Fearless, Feisty and Unflagging: The Women of Gettysburg
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Hey this is our show from recent live appearance in Gettysburg Pennsylvania sort of we did record that show but as we always worn might be the case yes minor technical difficulties the recording yeah we had some technical difficulties we were there as part of an event called great conversations that Gettysburg this was a whole full day of programming that was sponsored by the Gettysburg Foundation. We had a great time but recording an outdoor event is always he's kind of challenge this time we had our a rain delay followed by very breezy weather and <hes> just surprising number of motorcycle interruptions yeah and as we were outdoors all of those things conspire to make kind a slushy sound call so we are going to have a studio version of this show rather than the live recording also. We didn't call it this because folks just walking through Gettysburg wouldn't necessarily know what six impossible episodes means but this is basically a six impossible episodes edition of the show. It's just focused on Gettysburg's ladies Yes yes for this live podcast. We wanted to focus on women and the battle of Gettysburg and there are just so many to choose from some of the people we are going to talk about where local to Gettysburg some were connected to the army's in some way in some arrived after the battle was actually over. We just picked a few favorites. If we don't have your favorite it's not because because that person was not any good just that you know we we had a select feta cheese for this time. Also this is not remotely all the women who were there and we're going to be focused. Mostly on the women's connections to Gettysburg into the battle itself is this is not going to be a full biography of all the women that we are going to talk about but we will jump in and I we will talk about Marie Teppei known as fearless French. Mary who became quite a recognizable character during the civil war she was born. Marie Blues Probably Blessed France and she eventually immigrated to the United States and once she got here she married Bernard Teppei who was a tailor in Philadelphia in June of eighteen sixty one Bernard joined the twenty seven th Pennsylvania Nya infantry and he really wanted to stay behind and mind their tailor shop. She wanted to go with him though so she became vivant gear which is a French term for uniformed women who traveled with the army's to kind of bolster the troops morale a lot of times they they act as merchants and sold things like food and tobacco Americans learned about Devante during the Crimean war and during the civil war there were women in this role on both sides of the fighting Marie bought things like whiskey Food Tobacco Co and various necessities to them sell to the soldiers she carried her whiskey in a small keg and she filled that keg with water when she couldn't get whiskey and sold water instead and she fought when she had to and she also helped care for the wounded she was paid a soldier salary plus and extra twenty five cents a day if she was doing hospital work at some point Marie left the twenty-seventh Pennsylvania Inventory and Bernard Tepi the story as reported by other people was that several soldiers one of them being her husband broke into her tent and stole sixteen hundred dollars from her. It is always tricky to try to convert a currency for that long ago to today's dollars but that was a huge amount of money. It'd be a huge amount of money today if someone stole that from me so at that time that was a fortune well it even if you like her husband had just broken in and stolen a twenty. That's still are cool. Yeah theft is theft but it really was quite a large sum but but she did not stay gone from the picture for long Irish Immigrant Charles H. T. colace had previously served in the eighteen th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment and after his enlistment was over he decided to start his own volunteer unit and he wanted to style this a unit after the French Light Infantry troops known as the Suave patterning the uniforms after their colorful pants jackets and turbans at first he had a small group known as the swamp death leak or calluses suave they eventually became the one hundred fourteenth Pennsylvania volunteer infantry as had been the case with vivant dear Americans I experienced to this was during the Crimean war and there was waft style units on both sides of the civil war just to be clear although the earliest French Suave troops were from northern Africa eventually these units associated with the French army were made up of Europeans and those wave units in the civil war even though they might have some not to the idea of Africa they were made up of white troops collis wanted his unit to have a air either he recruited Marie or she simply heard about what he was doing and volunteer to join she once again sold provision cooked and cared for the wounded she also delivered water and supplies to the front lines and doing that she actually took a bullet in the ankle at Fredericksburg see was recovered enough to carry water to the troops that chancellor spill and there she was under so much heavy fire that people described her skirts being riddled with bullet holes calls. She was awarded the Cross for Valor on May sixteenth of eighteen sixty three but she refused to wear it. She said she did not WANNA present. By the battle of Gettysburg Marie was a recognizable figure for much of the Union army in the area she had also. I started carrying a red white and blue care. After her first keg was shattered by a bullet she was there during the battle and she came through all of that unharmed although it does not appear that she left when the soldiers left there's actually a picture of her standing on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg taking some time afterward and it's possible that she stayed behind to help care for the wounded and then she joined back up with her unit leader. After the war she married Corporal Richard Leonard and she was photographed with her keg at a reunion 1893 eventually she and Richard divorced and she died of an apparent suicide in nineteen at one before we move on we should really note that although Murray was in combat at various times and she was paid a soldier salary she was not actually there as a soldier but there were female soldiers at Gettysburg there were women lake. Mary sees goal who disguised herself as a man so that she could fight alongside her husband and there are other people who stories and identities are less clear people who were found to have female anatomy after being injured injured or killed in combat there are at least five documented including sees goal to for the Union side and three for the confederacy although it is possible that there were many more who went unnoticed in undocumented next we'll have somebody who will be familiar to people who've seen the women's Memorial Matt Gettysburg and that's Elizabeth Thorne. She was born in Germany as Elizabeth Catherine Massar and then after emigrating to the United States she married John Peter Thorne who went by Peter They had three sons before the civil war started and then Peter joined the army in August of eighteen sixty two peter was the caretaker of Evergreen cemetery and the family lived the cemetery's arch-shaped Gatehouse which still stands today when Peter joined the Army Elizabeth took over for him as caretaker wow also taking care of their children and win the battle of Gettysburg began. She was also about six months pregnant six months pregnant and taking care of three little boys and acting as the caretaker of the cemetery. When the confederate army started to arrive in Gettysburg at the end of June they requisitioned food from the Thorn household and then when the federal army arrived a few days later Elizabeth helped General Oliver Otis Howard get the lay of land? She's sort of sodium showed them which roads went where and what some of the local back ways where that the confederacy might not know about she also provided dinner for some of the officers although by that point she really did not have much left as thanks though some Otis's men helped her move move some of the families valuables down into the cellar for safekeeping and they also told her that if she were ordered to leave the area she should do so immediately and that cemetery was part of Cemetery Hill which became an active battlefield on July. I second the family was ordered to evacuate. Although Elizabeth came back during the night check on things and she found that the families hogs had been killed and that the gate house was full of wounded soldiers she left again to try to find food and shelter and this time she stayed away until July seventh once the family got back they found that their home had just been ransacked including what they had moved into the cellar. Amputations have been performed on their beds so they're feather beds and bedding almost beyond repair it took her in three women days of washing to fix them and that was after they I repaired the pump and some of what they had was really just beyond repair there were also dead bodies awaiting burial outside along with the bodies of horses that had been killed in the battle but Elizabeth Thorne is most well known for what happened after all of that she had run into the president of the cemetery on her way home and he told her that there was more work waiting for her than she could possibly do in her own account in the days. After the battle she wrote quote. I got a note from the president of the cemetery and he said Mrs Thorn it is made out that we will bury the soldiers in our cemetery for a while so you go for that piece of ground and commenced sticking off lots and graves as fast as you can make them mm-hmm will you may know how I felt my husband in the army my father and aged man yet for all the foul air we to start it in I stuck off the graves and while my father finished one I had another one started they did this and just just terrible heat and filth and stench because this was July and some of these bodies had been decaying for days later on she had some friends who helped but both of them became very ill and had to leave a lot of people noted that the the men who came to help her got too sick to continue on and she was out there pregnant carrying on with it. These burials went on for weeks. She buried thirteen bodies on August eleventh which was more than a month after the battle they were still burying the dead up until Gettysburg. Berg National Cemetery opened in October that was formerly dedicated in November but at that point a lot of bodies had already been buried or reburied there. Some of the bodies buried in Evergreen were ultimately moved to the national cemetery in the end Elizabeth buried one hundred and five people with very little help ninety one of those were soldiers and fourteen were civilians. She wasn't compensated for the additional labor or for the loss of her property or the cost of cleaning and repairing the gatehouse was also a tiny me tiny fraction of the work that needs to be done Gettysburg itself had a population of about twenty one hundred people but about eleven thousand people died as a result of the battle about seven thousand died of their wounds immediately and the rest followed and the days and weeks afterward Elizabeth's daughter Rosemead Thorne was born the September after the battle and her middle name was named after General George Meade who had commanded the army of the Potomac at Gettysburg Peter Thorne returned from the war in eighteen sixty five and he and Elizabeth both died in one thousand nine hundred seven and two thousand to the Gettysburg Women's civil war memorial was unveiled it depicts Elizabeth Thorne clearly exhausted and pregnant with a shovel and although she is the woman who is depicted in this memorial oriole it is a memorial to all the women and now we're going to take a quick break and have a little word from one of the sponsors to keep stuff you missed in history class going geico presents eyewitness interviews with inanimate objects. This is Brian Bruno live on the scene scene of a recent windstorm here to describe the event a chest of drawers. There's a storm howling outside so I thought I'd stay in and watch a ROM COM five minutes into the flick. A Tree Branch slams through the window. Where are you hurt? I just got a scratch on my chest. Your chest of drawers can't help you in a windstorm but the GEICO insurance agency can help you get covered for personal property damage. Call Gyco to see how affordable homeowners insurance can be. So we talked just before the break about how the number of people killed in battle at Gettysburg was more than five times greater than Gettysburg's population of people living there and the gap between the towns population and the number of wounded was even Greater Raider between twenty thousand and thirty thousand people were wounded. Most of them stayed in Gettysburg for at least some time after the battle and our next subject is an example of how long this situation remained really critical the active fighting the battle of Gettysburg took place between July first and third EUPHEMIA. Mary Goldsboro arrived around July twelfth by that point. There was still a lot of work to do. Goldsboro was a nurse and one of many women from both sides of the war who who went to Gettysburg during the battles aftermath to try to care for the injured and dying soldiers Goldsboro who was known as F.. E. was one of many confederate supporters living in Baltimore Maryland she and other women there had been preparing for the fighting to come to them. So when Gettysburg ended in a union victory and tremendous casualty numbers they traveled from Baltimore to assist when they arrived in Gettysburg editions were just really dire nearly all of the doctors and the surgeons had left with their respective armies so the very few who were left behind were so overwhelmed that they could really only focus on the most urgent needs Pennsylvania Hall at Gettysburg College was being used as a hospital for wounded from both sides and that is where Goldsboro borough started working when she arrived here is how an unknown confederate soldier described the conditions there quote unless it was a case of amputation needed immediately or the stopping of hemorrhage. They had not time to attend to anyone thus us for the first two weeks there were no nurses no medicines no kinds of food proper for men in our condition and for men who were reduced to mere skeletons from severe wounds and loss of blood the floor was a hard bed with only a blanket on it. Eventually Goldsboro Goldsboro was assigned to Camp Letterman which was a hospital camp set up near the battlefield Goldsboro was in charge of a word with one hundred patients fifty from each side and the words of that same confederate soldier quote Miss Goldsboro recognized the importance of showing no partiality reality and many of both armies owed their lives to her good nursing commonsense and justice while she gladly forgot party spirit of the time and saw the necessity of sacrificing herself to the good of the southern wounded dying soldiers of the confederate army she remained to their nine weeks working incessantly forgetting the world and self living only to comfort and support the suffering and dying one of the men that she tried to save was Lieutenant Colonel Waller as well patent of Virginia who had been shot through the lungs and his condition had reached a point that needs to be propped up to be able to breathe but there was just nothing there available for him to be propped up on and so- Goldsboro offered herself sitting on the floor and letting them secure him to her back so they were basically back to back and she was kind of forming a chair for him. Although she sat there overnight without moving his condition was to grave and he died on July twenty first although she cared for men without regard to what side they had been on her work was not entirely above board. She knew that the surviving confederate soldiers were going to be transferred to prisons once they were well enough and she thought they should have proper clothes and boots when they went but it was against the rules to give them these things probably because of the risk that they might try to escape if they had them so Russia came up with an excuse to go into town and she came back with clothes and boots secured up underneath her hoop skirt hoping that they wouldn't bank together or fall out when she made her way past the Union guards this worked Goldsboro left Gettysburg after about nine weeks shortly after the death of Texas soldier named Samuel Watson who she seems based on her diary to have really become quite attached to she returned helmet first her family hardly knew her because she was so frail and exhausted but eventually eventually she recovered and she started smuggling again this time to try to get things like male clothes and supplies to imprison confederate men she was also a courier and a spy and she used a lap desk with hidden compartments to smuggle dispatches catches. She was ultimately caught while trying to help a prisoner escape and her quote treasonable plans and letters and traitorous poetry were confiscated. She was sentenced to banishment for the duration of the war by coincidence. She was sent to Virginia on the same vote as Belle Boyd previous hosts of the podcast done an episode on she apparently did not like bellboy. I'm very curious about what the situation was there but I did not look into it. She referred to Boyd as quote that Horrid woman assigned aside from demonstrating how Gettysburg's aftermath stretched on after the battle Goldsboro story also illustrates how a lot of women put aside their political leanings to care for the sick injured and dying Goldsboro. Let's be clear was a staunch supporter under of the confederacy but at the battlefields hospital she gave compassionate care to anyone who needed it. No matter what side of the battle they had fought on outside of the medical community there this definitely was not the case for Olive Gettysburg civilian population a lot of them refuse to harbor or assist confederate sympathizers including refusing to let sympathetic nurses bored with them and Goldsboro and other confederate supporters reviewed with very understandable suspicion within their medical work as well that same unknown one soldier who's account we were reading from earlier reported that the reason her ward was half and half federal and confederate troops was just to make sure she didn't do anything treasonous. The next woman we are going to talk about is Margaret Divet. You'll also see that spelled debit or sometimes even with an as Davits and she was also known as mag poem she was part of Gettysburg's black community. There were people of African descent in Gettysburg for almost as long as there were Europeans some of the first Europeans to settle in the area brought enslaved Africans with them before that point the area had been hunting ground and a travel route for the native peoples in the area but what is now Gettysburg does not appear to have ever been home to a permanent indigenous settlement of course there is a whole history there that is outside of the scope of what we were talking about in this particular podcasts Pennsylvania passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in seventeen eighty by the civil war Gettysburg's black community was free and numbered close to two hundred people or not quite ten percent of the population. Elation Gettysburg had a school for Black Children an African Methodist Episcopal Church because of its proximity to the Mason Dixon Line Gettysburg was home to a lot of underground railroad activity about a third of its black residents in eighteen sixty had been liberated or had liberated themselves from Maryland or Virginia but it was also an incredibly dangerous place to be as a black person being so close to slave territory was a constant risk especially in the light of fugitive negative slave laws that encourage the capturing of people and taking them into slave territory regardless of whether they had been previously enslaved or not so Margaret Palm who had been born Margaret divet or maybe Davut had direct experience with these he's dangerous she had been the target of an attempted capture herself her employer's son David Schick described it this way quote on this occasion. She was attacked by a group of men who made the attempts to kidnap her and take her south where they expected to sell her and derive quite a prophet she was a powerful woman and they would have from the sale derived quite a profit. These men's succeeded in tying mags hands. She was fighting them as best she could with her hands tied she would attempt to slow them and succeeded in one instance in catching and attackers thumb in her mouth and bit the thumb off <hes> when we did this as our live show there was definitely some <hes> cheers of support for MAG at this moment rightly so in eighteen sixty three poem was about twenty seven years old and she had at at least one child and she was living with a man named Alf Palm. They were tenants on the land of Abraham Brian a free black man who had lived in the area for about twenty years Although a census taker listed her occupation as mistress harlot it appears that she actually had a job working cleaning and doing laundry it appears that the census taker listed that as her occupation because she and Alfred not married at the time the I have some words for that census taker the confederate army approached Gettysburg many of its black residents fled they knew that if they stayed they were likely to be captured and enslaved that had happened and lots of other towns that the army had moved through as they made their way into union territory but leaving was really also a risk people would be leaving their jobs behind as well they would have to go without income for an unknown amount of time until the danger had passed they would also be leaving behind personal possessions which were really likely to be taken damaged or destroyed so Margaret was one of the people who stayed to act as a lookout and worn the black community when they really could not wait any longer to go and with her warning many of Gettysburg's black residents did successfully evacuate before the battle began some that could not or did not leave sheltered by their white employers or other friends but this did not always totally work out <hes> there is at least one account of two black women who were sheltered in the cellar but then when confederate officers commandeered that home those women were forced to come out and cook and care for them at the same time an unknown number of Gettysburg's black residents were captured by the confederates and marched out of town the House that Margaret and Alpha renting was largely destroyed in the battle well a lot of the fighting at Gettysburg was very urban but she and her family survived her life. After the war was a lot like it had been before she continued to make a living by cleaning doing laundry and working as a porter she another black women also retrieved uniforms from MHM soldiers who had been wounded or killed they cleaned these uniforms repaired them and sent them back to the Union army to Reuse Margaret Palm eventually saved up enough money to buy property of her own and she also became known as an eccentric character around town nicknamed Mag bag palm at this point and they were embellished stories recounting her daring do before and during the battle in her adventures afterward often these were reported in newspapers but in those accounts her speech was rendered as the sort of imagined engined dialect of enslaved people living on plantations in the south just not how she spoke right and it was very similar to our previous episode about the Ain't I a woman speech and how it would just sort of a made up imagined wave of talking we don't entirely know how she felt about becoming this kind of local celebrity but she definitely did not appreciate how other people kind of took her story over for themselves and turned her into a caricature. She took care to tell her friends and her family about what she had done. In her own words she also had a picture of herself taken later on pose to show the way that her assailant said tried to bind her hands decades later her great great granddaughter Catherine Carter Related These families stories to you. Another woman named Margaret Margaret Crichton author of the colors of courage Gettysburg's forgotten history especially talked about her fighting back against those attempted captors almost thirty years after poems 1896 Death Elsie Master published a boy at Gettysburg which used palm as the inspiration for the character Maggie Blue Coat and that fictional character was a conductor on the underground railroad and Warren Officers Jacket from the war of eighteen twelve thus her blue coat nickname mm-hmm it is possible that the real Margaret was involved with the underground railroad and with Gettysburg slave refuge society which was founded by the African Methodist Episcopal Church but in some accounts her real story has been really conflated and confused with at this fictional character. If she was involved with the underground railroad she probably would have been a lot more secretive about it than the fictional character of Maggie blue coat. We should also note that Gettysburg was permanently altered for black community after the battle was over a a lot of the people who fled never returned most of the ones who did come back where people who had property to come back to you a lot of that property had been seriously damaged or destroyed in the fighting in the fall of eighteen sixty three there were only sixty four black residents listed on the city's tax throw which was a much smaller number than before the battle although the abolition of slavery made Gettysburg much less dangerous place to live from that perspective it really became more of a stopping point than a destination as free people moved north after the war four and we're GONNA pause once again for little sponsor break but we take a break and then we will come right back with more of Gettysburg's women he listeners. I am so excited to talk to you about a new podcast called ephemeral because during our stint on the planet humans have made a lot of stuff and some becomes treasured and some of it is junk and some just kind of gets forgotten about but we really need to look at how we value the things that we create and what deserves. Maybe one more look before it vanishes into the past. These are the questions and ideas that underpin this new podcast ephemeral host Alex Williams guides you through a wasteland of things that were just barely saved but in some cases not saved at all it's part history podcast part sound collage but ephemeral features interviews with Historians Collectors Authors and Alex's Dad is even interviewed at one point episodes tend to piece together stories that are lost three time like missing chapter of American music history or a decade's worth of original television that was broadcast podcast only once and a mystery caught on tape that seemed completely unsolvable. We are lucky enough to work with Alex and I just adore him and I'm so excited about his show. Listen to it on apple podcasts the iheartradio APP or wherever you listen to podcasts and learn more four at ephemeral dot show Matilda Pierce known as tilly was an ordinary but pretty well off civilian from Gettysburg. She was fifteen in July eighteen sixty three when the battle happened in eighteen eighty five she published Gettysburg or what a girl saw and heard of the battle which was her first person account. tilley was the youngest of four children and Dan she was at school at the young lady seminary at the Gettysburg Female Institute on June twenty-sixth when they first heard that the confederate army was approaching their teacher told them all to run home as fast as they could although she was sure that some of them couldn't have made did before the troops arrived her book gives a day by day accounting of the battle it first tones pretty excited. She attacks about the insults and indignities of the confederate army taking her horse she also talks about their appearance and behavior which he finds to be pretty raggedy and rude but apart from that she sounds pretty upbeat but when the actual fighting begins things quickly become frightening she describes a neighbor passing by on the way to Jacob Kurz farm south of town down and asking for tilly to come along thinking that she was going to be safer there and at first this seemed like a perfectly good plan but as the battle shifted it turned out to not be true at all the farm was not far from little round top and that was the site of active fighting she describes the House and Barn becoming a Field Hospital for Union soldiers and treating at least one hundred men until his words quote the number of wounded brought to the place was indeed appalling. They relate in different parts of the house. The Orchard Richard and space around the buildings were covered with the shattered and dying and the barn became more and more crowded the scene had become terrible beyond description. This becomes one of those really unique insights into what the mindset of someone is like going through trauma Tracy mentioned just a little bit ago that her accounts before things released started getting heated where almost kind of excited and then in the early part of the fighting tilly was terrified and describes herself as weeping and fear but by the third day she writes quote amputating benches had been emplaced about the house. I must have become inured to seeing the terrors of battle else I could hardly have gazed upon the scenes now presented her account also mentions the death of Mary Virginia Wade known as Jenny. Here's the only civilian known to have been killed old directly in the fighting. There were other civilians who died as a result of the battle as well including at least one who gave birth and wasn't able to get the necessary medical attention. Jenny was at the home of her sister George McClellan who had also given birth it just hours before the battle started the McClellan home was directly in the line of fire between the two armies Jenny was kneading dough to make bread for the Union soldiers and she was struck by a stray bullet and killed on the morning of July third tilly he also writes about the conditions after the battle as she was returning home quote as it was impossible to travel the roads on account of the mud we took to the fields while passing along the stench arising from the fields of carnage was most sickening dead horses horses swollen to almost twice their natural size lay in all directions stains of blood frequently met our gaze and all kinds of army accoutrements covered the ground fences had disappeared some buildings were gone others ruined the whole whole landscape had been changed and I felt as though we were gonNA strange and bladed land are killed and wounded had by this time been nearly all carried from the field with such surroundings. I made my journey homeward. After the battle once the battle was over till really helped care for the wounded including several union soldiers who were cared for in her own family home and our book concludes with her adult self looking back on what had happened when she was a teenager and Gettysburg's recovery decades later her tone is pretty optimistic. Nick quote years have come and gone since the happening of the events narrated in the preceding chapters but there is indelibly stamped upon my memory is when passing before me an actual reality the carnage and desolation the joys and sorrows there in depicted have all long since passed away instead of the clashing tumult of battle the groans of the wounded and dying the mangled corpses the shattered cannon the lifeless charger in the confusion of armies and accrue Germont a new era of joy and prosperity harmony and unity prevails after the the war tilly grew up married had children and lived her life before dying on March Fifteenth Nineteen Fourteen hers is one of a lot of eyewitness accounts of Gettysburg including letters journals and published books but it is also a unique perspective active because it is from a civilian who was a fifteen year old girl at the time of the battle and that brings us to our last women to talk about today. tillie pierce was an ordinary girl whose name we remembered at eight because she published her experiences in a book but so many any other women and girls had very similar experiences in eighteen sixty three but there's were unrecorded and consequently on remembered so you've probably heard the phrase well behaved women seldom make history most of the time people interpret this kind of a rallying cry by celebrating the so-called. Ill behaved women who broke new ground and made strides in a way that changed the world in defiance of how society thought they should act a lot of times. It's kind of make some noise and go make history but that quote didn't come from Eleanor Roosevelt or Marilyn Monroe or any of the other historically famous women that it's generally attributed to it was first published in Nineteen seventy-six Paper in American quarterly by Laurel Thatcher rich at the time she was studying at the University of New Hampshire and. In our intent was very different from the way that people usually use that quote today it was more about all the ordinary women who lived and worked and made a difference in their world but are not included in history books because their lives were quiet and pious. The full all sentenced from that paper is well behaved. Women Seldom make history against Antonio Means and witches these pious matrons have had little chance at all all rich eventually wrote a book exploring how this quote has spread and evolved and what it means for a woman to actually make history so Gettysburg was just full of pious matrons and other dutiful women and girls most of the men who were able to fight were away fighting so the people left behind were mostly women children elders and people with illnesses or disabilities so ordinary women who lived in Gettysburg were the ones cooking for soldiers and tending the wounded and otherwise being part of the battle but not necessarily with the excitement or flare or personality that would make them memorable to history those who couldn't or didn't I believe ahead of the fighting found themselves in the middle of an active battlefield and this was of course terrifying with many women's journals and letters describing hearing soldiers in their houses above them while they hit in their cellars and not knowing if those soldiers were friends or enemies as they went through all kinds of hardships going without food after the army's requisition everything they had or having their homes used a sniper posts which drew enemy fire they also endured the battles horrifying aftermath with the unburied bodies of people and animals creating a stench so strong that they had to go around with handkerchiefs that were soaked in peppermint or penny royal holding those over their noses and mouths this lasted for months pretty much until the weather got cold in the late fall and winter they turned earned homes and barns and outbuildings into temporary hospitals and helped care for the wounded they cleaned and repaired and dug graves in sweltering heat and torrential rainstorms and often without enough food or clean beds to sleep in the railroads woods and telegraphs were destroyed so they did all of this without really being able to communicate with the rest of the world and they also gave shelter to people who traveled to Gettysburg looking for friends and family members who then became part of the recovery effort as well and we also cannot do not forget the women who had made Gettysburg their home but then had to make the choice between leaving it behind or risking being enslaved so we named this episode fearless Feisty and unflagging the women of Gettysburg but a whole lot of women who were part of the battle of Gettysburg history weren't necessarily any of those things there were so many ordinary women who were scared and exhausted or we're just doing their best and an unimaginably horrifying situation but their lives and their contributions still I'll have value and they should not be forgotten before we move onto some listener mail. Since this was a live show we just want to thank all the people involved with it so thanks so much to the Gettysburg Foundation and especially events coordinator Bethany any yuengling for all of their help leading up to and during the show and for inviting us in the first place thanks also to Chris Gwynn from the Gettysburg National Military Park for leading us on a tour of the battlefield while we were there that was great and thank thank you so much to everyone who came out and bore with us through the weather. We were getting ready. We were doing our final. Go over of all of our notes having some water getting ready to go out there and holly. He walked into the kitchen. They had they had put us up in a cottage right there. At the at the venue holly walked into the kitchen and Kinda went. WHOA whoa what I'll listen? It's dark outside and it turned out. There was a severe ear thunderstorm warning including the potential for a half dollar sized hail so thanks to everybody who didn't just immediately go home and stay away. Yeah I peeked out the window. I could see people running from the tent. They <hes> they just postponed innings. They handled the whole thing. So beautifully of just kind of <hes> had a delay forbid. We started about twenty minutes late. After things had passed over. Thankfully it was quick <hes> but yeah everyone stuck it out and I was so so so thankful for all of the listeners that came out said hello <hes> that was a really spectacular of him. I had a fantastic time be to a now. I have listener mail. This is from Ursula Ursula says hi Holly and Tracy I listened to your Winnipeg strike episode and loved it. I am from Winnipeg and I never knew just how big the strike was until this year when the city started installing historic exhibits throughout downtown the Manitoba Museum has an early nineteen hundreds recreated town inside the museum. It's a fairly large gallery complete with homes businesses and even a movie theater that you can enter some buildings or even two stories that was my favorite part of the museum as a child and at twenty two it's still is the museum recently gave a massive nine thousand nine hundred nineteen strike update to the town though I must say that my experience with the exhibit was made so much better by a small group of relatives of strikers who were also there that day they were passing on the personal experiences of their relatives walking through was really walking through a giant memory lane. It wasn't an event put on the museum. I just lucked out that day. It was a really special sweet. Thank you for all the effort fun and passionate you put into the show I love it dearly Ursula. Thank you so much for this email Ursula <hes>. We have gotten several notes from folks about that about that episode. That folks seemed to have really enjoyed so I'm glad I stuck with it. Even though I felt like we were having a little heavy dose of one thousand nine hundred ninety earlier this this year if you would like to write to us about this podcast word history podcasts at how stuff works dot com all over social media at missed in history. That's where you'll find our facebook pinterest instagram and twitter you can come to our website at missed in history dot com find show show notes for all the episodes that have done together and searchable archive of everything ever and you can subscribe to our show on Apple podcasts iheartradio APP and anywhere else podcasts stuffy mystery classes a production of iheartradio's. 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