Episode 5: The Immortals - Julius Caesar
This episode of neutral, the ides of March is a day on the Roman calendar the corresponds to March fifteenth and forty four BC March fifteenth became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar which made the ides of March a turning point in Roman history. So on this episode, I'm telling the story of Julius Caesar's remarkable life hand death. If you doubt Caesar's impact on our lives have a look at a calendar. There's a month call July that month was named for Julius Caesar. The following month is August named after Caesar's nephew, the first Roman emperor Augustus the calendar, we use today was named after these two men who live two thousand years ago, the modern calendars actually Caesar's calendar. He added the number of days necessary to actually fed how often the earth goes around the sun and the three hundred sixty. Five day calendar, including adjusting at every four years for leap year, his Caesar's invention so Caesar's in your life. Whether you know it or not he's in your life every year, and he's part of the calendar by which you live. Very term Caesar which became in German. Kaiser Kaiser Ville him came in Russian czar is today still a term that describes a centralized dicta to'real power two thousand years after he died, so we're dealing with somebody who's impact shook our part world western world so profoundly that even to this day. He is in many ways and in on known and on studied. But very real presence. If you look at Latin you'll find that among the most elegant books ever written in Latin was Caesar's Gallic wars and Caesar's civil wars who Caesar was not just a great military general of the mazing politician. He was also a remarkable good writer and a remarkably good orators reputation for using Lang. Guage brilliantly a made him one of the leading people in Rome for much of his life. Just because of his share talent the Roman Republic got too big to militaristic was too much the center of power I end as a result money poured in from all over to corrupt the Roman system. So if you were in Greece so you were in Spain or you are North Africa. And you wanted to get goodies the most efficient way to get goodies was to have a lobbyist in Rome bribe somebody and a lot of lessons to be learned by what happens when your system is to be bigger than you can maintain. And when the breakdown of the traditional order leads to the rise of tyrants, and that's literally what was happening and Caesar's lifetime. If you don't understand the Rome of his time. You can't understand him. His ankle Maria's is around one hundred BC, and he's the best general of his generation. But he's. Politically on the losing side of power struggle. And so his we sort of pushed off to one side, and he's not very important and all of a sudden, huge Germanic tribe comes rolling down the room river valley and the Roman people get scared because they think these this huge tribe is going to break through in the Italy. And so they call him back and given our mini goes north any wipes out the German tribe, and they now like Marius briefly, and then he is deposed and exiled, and he is sent to a place we don't think of as desert, but in its time, Sicily, it was considered desert who was not very heavily occupied. And as he recounts late in his life. He survives only by imagining what he's going to do to his enemies when he gets back. He does get back. And then he does what he said he would do. Now, why does this matter because what's beginning to happen? The politics of personality in philosophy and policy. Are beginning to be replaced by violence by by poisonings? Why assassinations by crowds in the street, and by intimidation, and in many ways marriage is the beginning of that breakthrough in that period. The secondary rise is Sola who is a great general and Sala becomes the great competitor to Mary's and between them they start wiping people out. So if you're in Sala cider, injure Marius, killing you marry society major solos killing in one of the ways, they finance what they're doing is look at the richest guys they steal their property. And they say, you know, lucky you you get to be exempted. Recent. I want all your money or you could stay here. I'll kill you. Then take all your money, which which one do you like better, and it was substantial number of Romans ended up going to Greece wrong periods. Just in order avoid being killed in that process in that period. Julius caesar. Doesn't really exist yet. He's a kid his family's very old. In fact, they are among the oldest families. Julia among the oldest families in Roman history. They go all the way back in theory prints from Troy, and in fact, they trace their mythical background. So the goddess Venus so Caesar at one level born into a family, which says to him you are the direct descendant of God and Caesar had the kind of personality that made sense to him. And so he his whole life. He has this kind of inner era that inner certainty that you probably have to be a descendant of God. It's all hard to imagine. How any normal person could have been like Caesar, but he has no money and his father dies when his young his mother actually takes the families relatively small holdings and vested in a highrise which back then men six or eight story apartment building in Saburo, which was a working class neighborhood. And so. She in the family live on the top floor, which is also the healthiest the cleanest, and they ran all the rest of the floors, which means that in his early twelve to sixteen years of age period Caesar's wandering around among working class, people learning working class Latin understanding how they think what they do have an ago, she ate, and and he is stunningly smart season may be much like Napoleon, one of the smartest people ever to live. And so he could absorb information. Could learn things at enormous speed. Caesar was ravenously ambitious. He thought he was descended from the gods. He thought he was descended from a family which had been cheated, and which was socially worthy of dramatically greater assets than they actually had from the earliest time we encounter him. He is an ending Liam vicious I and the understands that in the Roman world, if you're going to be ambitious you got to be physically capable of being a warrior because otherwise you can't earn the love respect interesting to watch Cicero, for example, who is probably Caesar's equal as an orator. And as a writer is not a great warrior, and it cripples his career because everybody knows it. But Caesar's somebody who could fight his way out of a room could fight his way in a battle could lead an army in the army felt honored to follow him. And I think he acquired that of my guess is he acquired the core of that. When he was like thirteen or fourteen of fifteen years old because you look. Around. He said I'm Caesar Caesar goes onto marry somebody who saw it doesn't like because she belongs politically to the wrong side and saw whose dictator and who is he's really he and Marissa really beginning. Total breakdown of the Republic system has now dictators you'll people who have real power they're prepared to kill you. They want sometimes kill you. Even if you do what they want in need your money. And so a Sola basely says to him you have to divorce your wife and Caesar says now is truly one of those things where you have to believe you have some kind of divine destiny. Oh, you're just nuts because Caesar's standing there is a very young man facing this dictator who's a great general has huge force around him is capable of killing Caesar on the spot. And he said, I'm not doing and so solid says, okay, we'll get it outta town. You know, I'm not gonna. Some reason decided not to kill Caesar and a may have been again, this magic touch that seizure head that he could manipulate people at levels that are just astonishing. And so the dictator said, okay, I really really mad at you. But I'm not gonna kill you right now. So Cesar goes up in the app. Nines mountains with three years hides because he knows that on a bad weekend. Sala could wake up and decide you know, Caesar doesn't amuse me that much that's killing. Eventually he joins the army to get away from Rome who's he wants to get far enough away that Sala can easily kill him. And he doesn't wanna remind Sullivan. He's around. So he wanders off in the great action area. At that time for the army is over in what they would considered the east, which is along. What we now would say is Turkish cerium coast. There were constantly fighting with both pirates and with local governments Caesar turns out to be. Be an amazingly courageous soldier. He wins. The oak leaves which is the highest sort of the quivalent of our congressional medal of honor. There are many ways. In which you can have thority or fame. You know, you can be rich. You can be a good family. He can hold high office. If you've done something so heroic the you're allowed to wear the crease, you noun a unique category because no one can challenge you hurry. And so it puts you a very small league did says first of all you've been in combat you've done it. So her oh weekly that you're appears awarded you this this highest and congressional medal of honor the only thing that's comparable. And if you've ever been in military environments people walk in wearing the congressional honor are by definition differently because it's something they earned. So I think in that sense. It was one of the things early on that marked him off in the sort of said this guy's special yet to take him seriously. And he's going to become somebody the concept of wearing a wreath which the trust comes done with good golden east for their. Things in Greek mythology. Apollo represents power in wears a laurel wreath on his head. So Caesar's mind wearing the oak wreath would be a signal of his uniqueness in his near godlike important, again, it was an age when people started earlier because they died younger, but still this guy who's who's working really hard to rise as fast as he can so Caesar as very young guy is working as way into being seen as great soldier. Great general. Great order, very very clever politician Caesar one point gets captured by pirates now the pirates had operated off the coast, Syria and Turkey because they had found places where they could go in where the passageways were so complicated that no one could find them. And what they didn't realize was that Caesar had almost a perfect memory. So two things start out of this. Particular expense. One is his Caesar by himself surrounded by pirates who are pretty tough people, and they want twenty units of silver for him. And he says that's really stupid. Know, I'm famous guy. I mean, you gotta go for fifty. If you don't if you don't go for fifty I will feel so insulted, and if you go for fifty pay by the way, after they pay you any release me I wanna come back and kill you on the pirates. All this is just great. Here's this guy. He's not physically Doug dominant. He's fairly slender. Mark very muscled. But very slender. And he doesn't look like he's a guy who's gonna come back and kill all the pirates. And so they laugh at anything just terrific great personality of chatting with you know, so they get the asked for fifty because he told them to they get fifty. They releasing he organizes an army. He remembered exactly how to find them. He goes back. He crucify all of them. But because he liked them. He cut the throats. I. There's a brief. Notre Mer about the rose crucifixion in the Roman model is designed to be really painful. Not was not what we see in the Christian image of Christ on the cross in the Roman model. You are tied up your in. You are hanging from a wooden cross and goal is to allow you to hang their until the point where birds, for example, come impact your eyes out, and you will eventually die of the hydration when the Romans put nails through Christ and poke him in the side with a spear. These are actually considered acts of kindness because they accelerate the rate at which you die. Understand the Roman world you have to start with a simple model. These were really tough ruthless people presentable inspired because rebels on the great moments in history smart has about twenty thousand followers, and he really scares the Romans the idea of slave rebellion would be genuinely frightening viewer, Roman aristocrat. So when they find feed him they crucify somebody about every two hundred feet for seventy miles. So from Naples to Rome, you're writing down a road that has people crucified the entire distance. And the in their goal is to sort of say the people who are releasing cheer. And we want you to know you do this kind of stuff we will relentlessly. Come and get you. This is also a country. Remember this before Cesar just to give you as flavored and often hits me as I walk around Rome looking at the city and looking at the walls city which had. During the wars with Carthage Hannibal is in his in Italy for seventeen years, and they can't beat him. But he can't break through the city walls. And so for seventeen years they just slug it out in Romans one point losing Tara army about coq ten eight too excited. I guess have better than other army. They decide to beat the Carthaginians. They have to go to see and build a navy, which they had not done up to them. They build an attorney. He goes to see this huge hurricane the navy, sinks and the Roman responses. I guess we need a new navy, and they don't know the navy. I mean, these are just from Lympne. This is the world. I'm getting us as background because understand Caesar if to understand this was accepted as normal this level of toughness was where they started. It wasn't what they got to. I. And so Caesar comes along and Caesar's of anything smarter more personable more ruthless and tougher than anybody else. Somebody wants said that in the great fight between Pompey and Caesar the criminal to pirates when they were both trying to win control the empire of. Republic which became number in. It wasn't like there was a good gun bad guy. These are these guys just slugging it out for power. And if they happen to kill you in the way through tough break because they were doing important to them. So here's Caesar comes back home, enters politics becomes the high priest of religion, which gives him another source of authority and becomes an elected official in the Roman system is very complicated. Hierarchy you get into you gradually rise in importance. He's all design to minimize the ability of any one person to be a dictator is what does what Marius insult have broken out of after solace death. It'd be gins to revert back towards the traditions and the goal again a little bit like the American constitution. The goal is to not have anybody concentrate power enough to be charged little thing. So they have to consuls every year two consuls to veto each. Other people were elected to lower off. They have various powers and Caesar's gradually climbing this chain of authority and at the same time he is becoming one of the most popular people enroll it's in. It's really interesting to watch Caesar is instinctively what I would call it populist in the sense that having grown up in Seborga and having understood the work in classrooms. He had concluded that the future of Rome was absorbing more and more people so part of his career will be extending citizenship to more and more and more people, which builds a huge force of followers because they see Caesar's protecting them as being there guy Caesar automobile is given thirty to go to goal now. He's already led several armies in Spain. These armies over in east who call Turkey, Syria. But now he has big moment of his career, and what people tend to forget is Caesar's gone for. Seven years. About three million men in goal when he arrives. It's one s to mitt is a story. Tony's that. He killed a million sold mine into slavery and the remain left. But. I destroy probably Tony said, he destroyed eight hundred towns at one point he fights particular, tribe and finally surrender. He surrounds her Ford. He finally finally surrender instead of killing them. He cuts off the right hands. So they're five thousand men wandering around Gaul with one hand is he wants to send a signal the you oppose me, and it is going to be really bad for you. Finally, the tribes get together they all rebel simultaneously. He's in the fight of his life. And in about a six month period. He organizes his army out maneuvers them and went now, the Roman armies, great strength is engineering logistics. They know how to have a siege. They know how to build a fort to protect themselves. They know how to sustain their army in the field was supplies. It is a very well. Thought-out are men in army which had been practice. In war for several hundred years one on one of goals would probably as good or better than the Romans. The Germans were probably as good or better than the Romans. Problem was it in fight one. What and Roman armies were very very good. Armies Caesar has tremendous instrument, which he uses brilliantly, and he uses it for seven years and support understand this because when you watch what's about to happen when he goes back to Rome, there's only one person who has the level of military experience and then entire Roman world and that season, and he has he knows how to move in those had organized nobody else's in his league. After the break Caesar returns to Rome and establishes his role has leader of the Roman Republic. This episode is brought to you by the Oxford gome group. I'm here today with the founding partners of the Oxford gold group Tillman what is the rate of return on investment in gold or other precious metals. If you go back a hundred years, you know, back in say nineteen nineteen you could buy a nice men's tailored suit for twenty dollars. Not just so happens that gold was twenty dollars an ounce in nineteen nineteen. So if you walked into a suit shop with a twenty dollar Bill or an ounce of gold, either one of those things would have bought a nice men's tailored suit a hundred years ago. Now, you get into a time machine, and you go to today, and you walk into the same suit shop, you have an ounce of gold in twenty dollar Bill. Well, guess which one is still buying the suit it, it's not the twenty dollar Bill dancer. Gold will still buy a nice suit. Probably get your shoes shine to boot the twenty dollar Bill. Barely get you the handkerchief. And so that's real preservation. This is what we mean when we. Say golden silver, real currencies. Is that literally they've held their buying power through the ages and paper currency wherever it's from eventually ends up being a museum piece. The lot of people don't realize that in the last twenty years the dollars literally lost almost half of its value. And in that same twenty years. Gold is gained almost four hundred percent and value. And that's a perfect example of what happens when you continue printing money and devaluing money, people don't realize it even the wealthiest people in the world own gold. But most of the financial advisors out there that people visit won't even bring up gold or silver. So people just don't have any clue. But once they look at the numbers and see what's happened. Just in the last twenty years. It's right there in black and white church. Request your free investment guide. Go to Oxford gold group dot com slash Newt's world or give us a call at one eight three three easy IRA. That's one eight three three three two seven nine four seven two and we can discuss all your investment goals. Oxford gold group processors of news world. Visit Oxford goal group dot com slash news world now to request your free investment guide. She's your returns to Rome after seven years at Warren goal. And he faces a problem. He's got to cross the Rubicon river, which is the boundary of Rome. At the time Caesar builds a whole series of signal fires and he has his legions leaning forward. He comes down without his legions because he wants to be peaceful. He wants to send a signal. He's he's written Gallic wars, which are well worth reading in which essentially are volume every every year and sensually are here's how Caesar one and captured go and turned all these leaves in the mind and why you should love Caesar because what he's done for. He also found a daily newspaper to mind, you that Caesar loves shield Caesar does things so his enemies who under Roman rule if he gives up his governorship. They can try him. And it's quite clear giving. The last forty years of Roman history. If they try him they're gonna killing. And that's the only way they can containing. And so he's negotiating saying, oh, I wanna be peaceful. I really wanna work all this out down with that. My my army guy can't get something. Well, when they finally figure out, no. Gonna kill you. We're not gonna order something out. What they reckon on was. He had already said his units in motion and first legion could get to the Rubicon days, and they could send signal fires all the way through go. So he's mobilizing a force. Very fast. Meanwhile, his major opponent, Hoppy was the great general before Cesar tune saw him Caesar as the dominant figure very successful very well organized, but a little slow and insecure where we're Caesar. Thanks. Come to send it from the guys. I might as well gamble because the guys will be there for me Pompey kind of things, you know, I'm the Senate from normal people on the sky SESAR scares me. Nice. Papyrus Magnus, we would call pumping great came out of a provincial talion background. It's an interesting contrast, very competent man, very hard working, man. He actually cleans up all the pirates in the eastern Mediterranean and his widely seen as a tremendous organizer of military forces. But in the end, he's not descended from the gods. He doesn't represent one of the oldest families in Rome. He doesn't have this aristocratic sense of destiny, which is the heart of what makes Caesar so remarkable. And so Pompey who's proud. He's competent he's powerful. But he's normal and he's trying to cope with somebody. Who's AB normal popular smart? But Pompey was not he didn't know that quickness that sudden political skill that Caesar head, and he didn't have the ability to plan at three or four or five level simultaneously. And the result was I think that Caesar. Always frightened him and always confused him. Every general ever studied Caesar's on the shortlist of people. You cannot give spare time to because he will use it and use it better than you will so Pompey leaves Italy. Now, the reason this really matters. And this is why when you visit Rome, and you look at the Coliseum and you look at the forum, and you just just think to yourself. This was a city of over a million people at the time we're talking about it was the center of the Mediterranean world. It had symbolism. It's Rome guy who gives up wrong gives up some Bali all of the emotional and moral power and Caesar walks into Rome. Here's a Quiring all of the authority of being in Rome is also the center of money in the center of commerce so season overnight is able to start chasing Pompey's forces everywhere and Caesar has better divisions. VS people. Who've been practicing warfare seven years. They are loyal to him. Sadly for him is top Lieutenant actually leaves enjoins Pompey think Caesar will lose things to Caesar's breaking the rules, and that makes us feel bad. But he sends all of his all of his equipment to him and his, you know, quit agreed seven years. Sorry side of the guy could lose. And so Caesar wonders around the Mediterranean defeating the various forces on the other side ending up with chasing Pompey all the way to Egypt where the gyp shins and free at the pompous. Loser side, they will cut off his head and give it to Caesar because you know, they wanna show sees how much they like it. Well, then fought about the fact that harmony was married to Caesar's daughter and were friends while the happened this disagreement, which led to a civil war. It's very likely Caesar would not have killed pommel. And sees it was genuinely play offended who's they would of civil war in Egypt. Between Cleopatra in her brother and her brothers the one who cut off poppies head. And so he's sides with her fights civil war defeats the army fights civil war. There's a moment where the Romans are being siged in Alexandria. And it's true during the siege. The act the great library Alexander's burn down whether by Caesar's people by the gypsies. We don't have different size that store a great loss. Huge collection of Rico. Any works that burn one night. But anyhow, they're they're in the regular Romans of getting very nervous, the really worried, and why Caesar not worrying, and he said I'm waiting, and they what what what are you waiting for waiting? Go what happens to talk? So son was I thought you knew what didn't tell him was that two months earlier in order ordered his legions to come from Syria. And he knew that they were few miles outside of town. And that's very much like Caesar and see Caesar's ability to play seven games simultaneously. I not tell you about any of them maisy. And again, a main him and people people at one level, we're awestruck by and another level. They were really frightened because the essence of the Roman model was to balance power. So nobody had too much power and to have a system in which the very structure of the system limited the ability to lead to dictate what had been happening was to this long hundred year period, dictators kept killing people and establish the Paranal view. On the losing side, not a huge jump from one to jail to being kill. And that's was we happen to them. And so you saw this continuous process. Even the people who were four Caesar worried because Caesar audibly represented the end of the Republic, and he Representative Salish a new system power. They had had since the last two talkin king was kicked out and four seventy six BC Romans had a passion against kinship long stretch. There were a few anybody thought you thinking you're going to become a king you gone. And now all of a sudden, here's a guy who by share power sheer brilliance is clearly the central figure becomes dictator for life. Not yet. King doesn't wanna be king just happen to be dictator. And so a group of people who begin to really worry that the system is right at tilt in. If they don't do something. That in fact Republicans, and that's why you end up with the SAS nation in March of forty four BC. When we come back Caesar faces of Senate who Jellison his power decides to murder him. An unfair -ly discharged marine with dark secret. A brilliant intelligence officer recovering from tragedy. This unlikely pair are brought together to stop a deadly Russian plot against the heart of the American system. Number one, New York Times bestselling authors nuking bridge and Pete early return with a new series filled with action and intrigue that captures the tensions and divides of America and the world today collusion, a novel by new Gingrich available on Amazon dot com and audible now. One of the fascinating aspects of Caesar's life was the impact of his death because it became one of the most historic moments in all of western history, partially because of the brilliant portrait in Shakespeare's play and the speech by Mark Antony at his funeral partially because Caesar had been such a life force he'd been so dominant. He strode across the Roman empire in such a huge way that his disappearance through death left a vacuum. That would take years to sort out because there was no natural ability for anyone to step in and become Caesar. And so they'll be an entire civil war before he was replaced by his nephew who would actually found the empire itself. Off tavis who becomes Augusta's in his the second month. We name for one of the Caesar's. So you July and August Caesar himself in a way it almost set the stage for his own killing the Greeks had a concept they called hubris and hubris meant that you began to take on to yourself enormous power in enormous self affection, and as you became more and more filled with hubris you began to set yourself up for what the Greeks called nemesis and nemesis was the destruction of the person who had hubris well away Caesar is the perfect model of what the Greeks were trying to warn about the bigger Caesar became the more powerful Caesar became the more people feared him and the more people envied him. Remember the core. This isn't the average Roman. Average woman thought Caesar was fine. Cesar fed them Caesar entertain. Name them Caesar conquered slaves that enrich them associated pretty big base among normal people. But if you're an aristocrat, and you had a great sense of self worth. And you thought your family been around for hundreds of years and here, suddenly you're in the shadow no longer unequal. No longer a fellow aristocrat. No longer a person who could look upon themselves as significant. But instead, you are clearly weaker lesser subordinate smaller, and you hated every minute of it. And you thought who this guy sees that? He's flaunting his power his flaunting his role in history because there was a sense that the bigger Caesar got the smaller the aristocrats got so part of the just pure, old fashioned jealousy. Well, Cesar had now accumulated very substantial number of of aristocrats who just loved him. The couldn't. Senate to his face because they're terrified of him because he'd kill them. So they talked to each other and quiet. They met together. They began conspiring was the second part of this. There was a legitimate honest, deep fear of kingship, it's important wherever the Rome really becomes Roman four seventy six BC when the hit rid of the last king the last Harkin king is replaced and the Romans acquire this deep passionate opposition to having a king. That's why the Republicans so stable for such a long period because in their mind, the alternative is to go back to kingship while now here Caesar who says every day. Oh, I don't really want to be a king. But in the last days before the the ides of March he and Mark Anthony begin to play a game in which are canton, who's chief subordinate starts to say. Oh, well, wouldn't you consider being a king? He's says, no, no, no, nothing's further from my mind. And I really I can't imagine why you would mention the word king and Julius Caesar in the same sentence. Well, the other novels. No, this is the beginning of a setup and that at some point that summer that seasons very likely going to say, well, all right. If you really want me to be king. How can I turn you down? She have both this fear. That Caesar represents the end of the Republic in the death of a system, which was almost five hundred years old by the stage, and you had this personal level of just really deeply disliking Caesar because he's too big too powerful to arrogant too smart, and they just wanna get rid of him conspiracy begins to grow and ironically, the Roman Senate self was being refitted. And so they had to move that meeting place. They chose a poppy sitter. Remembering of course, Pompey was the great leader who sees her head defeated in the early. Earlier civil war. So now, they're going down to poppies theater, which was a quite spectacular place and gonna meet the rumor comes supposedly from a soothsayer who could see the future the Caesar should be wear the ides of March. It was apparently real enough that his wife begged him not to go to that meeting of the Senate that day this apparent is not just a fiction of Shakespeare's making. But actually at the time was a real event. Caesar course, I think at two different things going on one was he was very skeptical of these kind of things he didn't he didn't particularly worry about soothsayers telling him he's going to win or lose anything. But the other was I think that he had the sense of destiny if it was his destiny to be killed, then he would become a martyr for Rome. If it was his destiny to stay alive. Then he would continue to be the leader who was a had become dictator, which was a step below kingship. He would continue simply to run Rome. And I think he sort of thought in that sense. There's there's a fatalism and Caesar that run Susan tire life, and you can see it over and over again where he wrist if any risk defeat because he just believes you have to roll the dice and see what's going to happen for versus entire life. He'd rolled the dice and he'd won. So he goes to Pompey's theatre that day. And there were there may have been up to sixty nobles who had gotten together all the number who actually attacked him a much smaller number. He knew that a number of them disliked. But part of the reason they disliked it was he had contempt for them. So since he had contempt for them. He wasn't gonna be afraid of them. And he deliberately dismisses his security force because he wants to communicate. I'm not afraid of you guys. I don't need to be surrounded by police to protect me because you guys have the guts to do anything anyway. Well that particular day he was wrong when. He goes in the senators who hated him surrounded supposedly civilians Casca hits the strikes the first blow hitting him in the neck drawing. Blood other senators join in and he is hit again, and again and again around the head in the neck, Marcus Brutus of parents wounds him in the groin, at least that's the traditional legend and Caesar said to send to you to my child or at tube Bruti as a became translated in later years. There was a rumor which probably wasn't true. But it was a really delicious rumor that Brutus in fact was his illegitimate son. He certainly had had a long relationship with Buddhist as mother, but given the relative ages, it's unlikely that is really his son. But it's clear that Buddhist really dislike Caesar probably part because he objected to Caesar sleeping with his mother. Then I was having Caesar had with a substantial number of women around the Roman aristocracy, which probably further lead to people being willing. To kill him. So Caesar dies. And it's as though a great force has left the world. And I think a one level they're all staring each other going. Oh my God. We really didn't. And then they're faced with. So how do we deal with the Roman crowd? Because the Roman crowd initially was very pro Caesar Caesar been very good to them and he had improved their lives. He paid attention to them. He was popularity's. He was interested in the people rather than the stock Crecy. So they said basically we saved Rome from dictatorship. Mark Antony speaking that the funeral gives an Asian. It's pretty clear that when the assassins were done speaking they were in pretty good shape by the time. Mark Antony was done speaking. They're all sneaking out of town because the mob has turned and the mob. Clearly now will tear them apart. And this is a penny. Really an actual fact of that particular day that in one origin. Mark Antony who had been Caesar's deputy is able to convince people, oh, I could never speak well of Caesar because we've all been told me these honorable men how evil Caesar is. And we know these are honorable men, and therefore I can't say anything good about Caesar. And so I'm not even sure I should read you Caesar's will which Caesar who, you know, loved you so much has written. But it would be wrong of me to read this well in which Caesar loved you so much because we've all been told how evil scissors by these honorable men, and this goes on and on a crowd after after after a while the crop to go where he the well we want to hear the well. Well, of course, the will is a perfectly political document. And which Caesar's basically said, I love Rome, so much that everything I have goes to you the people of Rome, and then aunts, and it has to say well. Now, we can't be grateful to Caesar for having loved as so much because we've all been told by these honorable men that he was a tyrant that he was a bad person. So I'm sure none of you. When want us to execute his will and give everybody all the things Caesar wants you to have to be so wrong to do that. When these honorable men have told you the Caesar was bad, and of course, but this point combination of emotion, ingred and memory, and frankly, the aristocrats are not very they're not free. Nice people and the average person in Rome new that and Ariza person Rome knew that the number one reason aristocrats didn't like Caesar was because they're aristocrats. And by the way, they weren't going to be nice to the people either. And it's apparently is true historically that by the end of Antony speaking, the aristocrats who killed Caesar had left Rome to get away before the crowd attack them is truly a remarkable moment. And in that. Process Cesar had set the stage by his death. And by his will by Antony who understood him and by his young nephew Octavius who had been apprenticed to Caesar Caesar. Brought him in Cesar had him travel with him Caesar take anyone the wars and tovia learned an immense amount where Caesar shatters and ends the Republic. He doesn't actually create a stable system. And that's part of why he gets killed but his nephew. Now. His nephew will come along. Take over the family business takeover Caesar's name and in the process of stablishment empire, which will ask for four hundred years, and as truly remarkable because nobody on the day Caesar was killed could have picked tavis out as the long-term winner. He was totally underestimated way everyone and yet he learned so much from his uncle and he knew how to play being the nephew. The only person who could claim to be Julius Caesar's heir was Octavius. And that may have been what automatically after death who scissors last grade contribution to the history of Rome and the history of the western world. If you'd like to know more of Julius Caesar we've created a show page of of my favorite books plays and movies about him at Newt swirl dot com. Newsworld is produced by Westwood One. The executive producers Debbie Meyers, our producers Garnsey slum. Our editor is Robert Broschi are researchers Rachel Peterson the artwork for the show was created by Steve penalty. The music was composed by Joey salvia special. Thanks team again, which we sixty and Westwood one's. Tim Savion and Robert Mathur's, please subscribed. A new twirled on apple podcast Spotify Google play wherever you get entertaining podcast on the next episode of neutral five g technology has going to fundamentally change the way we live our lives. Find out why it's referred to as the next industrial revolution. Newt Gingrich. 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