Boston New York city upon his return to Atlanta candler head straight to his office verse partner. Frank Robinson is waiting to candler. Welcome back. How did you get on? It was a wasted trip. I have raised just seven thousand dollars that's far below the forty nine thousand dollars candler wanted. It's a disaster. Mr. Evanston, no one in the north had heard of Coca Cola. Prospects are now dismal. Indeed, don't worry Mr. Keller. Coca goal is a wonderful beverage. We can still succeed without them. I wish I shared your faith, but without money. How can we possibly build sales? I have a suggestion. If I may that spit it out man when the late. Dr Pemberton, and I I introduced Coca Cola. We gave people tickets that they could exchange for free coca Cola's at soda fountains, it proved effective at introducing people to drink. We should reinstate that approach. Are you insane? I do not make this drink just to give it away Robinson new can Lert would react this way. Candler fisted man and promotional coupons are still the new idea Mr. candler, these tickets will encourage people to try Coca-Cola once they do they'll fall in love with the drink and buy it often. Maybe but we have no money. We can't afford to make such an expensive offer. There would be a delay between tickets being redeemed and soda fountains invoicing us for the money. If we introduce these tickets carefully, our income will rise before we have to pay the soda fountains as long as we are one step ahead of invoices. This could work in our favor. It's a risky proposition. But candler can't fault. The logic. Besides without investors. He has no better option. Very well. We try these tickets. I just pray. You not set us on the road to ruin. In the months that follow Robinson reintroduces his free. Coca Cola coupons, but on a scale far greater than he'd ever dared during Coca-Cola's early years back, then he printed just a few hundred. Now, he's printing hundreds of thousands soon. Masses of people are heading to soda phones. Exchanging coupons for free coca Cola's sales of the drinks. Start rising soda fountains plays more bigger orders to accommodate Coca-Cola's. New converts can Lert still gets hurt. Palpitations every time the invoices from the soda fountains hit his desk, but the rising sales more than cover the giveaway back with heavy advertising. The coupons quickly established Coca Cola as the favourite soda of the south by the late eighteen ninety s the Coca Cola company is selling enough syrup to make more than thirty million drinks a year sixty times the business candler and Robinson were doing just a few years earlier. It's. Also opening syrup plants and sales offices in Dallas, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and beyond now people across the United States can by Coca Cola so long as they go to a soda fountain. That is because bottled Coca-Cola doesn't exist yet. That's about to change. Thanks to two enterprising attorneys from Chattanooga. Tennessee. July eighteen ninety nine downtown Atlanta. Joseph Whitehead stands awestruck by the three story. Flatiron building on the street corner. He knew Coca Cola was popular at the company's headquarters are more striking and he ever imagined made from red brick and Whitestone Coca-Cola's new home takes up an entire block Whitehead turns to his stocky friend Benjamin Thomas, you never told me. How startling the building was HAMAs. Smiles just wait till you see the inside the pair had to the entrance full of hope that today. They'll strike the deal that will make them rich. Whitehead's is why on seeing the building's interior suspended from the ceiling is enormous tank. That can hold up to three hundred gallons. Coca Cola syrup all around workers roll barrel refined sugar towards production facility in the basement as Whitehead marvels at the scale of the Coca Cola operation Thomas approaches, the reception vets I have an appointment with Mr. as camber, I'm Benjamin Thomas and over there as my associate Joseph Whitehead. Let's see. Oh, yes. Mr. camera is picking you foaming the receptionist escorts the pair to candler office on the second floor inside candler sits mahogany desk, hunched over ledger. He doesn't look pleased to see them. Oh, you again Thomas ignores the frosty. Welcome greetings, Mr. Keller. This is my business partner Joseph Whitehead. May we sit of course. But please remember, I am a very busy, man. Then I shall get straight down to business. We want to obtain the rights to bottle Coca Cola nationwide. I know you said, no. And I I visited you. But now, I have partnered with Mr Whitehead, and I do believe his skills will be invaluable candler looks at Whitehead. He's a dumpy guy within wire spectacles, and what skills are those. He's actually very skilled does Mr Whitehead not talk himself. I do talk Mr. Keller. I'm tax attorney interesting. I suppose you're from Chattanooga to I lived there now, but my father was a Baptist minister. I spend my childhood moving around, Mississippi and Texas good as a religious man myself that gives me some confidence. Besides I think little of Chattanooga or the people there anyhow factor. Your preposterous proposal to bottle Coca Cola. Thomas interjects, Mr. Kamler with with all respect, it is not preposterous during the Spanish American war. I was posted in Cuba. And there I saw with my own eyes. How popular bottled soda was with the Cubans? Bottled Coca-Cola would be immensely popular. Especially with rural folk who cannot often visit soda fountains bottles would take Coca Cola into grocery stores, and it would reach a whole new group of customers. Candler sits back in his chair full his arms gentlemen, have you visited about alling plant before the pay or not? And you will know, they are vile places. There's all manner filth in bottled drinks ashes, and sawdust and insects and cigar butts even slugs why would I risk Coca-Cola's? Good name by lowering such venture white had leans forward. Mr. After we share your concerns. This is why we will follow any quality standard. You impose Ken unfolds. His arms, let's say I accept your shines. Can you really afford to get into bottling you need premises bottles machinery, horses, wagons, crates and more before you even make a single drink. How can you possibly afford to open bottling plants nationwide? We will open our first bottling plant in Chattanooga and the money made. There will then fund our next plant as we open more plans to faster will expand candler isn't buying it. But what's the worst that can happen whether they fail or succeed? He will get to sell more Coca Cola syrup. It's worth a try. Okay. Gentlemen. I will give you the rights but on three conditions one. You would hear strictly to quality standards set by the Coca Cola company to this. Venture does not cost me a single cent. Three you only buy and use from the Coca Cola company. No knockoffs. Thank you, Mr. candor. You you won't regret this. I hope not bring me an agreement to review tomorrow. The next day the to return with a six hundred word contract candler reads through the contract. One clause fixes the price. The attorneys will pay for Coca Cola syrup had a dollar a gallon. But there's no mechanism allowing the company to increase the price. There's no time limit on the deal either so long as the attorneys, meet the terms the deal last forever, but candler is so pessimistic about bottled Coca Cola he signs the contract. Anyway, jubulant the attorneys, Don their hats and prepare to leave. But as they opened the door candler issues, a parting warning, I still believe you boys will fail. So when you do don't come crying to me, and it won't take long for the pair to learn firsthand. Why can't? Handler is so downbeat about their point. American innovations is brought to you by ZipRecruiter. Have you ever put off hiring even though you knew you needed to because of thought of it was just daunting? Well, here's some great news. There's a place you can go or hiring is simple, fast and smart place for growing businesses. Connect to qualified candidates. That place is ZipRecruiter dot com slash AI with their powerful matching technology. Ziprecruiter scans thousands of resumes to find people with the right experience and invites them to apply to your job as advocation come in ZipRecruiter analyzes each one and spotlights the top candidates. So you never miss a great match. Ziprecruiter is so effective that eighty percent of employers who post on ZipRecruiter get a quality candidate through the site within the first day right now. Listeners of American innovations can try ZipRecruiter for free at this exclusive web. Address ZipRecruiter dot com slash AI. If you love what we do here on our show show, your support to us and ZipRecruiter by going to separate dot com slash AI. One more time that's ZipRecruiter dot com slash AI. Ziprecruiter, the smartest way to hire. It's early nineteen hundred in Benjamin Thomas is on the mezzanine floor of the Coca Cola bottling plant in Chattanooga. He leans on the balcony and watches workforce below the plant managers giving orders as workers change the ten gallon keg. It supplies syrup to the bottle filling machine. One of the workers is a nine year old child as the boy uses his entire body to roll away the old empty keg. The manager ties ropes around its replacement rope in place, he 'attaches along rubber hose to the wooden cake ready now pull full pull two men yank hard on the rope. That runs all the way up to the ceiling and back down through pulley as the men pull the keg starts lifting slowly into the air. Keep pulling higher higher and stop secure the wrote the men who hoist. The cake to the ceiling tie. The rope taut around an iron weight Kagan place. The manager grabs the dangling rubber hose. Gooey syrup has already dribbling out. He connects the hose to the bottle filling machine. Now, get to work the filling machine operator takes a six ounce. Green glass bottle in squirts some syrup inside next to use his foot pedal to pump in carbonated water from nearby tank soon, the bottle is filled to the neck boy, the nine year old grabs the bottle and quickly takes it to the man at the bottle ceiling machine, the plants ceiling machine uses the latest breakthrough in bottle, drink technology. The Crown Cork also known as the bottle cap. Invented in eighteen ninety two by the Crown Cork and seal company, the bottle cap is transforming the reputation of bottle drinks dole recently most bottled sodas have been sealed with rubber stoppers that are stuck inside the bottles. These internal stoppers are far from ideal the acid in soda eats away at the rubber and wants the bottles returned it's near impossible to properly clean stopper, the bottle cap Sol's all these problems, they're disposable and more hygienic the crimp seal is tighter to so drink stay fresher through. But there's one problem the bottle cap cannot solve over carbonated drinks the man at the bottle cap machine. Takes just made bottle of Coca Cola from the boy and inserts its neck into a long metal to he pulls down hard on the lever and the machine stamps, the flat bottle cap in place around the bottles mouth machines off greater than picks up the bottle. In a split. Second later, the bottle explodes in a shower of sharp glass, sticky cola. Yikes. Luckily, the operators wearing metal gloves wire mesh face guard. Like those used by fencers? There are no injuries today. But production was stop until the glass and sodas cleaned up and the carbonation levels of the water checked. For bottling entrepreneur Benjamin Thomas and his business partner. Joseph Whitehead such problems are now routine, automated bottling lines are still a few years away. For now bottling carbonated drinks is a slow in dangerous process at this rate. It'll be years before they make enough money to open their second plant. Neither of them can wait that long. They're already sick of the sight of each other Thomas Whitehead still believe there's big money in bottle Coca Cola, but that's all the agree on they've been arguing for weeks about everything from bottle size and color to how much to dilute Coca Cola syrup as a worker's blow cleanup Thomas returns to the office inside Whitehead's using pencil to carve up a map of the United States finished yet nearly but was that another exploding bottle. If I told you to use bigger bottles. Oh, don't start your eight ounce bottles would explode just as often. Okay. They're done. Thomas looks at Whitehead's map. He sees a country shattered into hundreds of tiny jigsaw like territories. The pair are giving up on opening bottling plants themselves. Instead, they plan to sell the exclusive right to bottle Coca Cola in each of those. Territories Thomasson Whitehead will make their fortune by selling Coca Cola syrup to bottlers at a marked up price. And they'll also take a royalty from every bottle sold today that business model is called franchising. But in nineteen hundred this approach to business is so new it doesn't even have a name. Now, all Thomas Whitehead need to do is split the territories between them, so they never have to work together. Again since Whitehead did the math Thomas gets to choose the territory's after examining the map for few minutes. Thomas makes his choice. I'm taking the eastern seaboard the west coast and the Chattanooga area. So just to be clear. I get the midwest and the south excluding Chattanooga. Correct. Well, I'm happy with that. I'm glad that sort of best of luck with your half. Mike Weiss the pair don't know it yet. But they've just turbocharged Coca-Cola's expansion with the drinks fame rising fast. There's no shortage of entrepreneurs keen to become their hometowns. Coca Cola bottler within a few years. There will be more than a thousand plants modeling Coca Cola across the US as the middleman between the bottlers and the syrup producing Coca Cola company, Whitehead and Thomas, become exceedingly rich without having to do much work at all money that the Coca Cola company could've kept furred self. If only as a candler had seen the potential in bottled drinks, not that candler dwelling on his missed opportunity. He's got a bigger worry cocaine concern around the substance as only grown. Since candler. I had the instinct to cut it down in the recipe when Dr Pemberton created Coca-Cola cocaine was a wonder drug now, it's become a public menace. The dangers of cocaine are now all too clear and political pressure for a ban is building fast and nowhere is the cocaine backlash stronger than in the south or concerns about the drug take on the stink Lee racist quality newspapers, tell of cocaine sniffing epidemic among the south black population wild stories abound including claims that southern police forces are switching from thirty six to thirty eight caliber revolvers because cocaine gives black men superhuman strength, and it doesn't take long for the nation's most famous cocaine laced product to get sucked into the controversy. There might now be so little cocaine and Coca Cola that even federal government chemists can't detect it but the drink status as a druggie soda. Endures as coca Cola's popularity spreads sooner rumors about people driven insane. By Coca Cola. Newspapers run stories about children losing their jobs after getting hooked on the south's number one soda in city. After city. Coca Cola salesman encounter store owners who believe it's full of cocaine and to candler dismay people are giving his drink drug related nicknames names, like dope, dose and coke. Kamler is between a rock and a hard place with the backlash growing. He's got to clean up his soda, but he can't risk taking the drug out entirely. Ironically for legal reasons. US trademark law at the start of the twentieth. Century is a mess a hodgepodge of inconsistent local state and federal laws and court decisions. Removing coca leaf from Coca Cola could endanger his trademark and without the Coca Cola. Name candler doesn't have a business, but as the nation's legislatures inch towards outlawing cocaine candler knows he has to find a way to purify the drink. It's August nineteen o three and candler at the Schaefer alkaloid works in Maywood, New Jersey, he seated at a small office, a smell reminiscent of ammonia and garlic lingers in the air through the window. He can see chimney stacks. Bellowing dark acrid smoke across the table is Dr Lewis Schaffer, the founder of this chemical works and a key supplier for several of coca Cola's, essential ingredients. Listen Lewis, I I need to rid Coca Cola of cocaine. It's ruining my drinks name as well as my own, but I cannot stop using coca leaves is there a way to eliminate every single particle of cocaine from the coca leaf extract you produce for us a coca leaf extract without any cocaine interesting normally people want us to provide coca leaf extract with as much cocaine as possible, but I need to be able to say. With confidence that Coca Cola contains coca leaf, but does not contain cocaine lost in thought Schieffer places his elbows on the desk and presses poems. Together, I could no. Yes. Yes. I yes, I believe I could do this really. I think so I we crush the leaves mixed with sawdust and soak in a bicarbonate of soda then percolate that residue with a powerful solvent that should break down the cocaine, but to be sure we should also blast the residue esteem soak it in alcohol, and then pasteurize will that rid the coca leaf cocaine mister Kessler. It will probably read the coca leaf of everything evalu-. I should also say that this will be more expensive to produce than normal coca leaf extract. Would it not be easier just to remove the coca leaf please do whatever's necessary to start producing the cocaine free extract. I wish to start using immediately. With the cocaine problem resolved candler can once again focus on ensuring Cola's success, but there's still one more threat. He must face before Coca Cola consignment its status as a famous American innovation a threat that could undermine everything. He is built. And that threat is the army of copycat colas now flooding the market. Shaving. Yeah. 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Just enter promo code AI at checkout to get fifteen percent off your first order and learn to love grooming again at the art of shaving. Hey, it's Steven Johnson host of American innovations last year. I decided I wanted to create a website to showcase the kids adaptation of my book. How we got to now. I'd heard great things about wicks dot com. So that's where I went to get started over one hundred forty million people have used wicks to create stunning websites. I knew there with wicks I can easily build my sight from scratch choose from over five hundred templates that are built to look beautiful and intuitive to use and I'm thankful for that. I didn't realize how many tweaks I'd want to make until I got into it. And with wicks it was quick and easy to change customize add anything I wanted you can build a website of your own wicks today for free. And if you go to wicks dot com and use the coupon code AI, you'll get ten percent off any premium plan with wicks premium plans, you get more. Storage, a free Demane for a year and much much more. That's wigs dot com code for ten percent off any premium plan. It's July nineteen six and in a muggy New Orleans courtroom to lawyers representing Coca Cola are waiting for a crucial decision all rise for Judge Charles prolong as judge enters the Coca Cola attorneys glance at their enemy American bottling works the makers of Coca Cola. There's a look a worry on their faces as the Stalin moustache judge takes a seat. You may sit. I've reached a verdict in this trademark infringement case I have found four the Coca Cola company as such. I'm ordering an immediate injunction on the production and sale of Coca Cola American bottling works must also refrained from producing and selling any other drink with the name calculated to mislead the public into believing. It is Coca Cola smiles breakout on Coca Cola team yet. Another imposs-. Cola has fallen to coca Cola's legal assault. Eight months ago. Congress passed a new trademark act which ensures trademarks like coca Cola's are protected at a federal level. So now Coca Cola is on the warpath at the orders of Asia candler. The company has dragging rival after rival before the courts across the nation drinks with names like Toca cola. Coke Ola, cold cola and chair Ochoa. Not to mention the counterfeiters producing fake Coca Cola help crush opponents in court the companies also taking steps to make it harder for rival colas to pretend they are the real thing measures such as distinctive diamond shaped bodily Bols and bottle caps that bear the Coca Cola logo. The company is also hiring Pinkerton detectives to snoop on soda fountains. It's the specs or selling knock off syrups as Coca-Cola by the early nineteen ten's. The company is filing a new lawsuit every week. Such is the volume of trademark infringement cases being pursued by the Coca Cola company that it's actually creating much of the US trademark case law who was so many cash in colas on the market the battlefields endless for every rival that falls another pops up in its place. So now the companies about to raise another defense against what candler calls the fake colas. It's April twenty six nineteen fifteen and in the Coca Cola company's Atlanta headquarters legal chief herald Hirsch is meeting a group of Coca Cola bottlers, these bottlers are the trustees of the Coca Cola bottlers association as experienced Coca Cola bottlers, they know all too well about the issue of fake colas flooding the market as soon as they sit down the bottler start lobbying Hirsch to take on the coal arrivals in their area. One North Carolina bottler pleads with Hersh to do something about his main coal arrival. You must take action against Pepsi Cola people in my neck of the woods like it. Because it's local the bottle from Texas has a similar demand. Why haven't you sued Dr Pepper yet Hirsch size? This isn't why he invited them to his office. I've been through this with you to before Dr Pepper really doesn't taste like Coca Cola, and it doesn't have. Caffeine. I don't believe we can win against it has for Pepsi Cola. I'm well aware of them. But my cesspit is that their name will not be deemed infringement of coca Cola's trademark. There's also little evidence Pepsi Cola's passing itself off as Coca-Cola maybe time will stab much legal precedent that allows us to go after them. But I'm not taking them to court until I know we can win the North Carolina bottler isn't impressed. Well, I still think you're making a mistake by not suing Pepsi Cola. Look, I invited you here because I have an idea about how we can fight these fakers with the new powerful weapon and that weapon is a bottle. I'm pretty sure we have plenty of them already. I don't mean just any bottle. I want a uniform and unique bottle. A Coca Cola bottle a bottle all our bottlers will use a bottle sue distinctive that you can recognize it by feel alone even from a fragment buying on the ground. How will that help us? It will mean people can all. Always recognize genuine Coca Cola. No longer will. They find themselves faced with a tub of drinks in ice water. They cannot tell which Cole is which because the paper labels peeled off. But imitators will just copy that bottle if they do then we can easily destroy them in court because we can patent and trademark a unique bottle the Texan bottler looks easy. But if we create this bottle, we'd have to replace everybody. We have it will cost us a fortune. I can't deny we'll be expensive. But we're not building Coca Cola. Just for today. We're building Coca Cola forever. Remember our goal is for Coca Cola to remain the national drink until the end of time. Okay. So what do you need from us? You guys know the glassworks better than we to invite them to take part in a competition to develop the national Coca Cola bottle. Also since you are the bottlers, I think you should select the winning entry. Four months later, the letter inviting ideas for the Coca Cola bottle arrives at the root class company in Tara, Indiana. After reading the letter the glassworks owner Chapman route calls together. His senior team whoever wins this competition. Stands to make a huge amount of money are bottles got to be distinct, and and special the plant supervisor raises his hand. Yeah. What is Coca Cola made of knowing that might inspire us? The room goes silent. No one has any idea. What's in Coca Cola, including Roope? I don't know. Why don't you send some people to the library? Maybe the answers there. Half an hour later bottle mold designer Earl dean, an auditor CLYDE Edwards or at the public library on the table in front of them is a thousand page volume of encyclopedia Britannica. Cola Edwards opens volume covering Chevrolet to Constantine and hunts for the entry. It's it's not in there. What about coca Edwards flicks? Back to the book. He pauses on the entry for CoCo. It's accompanied by an illustration of the chocolate yielding cocoa pod. Is that it? No, that's cocoa. Edward sleep through the book. Again, they find the entry for coca. There's no illustration of the cocaine producing leaves then dean has brainwave come back to that. Cocoa picture. I think I can use that the next day. Dean creates a prototype bottle using Greenglass the bottle has the thick bold is middle embossed with the Coca Cola logo after it's thick midsection, gently narrows until widening again at the base, pumpkin. Like ribs, inspired by the cocoa pod. Run down the sides of the bottle the following year. The Coca Cola bottlers name the six and a half ounce bottle the winning design. After it selection. The design is adjusted to give the bottle more of an hourglass figure. Extra weight is added to the base to make it feel more valuable than other. Bottled sodas, the final design is packaging turned into an art form. The Coca Cola bottles distinctive design will become as famous as the drink it holds package. So well known that nearly a century later. The Coca Cola company can successfully promote its namesake drink with nothing more than a silhouette of economic container. Your rival of the bottle nineteen sixteen coincides with ISA candler is decision to leave the company for much of the past decade. The now sixty five year old multi-millionaire has become increasingly preoccupied with his legacy. He wants to leave behind more than a popular pop to that. And he's already funded the development of skyscrapers bearing his name Atlanta, Manhattan. Baltimore Kansas City. He's also donated money and land to develop Atlanta's Emory University. And now his quest for an enduring legacy is inspired him to quit Coca Cola and launch. An ultimately successful bid to become the mayor of Atlanta by the time he entered the mayor's office candler had become the very embodiment of the new southern dream. A man who arrived in post bellum Atlanta in homemade clothes and went on to become the richest man in the city. Coca Cola had a similar rags to riches story too. Moving from doctor. John Pemberton's basement experiment to a boundary pushing product the first cola pioneered promotional coupons led the way on franchising help to find trademark law and spawned a packaging. Masterpiece Pemberton may have been the inventor, but it took candler to turn this beverage from the gilded age snake-oil craze into a product built to last. Thank you for listening. If you like our show, please do give us a five star review until your friends to subscribe where vailable and apple podcasts Spotify Stitcher as well. As at wondering dot com. If you're listening on a smartphone tapper swipe above the cover art of this podcast. You'll find the episode notes including some details. You might have missed. You'll also find some offers from our sponsors, please support our show by supporting them. We'd also like to learn more about you. Please complete a short survey at wondering dot com slash survey. That's wondering dot com slash survey. American innovations toasted by means Steven Johnson. For more information about my books on the history of ideas and innovation can visit my website. At Steven Berlin, Johnson dot com. The step aside was written by tristen Donovan and edited by Audrey Dilling sound design by spoke media produced by George lavender, executive producers marshal Louis and her non Lopez for wondering.