A Normal Body Temperature Isn't 98.6 Degrees, Fettuccine-Like Rocks, and Toothbrush Tips
<music> Hi we're here from curiosity dot com help you could smarter in just a few minutes on Cody Goff and I'm actually Hamer today you learn about why a normal body temperature isn't really ninety eight point six degrees Fahrenheit why Mars Rovers should look for rocks that looked like Fettuccini and how often you should replace your toothbrush was brush off some curiosity rented. Have your mind blown a normal body. Temperature isn't really ninety eight point six degrees Fahrenheit or thirty seven degrees Celsius. It turns out that the old ninety the eight point six degree rule of thumb is a result of outdated science that nobody thought that question until relatively recently the temperature. You're probably familiar with came from the eighteen sixty eight publication titled the course of temperature in diseases by German physician named Carl Reinhold Goose Wunderlich. This book was a big deal because buner lake had analyzed a ridiculously massive data set to come up with the findings in it as in several million temperature records of around twenty five thousand in patients after he analyzed the data he wrote this historic statement quote when the organism is in a normal condition the general temperature of the body maintains itself at the physiologic point thirty seven degrees Celsius or ninety eight point six degrees Fahrenheit unquote also concluded that the upper limit of the normal body temperature was one hundred point four degrees Fahrenheit or thirty eight degrees Celsius and anything above that counted as fever every check of a thermometer touch burning forehead and prescription of fever reducing drugs hearkens back to this eighteen sixty eight book and lunar licks data set was so big. Nobody really questioned it until almost a century later in a nineteen fifty study researchers recorded quartered an average temperature as low as ninety seven point eight and in one thousand nine hundred to researchers found an average temperature of about ninety eight point two degrees Fahrenheit those studies used smaller data sets but then again it's nearly impossible that buner like had actually. I analyzed all the data he collected because he didn't have a computer even if he had the principles statistical analysis didn't make their way into general use until decades after he'd published his book and there's no evidence that voter like knew about those principles not to mention he took his temperature readings before the thermometer scale was standardized which happened about a decade after his death. We're not saying Lunar Lake was a bad scientist after all. He did establish that a fever is a symptom of a disease not a disease itself. That's a win. We're just saying that even the most respected science still needs to be double checked scientists only valuable with a system of checks and balances. No result is above a second look. According to a new NASA funded study that appeared in astro biology the next commissions to Mars should be on the lookout for rocks that look delicious. I'm talking about rocks that looked like Fettuccini Pasta and here's a fun fact. The formation of these types of rocks here on earth is controlled by ancient bacteria that thrive in environments similar similar to Mars as reported by universe today this bacteria which is known as and I will do my best to pronounce this so for a hydrogen I._B._M.. Yellowstone N._C.. Or Sofer I- nice thanks belongs longs to lineage that evolved over two point three five billion years ago it uses sulfur and carbon dioxide as energy sources thrives in heat and extremely low oxygen environments and can withstand exposure to ultraviolet light in hot hot springs the microbe assembles itself into strands and promote the crystallization of calcium carbonate rock more commonly known as travertine which gives it. It's pasta like appearance. The unique shape instructor are a result of the so Farai Ferai bacteria forming into chains to prevent from being washed away the chains allowed them to remain fixed to rock formations and absorb nutrients from the hot springs. This behavior makes it relatively easy to detect when conducting geological surveys and would make it easy to identify when searching for signs of life on other planets Bruce Faulk is a professor of geology and lead researcher on the NASA study and he collected samples from mammoth hot springs in Yellowstone National Park using sterilized. Pasta forks of all things and then analyzed the microbial genomes to figure out the organisms metabolic needs the team also examined the bacteria's rock building capabilities and from the proteins on the bacterial surface dramatically increase how fast last calcium carbonate crystallizes in and around the strands in fact they figured out that these proteins cost crystallization at a rate that is one billion times faster than any other natural environment on the planet a little over a year from now Nasr's Nasr's Mars Two Thousand Twenty rover will be heading to the Red Planet to carry on the hunts for life. According to the researcher the rover should be on the lookout for this type of bacteria and the resulting rock formations as they would be an easily discernible bio signature and and definite evidence of the presence of alien microbes because everybody likes carbs even Aliens Shirt Mama Mia. Today's episode is sponsored by butcher box. You choose from four curated boxes exes or customize your own box and every month butcher box will send you at least nine to eleven pounds of meat delivered straight to your door so actually I let butcher box pick the meat they sent me and they sent me some New York Strip steaks and we're really thick. I don't usually by cuts of meat that ED thick and yet it was super delicious it seriously was we better than most of the grocery store yes that New York Strip was amazing and right now. 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If you don't remember the last time you replaced your toothbrush then this is something you're GonNa WanNa hear and fair warning. You'll probably be checking your current toothbrush before you finish listening to this podcast if you're brushing twice a day you're probably really confident that you're cleaning routine is adequate after all that is what dentists recommend right well. It all depends on the status of your toothbrush. If you're bristles start to bend you're not cleaning effectively according to dentist Keith Arbitration or worse. If you're brush rush isn't clean. How can you expect it to clean your teeth effectively? That's why the American Dental Association recommends you should swap out your toothbrush every three to four months if this seems a little often to you then consider a twenty fifteen study that was pretty gross fair warning if found the toothbrushes in communal bathrooms can become contaminated with fecal matter that's right. This isn't as bad as it sounds if you're living alone but it is trouble when that matters from someone else because it contains bacteria viruses uses or parasites that are not part of your normal flora most logical solution toothbrush cover right unfortunately eight two thousand seven study confirms that using a covered doesn't protect a toothbrush from bacterial growth in fact keeping the bristles constantly moist actually encourages bacteria to flourish. Luckily there's an easy way to protect your uncovered toothbrush from unwanted germs and it's something you might be doing already. Just stand it upright and let it dry between uses and you'll end up with the bacteria drying off combine this easy tip with a new toothbrush every three or four months and maybe keep the toothbrush far away from the toilet and knowing you've got your dental hygiene covered. You'll have one more reason to keep smiling fun. Fact when I work from home I brush my teeth like four times why because if I put some of my mouth it gets gross weird. That's weird well. I have one more reason to keep smiling before we recap what we learned. Today we want to give a special shadow to some of our listeners for supporting our show special thanks to go to men Priyanka Income Walter grinch million John Season and Dr Brendan Johnson for supporting our show. We really appreciate it. And what did we learn today Ashley well today. We learned that the idea that your normal temperature is ninety eight point six degrees Fahrenheit is just.