Bram Stoker

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So Tracy the story that begins with Jonathan Harker travels to Transylvania on a business trip to complete a real estate deal is one almost everybody knows if I tell you that phrase, you would say I, I would say Dracula Right. DRACULA IS ICONIC and. We have. TALKED ABOUT DRACULA on several episodes of this podcast when we talked about the lives of Christopher Lee and F W Murnau and Bela Lugosi and Dwight Frye In it seems like we must have talked about the life of Bram stoker before. Yeah we have not no we had a whole conversation where you're like I can't believe we haven't done this and I was like, but we did though, no, we definitely on. It has come up i. feel like what's come up more than Bram stoker himself is his estate and his widow not giving people permission. To adapt his work but really, we have not talked about him at all This is a case where once I started have getting into the research after you and I had that discussion I knew we had not talked about it at all because there's part of his story I. One hundred percent would have remembered and have been texting all of my friends about for the last several days. Leading up to this recording. So today, we're going to talk about Bram Stoker. Abraham Stoker was born on November eighth eighteen, forty seven. His parents lived in the tar suburb of Dublin, Ireland his father was also named Abraham Stoker, his mother was Charlotte Matilda. thornely stoker and this is a large family. Bram had two siblings when he was born and the stoker's had another four more children after him and as a child Bram who was still going by Abraham at that age but to separate from his dad will go ahead and go to his adopted name brand was not healthy He was confined to his bed or wherever an adult would carry him for the first seven years of his life. And we don't actually know what the nature of the illness was, and there have been all kinds of theories from it. Possibly having been some sort of a fever to a psychological element being part of it possibly a trauma of some kind. But this is absolutely speculation. We do not know what was up here. Most biographers make the case that this early phase of stoker's life definitely influenced everything that came afterward brass mother told him about the cholera epidemic that she had lived through and specifically people being buried alive his father would tell him family stories including military battles and. Also described plays that he had seen all of this seated stoker's imagination and he had a lot of time alone with his thoughts since he couldn't really get up and go play with his siblings and his peers but despite this early start in this mystery. Stoker made a full recovery. Biographer Barbara. Belford. Who is one of several biographers that wrote about him mentions how very odd it is that stoker never gave any detail of his illness in his writing about himself. This was not a family that was ignorant of medical matters. His uncle William Stoker was the family doctor. He also had three brothers who became doctors, but the truth of those early years seems to have been obscured and lost to time although a lot of scholars of Stoker's work have scoured his writing for clues like anytime he mentioned a child being ill or they like is this a reference to his use? But details regarding the end of his illness are as murky as the illness itself. He would later write quote this early weakness passed away and I grew into a strong boy in time enlarge to the biggest member of my family in eighteen sixty four when stoker was seventeen, he enrolled at Trinity College at the University of Dublin and he may have started life in pretty poor health as a college student. He was actually really athletic he was an accomplished gymnast and a rugby player. He also participated in endurance, race walking he won prizes and five and seven mile walks. He also cut up pretty striking figure. He was six two with red hair and he was popular invited to join both the historical society and the Philosophical Society. He was elected to positions of responsibility in each of them. His time at Trinity overlapped with that of Oscar Wilde. He was younger than stoker. The two of them knew each other and Bram had actually nominated wild for membership of the Philosophical Society. Yeah? That's an interesting overlap It will come up again in just a bit. So. Here's the thing stoker's performance in school did not really hint his legacy while he excelled at sports. He was kind of an average student academically but he was writing essays and papers about things that sparked his interest in his societal participations including one titled Sensationalism, in Fiction and society and the necessity for political honesty. In eighteen seventy, he graduated from trinity later say he graduated with honors in Mathematics? This is untrue. Trinity College actually has a biography of him and they're like we don't know where he got. If you're wondering about it taking six years for him to earn a bachelor's degree. That's because he was also working for all. But the first two years of that schooling stoker took a civil service job at Dublin Castle. Thanks to an assist from his father who also works there as a civil servant until his retirement in eighteen sixty five. So. He was working six and a half days a week while also taking classes. So at that point. Six years passed to me? Yes me as well and it's one of those things where it's almost like this sets the stage for his whole life of just being. Constantly working on a lot of things and making time for more things than any when humans should fit in a day. But after he finished school, he continued in his civil service position although he also continued to be interested in literature in his last year. So school stoker became somewhat obsessed with Walt Whitman and that deep interest in the man and his work continued long after graduation from Trinity in February Eighteen, seventy, two stoker wrote Whitman a two thousand word letter in which he said among other things quote you have shaken off the shackles and your wings are free I have the shackles on my shoulder still but I have no wings Stoker's letter continues on to describe himself in detail. including the sorts of things that a person today might normally share maybe with a therapist. Including how he chose to interact with people as well as the sort of things you might tell a pen pal and then it concluded with quote now I have told you all I know about myself. Stoker didn't actually mail this letter to Whitman though instead he left it in his desk for the next four years intending to make a clean copy to send. This is a level of procrastination. I feel like I can. Experience in my life. I think we all can. There's also the possibility, and again, this is a matter of speculation that some people have theorized that he recognized how sort of raw and familiar this letter was and like, wow, that may have been his true feelings. He was also a little trepidation about actually sharing it like maybe I shouldn't send this to someone right? Maybe I, don't even want to acknowledge that I just wrote all of these things to my literary hero because that's weird we'll talk more about. This whole thing on Friday but after a gathering at which Whitman's work was criticized and rebutted in eighteen, seventy six and we should point out that you know whitman was controversial in his time. There were poems, for example, that part of leaves of grass that were left out of some publications of that work particularly in. There was a lot of discussion about whether his work was appropriate in some cases. But at that gathering stoker provided the defense position of the poet and afterwards, he wrote another letter to Walt Whitman similarly familiar and kind of intimate re talked about having defended him because he thinks he is such a great man and this time he actually mailed it as well as that one that had sat in his desk drawer, all of the intervening time. And Whitman got these letters and replied that he hoped that the two of them would one day meet and he commented on the unconventional manly and affectionate way in which stoker had addressed him. Those are adjectives that I am quoting from Whitman. Regarding Bram Stoker's rating. If if you want to know more about what women in his writing, we have a previous episode on him that I feel like it's been a Saturday classic not that long ago. but it has been long ago enough ago since we recorded it that I have no recollection if it mentions Bram stoker. Anyway. I don't think so because I think I would have remembered. So anyway, Whitman had been particularly delighted and all this by a passage in which stoker called him the quote father brother, and to his soul. Whitman later told a friend that he felt that stoker had actually been writing to himself and kind of working through his own thoughts and that he felt compelled to respond to the young man. Although stoker had hoped Whitman might one day travel to Ireland and they could meet Whitman's health at the time kept that from ever happening, he was not able to travel. But don't give up on that thought this writing these letters to Walt Whitman are the only instances of writing from Stoker's use where he speaks. So openly about himself and his inner world, he tends to kind of keep his private thoughts private for most of the rest of his writing. So they have become a really important part of his history in eighteen seventy six stoker was promoted into the newly created position of inspector of courts of petty. Sessions. And this many added traveled to various municipalities an audit, their small claims, courts, three years into the job. He published a book on this subject called the duties of clerks of petty sessions in Ireland bless him the sounds dull as dirt. I mean, it's literally like going to a court hearing people talk about things in one biography they mentioned like him him sitting in on hearings about things like dog licenses. Neighbors complaining against one another. But meanwhile while working in his civil service job by day and probably finding it a little less than intellectually stimulating stoker started a side hustle in the evenings as a writer on more interesting topics. He I wrote theater reviews he did not get paid for these but he did create a significant change at the Dublin evening meal in working on them up to that. Point. Theatre reviews normally published two days after the show that was being reviewed. So have you into a show on Friday night the review it would appear Sunday but stoker, who again was a very busy bee and pack a lot of work into any day instigated shift. So that next day reviews would run at the paper. So if you saw that Friday show, the review would run on the Saturday. Morning and learning the discipline of writing and doing this on a deadline in him to turn his pen to more creative efforts and he started writing short stories as well. In eighteen seventy two. He had actually already published the first of his short stories that was one called the crystal. Cup But in the late eighteen seventies, he also started editing a fiction magazine in eighteen, seventy, five he. Published a novella over several installments in the periodical, the shamrock that story is called the primrose path and was published under the name. Ace. Stoker Esquire, it unfolds over ten chapters. This is a morality tale about the dangers of alcohol and it tells the story of a carpenter from Dublin who moves to London and becomes an alcoholic which ultimately leads to misery so much misery it's a very dark dark. Story in many ways. In late, eighteen, seventy, six, Bram Stoker wrote a theater review that changed the course of his life and we're going to talk about that after we I pause for a sponsor break. What's it like to drive the Volvo xc ninety plug in Hybrid The thrill of a four hundred horsepower t eight twin engine. The joy of impromptu road traps. And the serenity. Of Electric Power pure ego mode. Visit a DMV Volvo retailer today to experience the xc ninety recharge plugin hybrid for yourself. We. Recently spoke with legitimacy demissie from bank about how women's participation in investing has evolved over the years I'm here with Lulei missy and we're going to talk a little bit about how women's role in participating and investing and investing their own money how that has evolved over the years. Thanks for having me. So can you tell us a little bit about why historically women haven't invested as much as men have? Will you know it's interesting because you can look at it also tracking sort of the right to vote the right of many things at the suffragettes sort of started out that had to be consequently reliance like I. Bet you. It's not until the nineteen sixties. The woman could actually open a bank account right starting to open a credit card was nineteen, seventy four. So it's a recent game for the gender part of it is we've just not been in the club for a long time, and this thing takes practice to do an part of it is also just typically in two person households women have been relegated to really the chief financial officer in the sense that she's the person that's really governing the budgets and the spend not. Really about the investing and so it's really been in the last two plus decades that you see women turning into the investors in the household but there's still a long way to go. We have not been at this been invited not long enough. Do you think that women are still under represented today in terms of investing? Yes. But more than just under represented, it's also the industry is not shaped to truly welcomed them in right. The majority of advisors are still male women are considered to be more cautious as investors. and. So typically baguette relegated to things that are less sort of investing in more high yield savings, kind of vehicles, which is busy wrong with those either. But I think much of it about underrepresentation is also because the industry hasn't been shaped to invite them in what do you think the industry can do to continue to become more welcoming to women as investors great question a few things one is continue to design services and products that are inclusive in the way that they are shape. Typically, you said that women. Are More. Conservative. In their investment outlook, but it's also because they like to do a lot of research. So maybe products and services that lean harder on up front research and understanding before people have to jump in. So I think there's a lot of things we can do in the intent of how design services that not only will benefit women, but just widened the scope of people who can participate. Thank you so much Lulei and thank you to ally invest for being part of the show today. Thanks for having me. To learn more visit ally dot com slash history class. That's A. L. L. Y. dot com, slash history class. As we said before the break in eighteen seventy, six, bram stoker wrote a review. This review is of Henry Irving's performance as hamlet and it was glowing. Bram was already something of a Henry Irving fan he had seen the famous actor on stage for the first time in eighteen sixty seven when he had attended a performance of the rivals in Dublin and he had when he saw that first performance been thinking about a career in acting himself and. Asked her out to dinner as thank you for this this was the start of a long and very close friendship Henry Irving became a pivotal figure in Bram Stoker's life. So it's worth giving his biography a little attention just for context. So Irving was born John Henry broad. Rib. England on February, six, eighteen, thirty eight, and when he was six, his parents moved to Bristol where his father had found a new job. But they left John Henry with an aunt and uncle in. Cornwall. Rather than moving him to a city. He did rejoin his parents a few years later in London at the age of ten he started work as a clerk as a young man but really always wanted to life in the theater. So with financial assistance for a relative, he started purchasing costumes and wigs, and then he bought a role for himself in a local production of Romeo and Juliet the appeared in that as Henry Irving from there he started working with stock companies as a bit performer and was in hundreds of shows touring Great Britain. Yeah. I read one statistic said something like over the course of three years he was in four hundred different roles. So he was doing a lot of very small bit players, kind of acting. Irving really started gaining recognition in the mid eighteen, sixty S, and in eighteen seventy one he became very famous for his appearance in the bells at the LYCEUM theatre. He appeared at the Lyceum as the star of the company for the next years and it was in late eighteen, seventy six that he starred in Hamlet, which was, of course reviewed by Bram Stoker for the Dublin Evening Mail, and after reading that review in the morning irving wanted to have dinner with stoker that. The two men wrote letters to one another for several years and in eighteen seventy, seven irving made a move that really changed Fokkers, life? He purchased the Lyceum Theatre in London and asked stoker to be its manager. Irving would work as the director of the productions, and of course, also star in them, and then stoker would handle the business from tickets to press releases and managing the staff. This was a really big ask Henry Irving was the most famous actor in late nineteenth century England, and he was also known to be intense and demanding and uncompromising and Bram Stoker. Who Adored Irving didn't think twice about it. He Bid Adieu to Ireland and his civil service job to start a new as Henry, Irving's business manager essentially in eighteen, seventy eight, and that's Joh- was not a hobby job. So the two of them can hang out the lyceum was large with a seating capacity of two thousand and it was a social hub for. London society in addition to all the regular business of his position entertaining illustrious patrons of the theater after shows with luxurious dinners thought also fell under stoker's job description. This is a gigantic job for one person. Yes. It is doing this though he met numerous luminaries including Mark Twain Sir, Arthur, CONAN doyle, and Prime Minister Gladstone. This is so much work and. Despite these long hours demanded of this job stoker still found time to write and this was on top of the fact that he was writing several dozen letters day on behalf of Henry Irving. So handling both his business correspondence in his personal correspondence and things like fanmail somehow while doing all of this stoker also got married in eighteen seventy eight to Florence Belgium. Florence was eleven years younger than he was and was. Pretty outgoing whereas he was more shy and reserved her claim to historical fame being the exquisitely pretty girl that Oscar Wilde fell in love with and she didn't apparently tell wild that she had married his friend from Trinity while he was off traveling. Oscar Wilde wrote her a letter that he wished to have a gold cross back that he had given to her because it represented the sweetest time of his youth. She told him, he could come to their home and get it but he thought that would be inappropriate and asked that they meet at her parents home instead and Florence for her part also wanted something back. She wanted all of the letters that she had sent Oscar Wilde when they were corresponding and courting it is unclear if these things were ever exchanged and giving back to each other this whole. Interaction and and this triangle of relationships is often summarized as Florence having the choice to marry either Bram stoker or Oscar, wild about Wilde, Oscar Wilde in his writing to her does seem to have really been hurt by Florence marrying his friend there's no evidence that he was ever suggesting that he should be her husband or that they should get married and wild stoker did remain friends despite this whole thing. Bram and Florence had one child a son named Knoll. That was the first year after they were married maybe in response to finding himself a father in eighteen eighty, one stoker published a book of Children's stories called under the sunset there didn't seem to be a lot of discord in the stoker marriage, but they're also didn't seem to be that much closeness or devotion between them either. Now. They did a lot of stuff separately. stoker was a man who valued efficiency and organization, and he was absolutely excellent at managing irving's every need at the theater and he seemed to put his job and irving ahead of everything else in his life including his own family. For example, the newlyweds stoker's even skipped honeymoon instead Bram and Florence had traveled to Birmingham so bram could work stoker had. told his boss that he was getting married in eighteen, eighty three, the lyceum theatre mounted a tour in North America Stoker managed. All of the logistics was the first of many such tours and stoker collected his experiences and to a travelogue called a glimpse of America that came out in eighteen eighty, six on these travels to the US stoker met two presidents, McKinley and Teddy. Roosevelt and more importantly he was finally able to meet Walt Whitman and at this point, these two writers had been trading letters for years. So there was a pretty easy friendship to their meeting although. Descriptions can make it sound like stoker was initially a little nervous. There was one blemish Tamar. This beautiful occasion though Henry had insisted on going to meet Walt Whitman as well. So stoker felt a little bit cheated of the intimate conversation that he had dreamed of having with his idol. Women noted also that stoker had switched from going by Abraham Stoker Bram stoker and he did not particularly like that shift in name he just didn't think it was very dignified. But overall. It was a really really good meeting and Stoker Declared Walt Whitman to be quote a man amongst men. During the eighteen nineties stoker was still publishing novels including the Waters Mu, and that features star crossed lovers as part of the story. There's also the shoulder of Shasta, which is a romance set in northern California even as these books are being published, he was also working on what would become his masterpiece Dracula while Bram. Stoker was normally a very fast writer. Dracula took far longer than his previous novels. He wrote it over the course of seven years or perhaps even longer but that's how long we know he was working on him while he was touring with her ving and working on other writing projects. We'll talk a little more about some of the research that went into the most famous of Stoker's books after we I take a break for a word from the sponsors that keeps stuff you missed in history class going. The. 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If you look at the notes that stoker compiled as he was assembling his vampiric tale, it becomes really apparent that he was as we mentioned earlier meticulous he had carefully plotted out. Jonathan Harker journey to Transylvania rain using actual train schedules and only using connections that he believed would have actually worked and created a table of all of the correspondence that would appear in the book to ensure that the dates that they posted in the dates that they would arrive in the recipients. Hands was realistic. It also seems as though all of his were running a theater and tours informed the way he constructed narrative. He also was a writer who really believed in research and his work researching what would become the novel Dracula is really deeply associated with the town of Whitby England Amazon. The countries east coast he is said to have visited a library in Whitby to. Look at a specific selection of the special collections title by William Wilkinson, which is an account of the principalities of Laki and Moldavia with various political observations relating to them. It is from this book that he is said to have learned of the name Dracula in relation. Vlad to Peche. Prior to this stoker was planning to name his villainous character count Von peer. Rare book it's an odd thing for stoker to have just known about but a friend he knew from his theater circle Armenia's Vam Berry had told him about the story of the Lucky and count and the book that he could find it in. A very piece of knowledge. It's a very strange thing right I can only imagine him as a library and having someone walk in and be like, Hey, you know that rare book that you don't even tell people you have I would like to see it please. I mean, it's literally that strange Stoker. Then visited the Whitby Museum to work on that route that we mentioned a moment ago for Harker to take including making notes about latitude and longitude and next stoker consulted with the Royal Coast Guard at the nearby harbor and discuss the topic they would figure prominently in the story of Dracula, in eighteen eighty, five ship. Dmitri, had left the port of Narva in Estonia and had run aground near whitby according to the locals only a few members of the crew survived and there was a black dog that emerged from the ship ran off while rescue efforts were underway. The Dmitri had been carrying crates of silver sand that may sound mysterious but silver sand is actually a fine white sand that is commonly used in construction mortar. But if you've read Dracula that might sound familiar but not exactly the way you it stoker borrowed the story of the Dmitri for the novel making the ship the conveyance of Count Dracula from his home country to London. But in the fictional version, the name has changed to the meter, which also invokes the goddess and its associations with the cycle of life and death and Narva changes to Varna Bulgaria as the departure point for the ship. And Stoker's fictionalized version the silver sand remains, but the ship is also filled with crates of Earth from Count Dracula's homeland, and then of course, the Black Hog became an embodiment of the vampire himself. Stoker's research wasn't confined to Whitby continued to consult the library regularly to make notes that would contribute to Dracula once he was back in London but would be very closely associated with the book at this point. Vampire Stories Long Predated Dracula. Vampire like. Entities like all over the world in various mythology and folklore. And fiction but stoker's version of vampirism is really what we've come to know classic Vampire tropes. The vampire being able to shape shift into animals the count suddenly becoming almost crazed with thirst when Harker cuts himself shaving and the vampire and getting to be invited into a home. All that's present here in the nineteen thousand one Icelandic edition of Dracula titled Mocked Chroma which translates to powers of darkness. The preface that Stoker wrote includes insistence that the events related in the Dracula story are true writing. Quote I am quite convinced that there is no doubt whatever the events here described really took place however unbelievable and incomprehensible they might appear at first sight and I am further convinced that they must always remain to some extent incomprehensible although continuing research in psychology and natural sciences, may in years to come give logical explanation of such strange happenings which at present neither scientists nor the secret police Kim understand. I stayed again that this mysterious tragedy which is here described is completely true in all its external respects though naturally I have reached a different conclusion on certain points than those involved in the story but the events are incontrovertible and so many people know of them that they cannot be nine. So this has led to all kinds of speculation since it came out about whether stoker was referencing Jack The ripper here. The Icelandic version of the book is different from the originally published version though having been abridged. When it was translated back into English and twenty fourteen, it became really apparent that the original translator of Stoker's work into Icelandic Vladimir Asmundsson had reworked the plot significantly and created a very different story. I remember when the English speaking world found out about this. Yeah, it's actually really good if anybody wants to seek it out I think right now as we record this in October twenty, twenty If you have an Amazon prime account I think you can download the kindle version for free and audible has the audio version available as a Freebie and it's really quite delightful and if you are a person who loves Dracula, it's very interesting because there are characters you have never seen before in the story. Events play out very differently. Something's are condensed. Something's gone completely and it's just a new way to experience this piece of lower. Yeah. I also feel like I should just clarify that most people in Iceland also speak English. When I say the English speaking world I mean like. Places like the United States and Britain yes. When Dracula was originally published in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seven it was really well received, but it really didn't hit the global long reaching popularity would eventually achieve. It was kind of like you know if you see a movie and it's like a great movie that year. But you don't think like Oh this is going to launch a kajillions things Stoker's mother Charlotte is said to have quite liked it and actually believed it would be a huge success and and be one of the things for which her son would be remembered. Publishers in the United, states were not initially interested in this story. So Stoker actually purchased the US copyright for himself. The first American edition of the book appeared in eighteen ninety, nine analysis of the text alongside Stoker's life story has sometimes led people to believe that Dracula as a character is based at least partially on Henry Irving and his demanding nature. Also, possible that rather than modelling it on irving stoker was kind of thinking about how irving could play the count in a stage version of the story. But actually did not work out. Stoker had arranged a reading of the Dracula story in Play Forum at the theater before the novel came out. Irving declared it dreadful the fool At this point in time, the LYCEUM was faltering the play's that they staged not doing as well as they once had and stoker at thought that Dracula might be an opportunity to regain some interest in financial footing for the business serving would not have it. And then the theatre had a fire The building was not destroyed, but they lost a lot of their stock props and scenery. It was expensive messy as all of these problems piled up and the LYCEUM had to enter into receivership so that its assets could be liquidated to cover its debts. The productions continued although in less grand stagings than the theatre had once seem. Henry Irving gave his last performance in October nineteen o five. He died that night just after returning to his hotel stoker got there soon after his friend had collapsed, but it was too late to save his life after Irving's death bram stoker wrote about his own life and his long business partnership and friendship with Irving in a two volume book titled Personal Reminiscences of Henry. Irving. This was stoker's most popular work in his lifetime although this was not some scandalous reveal of the man behind the public face bram stoker wrote of Irving in the most positive adulation soaked way imaginable at this point. Was Without the job that had required all of his attention for so many years, and so he turned to writing full time from nineteen five to nineteen eleven. He published several short stories and novels in addition to his irving memoir. Last of these was the layer of the white worm very strange tale with a lot going on in terms of plot threads including story about Mongooses. Yeah. There's a whole lot going on in that. Some of it Berry outdated in terms of how different people to the world are perceived. In his last year stoker found himself financially strapped. He did some more theatre management to make ends meet but primarily, he continued to focus on Writing Dracula of continued to be popular enough to earn some royalties and stoker also wrote a bit as a journalist for the daily chronicle profiling notable figures of the day. He also did something that seems a little bit odd which is he took up the flag of censorship as in he was pro censorship he advocated for banning inappropriate books and writing that quote a close analysis will show that the only emotions which in the long run harm are those arising from sex impulses. During that time, his health also declined he had a series of strokes starting in one, thousand, nine, hundred, six, and in nineteen ten he had what he described as a breakdown from overwork that wasn't. A petition for a grant from the Royal Literary Fund and Nineteen Eleven continually dwindling finances led brand florence to move into a more modest apartment left the one that had been their home in London for more than three decades. Bram stoker died at the age of sixty four in nineteen twelve. That was the same week that the titanic sank in the days leading up to his passing. He had like all of London Ben Transfixed by the story of the ship's demise in the investigation that was soon to begin. Even in death stoker left something of a mystery, there are three causes of death listed. They are kidney disease exhaustion, and locomotor attacks, Zia so that last one locomotor attacks yet was generally used as a synonym for tertiary syphilis and that of course has led to all kinds of speculation about various usually salacious ways that he could have contracted syphilis but looking at all of his symptoms and his behavior leading up to his death that doesn't really add up. It's possible that he was misdiagnosed. Effects of the strokes he'd had, but we will not ever really knew. Yeah, I have read. Some biographer like we're not even sure why the Coroner put multiple causes of death when just saying kidney disease would've covered it But. This fascination with the possibility that stoker could have had syphilis is really part of a much bigger speculation that has gone on for a century about the author sexuality. and He seems in so many ways to be a tangle of repression and confusion regarding sexuality and desire in his writing with so much erotic content that it sometimes seems. He doesn't even realize he is including there are multitudes of papers analyzing the sexuality of Dracula and the disdain for the Victorian new woman that is present in a lot of stoker's work, his obsession with figures like Whitman and Irving and his friendship with Oscar Wilde who he saw go through the trial that. You know kind of ruined Oscar Wilde's life have naturally led to speculation about an attraction to men that he may never have truly recognized. But this like his childhood infirmity and his cause of death can never be conclusively known. What we do know though is that Dracula has never been out of print. It has been adapted into films and musicals and ballet and is inspired innumerable other vampire stories and it also just continues to do so. O'Brien STOKER'S DRACULA. We can talk more about it in the behind the scenes. Yes, he so. Fascinating and complex, and I really did not know all of that Walt Whitman stuff to the degree played. Well, I took a second while we were kind of in our in a in a sponsor break movements. To, see at I. Don't think we mentioned any connection to Bram Stoker in the Walt Whitman episode. Yeah. I don't think so I Yeah I want to Rewatch, all of the Dracula now. And think about him in this way. I. Don't have regular listener mail. I have an illustrative tale. I'm eager for this Well, it's just one of those things where It's kind of a peek behind how this works and you mentioning that you looked up in the Walt Whitman episode whether we mentioned Bram Stoker kind of plays into it This is a I got a facebook message from our listener and our friend Maria who I met through the podcast and have you know exchanged notes with back and forth we met her also at one of our live shows and she mentioned that she was doing a paper on pandemics and she had found. In older episode stuff, you missed in history class that talked about the black plague and she thought there had been more recent one with the two of us but couldn't find it in a gave me a moment where I was like I have to look this up because I don't remember and it is one of those things that I feel like comes up often and we've talked about it a little before. But I I always liked to illustrate it literally just the same as we relate, did we do a brand stoker episode there are moments where. The black death and things like plague in particular and Bram stoker is another good example and what women because he comes up in many things where it's really hard to remember what we have and have not done as a full episode particularly when that topic comes up in many other episodes is sort of a secondary piece of the story. So it, it always cracks me up a little bit because people will often be like you did an episode on this and we're like, no, we didn't, and sometimes we will realize that what has happened is that they have stitched together what they thought was a longer episode in their head. Sometimes, it is people confusing our show for other shows. Yeah and I'm not making fun of anybody because I have absolutely done this before where I've been like I remember hearing this on an episode of ninety nine percent invisible and it was like actually on criminal or something like it was. Their shows are very dissimilar. I. Don't know how I don't think that's a real example from my actual life, but we have. People email us and say, Hey, I just I'm trying to find episode you all did and I can't find it anywhere and I'm like. That was not us I'm really sorry. Yeah. It's just a an interesting illustrative example of how sometimes we don't even know for sure. We literally have to go back to an index that Tracy put together a while back where we were changing. Over the way our website worked yeah, and she just gathered all of our Meta data into a big document. Especially when you go back to shows that we're before you and I hosted idea, I have a lot of gaps in my knowledge of that even though I we try to keep track of it and look at it periodically but it is an interesting thing and I feel like it's a good illustrative example of what has often come up in the show. I feel like it's come a lot lately of cases like Bram Stoker where He missed remembers things about his past. And they're oftentimes it came up to in the Elaine Levinsky episode. People will report even their own biographies incorrectly, and sometimes in some cases, the initial response is to presume. A sort of nefarious level that they're lying or covering something up, but it's also. Worth, noting that people have faulty memories. As, often, also what ACLU's historical records said even when you're talking to someone. Fairly. Recently, after an event has taken place, they will related events incorrectly just just a little point of reference for everyone as we all talk about history Moma time to remember personal personal accounts are great. and sometimes like the the most primary Sir she can get but also to remember that they are not remembering necessary right? Right. And one day someone will. Be like holly and Tracy remembered stuff incorrectly and we'll be like that is correct. Yeah. Definitely. Remembered it incorrectly all the time. Anyway, that was my little trip I wonder if people realize how tricky it is to keep drinking actually done episode. If, you would like to write to us ask US questions about episodes we may or may not remember doing you can do. So at history podcast at iheartradio dot com, you can also find us on social media as missed in history and you can subscribe to the show just remember to do that only have to remember for a second if you do that on the iheartradio APP and Apple podcasts or wherever it is illicit. Stuff you missed in history classes, the production of iheartradio for more podcasts from iheartradio visit, the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. From my radio gets the hey pal podcast. Hey, PAL now. Jared deba we're going to be talking sports we have Julian Element, on our podcast today Julian, it's football movies who's advancing between Jerry, Maguire and Louis I. Think he gotTa Go waterboard Got An upscale. Talking Entertainment. 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